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Partial-body cryostimulation is used to improve recovery after exercise, especially during competitions or heavy training; however, a limited number of studies have been conducted with international-level athletes in situ during competitions. This study was undertaken to assess the thermal sensation ratings during 3 min of cold exposure (at –130°C) in 24 international-level athletes during the European Basketball Championship. The mean thermal sensation score, measured using a perceptive scale, increased significantly (p < 0.05) during partial-body cryostimulation exposure in athletes from 3.0 ± 1.7 at 30 s to 5.7 ± 2.3 at 3 min (maximal observed value = 10.0). The mean value of 5.7 is considered a “cold” sensation on the scale (ranging from 0 = neutral sensation to 10 = very cold). However, we observed a large inter-individual variation in the perceived thermal sensations. The body mass index was significantly and negatively correlated with the thermal sensation value after 2 min 30 s and 3 min of exposure in females (r = –0.61, n = 13, p < 0.05; r = –0.56, n = 13, p = 0.054, respectively). Three participants reported high perceived thermal sensation after 30 s of exposure and their cold-induced discomfort worsened as the exposure continued. In conclusion, a 3-min exposure is globally well tolerated by athletes and can be used during a heavy competition period and/or during a training period. However, special attention should be given to female athletes with a low body mass index as they seem to be much more sensitive to cold.
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Journal of Human Kinetics volume 62/2018, 55-63 DOI: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0158 55
Section II Exercise Physiology & Sports Medicine
1 - Université de Franche Comté, Laboratoire C3S (EA 4660), Unité de Promotion, de Formation et de Recherche (UPFR) des Sports,
31 rue de l’Epitaphe, 25000 Besançon, France.
2 - Université de Poitiers, EA 6314, laboratoire « Mobilité, Vieillissement et Exercice (MOVE) », Faculté des sciences du sport,
86000 Poitiers, France.
3 - Société Cryantal Développement, 15 cours du Luzard, 77186 Noisiel, France.
.
Authors submitted their contribution to the article to the editorial board.
Accepted for printing in the Journal of Human Kinetics vol. 62/2018 in June 2018.
Thermal Sensations During a PartialBody Cryostimulation
Exposure in Elite Basketball Players
by
Romain Bouzigon1,3, Gilles Ravier1, Benoit Dugue2, Frederic Grappe1
Partial-body cryostimulation is used to improve recovery after exercise, especially during competitions or
heavy training; however, a limited number of studies have been conducted with international-level athletes in situ
during competitions. This study was undertaken to assess the thermal sensation ratings during 3 min of cold exposure
(at –130°C) in 24 international-level athletes during the European Basketball Championship. The mean thermal
sensation score, measured using a perceptive scale, increased significantly (p < 0.05) during partial-body
cryostimulation exposure in athletes from 3.0 ± 1.7 at 30 s to 5.7 ± 2.3 at 3 min (maximal observed value = 10.0). The
mean value of 5.7 is considered a “cold” sensation on the scale (ranging from 0 = neutral sensation to 10 = very cold).
However, we observed a large inter-individual variation in the perceived thermal sensations. The body mass index was
significantly and negatively correlated with the thermal sensation value after 2 min 30 s and 3 min of exposure in
females (r = –0.61, n = 13, p < 0.05; r = –0.56, n = 13, p = 0.054, respectively). Three participants reported high
perceived thermal sensation after 30 s of exposure and their cold-induced discomfort worsened as the exposure
continued. In conclusion, a 3-min exposure is globally well tolerated by athletes and can be used during a heavy
competition period and/or during a training period. However, special attention should be given to female athletes with a
low body mass index as they seem to be much more sensitive to cold.
Key words: competition, cryotherapy, international-level athletes, perceived cold sensation, recovery.
Introduction
Partial body cryostimulation (PBC)
consists of extreme cold exposure lasting from 1
to 4 min in a cabin with an air temperature of –130
°C (according to the manufacturer) or less in
minimal clothing (a bathing suit, cap, gloves,
socks, slippers) (Bouzigon et al., 2016). PBC
apparatus is an open cabin where subjects,
excluding the head and neck, are exposed. This
technique is used to treat pain and inflammation,
recover faster after injuries or surgery, improve
the quality of life in patients suffering
inflammatory pathologies and recover faster after
physical exercise (Banfi et al., 2010; Dugue and
Leppanen, 2000; Dugue, 2015; Lombardi et al.,
2017; Miller et al., 2016; Mikołajec et al., 2017).
Though not completely clear, the
mechanism leading to recovery improvement
seems to be related to cold-induced analgesia and
a lower level of exercise-induced inflammation
(Hausswirth et al., 2011; Leppaluoto et al., 2008;
Pournot et al., 2011). Stimulation of the
sympathetic system, release of noradrenalin and
vasoconstriction during and after cold
exposure have a significant impact on pain and
muscle soreness (Leppaluoto et al., 2008). Muscle
cooling during and after cold exposure may also
56 Thermal sensations during a partial-body cryostimulation exposure in elite basketball players
Journal of Human Kinetics - volume 62/2018 http://www.johk.pl
lower enzyme activities, lower the metabolism
and limit protein degradation after exercise-
induced ischemia, which can be an important
feature for recovery improvement (Bleakley and
Hopkins, 2010; Costello et al., 2012). Moreover,
athletes using PBC during high-level international
tournaments seem to have an enhanced quality of
sleep (Bouzigon et al., 2014). PBC has therefore
been well accepted by many athletes and
professional sport teams (Banfi et al., 2009). PBC is
available in a mobile device which enables its use
at training and competition sites.
