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Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for Research Needs



Hibiscus sabdariffa commonly named as " red sorrel " or " roselle " is a member of malvaceae family. It is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame and has more than three hundred species which are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Roselle can adapt to a variety of soil in a warmer and more humid climate. Roselle is rich in organic acids including citric, malic, tartaric and allo-hydroxycitric acids. The plant is also known for its Beta carotene, vitamin C, protein and total sugar. Roselle, having various medically important compounds called photochemical, is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Many parts of Roselle including seeds, leaves, fruits and roots are used in various foods as well as in herbal medicine as a potential non-pharmacological treatment. Different extracts from Roselle plays a crucial role in treating different medical problems including many cardiovascular disorders, helmenthic disease and cancer. The plant also act as an anti oxidant and used in obesity management.
Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Engineering
Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus
Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for Research Needs
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Volume 6 Issue 5 - 2017
1School of Public Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine,
Fiji National University, Fiji
2CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute-Resource
Centre Lucknow, India
3Arba Minch College of Health Sciences, Ethiopia
*Corresponding author: Mahejibin Khan, CSIR-Central
Food Technological Research Institute-Resource Centre
Lucknow-226019, India, Email:
Received: February 13, 2017 | Published: May 31, 2017
Research article
J Nutr Health Food Eng 2017, 6(5): 00212
Hibiscus sabdariffa commonly named as “red sorrel” or “roselle” is a member of
malvaceae family. It is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame and has more than
three hundred species which are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions
around the world. Roselle can adapt to a variety of soil in a warmer and more
humid climate. Roselle is rich in organic acids including citric, malic, tartaric and
allo-hydroxycitric acids. The plant is also known for its Beta carotene, vitamin C,
protein and total sugar. Roselle, having various medically important compounds
called photochemical, is well known for its nutritional and medicinal properties.
Many parts of Roselle including seeds, leaves, fruits and roots are used in various
foods as well as in herbal medicine as a potential non-pharmacological treatment.
Different extracts from Roselle plays a crucial role in treating different medical
problems including many cardiovascular disorders, helmenthic disease and
cancer. The plant also act as an anti oxidant and used in obesity management.
Keywords: Roselle; Medicinal plant; Photochemical
Description of Hibiscus sabdariffa
Hibiscus has more than three hundred species distributed in
tropical and subtropical regions around the world and are used as
ornamental plants. Research on have shown that some species of
Hibiscus possess certain medicinal properties of which Hibiscus
sabdariffa is one [1]. Hibiscus sabdariffa is commonly named as
“red sorrel” or “roselle”. Even though permeable soil is the best,
Roselle can adapt to a variety of soil in a warmer and more humid
climate [2,3].
Hibiscus sabdariffa, a member of Malvaceae family, is a known
medicinal plant with a worldwide fame [4] and the plant can
be found in almost all warm countries such as India, Saudi
Arabia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam,
Sudan, Egypt and Mexico [5,6]. Roselle is mainly cultivated to be
consumed and the main producers of Roselle blossoms are Egypt,
Sudan, Mexico, Thailand and China. Other hibiscus varieties are
Origin of Hibiscus sabdariffa
There is a big argument about the origin of Roselle among
different scholars. Cobley [8] suggested Roselle is a native plant
of West Africa and from there it was carried to other parts of
the world such as Asia and America, whereas in others opinion,
Roselle was originated from India [9] and Saudi Arabia [10].
Varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa
Among numerous verities of Hibiscus, Hibiscus altissima and
Hibiscus sabdariffa are the commonest and better introduced.
Hibiscus altissima
or green colored calyxes. Though this species is not used for food,
this plant is more economically important than Hibiscus sabdariffa
sabdariffa or “Roselle” grows in a bush with many branches. The
are white with reddish center at the base of the stamina column
and this species is widely used as food [10,11].
Composition of Hibiscus sabdariffa
Roselle is mainly cultivated for its calyx, which is of three
types: green, red and dark red. The red calyxes are the most
used are characterized by their concentration anthocyanin.
Delphinidin 3-Sambubioside and Cyanidin3-Sambubioside are
the major anthocyanin. Roselle is also rich in organic acids,
minerals, amino acids, carotene, vitamin C and total sugar in its
calyx, leaves and seeds at variable levels depending on the variety
and geographical area [12]. According to Manita–mishra [13], a
number of compounds have also been isolated and characterized
steroids and alkaloids. Nutrient contents of different part of
Hibiscus sabdariffa per 100 gram are clearly stated in table 1.
Nutritional and medical importance of Hibiscus
Roselle, the safe medicinal plant [4], having various medically
important compounds called phytochemicalsis well known for
delicacy and also for its nutritional and medicinal properties
[14]. The application of the plant in managing different medical
     
