ArticlePDF Available

A REVIEW: SCOPE OF UTILIZING SEAWEED AS A BIOFERTILIZER IN AGRICULTURE

Authors:
  • V.P.SCI,COLLEGE,VALLABHVIDYANAGAR

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2046
Journal Homepage: - www.journalijar.com
Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/4941
DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/4941
RESEARCH ARTICLE
A REVIEW: SCOPE OF UTILIZING SEAWEED AS A BIOFERTILIZER IN AGRICULTURE.
Rinku V. Patel1, 2, Krishna Y. Pandya1, 2, Dr. R.T. Jasrai3 and *Dr. Nayana Brahmbhatt2.
1. Sophisticated Instrumentation Centre for Applied Research and Testing, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120,
Gujarat,India.
2. Department of Biology, V.P. & R.P.T.P. Science College, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh vidyanagar-388120,
Gujarat, India.
3. Department of Chemistry, R.K. Parikh Arts & Science College, Sardar Patel University, Petlad- 388450,
Gujarat, India.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………....
Manuscript Info Abstract
……………………. ………………………………………………………………
Manuscript History
Received: 24 May 2017
Final Accepted: 26 June 2017
Published: July 2017
Key words:-
Biofertilizer, seaweed, bio-diversity,
nutrient content, micro- macro elements
Biofertilizers offer a new eco-friendly technology which would
overcome short comings of the conventional chemical based farming.
Biofertilizers showed positive influence on both soil sustainability and
plant growth. Biofertilizers are not only the alternative to chemical
fertilizers but also tend to increase the soil fertility and plant
productivity which discuss in present review study. Seaweed plays an
important and vital role in the marine ecosystem and growing in large
amount in the sea. Seaweed can be regarded as a potential source of
bio-fertilizer in of dried or fresh form; it helps to enhance biochemical
constituents like carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, fibers, ash, phenol,
dietary fiber etc in plant. The seaweed also good source of micro &
macro elements required for plant nutrition. Seaweed extract is
effective for improves the quality of produce and soil conditioner.
This technology can be implemented in form of organic farming for
sustainable agriculture which is better solution for eco friendly
approach.
Copy Right, IJAR, 2017,. All rights reserved.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………....
Introduction:-
All plants need certain minerals nutrients to survive in environment. These minerals occur naturally in the soil and
are taken up from the soil by the roots of the plants. Most soil usually has enough of these minerals to keep plants
healthy. However, plants are gradually absorbed some nutrients or nutrients are washed out of the soil, and need to
be replaced to maintain optimal growth and development of the plants. Most common mineral nutrients that need
replacing are N, P, K. Fertilizers are manufactured by mixtures of products that contain N, P, K and other necessary
nutrients. The fertilizers are necessary to add in the soil because the nutrients in the soil get used up due to repeated
cultivation of the plant. The crop yield also starts decreasing so, in order of revive the fertility of the soil, fertilizers
are necessary. Fertilizers are divided in two types: (1) Chemical fertilizers and (2) Organic fertilizers.
The excessive uses of chemical fertilizers (man - made or synthetic composition) in agriculture are costly with
adverse effects on physico-chemical properties of soils, plant, animal and human life. Chemical fertilizers are more
resistant in the environment which in some cases is harmful to the environment- especially, on soil fertility and are
actually causing huge amount of soil and land degradation (Liu et al., 2009) because most of the microorganism
Corresponding Author:- Dr. Nayana Brahmbhatt.
Address:- Department of Biology, V.P. & R.P.T.P. Science College, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh
vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat, India.
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2047
decrease following the use of chemical fertilizers in increasing level (Katsunori, 2003). The ground water
contamination is the biggest issues faced during the use chemical fertilizers. In the soil nitrogen fertilizers breaks
down and converts into nitrates which are water soluble and travels easily through the soil and they can remain in
that position for decades and these accumulation is causing the problem. These accumulations of chemicals lead to
water pollution both surface and ground water.
Organic fertilizers are derived from natural products, which were once living organisms. Organic fertilizers are
generally slow-acting because they have to decompose and to become plant nutrients; however, this also means their
benefits are longer lasting. All natural nutrients to soil, increases soil organic matter, improves soil structure and
improves water holding capacity, reduces soil crusting problems, reduces erosion from water and wind, slow and
consistent release of nutrients.
Biofertilizer:-
The term of biofertilizer represent everything from manures to plant extracts. Biofertilizers consist of N fixers
(Rhizobium, Azotobacter, blue green algae, Azolla), phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and fungi (mycorrhizae)
which increase the supply or availability of macro (primary & secondary nutrient) and/or micro nutrients (growth
stimulus) to the target crop. Biofertilizers have shown great potential as a, renewable and environmental friendly
source of plant nutrient. Biofertilizers are ready to use and used as a live formation of beneficial microorganisms,
when it amended to seed, root or soil, it mobilizes the availability and utility of the microorganisms and thus the
power to improve the soil health and genesis to support microbial growth and vegetation.
Seaweed as a bio- fertilizer:-
Seaweeds are one of the most important marine sources of the world. The seaweed extract is available as fertilizer in
different forms such as SLF (Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers), LF (Liquid Fertilizers) and powder form of seaweed
manure have been used as a biofertilizer. In market, seaweed extracts available for several years as fertilizer
additives and beneficial results from their use have been reported (Booth, 1969).
The components of seaweed such as macro and micro- element nutrients, amino acids, vitamins, cytokinin, auxins,
and abscisic acid (ABA)- like growth substances affect cellular metabolism in treated plants to enhance growth and
crop yield. The use of natural seaweed as fertilizer has allowed for partial substitution of prevailing synthetic
fertilizer. Some studies have reported a wide range of beneficial effects of seaweed extract applications (like soil
drench, foliar spray, soil drench+foliar spray) on plants, such as improving moisture- (water holding capacity) and
by promoting growth of beneficial soil microbes enhanced soil health, which are conditioning substances of
secretion of soil and which are promote root growth and development, improve nutrient uptake by roots, promote
rooting of cutting, early flowering and increase fruit set & yield, elicit abiotic stress tolerance in plants, nematodes,
enhance defense against pests and diseases, bacterial and fungal pathogens.
