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The Use of Mind Maps as an Assessment Tool in a Problem Based Learning Course

Creative Education, 2017, 8, 1782-1793
ISSN Online: 2151-4771
ISSN Print: 2151-4755
10.4236/ce.2017.811122 Sep. 20, 2017 1782 Creative Education
The Use of Mind Maps as an Assessment Tool in
a Problem Based Learning Course
Remigio Zvauya*, Shilpa Purandare, Nicola Young, Miranda Pallan
College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK
The use of mind maps as an assessment tool is investigated.
The mind map in
the current study represents the student knowledge structure at the beginning
of the student learning curve unlike previous studies in which the maps are
drawn after students have acquired the knowledge already. The study co
pares the inter-rater reliability of two mind map scoring methods and corr
lates the marks from these methods with other end of year outcomes. The
mind maps were scored independently by three examiners using two
map scoring rubrics (MMR): a structural and a holistic qualitative rubric.
structural MMR scoring method gave moderate inter-rater reliability with t
tal score ICC values of 0.71 for absolute agreement and 0.57 for consistency
between the three e
xaminers. The qualitative MMR scoring method had poor
rater reliability with values of 0.33 and 0.32 for absolute agreement and
consistency respectively. The concurrent validity with other end of year a
sessments was poor for both methods. Although t
he mind map scores did not
correlate with other end of year assessments, it is likely that mind maps are
assessing a different aspect of the student knowledge construct not assessed by
traditional assessments. The inter-rater reliability was better for the
MMR than the qualitative MMR.
Assessment, Mind Maps, PBL, Medical Course
1. Introduction
The constructivist theory proposes that meaningful learning occurs when prior
knowledge and previous life experience are activated and integrated with new
knowledge being constructed in context (Daley & Torre, 2010; Davies, 2011).
The leaner is actively engaged in the process and collaborates with colleagues in
How to cite this paper:
Zvauya, R., Pu-
randare, S
., Young, N., & Pallan, M. (2017).
The Use of Mind Maps as an Assessment
Tool in a Problem Based Learning Course.
Education, 8,
May 27, 2017
September 17, 2017
September 20, 2017
Copyright © 201
7 by authors and
Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution International
License (CC BY
Open Access
R. Zvauya et al.
10.4236/ce.2017.811122 1783 Creative Education
order to process, interpret and construct new knowledge. Constructivism im-
plies that previous knowledge is stored in such a way that it can be accessed and
used easily. It is therefore important that the learner is aware of and uses strate-
gies that facilitate activation of prior knowledge and its integration with new
knowledge being acquired (Davies, 2011; Eppler, 2006). Mind maps are
multi-coloured, image-centred, visual, non-linear representations of ideas, and
their relationships which can be used to activate prior knowledge and integrate
new information with previous knowledge (D’Antoni et al., 2010; Noonan,
2012). When creating mind maps, free and spontaneous thinking is required. In
addition associations are made between ideas so that mind maps can assist in
integrating concepts across domains (D’Antoni et al., 2010; Eppler, 2006). The
use of mind maps has been explored in an attempt to move towards a student
centred, cooperative learning environment (Rosciano, 2015). Mind maps have
recently been used in medical education to develop critical thinking (D’Antoni
et al., 2010), assist memory recall (Farrand et al., 2002) and as an assessment tool
(D’Antoni et al., 2009; Evrekli et al., 2010).
Rubrics are scoring guides consisting of specific predetermined criteria used
in making academic judgements in evaluating students work (Mertler, 2001).
Two types of rubric are described in literature, a holistic rubric where an overall
score is given without reference to individual components and an analytic rubric
where component or individual parts of the assignment are scored followed by
summing up to get a total score (Mertler, 2001). A few rubrics used to assess
mind maps have been described in literature (D’Antoni et al., 2009; Evrekli et al.,
2010). These authorsadapted methods originally used to score concept maps,
which are top to down diagrams presenting information in node link node for-
mat with linking descriptive propositions (West et al., 2002; Tergan et al., 2006).
Both concept and mind maps promote active, meaningful learning at the meta-
cognitive level and differ only in their structure and organisation of information
(D’Antoni et al., 2009). Concepts maps have been scored using structural and
relational analytical methods (Daley & Torre, 2010; Kassab & Hussain, 2010;
Hung & Lin, 2015; West et al., 2002). The structural method assigns a value to
hierarchal structure, concept-concept link and cross link. Relational methods, on
the other hand are based on the quality of individual links taking into account
the structure of the concept map. The structural methods have been shown to be
sensitive to changes in students evolving knowledge (West et al., 2002).
An adaptation of the concept map scoring methods for mind map scoring is
the addition of the dimensions of colours and figures to the rubric. D’Antoni et
al. (2010) reported good agreement between intra and inter-rater reliability
measurements for total and subtotal scores for the mind map rubric.
The published rubrics have been used to assess knowledge of students who use
mind maps in a limited number of modules. The present study differs in that it ex-
plores the use of mind map assessment rubrics in a cohort of students where mind
maps are an important and integral part of the learning process throughout the
academic year. The mind map in the current study represents the student knowl-
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10.4236/ce.2017.811122 1784 Creative Education
edge structure at the beginning of the student learning curve unlike previous stud-
ies in which the maps are drawn after students have acquired the knowledge al-
2. Setting
The study was carried out during the first year at a UK Medical School which
admits life science graduates on a fast track, four year Graduate Entry (GE)
course. The first year uses problem based learning (PBL) as its method of in-
struction with heavy reliance on collaborative and self-directed learning. Stu-
dents are given written and practical guidance on how to generate mind maps at
the beginning of the course.
