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KiwiberryCommercial Production What Stage Are We at?

  • Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Institute of Horticulture Sciences


Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta) is a new product on the market with a growing consumer acceptance worldwide. Kiwiberry world production is very dynamic and difficult to estimate because only limited printed statistics are available.Therefore, this paper summarizes information on kiwiberry production obtained mainly from growers, coordinators and wholesalers from particular countries.
Kiwiberry Commercial Production
What Stage Are We at?
Piotr Latocha1, Danny Vereecke² and Filip Debersaques2
1Deptartment of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Horticulture, Biotechnology and Landscape Architecture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Nowoursynowska
str. 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland. Mail:
2Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Deptartment of Applied Biosciences, Ghent University, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta)is a new product on the market with a growing consumer acceptance worldwide. This Actinidia species is native to eastern Siberia, eastern and north
eastern China, Korea, Japan, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. A. arguta is a temperate species and the most frost tolerant of all commercial Actinidia species. Currently A. arguta is
cultivated in North and South America, Europe, New Zealand and Australia.
Kiwiberry is also known as hardy kiwifruit, mini kiwi, baby kiwi, cocktail kiwi or kiwibes. It has small grape-sized berries with a smooth, edible skin/peel that has up to 15-times
more biologically active substances than the fruit pulp itself. Kiwiberry has been promoted as the most nutrient-dense fruit of all the small fruits. With over 20 vital nutrients,
kiwiberry is deemed a super fruit or a functional food and therefore, it may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition (Latocha et al.2013).
Table 1. Kiwiberry world area of cultivation and fruit production (data from
2015 or 2016)
IX International Symposium on Kiwifruit, September 6th 9th 2017, Porto, Portugal
Kiwiberry world production is very dynamic and difficult to estimate because only limited printed statistics are available. Therefore, this paper summarizes information on
kiwiberry production obtained mainly from growers, coordinators and wholesalers from particular countries.
Kiwiberry production history
Kiwiberry has been researched in some countries already since the middle of last century, but its
commercial production is relatively new and started in the 1980s and 1990s on a small scale in the USA
and some European countries, e.g. France and Switzerland.
Kiwiberry is still on its way to become an interesting complementary product on the kiwifruit market.
Unfortunately, intensive labor for the cultivation and some difficulties connected with fruit handling
(sensitive skin and relative short storability) slow down the establishment of new plantations
(Debersaques et al. 2015). At the beginning of the 21st century kiwiberry was intensively researched in
New Zealand and a growing strategy was developed (Fig. 1).
Kiwiberry world production
In contrast to kiwifruit industry, there are many different kiwiberry cultivars, although not all have a
similar commercial potential (Fig. 2) (Cossio et al.2015).
Estimating the global production of kiwiberry is not evident for several reasons. It is a young crop and
in many countries there are no statistics related to it. According to the currently available data, the
total worldwide kiwiberry crop is estimated to be about 1600 tons per year and it is considered a niche
product (Tab. 1). Unfortunately, annual total yield may be strongly affected by late spring frost.
Nevertheless, the area of kiwiberry cultivation is slowly but steadily increasing. A spectacular increase
has been observed only in China were about 1200 ha of new plantations have been established.
Nowadays, some group of growers are organized to better meet market expectations (e.g. Nergi®
Group, Ghent University Group, MiniKiwi Polish Growers Association).
2015/16 (tons
60 +1200(new
Nergi®) + 27(new
Benelux (B, NL)
Great Britain
+ 5
10 + 35(new
1. Latocha P., Wołosiak R., Worobiej E., Krupa T (2013) Clonal differences in antioxidant activity and bioactive
constituents of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) and its year-to-year variability. J Sci Food Agric 93,1412-1419.
2. Debersaques, F., Mekers, O., Decorte, J., Van Labeke, M.C., Schoedl-Hummel, K, Latocha P. (2015) Challenges
Faced by Commercial Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta Planch.) Production. Acta Hortic. 1096,435-44. 2
3. Cossio, F., Debersaques, F., Latocha P. (2015) Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta): New Perspectives for a Great Future.
Acta Hortic. 1096,423-434.
Figure 1. Kiwiberry growing technique widely used in some Europaean
Figure 2. Kiwiberry fruit diversity.