Nutrient content and Bio-chemical parameter of Different seaweeds:-
Table 1:- The comparison of different seaweeds macro- nutrient content review as per some references
Name of seaweed
Type
N mg/g
P mg/g
K mg/g
Reference
Sargassum wightii
B
174.02
45.56
72.83
K. Divya et al., 2015
Sargassum crassifolium
B
0.4
0.009
1.520
S. Sutharsan et al., 2014
Padina pavonica
B
0.01090
0.00926
0.16013
Chabani et al., 2013
Dictyota dichotoma
B
175.02
44.56
71.84
K. Sasikumar et al., 2011
Laurencia obtuse
R
3.9
3.8
2
Safinaz and Ragaa et al., 2013
Corallina elongate
R
3.4
3.8
1.6
Jania rubens
R
4
3.5
1.6
Padina pavonica
B
0.07985
0.00069
0.00278
Chabani et al., 2015
Ulva linza
G
0.05716
0.00120
0.01265
Ulva lactuca
G
0.12609
0.00300
0.01634
Ulva lactuca
G
174.02
45.56
75.83
K. Divya et al., 2015
Whereas, G= Green Seaweed, B= Brown seaweed, R= Red Seaweed, N-Nitrogen content, P-Phosphorus content and
K-Potassium content
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2048
Table 2:- The comparison of different seaweed bio-chemical parameters review as per some references
Name of seaweed
Type
P %
C %
Ph%
L%
F%
A%
References
Chaetomorpha crassa
G
25.48
26.94
-
1.50
34.29
26.94
Pakawan
Setthamogkol et
al., 2015
Chaetomorpha linum
G
30.70
26.08
-
1.30
31.94
26.08
Gracillaria tenuistipata
R
26.13
41.45
-
0.75
12.21
41.45
Gracillaria fisheri
R
26.71
47.47
-
0.62
11.78
47.47
Caulerpa racemosa
G
23.42
48.10
-
0.67
6.68
48.10
Caulerpa branchypus
G
26.34
54.38
-
1.42
6.04
54.38
Caulerpa lentilifera
G
12.68
27.19
-
1.09
4.83
27.19
Caulerpa taxifolia
G
33.83
41.24
-
3.26
7.17
41.24
Ulva rigida
G
13.32
67.84
-
0.15
5.69
67.84
Monostroma latissimum
Wittrock
G
0.14
0.6
0.071
-
-
-
Nirmal Kumar J. I
et al., 2014
Cladophora sp.
G
0.12
0.73
0.066
-
-
-
Padina sp.
B
1.84
0.62
0.380
-
-
-
D.acrostichoides
B
0.04
0.7
0.21
-
-
-
Sargassum tenerimum
B
0.4
0.4
0.36
-
-
-
Sargassum cinctum J.
Agardh
B
0.13
0.63
0.26
-
-
-
Sargassum cinerrum
B
0.13
0.63
0.277
-
-
-
Caulerpa indica
B
0.14
0.92
0.27
-
-
-
Caulerpa trinoids
B
0.08
0.29
0.12
-
-
-
Dictyota dichotoma
Lamouroax
B
0.08
0.39
0.088
-
-
-
T. ornate
B
0.05
0.57
0.18
-
-
-
Gracillaria corticata J.
Agardh
R
0.19
0.225
0.96
-
-
-
Gracillaria
micropterum
R
0.09
0.29
0.1
-
-
-
Ulva lactuca
G
20.12
44.81
-
4.09
-
22.08
H. M. Khairy and
S. M. El. Shafay,
2013
Jania rubens
R
12.93
42.18
-
2.39
-
39.25
P. capillaceae
B
23.72
50.49
-
2.71
-
13.02
Enteromorpha
intestinalis
G
16.2
24
-
1.4
-
-
K. Manivannan
and G.
Thirumaran, 2008
Enteromorpha clathrata
G
11
23
-
4.5
-
-
Ulva lactuca
G
3
23
-
1.5
-
-
Codium tomentosum
G
6
20
-
2.5
-
-
Padina gymnospora
B
17
21
-
1.2
-
-
Colpomenia sinuosa
B
10.5
22
-
2.3
-
-
Sargassum tenerimum
B
12.0
24
-
1.2
-
-
Sargassum wightii
B
11
23.5
-
2.2
-
-
Turbinaria conoides
B
24
-
2.0
-
-
Gracilaria folifera
B
6
22.5
-
3.0
-
-
Hypnea valentiae
B
8
24
-
1.4
-
-
Acanthophora spififera
B
11.8
24
-
1.5
-
-
Ulva faciata
G
14.98
39.86
5.987
0.21
-
-
P. Anantharaman
et al., 2014
Chaetomorpha
antennina
G
13.45
34.96
6.342
0.34
-
-
Spyridia hypnoides
R
12.87
47.09
8.94
0.42
-
-
Amphiroa anceps
R
7.86
25.76
4.456
0.21
-
-
Sargassum wightii
B
16.34
54.09
16.482
0.51
-
-
Chnoospora maxima
B
9.87
55.86
19.351
0.54
-
-
Caulerpa racemosa
G
18.3
83.2
14.3
19.1
-
-
Rameshkumar S.
et al., 2013
Ulva faciata
G
14.7
70.1
18.1
0.5
-
-
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2049
Chnoospora minima
B
11.3
28.5
19.7
0.9
-
-
Padina gymnospora
B
10.5
38.3
32.3
11.4
-
-
Acanthopora spicefera
R
18.9
65.6
34.7
2.1
-
-
Laurencia obtusa
R
142.9
4
199.69
0.529
-
-
20.25
Funda Turan et
al., 2015
Laurencia papillosa
R
23.63
155.23
0.246
-
-
23.33
Jania rubens
R
13.82
374.02
0.053
-
-
26.50
Codium fragile
G
25.49
643.93
0.095
-
-
21.79
Ulva lactuca
G
56.76
506.69
0.221
-
-
12.37
Amphiroa fragilissima
R
7.31
18.77
-
-
3.52
-
Narasimman, S.
and K.
Murugaiyan, 2013
Whereas, P= Protein content, C= Carbohydrate content, L= Lipid content, F= Fiber content, A= Ash content, Ph=
Phenol content, TDF= Total Dietary Fiber, G= Green Seaweed, B= Brown seaweed, R= Red Seaweed
Table 3:- The comparison of micro and macro element of different seaweeds as per some references
Name of seaweed
Type
Fe mg/
100g
Zn
mg/
100g
Cu
mg/
100g
Mg
mg/
100g
K
mg/
100g
Na
mg/
100g
References
Caulerpa sp.
G
7.14±
0.27
3.41±
0.35
<0.55
949±
2.05
4411±
79.4
7042±
21.8
D. Krishnaiah et
al., 2008
Ulva lactuca
G
4.65±
0.41
1.87±
0.07
<0.55
560±
4.85
6026±
22.2
3901±
71.6
Sargassum sp.
B
6.83±
0.07
3.74±
0.30
<0.55
953±
2.52
10040±
32.1
4024±
25.1
Eucheuma
denticulate
R
6.45±
0.07
6.38±
0.45
<0.55
725±
3.70
3636
±72.6
4448±
45.1
Gracillaria sp.