There are six core modules, each with a set of problems or clinical scenarios
which combine concepts from biological sciences, anatomy, ethics, public health
and behavioural sciences. Students work in groups of 8 - 10 in dedicated PBL
rooms to produce a mind map for each problem. The weekly development of a
mind map by each PBL group is an integral part of exploring each clinical scenario.
The mind map allows the students to deconstruct the scenario presented to them
and explore their collective existing knowledge. The developed mind map is then
used as a basis for identifying focused learning objectives relating for further study.
The course assessment methods include short answer questions (SAQ), multi-
ple choice questions (MCQ), clinical, cognitive and communication skills ex-
aminations. Since mind maps are an important and integral part in the learning
process in the first year, part of the cognitive assessment process involves indi-
vidual students generating a mind map from a given unseen clinical scenario
under examination conditions.
As mind maps are assessed in this way, there is a need for a robust scoring ru-
bric to enable equity of scoring and a vehicle for feeding back to students on
their use of mind maps as a learning tool during PBL. Gasaymeh (2011) dis-
cusses the need to develop rubric criteria that assist in the process of knowledge
acquisition whilst facilitating students engagement with the learning environ-
ment. In this study mind maps generated by individual students were scored us-
ing two mind map scoring rubrics (MMR): an analytical, structural MMR and a
holistic, qualitative MMR. The objectives of this study were:
1) To assess mind maps developed by individual students from a given unseen
scenario using a modified analytical structural and a holistic qualitative MMR
scoring method.
2) To compare the inter-rater reliability of the modified analytical structural
and holistic qualitative MMR scoring methods.
3) To assess the concurrent validity of the two scoring methods with respect to
the other end of year examination marks.
3. Method
3.1. Participants
The participants were first year GE medical students with previous life science
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degrees. There were no international students on the cohort. The average age of
the cohort was 24 years. There were 19 male and 35 female students in the co-
hort. All GE first year medical students (n = 54) sat a cognitive assessment as
part of their end of year examinations in the 2011-12 academic year.
3.2. Generation of the Mind Maps
A practice session prior to the examination was organised for students to indi-
vidually draw mind maps under examination conditions. Students were already
familiar with the process of developing mind maps as they used them on a
weekly basis across all modules as part of the problem based learning cycle.
As part of the cognitive assessment students were given a previously unseen
clinical scenario. They were instructed to draw a mind map under examination
conditions on an A3 sheet of paper using different colours. The students were
then required to develop 10 learning objectives with the aid of their mind map.
The time given for this process was 40 minutes. Following this part of the ex-
amination students were examined in a 10 minute oral examination where they
were questioned about how they developed their learning objectives and further
information that they would seek to fulfil these objectives. Separate marks were
awarded for the mind maps, the learning objectives and the oral examination.
These were then combined to give an overall cognitive examination mark. Fig-
ure 1 shows an example of a mind map generated by a student.
3.3. Mind Map Scoring
The mind maps were scored using both methods independently by three mark-
ers, RZ, NY and SP, who were experienced in mind map generation and PBL fa-
cilitation. The markers had been previously trained in mind map scoring. For
each scoring method, the examiners marked three sample mind maps inde-
pendently and then met to discuss how each marker had arrived at their score.
The marking criteria were further refined at this stage and definitions’ clarified
and agreed among the markers.
3.4. The Analytical, Structural MMR Scoring Method
This was originally developed for concept maps (Srinivasan et al., 2008; West et
al., 2002) and later adapted for mind maps (D’Antoni et al., 2009; Evrekli et al.,
2010). The analytical structural MMR was adapted such that concept links near
the patient at the centre (P-MC) carried more weighting than those lower down
the hierarchal structure as seen in Figure 1 and Table 1. This was because we
identified that these patient-concept (P-MC) links represented the major con-
cepts from the clinical scenario which need further consideration, and also as-
sisted in identification of lower level concept concept (C-C) links as shown in
Figure 1.
In the modified scheme used in this study marks were given to the number of
valid patient-main concept links (P-MC) identified, concept-concept (C-C)
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Figure 1. Mind map from a patient with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: examples of pa-
tient-concept (P-MC) links; concept-concept (C-C) links; relationship links; cross links
and examples, figures and equations are shown.
Table 1. Mind map analytical, structural MMR scoring scheme: examples of the compo-
nents on a mind map are shown in Figure 1.
MARK for each valid component
Patient-Main concepts (P-MC) link 5
Concepts-Concept links (C-C) 2
List of Examples/Symptoms/Signs (ESS) 2
Picture/Figure/Equation 2
Relationship link 3
Cross Link 10
Colours 1
links, cross links, relationship links, colours, pictures, signs, symptoms and ex-
amples as shown in Figure 1 and Table 1. For each mind map, sub scores and
total scores were computed.
The modifications to the structural MMR were made to allow for the fact that
the purpose of scoring the mind map in this cohort was to assess the process of
logical development of ideas from the clinical case, rather than assessing knowl-
edge per se. Therefore less weighting was given for the accuracy of the factual
information on the mind map, and more weighting given for breadth and inte-
gration of concepts arising from the clinical case.
3.5. The Holistic, Qualitative MMR Scoring Method
It was evident that the structural MMR scoring method was time consuming and
thus resource intensive to use as an assessment tool. We thus developed a
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10.4236/ce.2017.811122 1787 Creative Education
qualitative MMR method based on the holistic scoring method used for scoring
concept maps by previous workers (McClure et al., 1999; van der Heidt, 2015).
