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Abstract

In the coming years, technology will impact the learning experience in many ways. Internet of Things (IoT) continues to confirm its important position in the context of Information and Communication Technologies and the development of society. With the support of IoT, institutions can enhance learning outcomes by providing more affluent learning experiences, improved operational efficiency, and by gaining real-time, actionable insight into student performance. The purpose of this study is to find out the potential of IoT in higher education and how to maximize its benefits and reducing the risks involved with it. Further efforts are necessary for releasing the full potential of IoT systems and technologies. Therefore, this paper presents a study about the impact of IoT on higher education especially universities. IoT stands to change dramatically the way universities work, and enhance student learning in many disciplines and at any level. It has huge potential for universities or any other educational institutions; if well prepared to ensure widespread and successful implementation by leadership, staff, and students. IoT needs development where universities can lead. Academics, researchers, and students are in a unique place to lead the discovery and development of IoT systems, devices, applications, and services. Moreover, this paper provides an evidences about the future of IoT in the higher education during the next few years, which have offered by a number of research organizations and enterprises. On the other hand, IoT also brings tremendous challenges to higher education. Hence, this paper also presents the perspective on the challenges of IoT in higher education.
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Internet of Things in Higher Education: A Study on
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ICCSCM 2017 IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 892 (2017) 012017 doi :10.1088/1742-6596/892/1/012017
Internet of Things in Higher Education: A Study on Future
Learning
Hanan Aldowah1, 3, Shafiq Ul Rehman2, Samar Ghazal1, 3, Irfan Naufal Umar 1
1Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Centre for Instructional Technology and
Multimedia (CITM), Penang, Malaysia
2 National Advanced IPv6 Centre (IPV6), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang,
Malaysia
3Centre for Information System and Technology (CIST), Hodiedah University,
Hodiedah, Yemen
hanan_aldwoah@yahoo.com
Abstract. In the coming years, technology will impact the learning experience in many ways.
Internet of Things (IoT) continues to confirm its important position in the context of
Information and Communication Technologies and the development of society. With the
support of IoT, institutions can enhance learning outcomes by providing more affluent learning
experiences, improved operational efficiency, and by gaining real-time, actionable insight into
student performance. The purpose of this study is to find out the potential of IoT in higher
education and how to maximize its benefits and reducing the risks involved with it. Further
efforts are necessary for releasing the full potential of IoT systems and technologies. Therefore,
this paper presents a study about the impact of IoT on higher education especially universities.
IoT stands to change dramatically the way universities work, and enhance student learning in
many disciplines and at any level. It has huge potential for universities or any other educational
institutions; if well prepared to ensure widespread and successful implementation by
leadership, staff, and students. IoT needs development where universities can lead. Academics,
researchers, and students are in a unique place to lead the discovery and development of IoT
systems, devices, applications, and services. Moreover, this paper provides an evidences about
the future of IoT in the higher education during the next few years, which have offered by a
number of research organizations and enterprises. On the other hand, IoT also brings
tremendous challenges to higher education. Hence, this paper also presents the perspective on
the challenges of IoT in higher education.
1. Introduction
Internet of Things (IoT) is the transformation process in numerous aspects of our daily life. IoT
technologies differ from previous innovations as they are ubiquitous, and encourage solutions to be
intelligent and autonomous [1]. Advances in the IoT are a major strategic technology trend [2].
Ubiquitous sensors and the ability to bridge the gap between the physical world and the machine world
were perceived as the conceptual framework for the new learning model. The thinking behind this
great paradigm shift is the ability to embed sensors into any object and use Machine-to-Machine
(M2M) communication to connect billions of objects/devices to the current Internet infrastructure. The
entirety of the physical world is coming online rapidly.
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IoT is developing quickly and becoming an increasingly growing topic that creates excitement and
anxiety around the world [3]. There are plenty of indications showing that the IoT will to change many
sectors, including higher education institutions, especially universities. Now, universities has an
opportunity to lead the technical development and the innovations models for the IoT, and to build the
leaders of the IoT into the future, as well as to address the TIPPSS risks which stands for
Trust, Identity, Privacy, Protection, Safety, and Security related to the IoT.