Benefits of PBC for physical recovery
improvement have been demonstrated (Bouzigon
et al., 2016). However, whether an exposure at –
130 °C or less is well tolerated by athletes during a
competition is questionable. Such exposure could
be perceived as too painful, stressful and even
dangerous and could lower or eliminate the
beneficial effects of cryostimulation. During
competition, psychological stress increases in
athletes (Filaire et al., 2001). Moreover,
international-level athletes are subjects with very
special kinds of psychological and physiological
adaptations, and when experiencing high levels of
stress (e.g. during international competition), they
may react differently (Harung et al., 2011;
Sternberg et al., 1998) than during periods of
lower amounts of physical and psychological
loads. Such changes may have an influence on the
athlete’s thermal sensitive capacities (Sternberg et
al., 1998). At the current time, there are no data
available concerning cold-perceived sensation in
international athletes (Hohenauer et al., 2015), and
therefore it is important to assess the thermal
sensation during cold exposure in international-
level athletes during the competitive period.
Anthropometric characteristics including
relative mass and size of the contact area are
known to influence tissue cooling, transfer of heat
from the body and perceived thermal sensations
in humans subjected to cold stimuli (Dugue and
Leppanen, 2000; Glickman-Weiss et al., 1993;
Zhang et al., 2001). Moreover, it seems that gender
may also have an effect as females show a
different level of perceived thermal sensation than
males when exposed to cold stimuli (Cuttell et al.,
2017; Hammond et al., 2014).
This study was undertaken to assess the
thermal sensation ratings during 3 min of cold
exposure (at –130 °C) in elite athletes during
international competitions. We examined whether
a 3-min PBC exposure at –130 °C remained
comfortable for competitive athletes; whether
male and female athletes perceived the cold
stimulus in a similar way and whether athletes
with a lower BMI perceived the cold stimulus in a
similar way compared to athletes with a higher
BMI. The data obtained in this study should
therefore be useful in the world of professional
sports, and teams could obtain information on
whether PBC is suitable for the athletes during
competitions.
Methods
Participants
Twenty-four international-level basketball
players (13 females and 11 males, aged 25.7 ± 3.5
years) from the French national team participated
in this study. The athletes’ characteristics are
presented in Table 1 and were obtained from the
team organisers. We calculated the BMI, which is
the body mass divided by the square of the body
height. Thorough investigations of the athletes
were not possible in the context of the European
Basketball Championship.
All the participants were informed about
the experimental procedure along with the
purpose of this study and gave written informed
consent. The protocol was approved by the local
ethics committee and adhered to the latest
amendments of the Declaration of Helsinki.
Design and Procedures
This field study was carried out during
the two weeks of the 2013 European Basketball
Championship preparation tournament. Cold
exposure was performed using PBC apparatus
(Universal Cryosana; Mecacel, Mouroux, France),
and cooling of the cryocabin was performed with
nitrogen spraying inside the chamber. Although
the cryo spray did not directly touch the athlete’s
skin, the temperature through the exposure was
adjusted with the nitrogen supply. The PBC
device was a mobile PBC integrated in a trunk.
The exposures were performed next to the hotel of
the French Team. The device was equipped with
adjustable walls enabling athletes of different
heights to have similar exposure. The PBC
procedure was a 3-min exposure at –130 °C that
occurred in the afternoon after training (between
4 and 9 pm). Such a protocol is regularly used in
the exercise recovery context and has been shown
by Romain Bouzigon et al. 57
© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics
to provide benefits in athletes (Klimek et al., 2010;
Mila-Kierzenkowska et al., 2013; Sutkowy et al.,
2014). In the cryocabin, athletes wore underwear,
gloves, socks and slippers.
Measures
The perception of thermal sensation
during exposure within the cryocabin was
recorded every 30 s. The participants were asked
to rate their perceptual thermal sensation using a
ten-point scale (Lundgren et al., 2014), which had
been shown to be valid and reliable to assess
human thermal perception in an extremely cold
environment (Lundgren et al., 2014). The scale
was shown to the participants every 30 s, and the
following question was asked: “How cold do you
feel right now?". The athletes answered verbally
from 0 (“neutral”) to 10 (“unbearably cold”)
(Figure 1), and the given score was registered. All
the scores were obtained during the exposure. At
the third minute, the thermal sensation was
evaluated just before the end of the exposure.
It was not possible to perform other
assessments on athletes during competition.
Statistical analysis
The statistics program used was
Sigmaplot 12.0 Software (Systat Inc. San Jose, CA,
USA). The results were expressed as mean and
standard deviation (SD). Homogeneity of variance
was assessed with a F-test Levene’s test. The
changes in the evolution of the thermal sensation
scores during the exposures in male and female
athletes were analysed by a two-way analysis of
variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures
(Gender x Duration). Thus, the evolution of the
thermal sensation score during the exposure was
analysed. We also investigated whether the
changes in the thermal sensation were similar or
different in males and females. Thermal sensation
data were logarithmically transformed to reduce
non-uniformities of their distribution when they
were not normally distributed in a Gaussian
manner (Hopkins et al., 2009). Post hoc
comparison was performed using the
Tukey/Kramer test. Correlation analyses between
the BMI and thermal sensation were performed
using the Spearman test. The level of statistical
significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results
Thermal sensation seemed to increase
every 30 s during PBC exposure in both male and
female athletes and in all athletes (p < 0.001; F =
37.41). The significant differences between each
time interval are shown in Table 2.
The evolution of the thermal sensation
scores during exposure was similar in males and
females (p < 0.001; F = 15.13 and p < 0.001; F = 7.2,
respectively, with no significant interaction). The
data obtained at each measurement time are
shown in Table 2.
In females, the BMI became significantly and
negatively correlated with thermal sensation
during the last minute (at 150 s: r = –0.61, n = 13, p
< 0.05; at 180 s: r = –0.56, n = 13, p < 0.05), i.e.
female athletes with a lower BMI had more
uncomfortable thermal sensations than female
athletes with a higher BMI (Figure 2). No
significant correlations between the BMI and
perceived thermal scores were found in male
athletes.