The holistic method described was modified such that more guidance was given
to the marker scoring the mind map. Thus the criteria below were used in as-
sessing each mind map.
1) Identification of triggers in the problem: the degree to which the student is
able to identify the key concepts in the problem.
2) Development of valid concept links: the ability of the students to explore
their knowledge by developing concepts further.
3) Development of hierarchies: the arrangement of concepts in a logical manner
with the more fundamental concepts at the centre and more specific as con-
cepts on the periphery of the map.
4) Identification of cross links and relationship links: the ability to show the
meaningful connections between different concepts (cross links) and links
within a concept (relationship link).
5) Use of colours and pictures to enhance the mind map making it visually easy
to follow.
These individual criteria were not given scores, but were set out as a guide for
markers to divide mind maps into very good 75% - 100%, good 65% - 74%, av-
erage 54% - 64%, borderline 48% - 53% and fail below 48%. Thus an overall
percentage mark was then given for each mind map based on the overall quality
of each mind map.
4. Data Analysis
Anonymised end of year assessment data were obtained from university records.
These included mind map scores, scores from the cognitive, clinical, communi-
cation assessment examination and overall knowledge scores, derived from the
written examinations designed to assess knowledge across the different modules
covered in the GE first year. Data were analysed using a statistical software
package (stata v11; StataCorp LP). Descriptive analysis was undertaken to visu-
ally inspect differences in marks between the three markers for each of the scor-
ing rubrics. A two way random ANOVA model was used to calculate inter-rater
reliability and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We calculated two dif-
ferent ICCs; one to assess consistency between markers; whether the markers
were ranking the students in the same way, but not necessarily awarding similar
value marks, and the other to assess absolute agreement; how similar the value of
the marks given by each of the markers for each student were.
To explore agreement between the two scoring methods, Pearsons correlation
coefficients were calculated for the two MMRs for each individual marker. Mean
marks for each student were then calculated from the 3 markersscores for each
method and correlation coefficients were calculated for these mean scores.
Pearsons correlation coefficients were also calculated for mind map scores
and other end of year outcomes to assess whether mind map scores correlate
with other assessment outcomes.
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5. Results
Table 2 shows the mean and range values for the marks from the qualitative and
structural MMR methods from the three independent markers, RZ, NY and
SP. For the patient-main concept links (P-MC) using the analytical, structural
MMR scoring method, the mean values were 33.3; 29.8; 30.9 for RZ, NY and
SP respectively.
The concept-concept links (C-C), examples and symptoms were grouped to-
gether as C-C-ESS during the analysis as they had equal weighting. The C-C-
ESS for the MMR structural method had means of 169.6, 157.3 and 171.0 for RZ,
NY and SP respectively.
The total scores for the analytical, structural MMR scoring method had mean
values of 255.5, 212.9 and 259.3 while that for the holistic, qualitative MMR
scoring method were 61.0, 63.2 and 59.3 for RZ, NY and SP respectively.
Table 3 shows the ICC values for the three examiners. The holistic, qualitative
MMR scoring method gave low inter-rater agreement with an ICC (95% CI) of
0.33 (0.16 - 0.51) for consistency and 0.32 (0.15 - 0.49) for absolute agreement.
Conversely the analytical, structural MMR total scores had an ICC (95% CI)
value of 0.71 (0.59 - 0.81) and 0.57 (0.25 - 0.77) for consistency and absolute
agreement respectively.
P-MC links, pictures, C-C-ESS and colours had high ICC values as shown in
Table 3.
The Pearson correlation coefficients for individual markers were all moder-
ately low with the highest value being 0.31 (
= 0.03) as shown in Table 4. The
Pearson correlation coefficients for the average scores when comparing the two
methods was moderate with a value of 0.47 (
< 0.001).
Table 2. Mean and range of marks from the qualitative and structural MMR methods
from the three independent markers, RZ, NY and SP (N = 54).
Mean (SD)
Mean (SD)
Mean (SD)
Structural MMR method
Patient-Main concept
links (P-MC)
33.3 (9.3)
- 60
29.8 (7.7)
- 55
30.9 (8.1)
- 54
links, plus examples,
symptoms (C-C-ESS)
169.6 (42.5)
- 272
157.3 (44.2)
- 258
171.0 (46.3)
- 290
2.4 (2.9)
1.8 (3.0)
- 16
1.9 (2.7)
- 14
Relationship links
2.4 (4.1)
- 18
1.2 (2.4)
- 9
4.6 (5.1)
- 21
41.3 (21.2)
- 90
16.7 (13.1)
- 50
44.4 (24.8)
- 100
6.6 (1.9)
- 12
6.3 (1.6)
- 12
6.3 (1.7)
- 10
Total score
255.5 (48.4)
- 355
212.9 (48.5)
- 321
259.3 (57.0)
- 374
Holistic Qualitative MMR method
Total score
61.0 (8.2)
- 80
63.2 (7.4)
- 75
59.3 (9.3)
- 80
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Table 3. ICC values for consistency and absolute agreement for qualitative marking and
structural MMR scoring methods.