The IoT is a global physical network which connects devices, objects and things to the Internet
infrastructure to communicate or interact with the internal and the external environment as illustrated
in Figure 1, and for the purpose of exchanging information through the information sensing devices
according to specific protocols. Thus, IoT is enabling connectivity for anything and for anyone to be
networked around the world anytime, and anywhere using any network or any service [4] to achieve
the goal of intelligent identifying, tracking, and managing things [5]. It is an extension and expansion
of Internet-based network, which expands the communication between human to human (H2H),
human to things (H2T)or things to things (T2T) [6] as presented in Figure 2.
A number of research organizations and analysts have predicted about the future of IoT and its
potential impact on the Internet: billions of physical devices, all over the world, that have digital
sensors and are interrelated by leveraging any network. According to the research conducted by
Juniper [7], an estimated 13.4 billion devices were connected in 2015, which represent more than the
total of population on the earth at the time, and this number is expected to triple to 38.5 billion devices
by 2020. The opportunity of interacting with lots of everyday objects connected to the Internet allows
individual to access unlimited information anytime and anywhere. This vision opens a new horizon of
ideas and developments that is already being considered by research scholars and academics.
The IoT vision is grounded in the belief that the firmly fixed advances in microelectronics,
communications and information technology we have witnessed in current years will endure into
the predictable future [8]. Applications for the IoT are already being leveraged in sectors like
healthcare and customer service. Now, universities and schools are joining the party. Some of the
ways the IoT can benefit education may be manifest, while others are not as obvious. So this paper
will present the biggest implications for connected devices in higher education and how they could
shape the learning for the next generation.
The future of universities is not about using and employing the available technology. It is about
how universities will adapt to the changing needs of the future knowledge worker, the future of work,
and the economy. This paper presents an overview of IoT in higher education institutions, especially
in universities and takes a look at several emerging trends that are evolving higher education, and
explore the potential impact of IoT and the future of the IoT in higher education. In addition, exploring
some of IoT challenges regarding higher education sector.
Figure.1. IoT viewed as a global network.
(Source: Cisco IBSG, April 2011).
Figure.2. Internet of everything
(Source: Cisco, April 2011).
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2. Basic Components of IOT
The IoT is empowering technology researchers to develop smaller and more affordable wireless
systems that consume less power and can be integrated into almost any type of device [9]. There are
three IoT components which enable seamless connections which are: Hardware: made up of sensors,
actuators and embedded communication hardware, Middleware: on demand storage and computing
tools for data analytics, and Presentation: novel easy to understand visualization and interpretation
tools which can be widely accessed on different platforms and which can be designed for different
applications [10]. There are a number of potential approaches for introducing low-power
communications to an IoT node, ranging from purpose-designed protocols such as ZigBee to low-
power variants of Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and NFC. Although Wi-Fi is the most popular form of integrated
wireless technology and the best power-per-bit transmission efficiency, IoT enhances other formats
including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology which is used throughout business,
industry and personal technology systems and enables design of microchips for wireless data
communication [10]. Some of this technology can add wireless sensor capabilities (WSN) to any type
of device, like FitBit wearable fitness trackers, and books.
3. Concept of Digital Campus
Digital Campus System is an important platform for students to get all kinds of information [11]. New
technologies are also affecting other areas of campus administration. There is an increasing demand
for higher education institutions, especially, universities to digitize their content and activities, and
adapt their methods to allow academic and researchers to work effectually in a digital environment
[12]. A well designed physical campus, completely integrating technology, is fundamental for building
the brand of digital university by enhancing the student experience, and providing the appropriate
settings and facilities for teaching, learning and research. It promotes, supports and encourages
lifelong learning [13]. A digital university must have the technology that enabled teaching and
learning, and empower collaborative research. All contemporary digital threats can be faced by
universities if they compete, however few have the vision, flexibility, platforms, or appropriate
leadership, to put in place the strategies to ensure that they can innovate, or react to marketplace
conditions.
Within a digital campus, technology can reduce operational costs, improve security, and offer tools
for researchers, academics, students and staff. These benefits provide real value to university
operations and developments, the experience of students, and researchers. The digital campus
comprises two main components. Firstly, it reuses the IT Service Delivery Platform end-to-end
Figure 3: Technology convergence.