Figure 1
Thermal sensation scale
58 Thermal sensations during a partial-body cryostimulation exposure in elite basketball players
Journal of Human Kinetics - volume 62/2018 http://www.johk.pl
Figure 2
Results of the Spearman correlation test between thermal sensations
after 3 min of exposure and the BMI in female athletes
Table 1
Characteristics of the 24 athletes (expressed as the mean ± standard deviation)
All Males Females
Age (years)
25.7 ± 3.5 25.5 ± 3.6 25.9 ± 3.5
Body mass (kg)
88.5 ± 15.7 100.2 ± 12.4 78.5 ± 10.7
Body Height (cm)
192.5 ± 11.8 201.9 ± 7.2 184.5 ± 8.6
BMI (kg/m2)
23.7 ± 2.3 24.5 ± 2.0 23.0 ± 2.4
BSA (m²)
2.18 ± 0.25 2.39 ± 0.18 2.01 ± 0.17
BSA/BM (cm²/kg)
2.50 ± 0.17 2.39 ± 0.13 2.58 ± 0.16
by Romain Bouzigon et al. 59
© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics
Table 2
Perception of thermal sensation (Mean ± SD) and extreme observed values
in brackets during a 3-min whole-body cryostimulation exposure in 24 athletes
30 s 60 s 90 s 120 s 150 s 180 s
All athletes
3.0 ± 1.7* 3.8 ± 1.7§ 4.3 ± 1.7‡|| 4.7 ± 1.9§¶ 5.3 ± 2.1||** 5.7 ± 2.3
(0.0 – 7.0) (0.0 – 7.5) (0.0 – 8.0) (0.0 – 9.0) (0.0 – 9.5) (0.0 – 10.0)
Males
2.9 ± 1.6 3.8 ± 1.4†§||¶ 4.5 ± 1.5 4.9 ± 1.6 5.5 ± 1.9 6.0 ± 1.9
(1.0 – 6.0) (2.0 – 6.0) (2.0 – 8.0) (3.0 – 9.0) (3.0 – 9.5) (3.0 – 10.0)
Females
3.1 ± 1.8 3.8 ± 2.0†§|| 4.2 ± 1.9‡||¶ 4.6 ± 2.1‡§¶** 5.2 ± 2.4§||** 5.5 ± 2.6||¶
(0.0 – 7.0) (0.0 – 7.5) (0.0 – 8.0) (0.0 – 8.0) (0.0 – 9.0) (0.0 – 9.0)
(Abbreviations: * significantly different from the data obtained at other time points;
Value significantly different from the data obtained at other time points: except for 30 s: ;
Except for 60 s: ; Except for 90 s: §; Except for 120 s: ||; Except for 150 s: ; Except for 180 s: **)
Discussion
This study was undertaken to evaluate
the thermal sensation during PBC exposure in
international-level athletes in situ during periods
of competition. Relevant and valuable outcomes
concerning thermal perception during PBC
exposure were obtained.
The main finding of this study is that PBC
does not seem to represent a high thermal
perceptual strain for the majority of the
participating athletes. However, we observed a
large inter-individual variation in the perceived
thermal sensations. The female athletes with the
lowest BMI had the highest scores in the thermal
scale we used.
Thermal sensation scores gradually
increased during the course of the 3-min
exposure, with the scores rapidly increasing
during the first minute and then stabilizing
during the final two minutes. After the total
exposure time (3 min), the mean perceived
thermal sensation score was 5.7, which indicates a
“cool” sensation. Therefore, a 3-min exposure at –
130 °C did not appear to add unnecessary strain
60 Thermal sensations during a partial-body cryostimulation exposure in elite basketball players
Journal of Human Kinetics - volume 62/2018 http://www.johk.pl
for the majority of the athletes during the
competition phase. The maximum score of
perceived thermal sensation (coldest sensation =
10) was reached only at 180 s in one subject. The
majority of the participants did not feel especially
cold after the end of the exposure. Nevertheless,
at 30 s, three participants reported relatively high
perceived thermal sensation scores (6), and their
cold-induced discomfort worsened as the
exposure continued.
The second important finding of this
study is the negative correlation between the BMI
of the athletes and thermal sensations, especially
in females, during the exposure. It seems that the
morphology of the participants may influence
heat transfer from the body to the environment,
especially as the duration of cold exposure
increases. Recently, Cholewka et al. (2012)
demonstrated that the magnitude of the skin
temperature response to extremely low
temperatures used in WBC was dependent on
individual features, such as the BMI. Depending
on age and sex, the BMI has been shown to be
closely correlated with body fat (Gallagher et al.,
1996), and it is known that fat tissues in skin or in
muscles may act as thermal insulation. Therefore,
the subjects with a lower BMI may be more prone
to transfer heat and may be more sensitive to the
cold environment. The gender-linked discrepancy
in thermal sensation could be related to different
thermoregulation abilities in males and females.
This might be explained by anthropometric and
thermoregulatory differences. Indeed, females
have 20% lower body mass, 14% more fat, 33%
less lean body mass and 18% less surface area
(Burse, 1979) and a higher subcutaneous to
visceral fat ratio than males (Enzi et al., 1986).
Moreover, when exposed to cold environments,
females generally have a lower ability to shiver
(Burse, 1979) and a greater reduction in skin
temperature than males (Cuttell et al., 2017;
Hammond et al., 2014; Stocks et al., 2004). This
may explain, in part, the higher scores for cold
sensation recorded by females.