R
3.65±
0.26
4.35±
0.34
<0.55
565±
3.51
3417
±76.3
5465±
27.4
Gelidiella acerosa
R
10.60±
0.34
5.25±
0.21
<0.55
657±
7.60
30.34
±41.6
3976±
18.1
Kappaphycus
alvarezii
R
5.47±
0.17
5.09±
0.14
<0.55
639±
2.90
3877
±25.1
3944±
52.0
Stoehospermum
marginatum
B
0.50
1.58
3.014
17.31
0.107
5.77
S. Sivasangari
Ramya et al., 2015
Cladophora
glomerata
G
27
0.57
0.9
60
-
-
P. Anatharaman et
al., 2010
Ulva reticulata
G
28
0.64
1.62
180
-
-
Halimeda
macroloba
G
59
0.72
1.42
115
-
-
Halimeda tuna
G
18.5
0.48
1.0
32
-
-
Dictyota dichotoma
B
20
0.47
0.85
105
-
-
Padina pavonica
B
34
0.64
1.38
80
-
-
Gracillaria crassa
R
24
0.57
1.0
80
-
-
Gelidiella acerosa
R
28
0.43
0.8
54
-
-
Hypnea
musciformis
R
40
0.53
0.095
86
-
-
Ulva pertusa
G
-
0.8±
0.2
1.0±
8.3
3670±
533
1224.1±
349.2
376.7
±63.3
Ommee Benjama
and Payap
Masniyom, 2011
Ulva intestinalis
G
-
1.5±
0.2
0.9±
0.3
3098±1
157.2
2538.6
±320.3
1064.5
±489.1
Whereas, G= Green Seaweed, B= Brown seaweed, R= Red Seaweed
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2050
Review of literature:-
Role of seaweed extract on seed germination, plant growth and yield:-
The treatment of seaweed extract increased the seed germination, seedling growth and yield of crop. Nerissa Ali et
al. (2016) observed the effect on grown under tropical field conditions with an alkaline seaweed extract made from
Ascophyllum nodosum (ASWE) on tomato plants (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill). In this study, two field
experiments and one greenhouse experiment were conducted to evaluate methods of application, dosage, the impact
of each on plant growth parameters, the quality and yield of fruit. The higher concentration of ASWE resulted in a
significant increase in plant height (37 %) and plant fruit yield (63 %) compared to control plants.
Rosalba Mireya Hernández-Herrera et al. (2014) have experimented the effect of different concentration of (0.2, 0.4,
and 1.0 %) liquid seaweed extracts (LSEs) made from two green seaweed viz. Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa sertularioides
and two brown seaweed viz. Padina gymnospora, and Sargassum liebmannii as biostimulants on the germination
and growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under greenhouse and in laboratory conditions using two application
of foliar spray and soil drench of LSEs. Ulva lactuca and Padina gymnospora at lower concentration (2%) showed
better germination. The better germination response in germination rate related with lower mean germination time,
maximum germination index and germination energy, and accordingly greater plumule and radicle length and
seedling vigour. Application of foliar spray was found to be less effective in plant height (75cm) than the soil drench
(up to 79cm).
Sivasangari Ramya et al. (2015) studied the effect on growth, biochemical and yield of brinjal by using liquid
extracts of brown marine alga Stoechospermum marginatum. The different concentrations of liquid extracts were
prepared and applied as foliar spray on the brinjal seedlings, raised in pots experimental with maintained under
natural conditions. Their results revealed that the number of fruits and fruit weight were increased at lower
concentration only (1.5 %). In contrast, liquid extracts at high concentration (5%) was found to have inhibitory
effect on brinjal plants as compared to the control sprayed with water.
Sutharsan et al., (2014) were experimented the effect of foliar application of Sargasssum crassifolium extract at
different concentration (concentration (10%, 20%, 50% and 100%) to apply on tomato plants at five times from 3
weeks after transplanting and the results was recorded after two weeks. At 20% of root dry weight (81.57%), shoot
dry weight (80.92%), fruit number (57.87%) and fruit yield per hectare (58.70%), along with fruit total acidity
(76.95%) and total soluble solids content (25.71%) of fruit significantly increased as compare to control, while all
mentioned parameters reduced at 100% of foliar application. Therefore, it concluded 20% concentration of seaweed
extract an be used to enhance the growth.
Safinaz and Ragaa, (2013) observed the effect of three species of red marine algae (Laurencia obtusa, Corallina
elongata and Jania rubens) and it‟s mixture to use as biofertilizer to enhance growth of Maize (Zea mays L.) plants.
The results indicated that the application of Laurencia obtusa + Jania rubens caused 48.21% increase in plant
length, 61.84% increase in potassium content and increase in number of leaves.
Emmanuel et al., (2015) were determined the impact of seaweed liquid extract (SLE) of Laurencia pinnatifida,
Surgassum duplicatum and Caulerpa scalpelliformis on seed germination and growth of the legume crop of Vigna
mungo. The effect on growth parameters of different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 %; v/v) of SLE
and the highest growth parameter was reported at 10 % concentration.
Mounir et al., (2015) were experimented the effect of seaweed extract (SWE) from two macroalgae species such as
Ulva rigida and Fucus spiralis on drought stress tolerance in green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In their
study, examination of growth parameters and some physiological and biochemical parameters showed that SWE
extract enhanced vegetative growth with and without under drought stress condition in bean plant. Maximum plant
height and dry weight were observed with 25 % of U. rigida and F. spiralis extract.
Fatma et al., (2014) were conducted the efficiency of using seaweeds (Padina vickersiae, Enteromorpha compressa,
Ulva fasciata, Gelidium crinale, Jania rubens and Laurencia obtusa) as biofertilizers for improving growth and
grain quality of maize (Zea maize L.) plants. Thus, using algae as biofertilizer improved growth, yield and grain
quality of maize plants.
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2051
Rao and Chatterjee (2014) were observed the effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer (SLF) of Gracilaria textorii and
Hypnea musciformis on seed germination, growth and yield parameters such as number of leaves, weight of fruits of
selected plants such as Brinjal, Tomato and Chilly and result to be effective in increasing the growth and yield in
low doses (1:4 and 1:6 conc.) than 1:2, higher concentrations and the control of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer.
Rinku et al., (2017) were determined the effect of Gracilaria corticata J Ag., Kappaphycus alvarezii and mixture of
both as a biopriming agents (different concentration of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% & 5%), that alters the responses of brinjal
and tomato vegetables seeds germination and better results was found at 4% concentration in all treatment.