cardiovascular problems has been well investigated by different
scholars in different settings [15].
Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for
Research Needs 2/4
©2017 Singh et al.
Citation: Singh P, Khan M, Hailemariam H (2017) Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for Research
Needs. J Nutr Health Food Eng 6(5): 00212. DOI: 10.15406/jnhfe.2017.06.00212
Table 1: Adopted from: Naturlan [7].
Nutrients Calyxes Seeds Leaves
Protein [g] 2 28.9 3.5
Carbohydrates[g] 10.2 25.5 8.7
Fat [g] 0.1 21.4 0.3
Vitamin A [I.E.] - - 1000
Thiamine [mg] 0.05 0.1 0.2
 0.07 0.15 0.4
Niacin [mg] 0.06 1.5 1.4
Vitamin C [mg] 17 9 2.3
Calcium [mg] 150 350 240
Iron [mg] 3 9 5
Domestic applications
Even though, the uses of different parts of Roselle are many
and varied both in food and in traditional medicine, all parts of
Roselle including seeds, leaves, fruits and roots are used as a
food in different parts of the world. Fleshy red calyxes of Roselle
are commonly used for the production of soft drinks and tonic
without alcohol like wine, juice, jam, jelly, syrupand also dried and
   
anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, niacin, calcium, iron and vitamin C.
The young leaves and tender stems of Roselle are consumed raw
as green vegetable. The Roselle seeds are good source of protein,
fat, total sugars and are widely used in the diet in many African
countries [1-18].
Herbal medicine applications
Roselle is used in many folk medicines. It is valued for its mild
laxative effect, ability to increase urination, relief during hot
weather and treatment of cracks in the feet, bilious, sores and
wounds [1]. Traditionally in Sudan, Roselle has been used for relief
of sour throat and healing wounds [17]. In African folk medicine,
Roselle leaves are used for their, antimicrobial, emollient,
antipyretic, diuretic, anti-helmentic, sedative properties and as a
soothing cough remedy, whereas in India, leaves are poultice on
abscesses [16,19].
Hypo- lipidemic effects: According to a study conducted among
hyper-cholesterolemic patients, two capsules of Roselle extract (1
       
       
        
      
was also studied among subjects, some with and some without
metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome receiving
       
total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein, while increasing
high density lipoprotein [22,23].
Blood pressure lowering effect: The effectiveness of an
aqueous extract of Roselle on mild to moderate hypertension was
investigated in many researches. Aqueous extract of Rosellewas
as effective as captopril in treating mild to moderate hypertension
         
the effectiveness and safety of the extract [24,25]. Even though
the possible mechanism(s) of action of Roselle extract is not
investigated, daily consumptionof an aqueous Roselle extract
resulted in decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure [26].
Anti diabetic activity: [27] Extracted the polyphenolic
components of Roselle and studied their effect in a type II diabetic
rat model (high fat diet model). Studied revealed anti-insulin
resistance properties of extract at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, and
reduction in hyper glycaemia and hyper insulinemia. The extract
was found effective in lowering serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol,
the ratio of low density lipoprotein/high-density protein (LDL/
HDL), and also (AGE) formation and lipid per oxidation. Intestinal
       
complex carbohydrates present in the food into bioavailable
monosaccharide and plays an important role in postprandial
hyperglycaemia; therefore inhibition of these enzymes has
been reported as an effective mechanism for the control of
postprandial hyperglycaemia. Hibiscus acid (hibiscus- type
(2S,3R)-hydroxycitric acid lactone) have been shown as a potent
      