It has also been shown that the
temperature in an empty cryocabin is lower than
in a cryocabin with a participant inside (Savic et
al., 2013). Therefore, the morphology of the
participant and the duration of the exposure
could influence the temperature inside the
cryocabin. Currently, chamber temperature
cannot be monitored continuously, and the actual
cold stimulation may not have been completely
consistent among participants. The only
temperature control is performed at the position
of the nitrogen nozzle. Recent investigation
showed that temperature variation may occur
next to the skin (5–10 °C depending on the
subjects) (Savic et al., 2013). Moreover, significant
temperature differences were shown among
different body regions due to the colder
temperature at the bottom of the cabin (cold air
has higher density than warm air). Furthermore,
PBC consists of an open tank at the head level that
facilitates the entry of warmer air into the system;
the system does not provide a constant and
homogeneous temperature in the cabin. In our
setting, subjects with the lowest BMI might be
more sensitive to cold exposure (higher cold
perception), have transferred a higher amount of
heat during the exposure or have been subjected
to colder temperatures than subjects with a higher
BMI.
Globally, a 3-min exposure at –130 °C is
well tolerated by athletes and can be used during
a heavy competition period and/or during a
training period when the load of physical exercise
is very important. PBC is not perceived as
extremely uncomfortable or stressful by most
athletes; however, special attention should be
given to female athletes with a low BMI as they
seem to be much more sensitive to cold. Our
recently published review emphasizes that further
studies should be developed to analyse thermal
sensation in connection to the physical
characteristics and gender of the participants to be
able to provide the most relevant PBC exposure
(Bouzigon et al., 2016). The link found between
the BMI and cold-perceived sensation should be
explored with further analysis including
subcutaneous (and even intramuscular) fat
content. Technical improvements concerning
temperature monitoring during cold exposure are
also necessary so that the chamber can be adjusted
to a given temperature throughout the exposure
and to allow for an even temperature in the
chamber. Indeed, only two studies have presented
the actual temperature in a PBC device (Criomed,
Kherson, Ukraine) and a WBC device (Cryantal
Developpement, Noisiel, France) during an
exposure (Bouzigon et al., 2017; Savic et al., 2013).
by Romain Bouzigon et al. 61
© Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics
Acknowledgements
We thank all the volunteers and their professional teams who participated in this study. Samuel
Queniart and Jean Gratacos and their team from Cryantal are also warmly thanked for their logistic support.
The experiment performed in this study complies with the current laws of the French country.
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Zhang H, Huizenga C, Arens E, Yu T. Considering individual physiological differences in a human thermal
model. Journal of Thermal Biology, 2001; 26(4–5): 401-408. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-
4565(01)00051-1
Corresponding author:
Romain Bouzigon,
Université de Franche Comté, Laboratoire C3S (EA 4660), Unité de Promotion, de Formation et de Recherche
(UPFR) des Sports, 31 rue de l’Epitaphe, 25000 Besançon, France.
Société Cryantal Développement, 15 cours du Luzard, 77186 Noisiel, France.
Author personal address: 16 rue des Geais, 39270 PLAISIA, France.
Phone number: (+33)6.70.27.93.27
E-mail: romain.bouzigon@gmail.com

Supplementary resource (1)

... This cooldown method may also improve muscle fatigue, pain, and well-being (DOMS and self-perceived fatigue) [74] although the effects on DOMS seem to occur shortly after exercise (<6 h after exercise), while not after 24 h or later [74], and multiple cryostimulation treatments are required to experience positive benefits on recovery. Furthermore, in elite basketball players competing at the European Championship, 3 min of cold exposure (at −130 °C) significantly improved their mean thermal sensation score during partialbody cryostimulation (PBC) exposure in athletes [80]. However, large inter-individual differences were reported mainly due to differences in body mass index (BMI) [80]. ...
... Furthermore, in elite basketball players competing at the European Championship, 3 min of cold exposure (at −130 °C) significantly improved their mean thermal sensation score during partialbody cryostimulation (PBC) exposure in athletes [80]. However, large inter-individual differences were reported mainly due to differences in body mass index (BMI) [80]. Although future studies are needed on the effects of WBC and PBC on recovery and sensation in elite basketball players, a 3-min exposure seems to be well tolerated by athletes in general, and may be most effective during the heaviest training or competition periods of the year. ...
... In physically active men, 3-min WBC in the evening after training has recently demonstrated to improve both objective and subjective sleep quality, thus WBC may be considered for that particular reason as well [81]. However, special attention should be given to female athletes with a low BMI as they seem to be significantly more sensitive to cold air exposure [80]. ...
Chapter
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Basketball can be described as a moderate- to long-duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active recovery or passive rest. Basketball games are characterized by repeated explosive activities, such as sprints, jumps, shuffles, and rapid changes in direction. In top-level modern basketball, players are frequently required to play consecutive games with limited time to recover. To ensure adequate recovery from basketball-specific activities, it is necessary to know the type of fatigue induced and if possible its underlying mechanisms. Recovery strategies are commonly utilized in basketball despite limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in facilitating optimal recovery. It is particularly important to optimize recovery because players spend a much greater proportion of their time recovering than they do in training. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to distribute useful information for practical application, based on the scientific evidence and applied knowledge in basketball.
... Nos onze estudos específicos sobre a crioterapia no basquetebol supramencionados, percebe-se que a crioestimulação pode ser empregada em vários níveis competitivos, desde jogadores formativos e universitários até jogadores profissionais. Apesar dos jogadores formativos possuírem um calendário competitivo com volume inferior aos atletas universitários e profissionais, a crioterapia pode ser amplamente aplicada nesta categoria (MONTGOMERY et al., 2008;ALONSO et al., 2013;DELEXTRAT et al., 2013;SÁNCHEZ-UREÑA et al., 2017;BOUZIGON et al., 2018;FERNÁNDEZ-LÁZARO et al., 2020;SECO-CALVO et al., 2019). ...