Deviand and Mani (2015) conducted the different concentration of (2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10% and 15%) of fertilizer of
seaweed saps Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. on growth, yield and quality of rice Var. ADT 43 and
significantly higher growth, yield attributes and chlorophyll content were recorded at 15% Kappaphycus alvarezii
sap with 100% RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer) as compare to Gracilaria sp. sap with 100% RDF and the
grain was increased in both seaweed fertilizer treatment as compare to control.
Chitra and Sreeja (2013) studied the effect of Caulerpa peltata and Gracillaria corticata liquid extracts on seed
germination, growth and pigment content of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.). At low level of seaweed liquid
fertilizer application was promoted the seed germination and Gracillaria corticata extract was better than Caulerpa
peltataat 4% concentration of growth and pigment content.
Zodape et al., (2011) have determined the effect of Kappaphycus alvarezii sap (seaweed) with 5% concentration by
foliar spray on growth and yield of tomato in field during Kharif season of 2006-07. The result was reported to
increase in number of fruits per plant, size of fruit and yield of tomato fruit (60.89%) as compared to control.
El-Sheekh et al., (2000) were experimented the effect of three green seaweeds viz. Cladophora dalmatica,
Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactucaand three red seaweeds viz. Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, and
Pterocladia pinnata seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of „Fabe
beans‟ (Vicia faba L.). The crude extract from Cladophora dalmatica applied shows maximum increase in seed
germination, length of main root and shoot system and number of lateral root at 60% treatment. Protein content in
root and shoot systems, total soluble sugar and chlorophyll content of leaves increased in all crude extract of
seaweed. The cytokinin content of red seaweed was lower than in green seaweed.
Zodape et al., (2008) found effect of different concentration of (2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%) to obtain from
Kappaphycus alvarezii onyield and quality. In the result, significantly increased in length (31.77%) and diameter
(18.26%) of fruit, number of fruits (37.47%) and fruit yield (20.47%) per net plot and nutritional quality of
Okra(Abelmoschus esculentus L.) as compared to control.
Ayun Vinuba et al., (2008) were found the beneficial effects of liquid seaweed fertilizer (LSF) made from
Gracilaria corticata on seedling growth and biochemical parameters of pulses and cereals. LSF at 20%
concentration increased the morphological parameters such as the lengths of shoot and root fresh and dry weight, the
pigment of chlorophyll and protein contents Vigna mungo (black gram).
Rajasulochana et al., (2008) were found the effect of Ulva lactuca extract on the growth of Brassica juncea Hook. F,
Phaseolus mungo L. and Thomas and Trigonella foenum graceum L. In this experiment, positive response showed in
Phaseolus mungo and to promote over all seedling growth of the three test plants. The application of extract was
found to promote over all seedling growth of the three test plants.
Thirumaran et al., (2009) were experimented the effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) of Rosenvigea intricate
alone or mixing with synthetic NPK chemical fertilizer on seedling growth parameters, pigment contents, yield and
soil characters of „Ladies finger‟ [Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Medikus].Before sowing, the seeds of selected plant
were soaked in SLF of different concentrations (10 to 100%) for 12 hrs. The result shows that SLF of low
concentration 20 % promoted seedling growth, fruit yield and pigment contents and at higher concentrations of SLF
was noted minimum improvement in growth parameters.
Dogra and Mandradia (2012) was determined the effects of soil applications of different concentrations of seaweed
extract from Ascophyllum nodosum on growth, yield and downy mildew severity of onion during the Rabi season of
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2052
2009. The seaweed granules were applied as the basal dose (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 & 3.5 g/m2). The highest yield
recorded was with application of 2.5g/m2 followed by 3.0g/m2 that resulted in 120.8 per cent and 102.5 per cent
respectively compared to control.
Sridhar and Rengasamy (2002) were experimented the effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer derived from the green
seaweed Ulva lactuca to check its effect on physical & biochemical parameters and yield of Capsicum annum
(Chilly). The seaweed extract was resulted to improve maximum growth and yield at 1.0% concentration of SLF.
Conclusion:-
As per the above review studied seaweeds can be utilized as an excellent source of macro & micro nutrients, fibers,
ash, phenol, carbohydrates and higher content of plant growth hormones. Growth promoting substances released by
biofertilizers improve plant‟s physiological & biochemical parameters. In addition to these advantages, biofertilizers
are commercially promising too. They are also comparatively cheaper than the chemical fertilizers.
Acknowledgement:-
The authors are thankful to principal of our college Dr. B. D. Patel Sir for their thorough support & guidance.
References:-
1. Anantharaman P., Karthikaidevi G., Manivannan K., Thirumaran G. and Balasubramanian T. (2010): Mineral
Composition of Marine Macroalgae from Mandapam Coastal Regions; Southeast Coast of India Recent
Research in Science and Technology, 2(10): 66-71.
2. Anantharaman P., Saranya C., Parthiban C. (2014): Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of
seaweeds from Pondicherry coast. Adv in App Sci Res, 5(4): 82-90.
3. Asma Chbani, Hiba Mawlawi and Laurence Zaouk (2013): Evaluation of brown seaweed (Padina pavonica) as
biostimulants of plant growth and development. Afri J of Agri Res, 8(13): 1155-1165. DOI:
10.5897/AJAR12.1346
4. Asma Chbani, Sandy Majed, Hiba Mawlawi (2015): Mineral Content of Mediterranean Seaweeds, Padina
pavonica L. (Pheophytae, Ulva lactuca L. and Ulva linza L. (Chlorophytae) for biofertilizing use. Inter J of
Horti Sci and Tech, 2 (2): 133-140.
5. Ayun Vinuba, Pinky VR and Prakash JW (2008): Effects of seaweed extract on growth and biochemical
parameters of black gram. Plant Archives, 8(1): 211-214.
6. Bhavanath, J., Reddy, C R K., Thakur, M C., and Rao, U M. (2009): Seaweeds of India: The diversity and
distribution of seaweeds of the Gujarat coast. Developments in Applied Phycology, Springer, Dordrecht, 3(XII):
216.
7. Booth, E. (1969): The manufacture and properties of liquid seaweed extracts. Proc. Int. Seaweed Symp, 6: 622-
655.
8. Chitra G. and Sreeja P. S. (2013): A Comparative Study on the effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers on the
growth and yield of Vigna radiata (L.). Nat Env and Poll Tech, 12 (2): 359-362.
9. Devi N. L. and ManiS. (2015): Effect of seaweed saps Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria on Growth, Yield
and Quality of Rice. Ind J of Sci and Tech, 8(19): 47610, ISSN (Print): 0974-6846.