       
Adisakwattana et al. [30], conducted an in vitro study and reported
Anti helmentic and anti microbial effects
Roselle is known for its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-
parasitic actions. Oil extracted from seeds of Roselle has been
shown to have an in vitro inhibitory effect on Bacillus anthracis
and Staphylococcus albus [31]. Aqueous and ethanol extracts were
also found to be effective against Schistosoma mansoni and other
microorganisms [32,33]. Afolabi et al. [34] demonstrated the
antibacterial effect of hibiscus extract on Streptococcus mutans,
a bacterium from oral cavity. In a similar study, antibacterial
potential of hibiscus was also observed on Campylobacter species
[35]. An ethanol extract of the dried leaves of Roselle reduce
    in vitro inhibitory effect against
some fungi [36,37].
Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for
Research Needs 3/4
©2017 Singh et al.
Citation: Singh P, Khan M, Hailemariam H (2017) Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for Research
Needs. J Nutr Health Food Eng 6(5): 00212. DOI: 10.15406/jnhfe.2017.06.00212
Anti-oxidant effect: Protective property of a compound to inhibit
the oxidative mechanisms by scavenging reactive oxygen and
free radicals is known as antioxidative activity. It protects lining
organelles from premature cell damage and reduces ageing. A
large number of invitro and invivo studies have shown that Roselle
calyxes contain potent antioxidant. According to Augustine [38],
both the whole aqueous and anthocyanin-rich extracts of Roselle
are effective antioxidant. Studies have also highlighted that poly-
        
Roselle are potent antioxidants [39].
Other Pharmacological effects: Roselle has been reported
to possess a lactogenic activity. Okasha et al. [40], observed
enhancement in the serum prolactin level of lactating female
Albino Rats on administration of seed extract of Roselle. Bako
et al. [41], studied the lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction
of Hibiscus sabdariffa, from 3-17 days of lactation. The results
showed an increase in serum prolactin level and milk production
        
property of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Studies have shown that Roselle
tea contains an enzyme inhibitor which blocks production of
amylase and it is possible that drinking a cup of hibiscus tea
after meals can reduce the absorption of dietary carbohydrates
and assist in weight loss [42]. It was also reported that Roselle
is considered as a possible anti-obesity agent [43]. Extracts from
         
[43] and cancer [6].
Hibiscus Tea
Hibiscus tea is caffeine free herbal tea from a special type of
hibiscus, called Hibiscus sabdarrifa
of the dried fruit part of Roselle, called calyx. It is in red color and
tastes like berries [44].
Steps in preparation of Hibiscus Tea
a. First, collect the hibiscus fruits and wash them clean, and air
dry or dry them in an oven at 70 degree C for 3 days.
b. Peel off the calyx and store them in air-tight containers.
c. To make tea, simply take 2 grams of the dried calyx, and
crash them into small pieces using a wooden roller.
d. Put them in a tea bag or a net, bring out your favorite mug,
add 8 oz of boiling water, steep it for 2-4 minutes, add sugar
          
