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Curre Res Diabetes & Obes J A Comparative Kap Study on Ragi, A Forgotten Wonder Grain with Oats among South Indian Families

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  • Srisha Counselling

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Ragi (Finger millet) is a traditional South Indian food, that is associated with various health benefits like reduction of cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and malnutrition. Despite its nutritional value and affordability, the usage of ragi is minimal when compared to oats, another nutritionally important cereal. In this study, the following were assessed: a. Knowledge of South Indian women aged 25-50 years about the nutritional benefits of ragi and oats. b. Attitude - the reasons for preferring oats over ragi. c. Practice - the usage frequency of ragi and oats. The study reveals that most of the people were ignorant about nutritional benefits of ragi in comparison to oats, an adopted food. The scores are above 6 out of 10 (mean score 7.5±1.1) for oats and less than 5 out of 10 (mean score 3±0.8) for ragi. The common reasons cited for preferring oats over ragi were less cooking time (95%), inspiration from advertisements and friends (94%) and ignorant about health benefits of ragi (91%). From this study, it was observed that 61.5% people use oats everyday whereas only 11.5% use ragi. In spite of having favourable growing conditions for cultivation and less priced than oats, there is decreased use of ragi as a staple food. Hence it is important to create awareness among the people and encourage its use. Keywords: Ragi; Oats; KAP; Calcium; Anti-oxidants
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Research Article
Volume 3 Issue 1 - July 2017
DOI: 10.19080/CRDOJ.2017.3.555601
Curre Res Diabetes & Obes J
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Shaji Sreedhar KP
A Comparative Kap Study on Ragi, A Forgotten
Wonder Grain with Oats among South Indian Families
Shaji Sreedhar KP1* and Sripriya Shaji2
1Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, India
2Nutritionist & Psychologist, Sripriya’s counseling centre, India
Submission: June 19, 2017; Published: July 26, 2017
*Corresponding author: Shaji Sreedhar KP, Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, India, Tel:
Email ID:
Opinion
         
common cereal grown in India and a traditional food of South
Indians since 1800 BC [1]. Though Indians consume cereals as
the main staple providing 70-80% of total energy intake [2], the
consumption of millets is very low compared to rice. A study by
      
that millets contributed to only about 2% of total calories [3],

grains [4]. Another study [5], reported that the consumption of

to energy requirement of 2400kcal/day of an Indian male doing
      
in Andhra Pradesh, 3g/CU/day in Tamil Nadu and almost nil
in Kerala. The increase in the incidence of lifestyle disorders
like diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, dyslipidemia
and obesity has lead to alternative adoption of foods like oats,
       
hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. However
because of less favourable growing conditions in India, a higher
       
increasing its cost.
Even though there are so many other millets like ragi which
       
cheaper, there is ignorance among people regarding their
nutritional content. Hence this study was undertaken to assess
the knowledge of South Indian women about the nutritional
           
reasons for preferring oats over ragi.
Curr Res Diabetes Obes J 3(1): CRDOJ.MS.ID.555601 (2017) 001
Abstract
  
diabetes, atherosclerosis and malnutrition. Despite its nutritional value and affordability, the usage of ragi is minimal when compared to oats,
another nutritionally important cereal.
In this study, the following were assessed:
 
b. Attitude - the reasons for preferring oats over ragi.
c. Practice - the usage frequency of ragi and oats.


             

conditions for cultivation and less priced than oats, there is decreased use of ragi as a staple food. Hence it is important to create awareness
among the people and encourage its use.
Keywords: Ragi; Oats; KAP; Calcium; Anti-oxidants
How to cite this article: Shaji S, Sripriya S. A Comparative Kap Study on Ragi, A Forgotten Wonder Grain with Oats among South Indian Families. Curre
Res Diabetes & Obes J. 2017; 3(1): 555590. DOI: 10.19080/CRDOJ.2017.3.555601.
002
Current Research in Diabetes & Obesity Journal
Methodology
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 260 South
 

their families irrespective of their socio-economic status and
education. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to

the score of 10 each. The frequency of usage was assessed with
           
 
was asked to know the reasons for preferring ragi over oats
and the responses were recorded and organized into categories
by the researcher. Informed consent was taken from all the
respondents for data collection. Descriptive and inferential