Clearly, to maintain the upward trend for a long period of time, the focus must be on producing top
quality fruit, combined with a successful promotion campaign toward consumers.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
Commercial production of the kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta) is relatively new in northern and western Europe. When introducing the kiwiberry to a region where fruit growers have no experience with Actinidia, many challenges have had to be overcome. For instance, the profile of the growers willing to invest in this crop is very diverse, the geographic regions have their specific climatic and soil conditions and, clearly, cultivation of the kiwiberry has very specific requirements. Therefore, proper technical advice is extremely important to obtain productive orchards. Although A. arguta is quite hardy, spring frosts are a major concern and a strongly limiting factor for yields in Europe. In recent initiatives, different cultivars with a commercial potential are being screened for frost tolerance, but currently, frost protection using sprinkler irrigation is in many cases the only and most effective system. However, growing kiwiberries in greenhouses appears to be a valuable and commercially viable alternative in The Netherlands and Belgium. The combination of a recommended fertilizer program and irrigation management, artificial pollination methods, appropriate pruning and good training has proven to be a very successful approach with yields as high as 18 t/ha five years after planting. Apart from establishing productive orchards, the successful introduction of kiwiberry as a novel fruit onto the market involves other important issues as well. Since the price of new fruits is usually rather high, growers have to realize that a product quality is essential for long-term success. Therefore, much attention must be paid to efficient grading and stringent quality control.
Conference Paper
Kiwiberry (Actinidia argute), a smaller cold hardy cousin of the well-known kiwifruit (A. deliciosa and A. chinensis), has always been considered of minor economic importance. Its twining, woody vines produce small, grape-size fruit with diversity of flesh and skin colours. With intense flavour, kiwiberries can be eaten whole, without peeling and therefore are a very convenient kind of food, let alone their health benefits. Since the 1980s, their cultivation has been introduced in several regions, and although some small plantations are still operating, they did not gain much commercial success. In recent years, the interest for this fruit crop has grown up in Europe, driven by the increase in scientific and technical knowledge of various aspects of the cultivation and the support of a new marketing approach. Scientific research in Belgium, Poland, as well as field experiences in Switzerland and commercial attempts in France and Italy focused on morphology, physiology and phenology, with practical results in various aspects of growing, pollination, harvesting, shelf life and storage. The decision of presenting this fruit to customers as a berry, with an identity completely different from the current commercial kiwifruit, is an important part of the fruit's commercial success. Very likely kiwiberry cultivation technology will be further developed in the near future, and new promising cultivars, obtained by breeding and selecting work recently conducted in various countries, will be introduced. Kiwiberry and kiwifruit follow two different paths, which creates new opportunities for a great future for kiwiberry.
Hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia arguta) is a new species, commercially grown in recent years. Total phenolics (TPC), vitamin C (TAA) content, antioxidant activity (AA) and their year-to-year variability in seven hardy kiwifruit clones were evaluated. TPC was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent assay. TAA was estimated by determination of l-ascorbic acid and l-dehydroascorbic acid levels using high-performance liquid chromatography. AA was measured using diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and OH radicals. The highest content of vitamin C, in all seasons, was found in D11 (1447–2181 mg kg−1 fresh weight) and phenolics for D11 and M1 clones (2583–3312 and 2228–3414 mg gallic acid equivalents kg−1 fresh weight, respectively). TPC and TAA content showed significant differences between hardy kiwifruit clones and showed significant year-to-year variability. Each year, the level of AA was significantly higher for D11 (DPPH, ABTS). AA was strongly correlated with TPC and TAA content in Actinidia fruit. Hardy kiwifruit are an important source of vitamin C and phenolics, which resulted in their good antioxidant potential. A significantly higher content of these compounds was found in fruit of hybrid origin, which suggests that A. purpurea × A. arguta clones may be useful genetic resources for further interspecific hybridization.
Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta): New Perspectives for a Great Future
  • F Cossio
  • F Debersaques
  • P Latocha
Cossio, F., Debersaques, F., Latocha P. (2015) Kiwiberry (Actinidia arguta): New Perspectives for a Great Future. Acta Hortic. 1096, 423-434.