drops of lemon juice.
e. You can also refrigerate it and make hibiscus iced tea [43].
Hibiscus sabdariffa or “Roselle” is medicinal plant with a
worldwide fame. Roselle, having various medically important
compounds called phytochemicals, is well known for its
nutritional and medicinal properties. Seeds, leaves, fruits and
roots of the plant are used as food and herbal medicine. Extracts
from Roselle plays a crucial role in treating different medical
problems including many cardiovascular disorders and cancer
but further researches are required to know its exact mechanism
of action and to formulate food products using Roselle with locally
grown food items. Obesity is a growing problem, affecting not
only adults but also children. The effectiveness of Roselle extract
for metabolic disorders like type II diabetes should be examined
further, as previous clinical studies have shown encouraging
effects on hyperlipidemia and hypertension, conditions strongly
correlated with type II diabetes or metabolic syndrome [41].
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Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for
Research Needs 4/4
©2017 Singh et al.
Citation: Singh P, Khan M, Hailemariam H (2017) Nutritional and Health Importance of Hibiscus Sabdariffa: A Review and Indication for Research
Needs. J Nutr Health Food Eng 6(5): 00212. DOI: 10.15406/jnhfe.2017.06.00212
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... As well, water in oil cream of the methanol extract of the calyces has been prepared as a potential commercial wound healing substance [154,155]. Preparations from H. sabdariffa calyx are also traditionally used in various countries including Suriname, for treating a broad range of conditions such as microbial infections, cough and bronchitis, kidney problems, various gastrointestinal conditions, and hypertension [49,151,156,157]. ...
... Few studies on dried calyces of this plant have been done in Tanzania regarding iron content (Maregesi et al. 2013), optimization of extraction conditions for iron and ascorbic acid (Peter et al. 2014) and levels of selected elements mainly iron and its possible effect on human blood pressure in Zanzibar (Mohamed et al. 2019). However, no research has been done concerning chemical constituents and in vitro anti-bacterial activity of H. sabdariffa (roselle) leaves grown in Dodoma, Tanzania though roselle leaves in African folk medicine are used as antimicrobials, emollients, antipyretics, diuretics, antihelmenthic, sedatives and also as a soothing cough remedy, whereas in India, leaves are used as vegetable and poultice on abscesses (Singh et al. 2017). Therefore, the aim of the study was to find out the traditional uses of the plant in Dodoma and screen aqueous and ethanolic extracts of H. sabdariffa leaves for the presence of chemical constituents like secondary metabolites along with iron II and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). ...
Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa grown in Tanzania revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like steroids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids along with L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and iron(II). Furthermore, both leaves and calyces showed antibacterial activities (agar well diffusion method) against selected bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Shigella sonnei), but calyces possessed potent antibacterial activities compared to leaves. The results also supported the claimed traditional uses of this plant. When interrogated during the cross-sectional study in Dodoma region, 54% of the respondents claimed the plant is used to treat anaemia (supposedly as it increases haemoglobin levels), 23% claimed it is used in the preparation of local wine and the remaining respondents stated use in both areas. Furthermore, the intake of H. sabdariffa leaves and calyces on regular basis can boost the immunity system and helps in preventing bacterial and viral infections as the plant is loaded with flavonoids and vitamin C. Thus, the results observed for the plant H. sabdariffa that is grown in Dodoma in small scale for traditional uses, paves a way for consideration of future large scale production of pharmaceutical and neutraceutical products in Tanzania. Keywords: Phytochemical screening, Hibiscus sabdariffa, antibacterial activity, L-ascorbic acid and iron(II)
... Dietary polyphenols such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and plant-derived beverages [15] have received much attention in disease prevention due to their potential therapeutic effects. Roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is an important source of vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, such as organic acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols as well [16]. There are many pharmacological actions on the health effects of rosella petals, such as cardioprotective action, antihypertensive effect, and inhibition of LDL-C oxidation [17]. ...