Results
Knowledge
      
oats and ragi was assessed out of a total score of 10. The range
    

         
for both oats and ragi by the same individual varied from 2 to
          
assuming unequal variance with hypothesis of mean difference
4.5, which is the mean value ofthe difference between the scores
    
    


score proves that the knowledge about ragi is lesser than oats.
Table 1: Scores of knowledge about nutritive benets of oats and ragi.
Variable Mean Std Dev T-Tes t
Oats 7.51 1.12
0.90*Ragi 3.00 0.82
Difference 4.50 1.32
Attitude
Figure 1: Reasons for preferring oats over ragi.
The study reveals that the most common reasons for



       
        

Practice
   
use oats on daily basis, whereas only 11.5% use ragi. Almost
32% use oats and 25% use ragi at least once in a week. The
occasional use percentage of ragi: oats is 63.5: 6.5.
Discussion

    
   
They reduce the rate of cholesterol absorption by increasing the
viscosity of gut contents [8] and causes binding of bile acids to
increase the excretion of cholesterol [9]. Short chain fatty acids
like butyric acid, which are produced by fermentation of dietary
         
cancer by modulating gene expression and inducing apoptosis
         
and promotes laxation [11]. Even though the concentration of
proteins is low in ragi than oats, the prolamine fraction is high
[12]. Prolamine contains the higher proportion of glutamic acid,
proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine. They are
gluten-free [13] and are safe to be used in persons with celiac

   
higher amount of lipases that cause rancidity and short storage
life [14].
         
     
and vitamins like carotene, folic acid and choline are present in
ragi while they are negligible in oats. Though Vitamin C is absent
in both ragi and oats, ascorbic acid is formed in ragi during the
process ofgermination and therefore the iron in ragi is easily
absorbed [15]. Ragi is a very good source of phenolic compounds
[16,17] like ferulic acid, caffeic acid and vanillic acid [18].
Polyphenolsplay a very important role in enhancing endothelial
       
free radicals scavenging [21] and anti oxidant effect [22]. They

      
          
usage of ragi is minimal mainly because of unawareness among
        
easy cooking, advice from friends and health experts, colour,
texture, palatability and a symbol of social status were other
reasons for preferring oats. Even though 14% of people were
How to cite this article: Shaji S, Sripriya S. A Comparative Kap Study on Ragi, A Forgotten Wonder Grain with Oats among South Indian Families. Curre
Res Diabetes & Obes J. 2017; 3(1): 555590. DOI: 10.19080/CRDOJ.2017.3.555601.
003
Current Research in Diabetes & Obesity Journal
bored of cooking traditional varieties, still ragi gained a higher

oats is generally lower than ragi. In most of the studies, GR was
measured from venous samples but newer guidelines necessitate
capillary glucose samples because of its greatest sensitivity for
        
further needed to determine the glycemic response for different
preparations of ragi [24].
Table 2: Nutrients, vitamins and minerals composition of ragi and oats
(all values are per 100g of edible portion).
Parameter Ragi Oatmeal
 13.10 8.22
 7.30 16.89
 1.30 6.90
 11.50 10.60
 72.00 66.00
 328.00 389.00
Vitamins
Pantothenic acid 1.35
 42.00 0.00
 0.42 0.76
 0.19 0.14
 1.10 0.96
 0.12