Source: (Friess, 2013)
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infrastructure to provide network connectivity, mobility and security for all applications and services
across the campus. Secondly, it includes a large number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications
operating over the platform system to support the professional of the university, enable teaching and
learning activities, and enhance student’s experience. According to Cisco -“Digitizing Higher
Education To enhance experiences and improve outcomes”- IoT applications differ from conventional
network applications as they support sensors and sensor data, rather than users and user data. IoT
applications for the digital campus include five main categories: Building Control and Management;
Security and Access Control; Video and Information Systems; Location and Attendance Systems;
Energy Monitoring and Control.as shown in Figure 4:
The wireless network has a main role to play within the digital campus, thus must be designed to meet
the high demands of a modern university.
In addition, IoT reform and change the teaching and learning in the campus, for example, the IoT in
the training of the same sight, making the teaching space, training venues, sports venues, learning
dormitories, restaurants and students across the campus of IoT, making the campus to train students
anytime and anywhere, can become a physical, mental, and skills place to acquire a full range of
learning and training. This will lead colleges to become ubiquitous learning and training [14].
4. Impact of Internet of Things on Higher Education
The IoT is going to affect every part of society at some point in the near future. Higher education
institutions in general, and universities in particular, can work across disciplines and lead the progress
of the IoT technologies, business models, ethics, and leaders of the IoT enabled economy of the future.
For instance, university instructor of computer science and engineering are directing IoT labs for the
development of IoT technologies. In addition, Informatics College can teach how to leverage the sizes
of IoT data, with TIPPSS. Also, they can work with business colleges to set and design IoT courses to
create new business models. Medical colleges can empower the Internet of Medical Things as well as,
Law colleges can teach IoT ethics, privacy, and policy. According to Zebra technologies, as higher
education institutions commence to develop and leverage solutions such as radio frequency
identification (RFID) and cloud computing through IoT technologies, they will be able to analyse and
manage Big Data.
The IoT is not just a technology update and development within the industry, but can lead
to expand the change to the whole society including higher education institutions. IoT will
lead the change and reform the higher education institutions. According to [14], IoT will lead
Figure 4: IoT Applications for the Digital Campus
Source
: Cisco- Digitizing Higher Education To enhance experiences and improve outcomes.
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to changes in educational technology, reform the education, change in teaching, change in
learning, management of change, experimental and practical changes, changes in campus,
teaching resources changes and others.
With the development of IoT, the prospective application in higher education lies in the three
aspects: students' progressive evaluation, integration of current teaching platforms and development of
educational middleware [15]. This change provides increased convenience for students, and makes the
teaching process more effective for instructors and professors. The flow in connected devices and
technology means that instructors and professors can focus on the actual learning that is more useful to
the students rather than perform the routine task.
In addition, IoT has the ability to increase the learning experience by providing for real-time and
actionable insights into student performance. Nowadays, students particularly in university are
gradually moving away from textbooks to new technologies such as tablets and laptops. The advanced
e-learning applications allow students to learn at their own pace and have an identical learning
experience in classrooms and homes [16], which rises progression and satisfaction rates as well as
instructors can deliver one-to-one instruction and persistent student assessments [17]. Moreover,
through IoT technology, professors can collect data about students’ performance and then determine
which ones need more care and attention. This data analysis also helps instructors accurately change
plans and methods for future classes. Additionally, connected devices can allow instructors to do
dynamic classroom. Interventions as well as logging attendance will be simplified if students have a
wearable device that tracks ECG patterns. Furthermore, these devices can redirect a student’s attention
by giving a warm up activity and exercise to do on their own devices. Also, EEG sensors can be used
during courses to monitor students’ cognitive activities.
This vision and understanding give stakeholders with a view of students, organization, and financial
assets. This asset intelligence enables organization to make informed decisions in order to enhance
student knowledge and learning experiences, operational proficiency, and the security of campus.
According to Zebra technologies (2015), by enhancing asset intelligence, educational institutions can
enhance outcomes by adding values in some areas include: Enhanced Learning Experiences and
Outcomes, Improved Operational Efficiency, Safer Campus Designs.