10. Dhargalkar V. K. & Deshmukhe G. V. (1996): Subtidal marine algae of the Dwaraka Coast (Gujarat). Ind J of
Mari Sci, 25: 297-301.
11. Divya K., Mary Roja N. and Padal S.B. (2015): Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer of Sargassum wightii on
germination, growth and productivity of brinjal. Inter J of Adv Res in Sci, Engi and Tech, 2(10): 868
871.www.ijarset.com
12. Divya K., Mary Roja N. and Padal S.B. (2015): Influence of seaweed liquid fertilizer of Ulva lactuca on the
seed germination, growth, productivity of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.). Inter J of Pharma Res, 5(12): 344-346
www.ssjournals.com, DOI: 10.7439/ijpr.
13. Dogra B.S. and Rakesh K Mandradia (2012): Effect of seaweed extract on growth and yield of onion. Inter J of
Farm Sci, 2(1): 59-64.
14. Duduka Krishnaiah, Rosalam Sarbatly, D. M. R. Prasad and Awang Bono (2008): Mineral content of some
seaweeds from Sabah‟s south china sea. Asi J of Sci Res, 1:166-170. DOI:10.3923/ajsr.2008.166.170
15. El-Sheekh M. M. and El-Saied AEDF (2000): Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling
growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L. Cytobios, 101(396): 23-35.
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2053
16. Emmanuel Joshua Jebasingh S., Lakshmikandan M., Vasanthakumar P., Sivaraman K. (2015): Improved
Seedling Growth and Seed Germination in Legume Crop Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper Utilizing Marine Macro
Algal Extracts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 85(2):
643-651.
17. Fatma M. Ai-Shakankery, Ragaa A. Hamonda and Ammar M.M. (2014): The promotive effect of different
concentrations of marine algae as biofertilizers on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) plants. J of che, bio
and phy Sci, Sec. B., 4(4): 3201-3211.
18. Funda Turan, Senem Ozgun, Selin Sayın, Gul Ozyılmaz (2015): Biochemical composition of some red and
green seaweeds from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. J. Black
Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 21(3): 239-249.
19. Isaiah Nirmal Kumar, Megha Barot, Rita Kumar (2014): Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of
selected seaweeds from Okha coast, Gujarat. Ind J of Coa Life Medi, 2(7): 535-540
doi:10.12980/JCLM.2.201414J26.
20. Katsunori, S. (2003): Sustainable and environmentally sound land use in rural areas with special attention to
land degradation: APFED.
21. Khairy H.M., El-Shafay S.M. (2013): Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common
seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. Oceanologia 55(2): 435-452.
22. Krishnamurthy, V. and Joshi H.V. (1970): A checklist of Indian marine algae. Central salt and Marine
chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, pp.39.
23. Liu Yu, Zhang Jun-biao, Jiang DU. (2009): Factors Affecting Reduction of Fertilizer Application by Farmers:
Empirical Study with Data from Jianghan Plain in Hubei Province.
24. Manivannan, K., Thirumaran, G., Karthikai Devi, G., Hemalatha, A. and Anantharaman, P. (2008):
Biochemical Composition of Seaweeds from Mandapam Coastal Regions along Southeast Coast of India. Ame-
Eur J of Bot, 1: 3237.
25. Megha Barot, Nirmal Kumar J. I., Rita N. Kumar (2015): Seaweed Species Diversity in Relation to Hydro
Chemical Characters of Okha Coast, Western India. Int J of Rec Res and Re, 8 (3): 16-28.
26. Mounir Mansori, Halima Chernane, Salma Latique, Abdelali Benaliat, Driss Hsissou, Mimoun El Kaoua
(2015): Seaweed extract effect on water deficit and antioxidative mechanisms in bean plants (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.). J of App Phy, 27(4): 1689-1698.
27. Narasimman, S and Murugaiyan K. (2013): Biochemical and Mineral contents of selected Green Seaweeds
from Gulf of Mannar Coastal region, Tamilnadu, India. Int J of Res in plant sci, 3(4): 96-100, ISSN 2249-9717.
http://www.urpjournals.com.
28. Nerissa Ali, Aidan Farrell, Adesh Ramsubhag, Jayaraj Jayaraman (2016): The effect of Ascophyllum nodosum
extract on the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato grown under tropical conditions. J of App Phy, 28: 1353-
1362. DOI 10.1007/s10811-015-0608-3.
29. Ommee Benjama and Payap Masniyom (2011): Nutritional composition and physiochemical properties of two
green seaweeds (Ulva pertusa and U. intestinalis) from the Pattani Bay in Southern Thailand Songklanak. J.
Sci. Tech, 33(5): 575-583. http://www.sjst.psu.ac.in.
30. Pakawan Setthamongkol, Suriyan Tunkijjanukij, Kriengkrai Satapornvanit and Jintana Salaenoi (2015): Growth
and Nutrients Analysis in Marine Macroalgae Kasetsart J. Nat. Sci, 49: 211-218.
31. Rajasulochana, N., Josmin Laali Nisha L.L. and Leelavathy. A. (2008): Effect of Ulva lactuca extract on the
growth of Phaseolus mungo L., Brassica juncea Hook. F. and Thomas and Trigonella foenum graceum L. Ind
Hydro, 11(2): 275 279.
32. Rameshkumar, S., Ramakritinan, C. M., and Yokeshbabu, M. (2013): Proximate composition of some selected
seaweeds from Palk bay and Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu, India. Asi J of Biome and Pharma Sci, 3(16): 1-5.
33. Rao G. M. N. and Chatterjee R. (2014): “Effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer from Gracilaria textorii and
Hypnea musciformis on Seed Germination and Productivity of Some Vegetable Crops”. Uni J of Plant Sci, 2(7):
115-120, http://www.hrpub.org
34. Rinku V. Patel, Krishna Y. Pandya, R.T. Jasrai and Nayana Brahmbhatt (2017): Effect of hydropriming and
biopriming on seed germination of Brinjal and Tomato seed. Res. J. Agriculture and Forestry Sci. 5(6): 1-14.
35. Rosalba Mireya Hernández-Herrera, Fernando Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, Mario Alberto Ruiz-López, Jeffrey Norrie,
Gustavo Hernández-Carmona (2014): Effect of liquid seaweed extracts on growth of tomato seedlings (Solanum
lycopersicum L.). J of App Phy, 26(1): 619-628.
36. Safinaz, A. F. and Ragaa, A. H. (2013): “Effect of some red marine algae as biofertilizers on growth of maize
(Zea mayz L.) plants”. Int Food Res J, 20(4): 1629-1632.
ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(7), 2046-2054
2054
37. Sasikumar K, Govindan T, Anuradha C. (2011): Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer of Dictyota dichotoma on
growth and yield of Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Eur J Exp Biol 1: 223-227.