 5.20 0.00
Total 18.30
 0.00 0.00
Minerals and trace elements
 344.00 54.00
 283.00 523.00
 3.90 4.72
 137.00 177.00
 11.00 2.00
 408.00 429.00
 0.47 0.63
 5.49 4.92
 0.10
 2.30 3.97
 0.03
 160.00
 44.00
Limitations
a. The sample size small when compared to the actual
population.
b. The study is limited by its reliance on retrospective
self-report measures.
Conclusion

diseases and malnutrition. The consumption of ragi is associated
with reduction of total plasma cholesterol, post-prandial blood
glucose, obesity, atherosclerosis,development of cancer, rickets
and osteoporosis. Ragi is superior to oats in bioavailability
of minerals. The climatic conditions in India does not favour

has favourable growing conditions, which makes it economically
affordable than oats. Our study revealed that the ignorance
  
Hence it is important to create awareness among the people

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1.     .
Universities Press, India, p. 21.
2.         
value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of
Medical Research, India, p. 156.
3. Radhika G, Sathya RM, Ganesan A, Saroja R, Vijayalakshmi P, et al.
 
       

4. 
grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome in urban Asian
       

5.        
nutritional status of rural population and prevalence of hypertension
among adults in rural areas. NNMB Technical Report 24. National
Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, India, pp.
1-166.
6.         

7. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference 28 slightly
revised May 2016. New Zealand, pp. 1-2.
8.      β-glucan
alters intestinal viscosity and reduces plasma cholesterol concentration

9.          
lowering effects in hamsters of β-glucan-enriched barley fractions,
dehulled whole barley, rice bran, and oat bran and their combinations.
Cereal Chem 70: 435-440.
10. 
effect of whole oat on aberrant crypt foci formation and colon tumor

11.        
        
Blackwell Science, UK, pp. 168-170.
How to cite this article: Shaji S, Sripriya S. A Comparative Kap Study on Ragi, A Forgotten Wonder Grain with Oats among South Indian Families. Curre
Res Diabetes & Obes J. 2017; 3(1): 555590. DOI: 10.19080/CRDOJ.2017.3.555601.
004
Current Research in Diabetes & Obesity Journal
12.     
   

13.         
in         
Oxford: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, UK, pp. 42-51.
14. 
treatment on lipid stability in processed oats. Journal of Cereal Science

15.            

on nutrition and anaemia status in Tanzanian children. Tanzan Health

16.        
Characterization and their nutraceutical potential. American Journal

17.        
 

18.          
alkyl and alkylresorcinol and avenanthramides in commercial grain

19.      
Regulation of vascular endothelial function by procyanidin-rich foods

20.  
    
526.
21.         
    

22.          
       

23.     
          
constituents. Thesis University of Mysore, India.
24. Shobana S, Krishnaswamy K, Sudha V, Malleshi NG, Anjana RM, et
       
 