Marking scheme
ICC consistency*
(95% Confidence Interval)
ICC agreement**
(95% Confidence
Analytical structural MMR
0.71 (0.59
- 0.81)
0.57 (0.25
- 0.77)
Patient-Main concept links
0.74 (0.62
- 0.83)
0.71 (0.57
- 0.81)
Concept-Concept links, plus examples,
symptoms (C-C-ESS)
0.87 (0.80
- 0.92)
0.85 (0.75, 0.91)
0.89 (0.83
- 0.93)
0.88 (0.82
- 0.93)
Relationship links
0.44 (0.28
- 0.60)
0.38 (0.19
0.39 (0.22
- 0.56)
0.25 (0.04
- 0.47)
0.74 (0.63
- 0.83)
0.74 (0.62
- 0.83)
qualitative MMR
0.33 (0.16
- 0.51)
0.32 (0.15
- 0.49)
*ICC consistency assesses whether the markers are ranking the students in the same way, but not necessarily
awarding similar value marks; **ICC agreement assesses how similar the value.
Table 4. Agreement between the analytical, structural MMR and holistic, qualitative
MMR marking methods using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Marker Pearson’s correlation coefficient p value
RZ 0.31 0.03
NY 0.26 0.07
SP 0.29 0.04
Average quantitative and qualitative scores 0.47 p < 0.001
We also explored whether the mind map scores awarded to students as part of
their end of year assessment correlated with scores achieved by students in other
aspects of their end of year assessment. Pearsons correlation coefficients were
calculated for mind map scores and other end of year outcomes (overall cogni-
tive assessment score, overall knowledge score, communication skills score, and
community based medicine clinical skills score). Correlation coefficients are
shown in Table 5 (correlation coefficient values can range from 0 to 1). The low
correlation coefficients indicate that mind map scores obtained by both methods
correlated poorly with scores in other end of the year assessments. Most correla-
tion coefficients were also non-significant, as indicated by their p values.
6. Discussion
This study investigates the use of two methods of mind map scoring as part of a
cognitive assessment at the end of the first year of a graduate entry medicine
PBL programme. This entails two aspects: inter-rater reliability of the two scor-
ing methods, and consistency and agreement between the two methods.
Of the two methods used to score the mind maps, the analytical, structural
MMR scoring method had a higher inter-rater reliability than the holistic,
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Table 5. Correlations between average analytical, quantitative and holistic, qualitative MMR method scores and other end of year
exam scores using Pearson’s correlation coefficient.
Overall knowledge
score Communication skills
Community based
clinical skills
p value
p value
p value
p value
Qualitative mind map
0.17 0.22
0.00 0.99 0.09 0.54
Quantitative mind map
−0.01 0.96 0.1 0.50 −0.06 0.68 −0.04 0.76
qualitative MMR method. The ICC for consistency (0.71) indicates that agree-
ment between the three markers in terms of how they ranked the students in the
same order was good. The ICC for absolute agreement between examiners for
individual student scores was lower (0.57), but still indicates moderate agree-
ment. These values are similar to the values obtained by previous researchers
who assessed mind maps generated by other cohorts of students (DAntoni et al.,
2009). The qualitative MMR method on the other hand gave low ICC values for
both consistency and agreement indicating that the examiners neither ranked
the mind maps in the same way nor were the marks from the three markers for
individual students similar. The qualitative MMR scoring method possibly pre-
sents a cognitive challenge, requiring the marker to make simultaneous evalua-
tions of various aspects of the mind map. This is likely to make heavy demands
on the markers working memory. This may result in each individual marker
tackling the mind map complexity differently which would in turn affect exam-
iners consistency and agreement and hence the reliability of this scoring system.
Similar results have been reported for concept maps (McClure et al., 1999).
Whilst the analytical, structural MMR method gave more structure and guidance
to the examiners, there were problems in defining what constitutes concepts,
examples, signs and symptoms on the mind maps and hence what constitutes
concept-concept links. This again could have affected the agreement between
markers for the analytical, structural MMR scoring method and hence reliability.
Marker training is important in scoring mind maps for assessments. To mini-
mise the effect of training the markers were trained and had discussions on how
to grade three mind maps prior to embarking on the scoring exercise. Marker
training is important in scoring mind maps for assessments.
The quality of a mind map is determined by the template used in the con-
struction of a mind map. Previous workers have used key words as template
when constructing maps (McClure et al., 1999). If an unconstrained template is
used to construct the mind map, this may lead to variation in the nature and
quality of the resultant mind maps generated by individual students. The uncon-
strained nature of the template used in this study, an unseen clinical scenario
may have led to some variation. Studentsprior knowledge in the subject also af-
fects the quality of the mind maps. Since students in the present study had dif-
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ferent educational backgrounds in life sciences, this may have affected the qual-
ity of the mind maps generated.
The low Pearson correlation coefficients between the structural and the quali-
tative MMR scoring methods suggests that the two methods maybe assessing
different aspects of the mind maps. We are not aware of studies comparing dif-
ferent scoring methods for mind maps in similar settings; however such studies
have been carried out for concept maps (West et al., 2002; von der Heidt, 2015).
The Pearson correlation coefficients obtained by previous researchers (McClure
et al., 1999) of r = 0.193 to 0.608 (
< 0.01) in their studies comparing various
methods of scoring concept maps are similar to those calculated in the present
study with mind maps (r = 0.31,
= 0.03).
Our results indicate that mind map scores did not correlate with other end of
year outcomes irrespective of the MMR scoring method used. However the ho-
listic, qualitative MMR method moderately correlated with overall end of year
scores compared to the structural method. The mind maps were thus assessing a
different aspect of the student knowledge construct from that assessed in other
examinations. Although we could not find any previous reports on the concur-
rent validity of mind maps, our finding is in agreement with previous reports of
studies with concept maps (West et al., 2002).