... Ao observar estes estudos, existe uma predominância em investigar a crioterapia em jogadores do sexo masculino (MONTGOMERY et al., 2008;ALONSO et al., 2013;MACEDO et al., 2015;FERNÁNDEZ-LÁZARO et al., 2020;CHAIYAKUL;CHAIBAL, 2021). Somente três pesquisas analisam os efeitos da crioestimulação em jogadoras de basquete feminino (DELEXTRAT et al., 2013;BOUZIGON et al., 2018;MANIKUMAR et al., 2018). ...
... Os efeitos agudos da crioterapia foram abordados na maioria dos estudos (ALONSO et al., 2013;MACEDO et al., 2015;BOUZIGON et al., 2018;MANIKUMAR et al., 2018;CHAIYAKUL;CHAIBAL, 2021;MANIKUMAR et al., 2018) quando comparado aos efeitos crônicos (MONTGOMERY et al., 2008;DELEXTRAT et al., 2013;SÁNCHEZ-UREÑA et al., 2017;FERNÁNDEZ-LÁZARO et al., 2020;SECO-CALVO et al., 2019). Talvez A formatação dos protocolos de crioterapia nas pesquisas analisadas preferiram intervenções contínuas (ALONSO et al., 2013;MACEDO et al., 2015;SÁNCHEZ-UREÑA et al., 2017;BOUZIGON et al., 2018;MANIKUMAR et al., 2018) (BOUZIGON et al., 2018) até o máximo de 30 minutos (FERNÁNDEZ-LÁZARO et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Recuperar rapidamente os atletas das cargas de treinamento e jogos constantes denota vantagem competitiva. O objetivo desta pesquisa é investigar os efeitos da crioterapia na recuperação física dos jogadores de basquetebol através de uma revisão de literatura. Foram consultadas cinco bases de dados eletrônicas (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scielo, LILACS and MEDLINE) onde foram selecionados um total de 35 artigos publicados acerca do uso da crioterapia como método recuperativo, 03 livros texto sobre teoria do treinamento esportivo, 01 livro texto sobre fisiologia do exercício, 01 monografia de conclusão de curso. A crioterapia é um método recuperativo que consiste no resfriamento tecidual para gerar benefícios fisiológicos positivos na capacidade psicobiológica de trabalho dos atletas. Os estudos que investigaram os efeitos da crioestimulação no basquetebol costumam empregar protocolos com formatos distintos, utilizando jogadores de diferentes categorias. Neste sentido, as principais variáveis manipuladas são o tipo de abordagem, duração total, temperatura da água e, área corporal submersa. Nos basquetebolistas, a crioterapia foi mais efetiva em restaurar a agilidade, velocidade, força explosiva de membros inferiores, flexibilidade, força de membros inferiores e superiores, dor muscular tardia, sistema imunológico e hematológico. O efeito agudo da crioterapia sobre o equilibrio e a propriocepção é negativo. Os marcadores de dano muscular e a resistência cardiovascular apresentaram respostas restaurativas contraditórias nas pesquisas. A eletromiografia dos membros inferiores sofreu interferências sendo mais acentuado nos indivíduos não-atletas quando comparados aos jogadores de basquetebol. Por fim, devido a inexistência de diretrizes para aplicação da crioterapia em basquetebolistas, foram feitas recomendações práticas específicas.
... Only one study has investigated cryotherapy and postgame recovery in basketball players [68]. Bouzigon et al. [68] assessed thermal sensation ratings (i.e., cold-perceived sensation) during 3 min of cold exposure at − 130 °C in 24 international-level male and female basketball players from the French national team competing at the European Championship. ...
... Only one study has investigated cryotherapy and postgame recovery in basketball players [68]. Bouzigon et al. [68] assessed thermal sensation ratings (i.e., cold-perceived sensation) during 3 min of cold exposure at − 130 °C in 24 international-level male and female basketball players from the French national team competing at the European Championship. Partial cryotherapy (all body parts exposed excluding the head and neck) was performed every afternoon over a 2-week period. ...
Article
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Basketball players face multiple challenges to in-season recovery. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on recovery modalities and nutritional strategies for basketball players and practical applications that can be incorporated throughout the season at various levels of competition. Sleep, protein, carbohydrate, and fluids should be the foundational components emphasized throughout the season for home and away games to promote recovery. Travel, whether by air or bus, poses nutritional and sleep challenges, therefore teams should be strategic about packing snacks and fluid options while on the road. Practitioners should also plan for meals at hotels and during air travel for their players. Basketball players should aim for a minimum of 8 h of sleep per night and be encouraged to get extra sleep during congested schedules since back-to back games, high workloads, and travel may negatively influence night-time sleep. Regular sleep monitoring, education, and feedback may aid in optimizing sleep in basketball players. In addition, incorporating consistent training times may be beneficial to reduce bed and wake time variability. Hydrotherapy, compression garments, and massage may also provide an effective recovery modality to incorporate post-competition. Future research, however, is warranted to understand the influence these modalities have on enhancing recovery in basketball players. Overall, a strategic well-rounded approach, encompassing both nutrition and recovery modality strategies, should be carefully considered and implemented with teams to support basketball players’ recovery for training and competition throughout the season.
... The subjects also reported a strong emotional experience with CWI. Players described a varied range of different sensations over the 14-min of CWI from the initial discomfort and then on throughout the recovery and acclimatization which represents the common reaction after the cold shock (Castellani and Tipton, 2015;Bouzigon et al., 2018). Subject described sensorial experiences included their initial shock upon first entering the water and then how their first 3 min in the cold was associated with unprecedented and intense sensations that they felt they could not immediately control. ...