38. Sasikumar K., Govindan T. and Anuradha C. (2011): Effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer of Dictyota
dichotoma on growth and yield of Abelmoschus esculantus L. Eur J of Exp Bio, 1(3): 223-227,
www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com
39. Sivasangari Ramya S., Vijayanand N., Rathinavel S. (2015): Foliar application of liquid biofertilizer of brown
alga Stoehospermum marginatum on growth, biochemical and yield of Solanum melongena. Int J of rec of org
was in agri, 4(3): 167-173.
40. Sridhar, S. and R. Rengasamy (2002): Effect of Seaweed liquid fertilizer obtained from Ulva lactuca on the
biomass, pigments and protein content of Spirulina platensis. Sea Res Utili, 24: 145-149.
41. Sutharsan S., Nishanthi S., and Srikrishnah S. (2014): “Effects of Foliar Application of Seaweed (Sargassum
crassifolium) Liquid Extract on the Performance of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. In Sandy Regosol of
Batticaloa District Sri Lanka”. Ameri-Eur J. Agric. & Env. Sci., 14(12): 1386-1396.
42. Thirumaran G., Arumugam M., Arumugam R., Anantharaman P. (2009): Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer on
growth and pigment concentration of Abelmoschus esculentus (I) Medikus. Am Euras J Agron, 2: 5766.
43. Untawale, A.G., Dhargalkar V.K. and Agadi. V.V. (1983): A checklist of marine algae from India. National
Institute of Oceanography, Goa. Tech. Rep. pp. 42.
44. Zodape S. T., Abha Gupta, Bhandari S. C., Rawat U. S., Chaudhary D. R., Eswaran K. and Chikara J. (2011):
“Foliar application of seaweed sap as biostimulant for enhancement of yield and quality of tomato
(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)”. J of Sci & Ind Res, 219: 215-219, http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR.
45. Zodape S. T., Kawarkhe V. J., Patolia J. S., Warade A. D. (2008): Effect of liquid seaweed fertilizer on yield
and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). J of Sci & Ind Res, 67: 1115-1117.
... Seaweeds are available on the market as biofertilizers in different forms such as seaweed liquid fertilizers (SLF) and a powder form of seaweed manure [27]. This natural seaweed fertilizer may partially substitute the prevailing synthetic fertilizer. ...
... Moreover, other beneficial effects of seaweed extract applications on plants such as improving water holding capacity and enhancement of the growth of beneficial soil microbes have also been documented. Eventually, all of these contribute to soil conditioning, leading to the promotion of root development, better nutrient uptake by the roots, early flowering and increased fruit formation and yield, and enhancing abiotic stress tolerance and defense against pests, diseases, and microorganisms [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seaweeds have received huge interest in recent years given their promising potentialities. Their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, hypolipemic, and anticoagulant effects are among the most renowned and studied bioactivities so far, and these effects have been increasingly associated with their content and richness in both primary and secondary metabolites. Although primary metabolites have a pivotal importance such as their content in polysaccharides (fucoidans, agars, carragenans, ulvans, alginates, and laminarin), recent data have shown that the content in some secondary metabolites largely determines the effective bioactive potential of seaweeds. Among these secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds feature prominently. The present review provides the most remarkable insights into seaweed research, specifically addressing its chemical composition, phytopharmacology, and cosmetic applications.
... An alga is a collection of marine producers that function as a support system for other marine species and as a source of biomass in the marine food chain [1]. Algae can be found in a range of sizes and colors, and their abundance can be dispersed according to the environment [2]. Algae can develop without a root, stem, or leaves and can grow in a wide range of ecosystems, from the deep sea to oceans with a depth of less than 100 cm, in swampy areas, freshwater areas, and estuaries [3]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thin-layer chromatography, TLC is a method for screening phytochemical components in a sample that allows all chemicals and samples on a plate to be recognized at the same time. The goal of this study was to determine the chemical composition fingerprint of Sargassium spp., Turburinaria spp., Gracilaria salicomia, Undaria pinnatifida, Hydrilla verticillate, Limnophila heterophylla, Ceratophylllum demersum, Utricularia aurea, and Vallisneria americana, as well as the antioxidant response to DPPH on the TLC plate. The chemical components of macroalgae were separated on TLC plates by using a mobile phase containing toluene, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, and glacial acetic acid in a ratio of 35: 5: 15: 0.15, and oxidative reaction on TLC was calculated using integrated density ImageJ. The ROI intensity of the DPPH reaction in U. pinnatifida was 140404.7, 133925.0, 596163.9 at Rf 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2, respectively; it was 162003.25 at Rf 0.3 in V. americana, and it was 693004.5, 120965.34 at Rf 0.4 and 0.3 in L. heterophylla. The antioxidant activity of green algae would be high in intensity, and it would be particularly effective in the U. pinnatifida fingerprint. The results showed that the TLC approach may be used to screen compounds and their responses to DPPH in macroalgae to determine early antioxidant activity.
... These findings could help to improve photosynthetic electron transport [69], pigment biosynthesis [70], and the interface with the thylakoid membrane surface [71]. Using seaweed extract as fertilizers increases the seed germination, seedling growth, and yield of the crop [72]. The micro-green alga Scenedesmus obliquus promoted banana plants' growth with regard to shoot and root length and weight [73]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seaweeds can play a vital role in plant growth promotion. Two concentrations (5 and 10 mg/mL) of soluble polysaccharides extracted from the green macroalgae Ulva fasciata and Ulva lactuca were tested on Zea mays L. The carbohydrate and protein contents, and antioxidant activities (phenols, ascorbic, peroxidase, and catalase) were measured, as well as the protein banding patterns. The soluble polysaccharides at 5 mg/mL had the greatest effect on the base of all of the parameters. The highest effects of soluble polysaccharides on the Zea mays were 38.453, 96.76, 4, 835, 1.658, 7.462, and 38615.19, mg/mL for carbohydrates, proteins, phenol, µg ascorbic/mL, mg peroxidase/g dry tissue, and units/g tissue of catalase, respectively. The total number of protein bands (as determined by SDS PAGE) was not changed, but the density of the bands was correlated to the treatments. The highest band density and promoting effect were correlated to 5 mg/mL soluble polysaccharide treatments extracted from Ulva fasciata in Zea mays, which can be used as a biofertilizer.