The use of minds maps described here is different from that described in pre-
vious studies (D’Antoni, Zipp and Olson, 2009; D’Antoni et al., 2010; Evrekli,
Inel and Ali, 2010) in which the maps are drawn after students have acquired the
knowledge already. In the present study mind maps are used to brain storm
ideas from given clinical scenario, reactivate prior knowledge and decide what
learning issues require further study. The mind map thus represents the student
knowledge structure at the beginning of the student learning curve. Future re-
search could correlate the mind map scores to learning objective scores. The de-
velopment of a combined scoring rubric for mind maps and learning objective is
a potential area for further study.
7. Conclusion
Mind maps could be used as part of an overall assessment strategy in a course
using a PBL instructional method. Our results indicate that the structural MMR
scoring method had a high inter-rater reliability. The poor correlation with other
end of year assessments suggests that the mind maps could be assessing different
constructs of student knowledge. However, this study is limited to one institu-
tion and a specific context, and further work on the use of mind maps in assess-
ments in medical education is required.
Acknowledgements and Declaration of Interest
The authors report no conflict of interest during the study. We would like to
thank Dr. C Taylor for reading the manuscript. The study was approved by the
University Ethics Committee ERN_12-1369.
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Notes on Contributors
REMIGIO ZVAUYA BSc, MSc, PhD is currently the Graduate Entry Course MB
ChB Phase 1 lead and Senior PBL facilitator at the College of Medical and Dental
Sciences, University of Birmingham.
PBL Facilitator and a Senior Clinical Tutor at the College of Medical and Dental
Sciences, University of Birmingham.
NICOLA YOUNG, BSC PhD, FHEA is currently a PBL facilitator at the Col-
lege of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham.
MIRANDA PALLAN BSc, MB ChB, PhD was a PBL facilitator and is a Senior
Clinical Research Fellow in Public Health at the College of Medical and Dental
Sciences, University Birmingham.
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ment in Medical Education: A Comparison of Two Scoring Systems.
Medical Educa-
tion, 36,
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... Considering the context surrounding the barriers to learning and implementing EIP in health professions expressed in the literature, concept mapping may prove a useful intervention method to teach these concepts within an undergraduate curriculum (Machado & Carvalho, 2020;Schoonees et al., 2017). Evaluation of the success of concept mapping as an educational tool has been studied using rubrics, analytic or holistic, across a number of disciplines including medical education (Zvauya et al., 2017) and marketing/business (von der Heidt, 2015). ...
... In contrast, analytic rubrics assess a number of predetermined parts of a performance that are then summated to provide an overall average or aggregate score (Mertler, 2000). Previous research on employing these two styles of rubrics has demonstrated higher inter-rater reliability for analytic rubrics over holistic rubrics (Zvauya et al., 2017). ...
... The "theory to practice knowledge gap" is one potential reason students struggle with the EIP principles (Manspeaker & Hankemeier, 2017 (Mertler, 2000;Zvauya et al., 2017). ...
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Background Undergraduate students in healthcare professions need to develop critical thinking skills in order to be prepared to deliver patient‐centered high‐quality care upon graduation. The new Canadian Athletic Therapy Association (CATA) competency framework includes a “scholar” role, placing emphasis on knowledge and skills related to evidence‐informed practices (EIP). Educators are expected to develop their student's EIP skills; however, little is known about the optimal educational approaches to accomplish this task. The study objective was to examine concept mapping as a teaching and learning strategy to deepen the understanding of EIP and examine the validity and reliability of a concept mapping scoring rubric. Method A concept mapping approach to teaching EIP was piloted in an upper‐level research methods and statistics course. Students (N = 15) participated in a pretest post‐test concurrent nested mixed‐method intervention study that analyzed the impact of concept mapping on students' understanding of EIP and assessed initial validity and reliability of the grading rubric. Results Students demonstrated a deeper understanding of EIP and its relationship to healthcare practice following the concept mapping activity compared to a note‐taking activity (Cohen's d = 1.79). The concept mapping rubric used to assess EIP competence demonstrated strong construct validity and content validity with moderate inter‐rater reliability. Conclusions Employing the concept mapping technique as a teaching and learning tool proved to be effective to teach EIP principles and concepts based on student grades. An analytic rubric method was found valid and reliable for grading student concept maps underpinning EIP competency.
... ‫شنل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫واألفناا‬ ‫املعافد‬ ‫ووص‬ ‫استةدام‬ ‫سيلمح‬ ‫النامل.‬ ‫لعلمحا‬ ‫يميد‬ ‫املفا‬ ‫لكد‬ ‫الخا‬ ‫التشا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫اؤلد‬ ‫للملتةدمين‬ ‫ينهم‬ ‫املتبادلد‬ ‫العيقاص‬ ‫الس‬ ‫اإلاافد‬ ‫يم‬ ‫املفا‬ ‫ين‬ ‫وارختي‬(Zvauya et al., 2017) ...