Moreover, outside of the classroom, universities can use connected devices to monitor their
students, staff, resources and equipment at a reduced operating cost [18]. Furthermore, the growth of
mobile technology and the IoT enable universities to improve the security of campuses, enhance
access to information and applications at anytime from anywhere, and keep track of main resources
[10]. IoT is changing the student learning experience besides facilities management by connecting
individual, data and things.
5. Future of IoT in Higher Education
Universities have long realized the ability of technology to disrupt teaching, learning, and assessment.
Furthermore, technology disruption is fundamental if a modern university is to distinguish its student
offer, so increasing admissions, improving retention, and delivering desired outcomes. But preparing
students to be confident for the world of work is complex. It requires strong academic leadership,
access to a high quality curriculum and content, and the exposure of students to the effective use of
new technology. With the development of IoT, many institution of higher education have started to
focus on the related technology and application of the IoT [9, 19]. This attempt is also used in
university [20]. The Internet has deeply rooted itself into colleges and universities, and e-learning has
become common practice in most universities systems [16]. Although it is not an obvious application
of the IoT, however, education is on that list [10] and the applications of the IoT in universities are
numerous, and the implications for this are massive. IoT will allow for better operational efficiency in
all learning environments. IoT can support classroom instruction by improving learning setting,
enhance learning resources, improve methods and techniques of learning, raise management
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efficiency, and save management costs. The resources available for learning on devices, like e-books,
are more engaging and interactive. However, there is a constant need for new technologies for learning
process, for instance, high-speed wireless networks with the bandwidth for streaming audio and video
lessons.
According to the Citrix 2020 Technology Landscape Report (2015), in the next five years, IoT
technology will enhance the learning experience in different ways. Learning experience will continue
to become more virtual, students will consume knowledge and learning in new ways, and classrooms
will be better equipped for learning. Eventually, learning will become an amazing experience for
instructors and students with knowledge accelerating while bringing new ideas and solutions around
the world. As well, students are prepared for the future of work and expectations at the workplace of
the future.
Technology will always have a place in all educational disciplines [21]. IoT also has many
opportunities for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, such as
computer programming and physical computing. It is easy to foresee how IoT capabilities can be used
in STEM disciplines, robotics, and anything having to do with collecting specific data. It is all in the
potential of the IoT. However, ultimately the educationists need to be able to identify the right
technology and integrate it properly in the classroom for learning to evolve. Although main IoT
technologies are so far unclear, the point certainly is that a lot of contents are the outcome of new
development phase. Considering the demand of more professional research, setting the IoT major is
relative easy and applicable for graduate students. However, for undergraduate students, they still need
a wide range of basic courses, so it is not easy to set IoT major independently like other majors at
present. New training methods shall be explored for undergraduate students [22]. Different colleges
have to explore the appropriate approach according to their own characteristics. The system approach
and courses content need to be progressively established and improved. Since IoT is achieving the
unity of the virtual world and the physical world, many new training methods and cross-cutting areas
will be generated in the future [3].
Moreover, the future IoT economy can be shaped by experts and leaders in higher education sector
and by educating the students [23]. The development within higher education systems will visualize,
improve, and lead the new technology innovations. Therefore, higher education sector must work with
business and industrial sectors to shape and build the future of an IoT-enabled economy. Furthermore,
higher education sector, especially universities, have the opportunity to lead the future of IoT
technologies by designing courses for technical and business leaders and by facilitating students and
researchers work to build new business methods that leverage IoT technologies in a multidisciplinary
way.
In 2016, a workshop conducted by IEEE, National Science Foundation (NSF), and Internet2,
entitled "End to End Trust and Security for the Internet of Things", and followed by an IEEE Experts
in Technology and Policy Forum, the experts and participants asserted that the IoT needs innovation
and development which researchers, professors, academics ,and students in universities and higher
education sector are in a unique place to lead the innovation and development of IoT devices, systems,
applications, and services. Also, they emphasized that new platforms and ideas across disciplines must
be developed and discovered to solve many problems and issues that we are facing nowadays. In
addition, IoT and data analytics tools can be leveraged to develop and improve effectiveness and
competences on campus and across societies, to improve information capture, to address security and
privacy issues, to minimize the energy use, and to analyze data and provide actionable insights and
understanding to develop and enhance health sector. To build this system sight, working across skill
sets and disciplines are required. Furthermore, academics and research scholars can build end-to-end
TIPPSS solutions for the IoT as well as they can build IoT devices, and services with a "defense in
depth" strategy, adding in security at the hardware, software, firmware, and service levels.