... The variability between individuals in their thermoregulatory responses during cold exposure should be attributable to anthropometric differences (Bahnert et al., 2013;Castellani and Tipton, 2015). The cold creates a sensation of pain and discomfort which is due at least in part to the muscle tension and dizziness caused by hypotension following peripheral vasoconstriction (Bouzigon et al., 2018). The intensity of these painful sensations reduced over time, producing an analgesic effect and sense of well-being postimmersion (Elias et al., 2013;Park et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the physiological data from subjects and their reported sensory experiences during two types of recovery methods following a handball training session. Female handball players (average age: 21.4 ± 1.3 years; weight: 59.2 ± 3.3 kg; height: 158 ± 3 cm; body mass index, 23.4 ± 2.0 kg.m-2) carried out an athletic training session (rating of perceived exertion RPE: 14.70 ± 0.89) with either a passive recovery (PR) period or cold water immersion (CWI) for 14 min) (cross-over design). Physiological data were collected during the recovery period: CWI had a greater effect than PR on heart rate (HR; bpm), the higher frequencies (HF) of heart rate variability (HRV: 46.44 ± 21.50 vs. 24.12 ± 17.62), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS: 1.37 ± 0.51 vs. 2.12 ± 1.25), and various reported emotional sensations. Spectrum HRV analysis showed a significant increase in HF during CWI. Sensorial experiences during the recovery periods were gathered from verbatim reports 24 h later. Players' comments about CWI revealed a congruence between the physiological data and sensorial reports. They used words such as: "thermal shock," "regeneration," "resourcefulness," "dynamism," and "disappearance of pain" to describe their sensations. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the link between physiological and experiential data during CWI and we propose that action of the parasympathetic system on the autonomic nervous system can, at least in part, explain the observed correlations between the corporeal data measured and the sensorial experiences reported.
... The subjects also reported a strong emotional experience with CWI. Players described a varied range of different sensations over the 14-min of CWI from the initial discomfort and then on throughout the recovery and acclimatization which represents the common reaction after the cold shock (Castellani and Tipton, 2015;Bouzigon et al., 2018). Subject described sensorial experiences included their initial shock upon first entering the water and then how their first 3 min in the cold was associated with unprecedented and intense sensations that they felt they could not immediately control. ...
... The subjects also reported a strong emotional experience with CWI. Players described a varied range of different sensations over the 14-min of CWI from the initial discomfort and then on throughout the recovery and acclimatization which represents the common reaction after the cold shock (Castellani and Tipton, 2015;Bouzigon et al., 2018). Subject described sensorial experiences included their initial shock upon first entering the water and then how their first 3 min in the cold was associated with unprecedented and intense sensations that they felt they could not immediately control. ...
... Previous studies have suggested that there may be a sex difference in the responses after exposure to extreme cold [1,19]. Cutell et al. have reported lower mean skin and body temperature following WBC in females possibly related to the relative BSA and BSA to mass ratio [1]. ...
Chapter
Introduction: Whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) refers to the therapeutic application of extremely cold dry air for a short period of time. The method has beneficial results in various diseases as well as the recovery of athletes. The effects of WBC in healthy individuals have not been extensively investigated. Purpose: We aim to explore differences in the effects of WBC on blood pressure (BP), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and heart rate (HR) in healthy adults (not athletes) as well as differences according to gender and smoking status. Materials and methods: Fifty adults (male/female: 32/18) smokers/nonsmokers: 26/24) were included in the study. WBC was performed in a cryochamber at -85 °C for 3 min. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), HR, and SpO2 were measured before and immediately after WBC. Results: Males and females differed significantly in SBP after WBC (138.1 ± 13.0 vs 128.5 ± 17.0 mmHg, respectively, p = 0.029), SpO2 after WBC (96.6 ± 1.8 vs 98.3 ± 1.5%, respectively, p = 0.001) and HR after WBC (60.1 ± 9.6 vs 70.2 ± 7.7 bpm, respectively, p < 0.001). In males, SpO2 remained unchanged before and after WBC, whereas in women SpO2 increased by 1.0 ± 1.4% (p = 0.038) (Table 2). HR after WBC displayed a downward trend by -9.8 ± 5.9% in males compared to an upward trend by 3.6 ± 15.1 in females (p < 0.001). Nonsmokers displayed higher increase in SBP after WBC (4.3 ± 9.0% in smokers compared to 13.3 ± 13.2% in nonsmokers, p = 0.007). Smokers presented an increase by 1.0 ± 1.6% in SpO2, while in nonsmokers, SpO2 decreased by 0.8 ± 2.1% following WBC (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that WBC affects the cardiovascular and the respiratory system differently in males versus females and smokers versus nonsmokers. More studies are needed in order to fully explore the effects of WBC in these population groups in order to design individualized treatment protocols.
... Although the increasing accessibility of cryo-chambers is making the implementation of whole body cryostimulation in training more feasible and convenient, reports on the application of this treatment as part of a professional training program are limited (Rose et al., 2017). Therapies based on exposure to extremely low temperatures (−110 to −130 • C) are known to be well-tolerated by professional athletes (Bouzigon et al., 2018), to limit exerciseassociated inflammation and to enhance athletes' performance during demanding competition and training periods (Ziemann et al., 2012;Schaal et al., 2015;Bouzigon et al., 2020). ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a specific training program, supported by 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation, on growth factors concentrations, amino acids profile and motor abilities in professional judokas. Ultimately, twelve athletes took part in the study. They were randomly assigned to the cryostimulation group (CRY, n = 6) or the control group (CON, n = 6). During 2 weeks of the judo training program, the CRY group performed 10 cryo-sessions (3-min, at a temperature of −110°C) and the CON group rested passively. Anthropometric measurements, a strength test, the Special Judo Efficiency Test (SJET) were assessed 2 days before and after the judo training program. Blood samples were collected at rest, 1 h after the first and the second SJET and 1 h after the first and the last cryo-session to establish growth factors and amino acid concentrations. Lactate level was measured before, immediately after and 1 h after the first and the second SJET. The applied intervention resulted in a significant increase of resting concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (from 10.23 ± 1.61 to 15.13 ± 2.93 ng⋅ml –1 ; p = 0.01) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1; from 174.29 ± 49.34 to 300.50 ± 43.80 pg⋅ml –1 ; p = 0.00) in the CRY group. A different response was registered 1 h directly post SJET in the CRY group (a significant increase of IGF-1, interleukin 15 and irisin: p = 0.01; p = 0.00; p = 0.03). Additionally, the significant drop of proline and leucine concentrations in the CRY group was obtained. Athletes’ performance remained unchanged in both groups. However, subjects perceived positive changes induced by the intervention – not directly after cryostimulation but in response to the specific training workload. The increase of growth factors concentrations and the improvement of amino acid profile (proline and leucine) contributed to maintaining a high level of muscle function.