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In practicing speaking skills, there are five language skills, such as vocabulary, sentence structure, reading, writing and listening. In an academic context, the content of the discussion contains ideas from the results of students' critical thinking. The ideas are arranged systematically, help students to speak fluently. Departing from the data, that Indonesian students are weak in critical thinking, as well as the curiosity of researchers about what strategies are suitable for improving speaking skills, this study aims to find a strategy using concept maps with several stages that will train students' skills in reading, vocabulary, write and speak. This study aims to describe the application of the concept map strategy and describe the obstacles faced by students, as well as solutions, as well as describe student perceptions. This study uses a qualitative descriptive approach with case studies, which focus on learning at Malang State Universities and Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University Malang. Data collection techniques by means of observation, interviews and documentation. As for the data analysis method, the researcher used the model according to Miles and Hubermen, the data analysis technique consisted of data collection, condensation, data presentation, and drawing conclusions. The results of this study is: students' perceptions in implementing the strategy are divided into two, the beginning of application (aspects of mastery of the material, duration of time, habituation of learning and technology) and after application (aspects of vocabulary, compulsion, facilitating learning and psychological). And the Buzan and Edward's concept map strategy trains students to think critically and speak systematically and learn independently, as well as equip them with HOTS skills, both offline and online to improve speaking skills and hone reading and writing skills.
... Visual representations are easier for students to grasp than written descriptions or conversational ones (Huxham et al., 2012;Zvauya et al., 2017). As a result, using idea and mind maps in the classroom can help students retain and comprehend knowledge more effectively. ...
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Problem solving skills are the ability to solve problems in an effective way without any impediments. The purpose of this study is to identify the importance and issues on root cause identification for the problem among students and teachers of Invention’s course. This research applied mixed-method comprising quantitative and qualitative approaches. A total of 133 students and 30 teachers of Invention were involved in the survey at the secondary school in Johor. A survey questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were applied in this research. The results of t-test revealed that there was no significant difference on the importance [t (133) = -2.915; p = .194, (p .05)] and issues [t (133) = .142; p = .09, (p .05)] for gender. Next, two-way ANOVA test showed that the level of importance (F (30) = 2.874, p = .061) and issues (F (30) = 6.846, p = .112) of the skills did not depends on the gender of the teacher and teaching experiences. Majority teachers support the application of the Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving Skills using Function Analysis for root cause identification (TRIZ). Thus, the development of self-learning module is proposed as teaching material to facilitate the application of the skills for the Invention course.
... To obtain a thorough understanding of participants' views of the action research process, we asked them to complete the Action Research Flowchart Assessment (ARFA)-a modified version of the Scientific Process Flowchart Assessment (SPFA; Wilson and Rigakos, 2016). The ARFA (Supplementary Appendix S2.2) allows for the visualization of changes in participants' cognitive representations of the action research process-a feature that multiple-choice questions lack (Novick, 2001;Burkhard, 2005;Smith et al., 2013;Tversky, 2014;Zvauya et al., 2017). Participants were asked to construct a flowchart that most accurately represented their perception of the action research process, including: 1) generalized steps of the action research process; 2) factors that make for a good action research project; 3) reasons for doing action research; and 4) what action research influences and, in turn, what it is influenced by. ...
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Professional development in action research methods can increase educators' dispositions toward the adoption of evidence-based practices and data-based decision making. However, an in-depth review of the literature revealed that extant forms of action research professional development (ARPD) may not be accessible to all educators as they are often relegated to full-semester undergraduate and/or graduate courses, internships, and teacher education programs. To address this issue, we designed, implemented, and assessed a scalable active-learning module on action research to strengthen the cognitive and affective outcomes of prospective and in-service STEM teachers (N 26) enrolled in a cross-listed Scientific Teaching course, all of whom had not previously conducted action research. This three-session module integrated case studies, collaborative practice, group discussions, and instruction on action research theory and data collection methodologies. Analysis of pre-/post-intervention survey responses revealed that participants expressed greater self-efficacy related to their ability to design and conduct action research, strengthened knowledge of the process of action research, and greater awareness of the utility of data to inform research and teaching. When asked about the benefits of engaging in action research, participants suggested it could enhance their pedagogical content knowledge and reflectivity. However, participants identified logistical issues such as time constraints and resource availability, lack of institutional support, and possible student resistance to data collection as potential barriers to future action research practice. Overall, our module provides a scaffold to enculturate in-service educators to inquiry dispositions while offering a scalable approach to help prospective teachers in their transition to in-service practice.
... In our study, in order to reduce the influence of the first factor, the students were encouraged to construct a network concept map and the tutor tried to simplify the process of construction during the training session. Many methods of scoring were listed in the literature and are basically classified into 3 major categories: a structural (holistic) system adopting overall scores that are assigned to the concept map's organizational structure, an analytic (relational, structural) system that measures the quality or importance of the map components and a mixed (hybrid) system [6,18,19]consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria, used in evaluating student work on performance assessments. Rubrics are typically the specific form of scoring instrument used when evaluating student performances or products resulting from a performance task. ...
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Background: the use of concept maps (CM) in medical studies has been largely reported in the literature. In our context, we used to promote case-based-teaching methods but students aren't used to construct CM. Aim: To evaluate the acceptability of using CM by the students and the reproducibility of 2 methods of scoring, a holistic and an analytic one, associated to a master map in order to assess them. Methods: the authors supervised a 2-session-case-based-learning performed in a department of pathology. One case dealing with a real story about a colon cancer diagnosed in the musician Debussy ( was adapted and presented to the students. At the end of the first session, the students were encouraged to construct collectively a concept map. At the end of the second session, the students were asked to fulfill a questionnaire about their acceptability of the learning process. Besides, two raters scored all the concept maps using 2 different scoring methods associated to a master map. The reproducibility of both scoring systems was evaluated using the kappa coefficient. Results: 31 students were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 21 years. The raters evaluated 8 CM. The kappa coefficient reached a value of 1 in the holistic scoring and a value of 0.46 in the hierarchical scoring indicating respectively a very strong and a moderate agreement between evaluators. 15 students reported their satisfaction about the use of CM collectively. 10 students expressed their will to use CM individually, 17 students felt that using the CM collectively made them feel to belong to a group but without expressing their own knowledge and reflecting their progress. Conclusions: our study highlighted the acceptability of using concept maps in medical studies and the possibility of reaching valid and reproducible scoring methods especially when associating a master map.