... Seaweed extract is used as a fertilizer in different forms such as seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) and powder form manure. The seaweed components are micro-and macronutrients, amino acids, vitamins, auxins, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA), and other substances which play a crucial role in plant growth and crop yield [27,28]. These extracts have increased crop yield, seed germination, resistance to fungal disease, and insect attack [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate seaweeds/seagrass as a biofertilizer/biostimulant in plant growth and yield. The surplus use of commercial chemical fertilizer and pesticides has an adverse effect on water and soil quality. The consequences lead to an indirect toxic effect on humans. Among different sources, marine seaweeds/seagrass is an alternate source for organic fertilizers to enhance and to restore soil fertility. We aimed to develop organic fertilizer/biostimulant from seaweeds (Sargassum, Turbinaria ornata (TO), Halimeda microloba (HM)) and seagrass. In our experiment, soil and irrigation water quality were analyzed before lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds were sown for germination. The seaweeds/seagrass macro- and micronutrients as well as phytohormones (salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (ZE), and gibberellic acid (GA)) were analyzed by calorimetry and LC–MS/MS respectively. The plants were grown in soil supplemented with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of seaweeds/seagrass by two methods (soil drench (SD) and foliar spray (FS)) of application, whereas the control group was without any treatment. The plant growth, chlorophyll, and yield were analyzed. Silt clay loamy soil exhibits water percolation of 3.0 min and water holding capacity of 18%. Water suitable for irrigation contains HCO3, Cl, SO4, Mg, and Ca. Nitrogen content (402 mg/L) and phosphorus (60 mg/L) were increased in TO than those in other seaweeds. Similarly, potassium level (35.4 mg/L), calcium content (86.1 mg/L), magnesium (36 mg/L), and amino acid (102 mg/L) were found more in seagrass. SA, ABA, and JA elicit more in Sargassum than the other sources, with a lesser amount of GA and ZE. Seagrass was enriched in IAA, ZE, GA, JA, SA, and ABA, whereas GA was found more in HM with lesser amounts of SA, ABA, ZE, and JA. SD application of TO shows increased number of flowers, number of pods, and length and weight of pods as compared to those in FS. SD application of HM resulted in increase in growth and yield. FS treatment of Sargassum elicits enhanced growth and number of pods, but length and weight of pods were increased in SD. FS application of seagrass has shown to increase the number of flowers and pods as compared to SD, whereas length and weight of pods were significantly increased in SD than those in FS. However, seagrass elicits the highest in yield than the seaweeds. Seaweeds/seagrass is an alternate source of organic fertilizer/biostimulant for organic farming.
... In addition to the presence of soluble carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, fat, several mineral nutrients and bioactive molecules of antioxidant and osmoprotectant properties which are essential parts of the seaweeds composition, enhance plant growth (Hernández-Herrera et al. 2014;Ismail and El-Shafay 2015;Ismail 2017). According to Erulan et al. (2009);Patel et al. (2017), and Melo et al. (2020), these organic compounds enclosed in seaweeds are cheap, abundant, and eco-friendly for sustainable farming, besides being valuable to maintaining P soil fertility. The same explanation was also applied to the recorded high increase in the radish plant morphological criteria of the root and shoot as well as their leaf area measurements, which indicated a better tolerance of the plants to the stress of the heavy metal in the soil compared to control plants. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effect of Ulva fasciata and Sargassum lacerifolium seaweeds as heavy metal remediators for soil and on the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The soil was inoculated by dry biomass of each seaweed alone and by their mixture. Seaweeds inoculation increased the organic matter content, clay-size fraction, and nutrients in the soil. Seaweeds mixture treatment caused a significant reduction in the contents of Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in the soil samples and reduced them to the tolerable limits (40.2, 49.3, 43.8 and 1.1 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), while Cd, Cr, Fe, and Mn contents were closely decreased to the tolerable limits. Biosorption of soil heavy metals by seaweeds decreased the bioaccumulated concentrations of metals in radish plant roots and/or translocated to its shoots compared to control. For seaweeds mixture-treated soil, cultivated radish roots were able to phyto-extract Cd, Cu, Cr, and Ni from the soil (bioaccumulation factor values > 1) of 7.45, 1.18, 3.13, and 26.6, respectively. Seaweeds inoculation promoted the growth of cultivated radish and improved the germination percentage and the morphological and biochemical growth parameters compared to control plants. The achieved soil remediation by dried seaweeds might be due to their efficient metal biosorption capacity due to the existence of active functional groups on their cell wall surfaces. Increased growth observed in radish was as a result of nutrients and growth hormones (gibberellins, indole acetic acid, and cytokinins) present in dried seaweeds. This study shows the efficiency of seaweeds as eco-friendly bioremediators for controlling soil pollution.
Chapter
The large-scale application of chemical fertilizers can pollute the environment and reduce soil fertility. Therefore, it is very necessary to use environmentally-friendly fertilizers with high nutritional value as well as compatibility with soil and environment. One of the important aspects of nanotechnology in agriculture is the use of fertilizers supplying macro- and micronutrients to the plants. Nutrient deficiency in agricultural soils has led to a significant reduction in crop productivity and great economic losses in agriculture. Nanotechnology can help to improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization through mechanisms such as targeted delivery and controlled release as well as reduce the cost of environmental pollution by making nano-biofertilizers. Nanofertilizers in combination with biofertilizers have many advantages and open new approaches to sustainable agriculture. Nano-biofertilizers decrease mineral losses in fertilizing and increase the yield during mineral management as well as supporting agriculture development. Furthermore, nano-biofertilizers increase soil moisture and fertility as well as provide the essential nutrients for the plants through microbial regeneration with using the bioorganic component containing plant growth promoters, rhizoremediation, and disease resistance. In this chapter, we emphasize on the effects of nano-biofertilizers on improving the nutritional dynamics in soil and plant systems for sustainable management of crop products.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was evaluation of the effect of aging germination and activity of antioxidant enzymes in seeds of Allium cepa L. and Brassica oleracea var capitata with seed priming treatment. In the present paper the different seaweed extract from Ulva lactuca L. (G1), U. reticulata forsskal (G2), Padina pavonica L. (B3), Sargassum johnstonii Setchell & Gardner (B4), Kappaphycus alvarezii (R5) and Gracillaria corticata J. Ag. (R6) was applied as seed priming and performed prior to accelerated ageing treatment with the investigation of activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during accelerated aging. Our result indicates that to enhance germination characteristics in aged seeds with priming treatment also reveals positive effect of seed priming on the germination percentage, vigour index, seedling length and antioxidant activity of enzyme. The highest germination percentage, vigour index, seedling length and enzyme activity were achieved in given priming treatment with aging (12 day of aging) as compared to control condition (0 day of aging).