6. Challenges of IoT in Higher Education
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IoT brings tremendous challenges and opportunities to higher education. The unique growth of
ubiquitous computing, developing IoT technologies such as cloud computing, and big data and
analytics are helpful not only in improving the core values of teaching and quality of research but also
developing an IoT society and encouraging a new digital culture. With increasing online degree
opportunities and seamless access to instructional content in both structured and unstructured formats,
the IoT leads digital momentum into higher education institutions. IoT is a dramatic shift in the
traditional instructional paradigm while integrating broader disciplines, including social science, to
enrich the value of big data available from social media. Some of the IoT challenges in higher
education sector include:
6.1. Cloud Computing
Many universities are using hybrid cloud as their enterprise architecture for hosting IoT applications.
The combination of millennials, the most tech-savvy students in the universities, as well as the rise of
tablet and mobile technology, has opened new methods to increase the effectiveness of enterprise
architecture, instructional technologies, research and learning environments. With ubiquitous
computing, the cloud provides seamless connections and services to information technology services.
Presently, enterprise architecture in many higher education institutions depend on hybrid cloud
infrastructures with computing platforms on private clouds, while enterprise and instructional
applications gradually move to public clouds. Enterprise architecture in these institutions need reduce
latency time because of the demand for content in instructional technologies, the huge increase in
audio and videos for instructions, and the need for active enterprise networks.
6.2. Instructional Technologies
The growing use of learning management systems LMS like Moodle and Blackboard is creating
massive amount of structured and unstructured data such as audio and video content. Sophisticated
electronic schoolrooms equipped with lecture capture systems and web streaming provide an
opportunity for students to access instructional contents on demand at any time [9] .
6.3. Mobility Applications
IoT applications are being increasingly used to integrate mobile learning applications and for
assessment and grading systems. The ideal application can assist students to benefit from learning
resources, manage assignments, and work on tasks. Instructors also use some of these applications to
teach highly specialized concepts, complex physical, scientific simulations, and social topics.
6.4. Security and Privacy
The implementations of IoT technologies present new and unique security and privacy challenges and
issues. Addressing these challenges and issues to ensure security in IoT devices and services should
be a fundamental priority [8]. One of the fundamental criteria for IoT is the need to include effectual
and trustworthy privacy and security mechanisms [24]. Higher education is vulnerable to the security
and privacy of the IoT ecosystem.
Even though there has been further momentum to deal with the security of the IoT infrastructure,
there is still no strategy to identify business risks associated with data breaches. Higher education
sector need to develop standards to secure IoT applications. As higher education creates millions of
future workers, it has to embrace IoT platforms and systems even with the challenges of IoT financing,
evolving digital educational pedagogy, training, and interdisciplinary research. In addition, IoT
applications must engage the future workforce morally and ethically to address cyber security issues as
society depends more on IoT applications. Therefore, a collaborative method to safety and security
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will be required to develop solutions in effective and appropriate way to face IoT security challenges.
Furthermore, the full potential of the IoT depends on strategies that consider people’s privacy.
Therefore, to fulfill these opportunities, there is need to develop new strategies that consider an
individual’s privacy choices and expectations, whilst still promote innovation in new technologies and
services [8].
6.5. Research Computing
Higher education continues to benefit from IoT integration. As the cost of hardware reduces,
interdisciplinary research has gained momentum in the last years. In addition, with the availability of
big data, even smaller universities can increase their interdisciplinary research footprint and put in
high performance computing (HPC), big data platforms, and analytics. STEM education has seen the
necessity of identifying broader collaboration with IoT ecosystems by using sensor technologies,
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and microcontrollers. Engineering laboratories use audio video
technologies, UAV, Raspberry Pi and open source systems (OSS) that are driving innovations and
enhancing learning processes in engineering projects. Social science researchers intrigued by the
plethora of big data generated by social media and omnipresent computing are constantly using
distributed computing platforms such as HPC, GPU clusters, Hadoop clusters and big data analytics to
improve IoT research.