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Öğrenme yaklaşımlarının, bireylerin öğrenme eylemine karşı sergiledikleri tavırla ilgili olduğu düşünülmektedir. Zihin haritaları ise literatürde yer alan tanımlara bakıldığında öğrenmeyi sağlayan görsel araçlar olarak ele alınabilir. Bireylerin zihin haritası oluştururken tercih ettikleri yöntemlerin ve oluşturdukları zihin haritalarının niteliğinin, öğrenme yaklaşımlarına göre şekillenip şekillenmediği bu araştırmanın problemi olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırmada, pedagojik formasyon eğitimi alan matematik ve muhasebe öğretmen adaylarının öğrenme yaklaşımları ile öğretmen adaylarının öğrenim gördükleri bölüm, hazırladıkları zihin haritalarını temel alan bazı değişkenler (zihin haritası puanı, zihin haritası yapım yöntemi) arasındaki ilişkileri ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu pedagojik formasyon eğitimi programında “Özel Öğretim Yöntemleri” dersini alan 59 (21 matematik, 38 muhasebe) öğretmen adayı oluşturmaktadır. Dersin içeriğine yönelik olarak öğretmen adaylarına zihin haritalarının nasıl hazırlanması gerektiği, zihin haritalarını hazırlarken dikkat edilmesi gerekenler hakkında bir anlatım gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada kullanılan iki ölçme aracından ilki öğretmen adaylarının özel öğretim yöntemleri ile ilgili hazırladıkları zihin haritaları ikincisi ise “Öğrenme Yaklaşımları Ölçeği”dir. Elde edilen verilerin analizi Bağımsız Örneklemler T-Testi ve Tek Yönlü Varyans Analizi (ANOVA) ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Analizlere ait bulgularda hem matematik hem de muhasebe öğretmen adaylarının derin öğrenme yaklaşımına eğilimli olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Aynı zamanda öğretmen adaylarının öğrenme yaklaşımları ile öğrenim gördükleri bölüm, zihin haritası puanları, zihin haritası yapım yöntemleri arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunamamıştır.
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Cet article décrit un nouveau dispositif d’évaluation des acquis d’apprentissage basé sur des cartes conceptuelles « à trous » (CCàT) permettant également l’apprentissage par les pairs en grands auditoires durant les tests et une correction automatisée par des formulaires QCM.L’intérêt du dispositif est de garantir une évaluation qualitative (à haut niveau taxonomique) des apprentissages tout en facilitant la conception et la correction de ces évaluations par l’enseignant, même pour de grands groupes d’étudiants (>500) et en favorisant la coopération entre étudiants en amont et pendant les évaluations.
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Purpose – Although there is a growing interest in Critical Thinking Learning Transfer (CTLT), detailed information regarding the transfer seems to be lacking, particularly in the Malaysian context. In addition, past studies have not focused on medical education. This raises the question: How do Malaysian medical undergraduates transfer their critical thinking learning? Thus, this study sought to explore the CTLT process among medical undergraduates in Malaysia, synthesize the CTLT model and present the types of CTLT. Methodology – A qualitative case study approach was adopted. Eight medical undergraduates were selected using purposive sampling, through two sampling strategies. Data was obtained via in-depth interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Findings –Three types of CTLT were found, namely near transfer, far transfer, and integrated transfer. Each type of transfer was specified into components. The participants’ conceptions of the CTLT process led to the development of a model that presented the types of CTLT and provided a better understanding of the extension of occurrence of CTLT among medical undergraduates. Significance – The CTLT model adds value to the description of the CTLT process among students, especially in the context of the early clinical year medical programme. The model may also influence the future development of critical thinking pedagogies.
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Many educational programs incorporate problem-based learning (PBL) to promote students’ learning; however, the knowledge structure developed in PBL remains unclear. The aim of this study was to use concept mapping to generate an understanding of the use of PBL in the development of knowledge structures. Using a quasi-experimental study design, we employed concept mapping to illustrate the effects of PBL by examining the patterns of concepts and differences in the knowledge structures of students taught with and without a PBL approach. Fifty-two occupational therapy undergraduates were involved in the study and were randomly divided into PBL and control groups. The PBL group was given two case scenarios for small group discussion, while the control group continued with ordinary teaching and learning. Students were asked to make concept maps after being taught about knowledge structure. A descriptive analysis of the morphology of concept maps was conducted in order to compare the integration of the students’ knowledge structures, and statistical analyses were done to understand the differences between groups. Three categories of concept maps were identified as follows: isolated, departmental, and integrated. The students in the control group constructed more isolated maps, while the students in the PBL group tended toward integrated mapping. Concept Relationships, Hierarchy Levels, and Cross Linkages in the concept maps were significantly greater in the PBL group; however, examples of concept maps did not differ significantly between the two groups. The data indicated that PBL had a strong effect on the acquisition and integration of knowledge. The important properties of PBL, including situational learning, problem spaces, and small group interactions, can help students to acquire more concepts, achieve an integrated knowledge structure, and enhance clinical reasoning.