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The selection of basketball players should highlight their specific characteristics and proceed according to the essential laws of basketball. When the acquired training level becomes closer and closer, and is more and more conducive to the control of the entire training and competition, the selection of the standard paradigm of basketball players plays a key role. At present, the existing evaluation methods of basketball players are limited to the human experience of coaches, and there is a lack of further information evaluation methods. This article discusses a new type of basketball player evaluation scheme that combines wireless network and machine learning methods. First, the wireless sensor network is used to perceive basketball players' performance on the court and record various evaluation indicators. Secondly, establish a player value evaluation model through improved Bayesian algorithm and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methods. Finally, after relevant tests and comparisons with the coaches' results, the model showed better evaluation results and a fairer value distribution.
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The study aimed to determine whether combining cryostimulation with resistance training would effectively increase muscle strength, and if so, whether this adaptation would be related to changes in circulating levels of exerkines (i.e., mediators of systemic adaptation to exercise). Twenty-five students completed 12 sessions of resistance training, each followed by either cryostimulation (n = 15, 3 min exposure at −110 °C) or passive recovery (n = 10). Prior to and post this intervention, participants performed two eccentric cycling bouts (before and after training). At these points, serum concentrations of muscle damage marker (myoglobin), exerkines (interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 15 (IL-15), irisin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor), hypertrophy-related factors (myostatin, insulin-like growth factor 1), and muscle strength were measured. The applied procedure reduced the physiological burden of the second eccentric cycling bout and myoglobin concentrations only in the group subject to cryostimulation. The same group also exhibited decreased levels of myostatin (from 4.7 ± 1.7 to 3.8 ± 1.8 ng·mL−1, p < 0.05). A significant and large interaction between the group × time was noted in IL-15 concentration (p = 0.01, ηp2= 0.27). Training and cryostimulation induced a positive and likely significant improvement of isokinetic muscle strength. Altogether, obtained results support the claim that resistance training combined with cold exposure modified muscle strength through modulation of myostatin and IL-15 concentrations.
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Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse) and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness. Novel findings have stressed the importance of fat mass on cooling effectiveness and of the starting fitness level on the final result. Exposure to the cryotherapy somehow mimics exercise, since it affects myokines expression in an exercise-like fashion, thus opening another possible window on the therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. From a biochemical point of view, whole-body cryotherapy not always induces appreciable modifications, but the final clinical output (in terms of pain, soreness, stress, and post-exercise recovery) is very often improved compared to either the starting condition or the untreated matched group. Also, the number and the frequency of sessions that should be applied in order to obtain the best therapeutic results have been deeply investigated in the last years. In this article, we reviewed the most recent literature, from 2010 until present, in order to give the most updated insight into this therapeutic strategy, whose rapidly increasing use is not always based on scientific assumptions and safety standards.
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The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to critically determine the possible effects of different cooling applications, compared to non-cooling, passive post-exercise strategies, on recovery characteristics after various, exhaustive exercise protocols up to 96 hours (hrs). A total of n = 36 articles were processed in this study. To establish the research question, the PICO-model, according to the PRISMA guidelines was used. The Cochrane’s risk of bias tool, which was used for the quality assessment, demonstrated a high risk of performance bias and detection bias. Meta-analyses of subjective characteristics, such as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and objective characteristics like blood plasma markers and blood plasma cytokines, were performed. Pooled data from 27 articles revealed, that cooling and especially cold water immersions affected the symptoms of DOMS significantly, compared to the control conditions after 24 hrs recovery, with a standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g) of -0.75 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -1.20 to -0.30. This effect remained significant after 48 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.73, 95% CI: -1.20 to -0.26) and 96 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.71, 95% CI: -1.10 to -0.33). A significant difference in lowering the symptoms of RPE could only be observed after 24 hrs of recovery, favouring cooling compared to the control conditions (Hedges’ g: -0.95, 95% CI: -1.89 to -0.00). There was no evidence, that cooling affects any objective recovery variable in a significant way during a 96 hrs recovery period. Keywords: Exercise, Recovery, Cryotherapy, Cold, Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis
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A commentary on Could whole-body cryotherapy (below −100 • C) improve muscle recovery from muscle damage? Recently, an interesting model trying to explain the anti-inflammatory action of whole body cryotherapy (WBC) after exercise induced muscular damage (EIMD) was published by Ferreira Junior et al. in Frontiers in Physiology (Ferreira-Junior et al., 2014). The authors have suggested that soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) could be one of the main influencing compounds that could regulate the cryotherapy anti-inflammatory response. According to the authors, after EIMD sarcomeres are disrupted leukocytes (neutrophils, mono-cytes, and lymphocytes) are mobilized to the injured tissue via sICAM-1. Afterward, pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species are produced in muscle by leukocytes. Together, leukocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species cause intramuscular degradation , which amplifies the initial muscle damage. The authors suggested that a drop in core temperature induced by WBC would likely cause constriction of local arteri-oles and venules and lower the amount of leukocytes arriving to the exercise-induced muscular inflammation. Moreover, WBC may hasten the recovery from EIMD by reducing sICAM-1 and therefore limiting the migration of leukocytes from blood circulation to the damaged tissues. The first part of the explanation concerning the WBC-induced vasoconstric-tion is understandable though a drop in core temperature is not always clear (no changes in core temperature has been observed after 2 min exposure at −110 • C Westerlund et al., 2003). However, concerning the second part of the explanation dealing with a lower concentration of circulating sICAM-1. I would argue that an increase in the blood concentration of this analyte might paradoxically occur. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 is a widely distributed adhesion factor present on the surfaces of endothelial cells and leukocytes. This protein mediates adhesion and transmigration of leuko-cytes through the endothelium. Surface expressed ICAM-1 is apparently shed from the cells and then circulates as soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) although the full mechanism is not clear. Therefore, blood sICAM-1 concentration increase may be due to several mechanisms:
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This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (-60°C for 30 seconds, -110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = -3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols.