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Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the pathophysiology in the pathophysiology of dyslipidemia, which are positive risks that increase atherosclerosis leading to important healthcare problems. Therefore, we aimed to study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects of jelly drink containing polyphenol-rich roselle calyces extract and passion fruit juice with pulp concentrate (RP jelly drink) in comparison to a placebo jelly drink for 8 weeks. Forty-three adults with dyslipidemia were randomly assigned into two groups: the RP jelly drink group and the placebo group. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC) triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), oxidative stress biomarkers, inflammatory parameters, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured with fasting blood samples at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks of intervention. Results showed a significant decrease in LDL-C and TG, respectively, after 8 weeks of RP jelly drink consumption (LDL-C: 107.63 ± 22.98 m g / d L ; TG: 109.79 ± 38.83 m g / d L ) compared to baseline measurements (LDL-C: 128.43 ± 32.74 m g / d L ; TG: 132.33 ± 75.11 m g / d L ). These may be possible due to reduced inflammation and improvements in oxidative stress, as demonstrated by the reduction of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the enhancement of glutathione (GSH) after consuming the RP jelly drink for 8 weeks. However, no significant differences of treatment on glucose, total cholesterol, MCP-1, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 were observed. In conclusion, daily consumption of RP jelly drink for 8 weeks resulted in significant improvement in lipid profiles in subjects with dyslipidemia. However, more research is needed to assess its nutritional and functional potential.
... It has a mild laxative activity, capability to elevate urination and cracks treatment in the feet, anti-helmintic, sedative properties, bilious, sores and wounds. It is used for wound healing, relief of sour throat, as a soothing cough remedy, antipyretic, antimicrobial, diuretic and emollient [33]. ...
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Hyperlipidemia is a common disease around the world which has affected both developed and developing countries, in this disease blood level of lipids is elevated more than normal range. Elevated lipids levels (cholesterol, fats, and triglyceride) predispose the patient to various serious and sometimes lethal complications such as cardiovascular disease, cerebral strokes, hepatic and renal dysfunction. This review emphasizes on some plants (extracts) having anti-cholesterol actions, including; Glycyrrhiza glabra,Legenaria siceraria,Medicago sativa,Curcuma longa,Syzygium cerasoideum, Leptopus Cordifolius Decne, Piper longum, Moringa oleifera, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Carum carvi, Carica papaya, Gloriosa superba, Ficus religiosa, Eleucine coracana, Lycium europaeum and Hibiscus sabdariffa for anti-hyperlipidemic potential. increase in the levels of these lipoproteins like, triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)includes some mechanisms of actions of these medicinal plants observed in triton-x, cholesterol, high fat diet, Poloxamer-407, Dexamethasone and alloxan-induced in-vivo and in-vitro models. Additionally, this review gives proof to the fact that these medicinal plants can be used for the management and prophylaxis of hyperlipidermia, thus reducing complications associated with hyperlipidermia.
... Vitamin C content of roselle calyxes is related to the state of freshness or dryness time. Vitamin C is also an important antioxidant which plays an important role in preventing free radicals [8]. ...
This research was conducted during the 2018 and 2019 seasons, and the aim of the research was to study the effect of each of the different drying methods (drying in the shade, direct sunlight, electric ovens, and solar dryer) and the different storage periods (0, 2, 4 and 6 months) on the quality of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for both variety cultivars Sabhia 17 Dark and Sabhia 17 Light. The results showed that the method of drying in the shade gave the best results for most of the characterizes studied for both varieties of the both seasons, and the results for the different storage times did not differ significantly between them, especially the calyxes content of the two varieties of TPC, DPPH% and TFC. On the other hand the chemical composition data of roselle observed about the light variety is rich in ascorbic acid, TFC and TPC, while the dark variety is rich in the total anthocyanin content (490 mg / 100g DWS).
... Nutritional values of different parts of roselle plant[25] ...
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Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., commonly known as Roselle, is a very popular medicinal plant throughout the world. Besides its use in the preparation of various kinds of delicaciessuch as jams, puddings, cakes, the plant is widely used in various traditional systems of medicine. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the traditional use, pharmacognostical characterization, nutritional and phytochemical composition, and pharmacological properties of Roselle plant. A search forpublications made in last ten years was retrieved from the following specialized electronic databases: Elsevier Science Direct, Springer Link, and NCBI. The results of different articles availablesuggest that the plant is rich in potent bioactive constituents havinga range of pharmacological activity supportingits traditional claims. Although marketed formulations/infusions of Roselle are available but further studies should be carried out to evaluate the toxicological profile and therapeutic efficacy of H. sabdariffa on humans.