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The present study deals with the use of mind maps as an assessment tools. In the study, the mind maps prepared for the special teaching methods course by 30 pre-service teachers studying in the Department of Science Teacher Training of a university in Turkey in academic year 2008-2009 were assessed by using a scoring system to assess mind maps for pre-service science teachers. To ensure the reliability of the scoring system, the mind maps prepared by the pre-service teachers for the special teaching methods course were assessed by two expert raters and the assessment was repeated one week later. The reliability process for the scoring system was calculated by using inter- and intra-rater reliability values, intra-cluster correlation analysis, and variance analysis.
There is a significant need for faculty to move away from the traditional teacher-centered educational approach and increase implementation of an active, student-centered, learning environment. Creating learning experiences that facilitate reflection, knowledge building, problem solving, inquiry, and critical thinking is vital. Using mind maps as an active learning strategy is an innovative technique to facilitate student learning. Students can illustrate a vision, exhibit their contextual knowledge and creativity, and make associations about a central theme during this activity. Mind mapping can be used for note taking, completing homework assignments, preparing for exams, analyzing, and reflecting about nursing practice. Mind maps can be executed in nursing curricula as an alternative learning experience.
This paper explains the application of concept mapping to help foster a learning-centred approach. It investigates how concept maps are used to measure the change in learning following a two-week intensive undergraduate Marketing Principles course delivered to 162 Chinese students undertaking a Bachelor of Business Administration programme in China. Using four scoring procedures (breadth of knowledge, relational quality, structural quality and holistic quality), student learning is assessed in terms of prior and new knowledge, as well as improvement in knowledge structure. Concept map scores are correlated with conventional measures of overall student performance. The results provide strong evidence for improvement in students’ ability to externalise new learned concepts resulting from intensive instruction. Incorporating concept maps as a contemporary method of learning in the curriculum potentially enriches student learning, provides a measure of the impact of teaching on students’ learning and adds value to students’ higher education experience.
In resource‐based learning scenarios, students are often overwhelmed by the complexity of task‐relevant knowledge and information. Techniques for the external interactive representation of individual knowledge in graphical format may help them to cope with complex problem situations. Advanced computer‐based concept‐mapping tools have the potential to foster spatial learning strategies and processes of individual knowledge management. In addition, they have the potential to represent not only conceptual knowledge, but also content knowledge about a domain, as well as knowledge resources. The paper analyzes the potential of digital concept maps for supporting processes of individual knowledge management in resource‐based learning. After a brief review of the structural, representational, processing, and usability features of digital concept maps, results of empirical research related to the following main management processes are considered: knowledge identification/evaluation, information search, knowledge generation, knowledge representation/organization, knowledge communication, and knowledge use.
Rubrics are rating scales-as opposed to checklists-that are used with performance assessments. They are formally defined as scoring guides, consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria, used in evaluating student work on performance assessments. Rubrics are typically the specific form of scoring instrument used when evaluating student performances or products resulting from a performance task. There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytic (see Figure 1). A holistic rubric requires the teacher to score the overall process or product as a whole, without judging the component parts separately (Nitko, 2001). In contrast, with an analytic rubric, the teacher scores separate, individual parts of the product or performance first, then sums the individual scores to obtain a total score (Moskal, 2000; Nitko, 2001).
In recent years, academics and educators have begun to use software mapping tools for a number of education-related purposes. Typically, the tools are used to help impart critical and analytical skills to students, to enable students to see relationships between concepts, and also as a method of assessment. The common feature of all these tools is the use of diagrammatic relationships of various kinds in preference to written or verbal descriptions. Pictures and structured diagrams are thought to be more comprehensible than just words, and a clearer way to illustrate understanding of complex topics. Variants of these tools are available under different names: “concept mapping”, “mind mapping” and “argument mapping”. Sometimes these terms are used synonymously. However, as this paper will demonstrate, there are clear differences in each of these mapping tools. This paper offers an outline of the various types of tool available and their advantages and disadvantages. It argues that the choice of mapping tool largely depends on the purpose or aim for which the tool is used and that the tools may well be converging to offer educators as yet unrealised and potentially complementary functions. KeywordsConcept mapping–Mind mapping–Computer-aided argument mapping–Critical thinking–Argument–Inference-making–Knowledge mapping
Educationalists need to think outside the box to facilitate students to learn key information essential for professional practice. The use of mind maps incorporated into an assessment strategy and programme is an innovative way of facilitating students to understand key information. Mind maps have the potential to provide students with a strategy for retaining information, integrating critical thinking and problem solving skills. This article reviews the current discussion on mind maps and discusses the integration of mind maps into a component of an assessment strategy.
The psychometric characteristics and practicality of concept mapping as a technique for classroom assessment were evaluated. Subjects received 90 min of training in concept mapping techniques and were given a list of terms and asked to produce a concept map. The list of terms was from a course in which they were enrolled. The maps were scored by pairs of graduate students, each pair using one of six different scoring methods. The score reliability of the six scoring methods ranged from r = .23 to r = .76. The highest score reliability was found for the method based on the evaluation of separate propositions represented. Correlations of map scores with a measure of the concept maps' similarity to a master map provided evidence supporting the validity of five of the six scoring methods. The times required to provide training in concept mapping, produce concepts, and score concept maps were compatible with the adoption of concept mapping as classroom assessment technique. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 36: 475-492, 1999.