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Subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution as related to sex, age, and overweight was studied in 130 subjects and 10 women with Cushing's disease. Fat depots were evaluated by computed tomography at one thoracic and one abdominal level. Adipose tissue (density range −50 to 250 Hansfield units) was highlighted and the fat areas were measured by a laser planimeter. The ratio between subcutaneous and visceral fat areas (S:V ratio) was assumed as an index. Ratios of both nonobese and obese groups were significantly higher in females than in males. Ratios decreased markedly over age 60. There was a significant inverse correlation between age and S:V ratios in females (r = 0.65; p < 0.001) and in males (r = 0.61; p < 0.001). Statistically significant correlations were found between S:V ratios at thoracic and abdominal levels. In Cushing's patients, the S:V ratio at the abdominal level was significantly lower than in controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index.
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Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) and partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) are two methods of cold exposure (from −110°C to −195°C according to the manufacturers). However, temperature measurement in the cold chamber during a PBC exposure revealed temperatures ranging from −25°C to −50°C next to the skin of the subjects (using isolating layer placed between the sensor and the skin). This discrepancy is due to the human body heat transfer. Moreover, on the surface of the body, an air layer called the boundary layer is created during the exposure and limits heat transfer from the body to the cabin air. Incorporating forced convection in a chamber with a participant inside could reduce this boundary layer. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a new WBC technology based on forced convection (frontal unilateral wind) through the measurement of skin temperature. Fifteen individuals performed a 3-min WBC exposure at −40°C with an average wind speed of 2.3 m.s⁻¹. The subjects wore a headband, a surgical mask, underwear, gloves and slippers. The skin temperature of the participants was measured with a thermal camera just before exposure, just after exposure and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after exposure. Mean skin temperature significantly dropped by 11 °C just after exposure (p<0.001) and then significantly increased during the 20-min post exposure period (p<0.001). No critically low skin temperature was observed at the end of the cold exposure. This decrease was greater than the mean decreases in all the cryosauna devices with reported exposures between −140°C and −160°C and those in two other WBC devices with reported exposures between −60°C and −110°C. The use of this new technology provides the ability to reach decreases in skin temperature similar to other technologies. The new chamber is suitable and relevant for use as a WBC device.
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Aim of Study: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of different types of strength exercises on the posturographic parameters as a postural stability indicators and selected plasma catecholamine levels as a marker of sympathetic nerve activity in basketball players. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 13 male, well-trained basketball players, aged 22.3 ± 2.9 y, with a training experience of 8.6 ± 2.3 years. Participants performed three consecutive exercises in successive weekly microcycles. The athletes performed isometric, concentric and eccentric exercises, with random restriction. Postural stability of all subjects was evaluated using a force plate before and after each exercise. RESULTS: The results revealed a significantly higher effect on the range of sway (RoS) with eyes closed in medial/lateral direction after concentric exercise and RoS with eyes closed in both directions after eccentric and isometric exercises. A significantly higher effect on the standard deviation of sway was observed in the anterior-posterior axis with eyes closed (p = 0.041) and velocity of COP displacement with open eyes (VCOP-OE) (p = 0.007) after the isometric exercises. A modulating effect of the applied exercise types on plasma NA and A levels was not observed, and the results demonstrated that serum 5HT was elevated in response to concentric exercise while diminished in response to both isometric and eccentric exercises. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that all types of applied exercises impair posture control during single leg stance on a force plate in basketball players but isometric exercise of proximal musculature to a greater extent negatively affects posture control in comparison with distal musculature. Moreover, among the investigated monoamines in well trained athletes, 5HT predominantly took part in modulation of locomotor activity.
Article
Objectives: To study the effects of whole body cryostimulation (WBC) on fatigue and functional status in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with different levels of fatigue. Subjects and Methods: Two groups of MS patients with fatigue were studied. At the beginning of the study, the first group presented a Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score between 38 and 42 (low fatigue (LF) group), and the second group had an FSS score between 48 and 52 (high fatigue (HF) group). Both groups were matched for age and sex. All patients were exposed to 10 3-min session of WBCT (one exposure per day at -110°C or lower). Functional status was assessed before and after the series of WBCT exposures using the Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA), the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The RMA was estimated in 3 sections: gross function (RMA1), leg and trunk (RMA2) and arm (RMA3). MSIS-29 consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) status. Results: In both groups, the WBCT sessions induced a significant improvement in the functional status and in the feeling of fatigue. However, the changes observed in HF patients were significantly greater than those observed in LF patients, especially in the MSIS-29-PHYS, MSIS-29-PSYCH, RMA1, and RMA3. The changes observed in the EDSS, RMA2 and FSS were similar in both groups. Conclusions: WBCT appears to be effective in improving functional status and the feeling of fatigue in MS patients and especially in those who are the most fatigued. Key words: Fatigue, Functional status, Multiple sclerosis, Quality of life, Rehabilitation, Whole body cryostimulation, Whole body cryotherapy