6.6. Quality and Ethics
The quality of learning both online and on campus and the rising cost of higher education has been
intensely debated in latest years. The IoT offers unique opportunities to deliver digital courses.
However, it also introduces challenges to maintain the quality of instruction and evaluation of
students’ work. IoT educational applications need tools and technologies for instructors, professors
and the scientific community to improve the quality of research and address ethics issues within higher
education.
6.7. Financing
The cost of information technologies continues to increase every year as content and an application.
These application stacks continue to grow both horizontally and vertically on instructional
technologies, research computing and enterprise technologies. Alongside the information technology
and laboratory fees, most universities do not have a strategy for sharing costs and identifying the total
cost of ownership for an IoT infrastructure. Higher education must come up with new ideas to finance
an information technology infrastructure and services.
7. Conclusion and Future Work
With the advancement in technology i.e. Internet of Things, universities can resolve many challenges
such as; keeping track of essential resources, develop access to information, build smarter plans, and
design safer campuses. IoT systems have tremendous potential to bring significant values to higher
education by engaging and motivating the students and staff, and to increase speed of learning. The
purpose of this study was to find out the potential of IoT in higher education and how to maximize its
benefits while addressing its challenges and reducing the risks involved with it. Therefore, our future
work will be to focus on IoT implementation in higher education.
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... The concept of (IoT-The Internet of Things) first appeared in 1999, It was created by Ashton, a computer technology pioneer (Gao & Bai, 2014;Gubbi et al., 2013). IoT has become a popular and widely used technology as it has many features and capabilities (Aldowah et al., 2017;Alsuwaidan & Almegren, 2020;Elsaadany & Soliman, 2017). IoT helps different industries in different contexts to get significant benefits and opportunities by adopting IoT in their daily processes (Al-Momani et al., 2018;Khan et al., 2021). ...
... Malhotra et al. (2021) predicted that IoT active devices presently working in IoT networks will grow up to 75 billion devices by 2025. As a result, researchers have been paying close attention to IoT technology since it offers a wide range of services, particularly in colleges and universities (Aldowah et al., 2017;Banica et al., 2017;Belchior-Rocha et al., 2018;Charmonman et al., 2020;Htake & Tin, 2019;Pervez et al., 2018;Satu et al., 2018). For example, students may benefit from IoT technology by using their smartphones, wearable devices, or virtual reality applications to keep in touch with their instructors or to share knowledge (Alhasan et al., 2023;Elsaadany & Soliman, 2017). ...
... Introducing new technology such as IoT, artificial intelligence, and robots caused a significant shift in education (Rodney, 2020;Tan et al., 2018). The new model of education created by IoT opens new opportunities to higher educational institutions (Aldowah et al., 2017;Romero-Rodríguez et al., 2020;Yamao, 2020). Accordingly, these opportunities include innovation, creativity, connectivity, leadership, and knowledge-sharing (Banica et al., 2017;Leong & Letchumanan, 2019;Pervez et al., 2018). ...
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IoT is among the most recent innovation that is increasingly growing and being implemented in different areas like higher educational institutions. IoT supports faculty members and students in a dynamic learning environment and influences their collaboration and communication. This innovation has created new excitement and challenges for higher education professionals. Nevertheless, the literature on IoT context focuses more on the technical aspect of IoT and does not give more attention to the behavioral part that explains the users' behavioral intention toward IoT adoption. The main objective of this study is to find the crucial elements that affect students' intention to adopt IoT technologies in Saudi Arabia's higher education institutions. An extended approach based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), as well as six external factors: knowledge sharing (KS), mobility (MOB), interactivity (INTR), innovativeness (INNOV), training (TR), and virtual reality (VR) is offered to achieve this goal. This study employs a questionnaire method for evaluating students' perceptions toward various IoT applications or services used in a saudi higher educational institution. The study can help researchers further investigate the issues affecting IoT adoption in higher education. Also, it creates trustworthy literature to guide decision-makers to adopt IoT to improve and facilitate the learning process and to increase the adoption of IoT technologies academic context.