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Pathfinding elephants are moving through human dominated landscapes, often across international boundaries, thereby playing a vital role in connecting protected areas. Their movements are a call to action to not only understand their spatial requirements but to urgently work towards innovative ways to make people’s livelihoods compatible with conservation outcomes so that coexistence and connected landscapes can prevail. We discuss the first three phases of a long-term strategy to conserve elephant corridors whilst incorporating the socio-economic needs of the people that share the landscape with them. We present a comprehensive satellite-tracking history of elephants across two transfrontier conservation areas (TFCA), represented by Great Limpopo- and Lubombo TFCAs and involving four countries (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Eswatini) to flag where linking corridors exist. We use innovative cafeteria-style experiments to understand which elephant-unpalatable plants would offer lucrative alternative income streams to farmers living in human–elephant-conflict hotspots. The most suitable unpalatable plants are chosen based not only on whether they are unpalatable to elephants, but also on their life history traits and growth prerequisites. We consider a combination of potential economic values (food, essential oil, medicinal and bee fodder value) to ensure that selected plants would accommodate changing economic markets. Lastly, we highlight the importance of combining food security measures with ensuring people’s safety by means of deploying rapid-response units. By implementing these three phases as part of a longer-term strategy, we draw closer to ensuring the protection of bioregions to achieve biodiversity objectives at a landscape scale.
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The rural communities of the sub‐Sahara regions in Africa are rich in diverse indigenous culinary knowledge and foods, food crops, and condiments such as roots/tubers, cereal, legumes/pulses, locust beans, and green leafy vegetables. These food crops are rich in micronutrients and phytochemicals, which have the potentials to address hidden hunger as well as promote health when consumed. Some examples of these are fermented foods such as ogi and plants such as Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf), Zingiber officinales (garlic), Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), and condiments. Food crops from West Africa contain numerous bioactive substances such as saponins, alkaloids, tannins, phenolics, flavonoids, and monoterpenoid chemicals among others. These bioresources have proven biological and pharmacological activities due to diverse mechanisms of action such as immunomodulatory, anti‐inflammatory, antipyretic, and antioxidant activities which made them suitable as candidates for nutraceuticals and pharma foods. This review seeks to explore the different processes such as fermentation applied during food preparation and food crops of West‐African origin with health‐promoting benefits. The different bioactive compounds present in such food or food crops are discussed extensively as well as the diverse application, especially regarding respiratory diseases. Practical applications The plants and herbs summarized here are more easily accessible and affordable by therapists and others having a passion for promising medicinal properties of African‐origin plants.The mechanisms and unique metabolic potentials of African food crops discussed in this article will promote their applicability as a template molecule for novel drug discoveries in treatment strategies for emerging diseases. This compilation of antiviral plants will help clinicians and researchers bring new preventive strategies in combating COVID‐19 like viral diseases, ultimately saving millions of affected people.
In recent years, a new trend in the food industry is the use of flowers in food production. Although currently consumed on a relatively small scale around the world, edible flowers have been a source of nutritional diets since ancient times due to their aesthetic appeal and desirable aroma. The importance of color acceptability and the need to meet and attract more consumers to market have led to the development of new pigments for industrial products. Due to the instability of natural pigments, physical and chemical changes during processing, several pre‐preservation techniques that yield high quality product cost‐effectively have been proposed to improve the stability, phytochemicals, nutritional and functional characteristics of several commonly consumed edible flowers are discussed. This article comprehensively reviewed the recently developed processing and preservation technologies for color retention, anthocyanin degradation and anthocyanin‐related enzyme inactivation as well as various methodologies for the extraction of anthocyanins from edible flowers. It should be noted that not all flowers are safe to consume due to potential presence of natural toxins.