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DOI: 10.19080/CRDOJ.2017.3.555601
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Finger millet, one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol contents. Investigations of suitable solvents for extraction of polyphenols and their stability, during changes of pH and temperature, were carried out. Histochemical examination of the millet kernels, and also analysis of the seed coat and the endosperm fractions of the millet for the polyphenol contents, revealed that nearly 90% of the polyphenols were concentrated in the seed coat tissue. In view of that, the polyphenol contents of the seed coat fraction of the millet were extracted with different polar and non-polar solvents, and it was observed that 1% HCl–methanol was very effective for extraction of the millet polyphenols. Accordingly, the polyphenols were extracted with acidic methanol and the polyphenols obtained were examined for pH and temperature stability. The phenolic contents (6.4 ± 1.0%) of the extract remained constant at highly acidic to near neutral pH (6.5) but decreased gradually to 2.5 ± 0.3% as the alkalinity increased to pH 10. The increase in pH resulted in precipitation of some of the extracted matter, and this increased from 4 ± 0.5% to 40 ± 3% of the extracted matter, as the pH increased from 1 to 10. But, the polyphenol contents of the extract were stable to the changes in the temperature of the extract. Fractionation of the polyphenols extracted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the analytes were derivatives of benzoic acid (gallic acid, proto-catechuic acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acid) and cinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and trans-cinnamic acid). However, in a highly alkaline condition (pH 10) of the extract, only gallic acid and proto-catechuic acid were detected.
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Finger millet or ragi is one of the ancient millets in India (2300 BC), and this review focuses on its antiquity, consumption, nutrient composition, processing, and health benefits. Of all the cereals and millets, finger millet has the highest amount of calcium (344mg%) and potassium (408mg%). It has higher dietary fiber, minerals, and sulfur containing amino acids compared to white rice, the current major staple in India. Despite finger millet's rich nutrient profile, recent studies indicate lower consumption of millets in general by urban Indians. Finger millet is processed by milling, malting, fermentation, popping, and decortication. Noodles, vermicilli, pasta, Indian sweet (halwa) mixes, papads, soups, and bakery products from finger millet are also emerging. In vitro and in vivo (animal) studies indicated the blood glucose lowering, cholesterol lowering, antiulcerative, wound healing properties, etc., of finger millet. However, appropriate intervention or randomized clinical trials are lacking on these health effects. Glycemic index (GI) studies on finger millet preparations indicate low to high values, but most of the studies were conducted with outdated methodology. Hence, appropriate GI testing of finger millet preparations and short- and long-term human intervention trials may be helpful to establish evidence-based health benefits.
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IntroductionCharacteristics of Fibre that Affect Gastrointestinal FunctionRelationship between Gastrointestinal Function and Physiological ResponseConclusion and SummaryReferences
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Recently, the incidence of colon cancer has been rapidly increasing in previously low-risk countries other than the Western world. Since dietary factors are thought to be key components involved in high risk colon cancer, the current trend for colon cancer prevention is toward dietary intervention. To explore if whole oat functions as a chemoprevention agent, an inflammation-related mouse colon cancer model, initiated with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), followed by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), was performed to evaluate the preventive effect of whole oat containing diets. The result indicated middle and high dose whole oat diets significantly reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as well as colon tumors. Further, human colon carcinoma cells were subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/cAnNg-Foxn1 nude mice to measure the growth inhibition on whole oat diets. Low, middle and high dose whole oat diets significantly decreased the tumor volumes by 13%, 17% and 43%, respectively, indicating a dose dependent inhibitory effect. Meanwhile, 38% and 54% reductions in tumor weights were observed in middle and high dose whole oat diets. Together, the evidence suggests whole oat helps protect against colon cancer development and could be a good chemoprevention agent taken as a daily supplement.
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Prevention of cancer through dietary intervention recently has received an increasing interest, and dietary polyphenols have become not only important potential chemopreventive, but also therapeutic, natural agents. Polyphenols have been reported to interfere at the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer. They might lead to the modulation of proteins in diverse pathways and require the integration of different signals for the final chemopreventive or therapeutic effect. Polyphenols have been demonstrated to act on multiple key elements in signal transduction pathways related to cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis; however, these molecular mechanisms of action are not completely characterized and many features remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the molecular basis of potential chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of dietary polyphenols with emphasis in their ability to control intracellular signalling cascades considered as relevant targets in a cancer preventive approach.
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Phenolic acids from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) milled fractions (whole flour, seed coat, 3%, 5% and 7%) were isolated and their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. Acidic methanol extracts from seed coat to whole flour were rich in polyphenol content and were found to be stable up to 48 h at pH 4, 7, and 9 as studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Diadzene, gallic, coumaric, syringic and vanillic acids were identified as major phenolic acids from the extracted phenolics. Diadzene content was highest in concentration in the 5% flour. The reducing power of seed coat extract was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of whole flour extract. Antioxidant activity (AA) as determined by the β-carotene–linoleic acid assay indicated that the AA was highest in seed coat extract (86%), whilst at the same concentration it was only 27% in the whole flour extract. The seed coat extract showed higher antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus flavus compared to whole flour extract. From these observations, it can be inferred that the polyphenols are responsible for the microbial activity of the millet and the results indicate that potential exists to utilise finger millet seed coat as an alternative natural antioxidant and food preservative.