... The association of RFID tags, sensors, and actuators with each other has made this technology a modern and unique model [21]. IoT technologies are different from other technologies because they are everywhere and encourage people to come up with their own independent and smart solutions [41]. It has become a hot and interesting topic among investors in various fields [15]. ...
... The integration of new technology such as the IoT in elearning systems is a practical example of providing different smart services [37] for enhancing the learning process, achieving better outcomes, and decreasing cost and time [22,41]. IoT is the main supporter of the smart learning (eclassroom) environment via connecting physical and virtual objects, which makes it more scalable and efficient [10]. ...
... For IoT devices to work together, different types of protocols must be used on the sensor platform [17]. The network infrastructure, communications quality, and improvement of intelligent applications are the three important IoT requirements for achieving smart services [41]. ...
... Creating a conducive environment to align an organization with the voluminous data in various formats is a huge factor to consider when opting for the use of big data [11]. With data gathered from varied platforms such as mobile applications, desktop applications, web applications and social networks [11], there is need for a properly set technological environment [5], [10], [12]. The various end user devices also add to the complexities of handling big data [13]. ...
... The complexities call for investment in hardware and software that normally come at cost. Unfortunately, apart from the information technology and laboratory fees, most universities do not have a strategy for sharing costs and identifying the total cost of ownership for big data infrastructure [12]. It is therefore important that a systematic way of deriving these costs is designed. ...
... The implementation of the teaching and learning process in the institution is one factor that is crucial (Arkorful & Abaidoo, 2015). The influence of technological innovation continues to grow and impacts all industries, including education (Aldowah et al., 2017). In 2015-2020, implementing science, technology, and engineering in education was most widely used as a strategy and learning model (Farwati et al., 2021). ...
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The degree to which a person is seen as having the attitudes and traits necessary for success in studies in the future is known as e-learning management system (EMAS) ready. This study evaluated the EMAS preparation measure for medical students. The study's methodology makes use of the Borg and Gall five-step streamlined research design. The EMAS preparedness scale is measured using ten items and five dimensions. 117 students at the Faculty of Medicine, at a public university in Depok, Indonesia, were given the questionnaire. the relationship between the reliability test, Cronbach's Alpha, and the validity test, Pearson's Product Moment. These are the study's findings: All items had values of α .05, testing the instrument's validity on 10 item questions indicates that all question items are declared valid with a value greater than r table 0.1816. While test reliability indicates an alpha value of Cronbach 0.678, the tested instrument can be declared reliable or consistent. According to the results, ten items possessed high validity and reliability.
... The fourth is to realize the teaching and learning improvement process, where IoT is used to improve the pedagogical process. Likewise, Aldowah et al. [6] conducted another study to examine the impact of IoT on higher education. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the use of IoT in education positively affects the learning process. ...
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The smart campus is an educational campus concept that uses innovative technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, with integrated information systems to support learning, teaching and administrative activities. It is one of the important outputs of smart campus applications that these technologies support students, lecturers, and administrators by performing multi-tasking in multi-functional buildings. It is an important step to create smart classrooms with intelligent systems with the aim of developing a smart campus. For this reason, it is necessary to create smart classrooms for a smart campus and to expand it throughout the campus. In this study, it is aimed to monitor the environmental parameters in the classroom environments in real time and to develop a smart classroom concept that provides energy savings and air conditioning based on the analysis of these data. It is expected that an educational effect will occur on the attention span of the students through the automatic improvement of physical conditions as well as administrative convenience in terms of ensuring security and increasing savings in company with an efficient and applicable system architecture. In this study, tests were performed for 7 different scenarios and the best accuracy and sensitivity were calculated as 98%, and the best specifity as 100%.
... AI is providing real-time feedback when the data is available, thus making output and insights readily available time to the learner and improve how a learner learns in real-time, as such it has been a not to miss technology in learning and teaching (Aldowah, et al., 2017). AI is making the customized learning experiences for every learner, using the data obtained from the learner provides personalized feedback, an affordance that is much hard to be attained with human capabilities in a short time. ...
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