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The effects of different doses of aqueous H. sabdariffa l. seed extract were examined on serum prolactin level in four groups of lactating female rats. Control, metoclopramide-treated and extract plus dopamine-treated groups consisted of five rats each (n=5). The extract-treated group was inf-divided into five inf-groups of five rats each and accordingly they were administered the extract in different five dose concentrations, one group for each dose. Female lactating rats were administered the extract (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mgkg-1 orally), metoclopramide (5 mgkg-1orally), extract (1600 mgkg-1) + dopamine (5 μgkg-1 intraperitoneally), while control received normal saline (orally) from day 4-9 of lactation. The animals were then euthanized on the day 10 and serum prolactin levels were analyzed using prolactin kit. The serum prolactin level of the extract-treated rats showed a dose - dependent significant increase (P<0.01) when compared to control group. The extract plus dopamine-treated group did not show any change in serum prolactin level when compared to the control group. The LD50 of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. extract was found to be above 5000mgkg-1. Administration of the extract in a dose of 1g for four weeks did not show any significant changes in liver or renal functions of the treated rats.
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Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and serum prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (p<0.01) when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control group. This can be deduced that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases serum prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed stimulate prolactin synthesis; release and milk production in albino rats and it is affordable and safe for consumption.
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Scientists at Southern University Ag Center are conducting a research project on Hibiscus sabdariffa, investigating its nutritional value under various growing conditions. The project plans to introduce its products to food markets and to reach out small farmers to increase its marketability and profitability. This bulletin presents the basic information regarding the biological characteristics, food use, and medicinal values of Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa.
"Let food be your medicine, medicine your food." -Hippocrates, 2400 B.C. When the "Father of Medicine" uttered those famous words, spices were as important for medicine, embalming, preserving food, and masking bad odors as they were for more mundane culinary matters. Author James A. Duke predicts that spices such as capsicum, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, onion, and turmeric will assume relatively more medicinal importance again, as the economic costs and knowledge of the side-effects of prescription pharmaceuticals increase. After all, each spice contains thousands of useful phytochemicals. Pharmaceuticals usually contain only one or two. Discover the Science behind the Folklore Spices are important medicines that have withstood the empirical tests of millennia. Nearly 5,000 years ago Charak, the father of Ayurvedic medicine, claimed that garlic lightens the blood, reduces tumors, and is an aphrodisiac tonic. Today scientists say it thins the blood, prevents cancer, and increases libido. For centuries people worldwide have used spices to cure a myriad of ailments and to preserve foods. Now science is proving that these spices may preserve us with their antioxidant and antiseptic activities. Organized by scientific name, the CRC Handbook of Medicinal Spices provides the science behind the folklore of over 60 popular spices. For each spice, it lists: Scientific name Common name Medicinal activities and indications Multiple activities Other uses, especially culinary Cultivation Chemistry Important phytochemical constituents and their activities The handbook also includes market and import data, culinary uses, ecology and cultural information, and discusses at length the use of spices as antiseptics and antioxidants.
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, is an annual herbaceous shrub, cultivated for its flowers although leaves and seeds have also been used in traditional medicine. The calyces of the plant are used as a refrigerant in the form of tea, to make jellies and jams. The plant is reported to contain proteins, fats, carbohydrates, flavonoids, acids, minerals and vitamins. The plant has been reported to have antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer and antioxidant properties. The present paper is an overview on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties reported in the literature.
Forty-one plant extracts, known in therapy for other properties, have been tested against nine fungal species. Apart from the antifungal activity, already indicated for Piper methysticum, we observed that the extracts of Ruscus aculeatus, Illicium verum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Rhamnus frangula and Tamarindus indica inhibit spore germination in many fungal species. Other extracts, especially Eschscholtzia californica, Zingiber officinale and Tilia cordata (alburnum) have a more restricted range of activity. The extract of Viola tricolor is only effective against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.