Article
Full-text available
The challenges faced by the agriculture sector are immense, today. The growing agricultural practices need more fertilizers for higher yield. At present, wide spread requirement for environment friendly agriculture for the production of quality and healthy food to nourish the increasing population is in high demand. Efforts are underway for the sustainable way of crop production with organic fertilizers and botanicals from natural resources to enhance the production of commercially important crops. In this regard, a field experiment was conducted at the Crop Farm of Eastern University, Sri Lanka, Vantharumoolai to find out the effects of seaweed (Sargassum crassifolium) extract foliar application on growth, yield and quality performances of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five treatments and four replications. Once a week the seaweed extract at different concentration (10%, 20%, 50% and 100%) were applied to tomato plants at five times from three weeks after transplanting and their performance was recorded once in two weeks. Foliar application of Sargasssum crassifolium extract had significant (p<0.05) effects on tested parameters of Tomato over the control. Seaweed extract with 20% of foliar application increased shoot dry weight (80.92%), root dry weight (81.57%), fruit number (57.87%), fruit yield per hectare (58.70%) along with Total Soluble Solids (25.71%) and Total acidity (76.95%) content of fruit significantly over the control, while seaweed extract with 100% of foliar application reduced above mentioned parameters significantly over the control in Tomato plants. Therefore, it could be concluded that the seaweed extract at 20% concentration level can be used to enhance the growth, yield and quality of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
Article
Full-text available
An innovative horticulture nutrient and biodegradable support is described in this paper for replacing plastic culture pots. This support is prepared with Luffa aegyptica, plant having a water holding capacity higher than that of the regular soil and that is also biodegradable. Brown seaweed Padina pavonica was incorporated as an organic fertilizer of plant growth. Chemical analysis of the aqueous extract of this alga showed the presence of macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) necessary for development and growth of plants. Agar-agar was added as a solidifying agent. A medium containing only soil and another containing soil with chemical fertilizer served as controls. Sunflower seeds grown in medium supplemented with brown seaweed; (P. pavonica + agar (4% or 6%) + L. aegyptica have a growth rate (length and diameter of the stem, number of leaves) that is slower than the plants grown in a medium with a comparable amount of the soil with chemical fertilizer. However, the plants in the soil and others in the soil with chemical fertilizer and the media (seaweed + L. aegyptica + agar 4%) have not completed their growth while the plants grown in the media (seaweed + L. aegyptica + agar 6%) continued to grow. A biodegradability test showed that a piece of support (seaweed + agar 1.5% + L. aegyptica) presented a degradation rate higher than the support with only Luffa and agar 1.5%, while a piece of plastic had not degraded. The results of our study have shown that this support has helped to extend the duration of growth and enhanced the quality of the plants. Ultimately, the fabricated support presented fertilizer properties, water retention and biodegradability and could serve in horticulture as an alternative to plastic pots and chemical fertilizer.
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology Vol. 2, No. 2; December 2015, pp 133-140 Mineral Content of Mediterranean Seaweeds, Padina pavonica L. (Pheophytae , Ulva lactuca L . and Ulva linza L . (Chlorophytae ) for Biofertilizing Use Asma Chbani*, Sandy Majed, Hiba Mawlawi Laboratory of Applied Biotechnology for Biomolecules, Biotherapy and Bioprocess, Doctoral School for Sciences and Technology, Azm Centre for Research in Biotechnology and its Application, Lebanese University, El Miten Street, Tripoli, Lebanon. (Received: 21 June 2014, Accepted: 27 June 2015) Abstract Nowadays, organic fertilizers play an important role in agriculture. They are progressively substituting chemical fertilizers to prevent their harmful impact on human health and the environment. They provide high yield, better quality products and a shorter period of harvesting crops. In this study, the mineral elements: primary macronutrient (N, PO3- and K+), secondary macronutrient: (Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO2-), micronutrient (Na+ and Cl-), alkalinity (HCO3-) and other elements (NO2- and NO-), of three seaweeds were determined: chlorophytae (Ulva lactuca, Ulva linza) and phaeophytae (Padina pavonica). The nitrogen content was the most abundant element in the three Mediterranean seaweeds [79.85 - 57.16 - 126.09 [×10³ mg L-1], respectively, with a maximum to the chlorophytae U. lactuca. This is true also for other macroelements (K and P); their values are higher in green seaweed than the brown Padina pavonica. Secondary elements (Ca and Mg) also show higher values in green algae, with a maximum value in Ulva lactuca. There is no significant difference concerning the values of microelements Na+ and Cl- between green and brown algae. The values of nitrite and nitrate are equivalent for the two green algae, while these items are virtually nonexistent in the brown algae. In conclusion, interesting values of the green alga Ulva lactuca could suggest the use of aqueous extract of this alga such as biofertilizant. Keywords: Biofertilizer, biostimulant, minerals composition.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of some red and green seaweed or macroalgae collected from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Totally five seaweed samples, three red (Jania rubens, Laurencia papillosa, Laurencia obtusa) and two green (Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile), were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from L. obtusa (142.94±3.24 mg g-1) whereas the lowest protein content was obtained from J. rubens (13.82±0.58 mg g-1). The carbohydrate yields of macroalgae varied from 155.23±1.79 to 643.93±4.68 mg g-1, the maximum carbohydrate concentration was recorded from green alga, C. fragile, (643.93±4.68 mg g-1) followed by green alga, U. lactuca, (506.69±9.19 mg g-1). The total phenolic contents of seaweed varied from 0.053±0.01 to 0.529±0.11 mg g-1 and the maximum phenolic substance content was recorded from L. obtusa (0.529±0.11 mg g-1). The green alga, U. lactuca, showed the highest Chlorophyll-a and Carotene content (2.905±0.12 and 0.941±0.04 mg g-1 respectively) among these seaweeds. According to the results obtained from this study, these macroalgae species, especially L. obtusa from red algae and U. lactuca from green algae can be regarded as a potential source for food, pharmacology and cosmetic industry.
Article
Full-text available
Macroalgae are one of the most important marine, living, renewable resources and are used for human consumption, animal feed and fertilizer in many countries. Nine species of macroalgae belonging to the Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta divisions—Chaetomorpha crassa, Chaetomorpha linum, Ulva rigida, Caulerpa racemosa, Caulerpa brachypus, Caulerpa lentillifera, Caulerpa taxifolia, Gracilaria tenuistipitata and Gracilaria fisheri—were cultured in a closed system with Guillard’s f/2 medium for 3 wk. After rearing, C. lentillifera achieved the highest mean (± SD) growth rate, followed by U. rigida and C. crassa at 7.28 ± 0.69, 2.66 ± 0.83 and 2.64 ± 0.91 g.d-1, respectively. In addition, C. taxifolia had the highest mean (± SD) protein 33.83 ± 0.21% and lipid 3.26 ± 0.44% contents, and the maximum mean (± SD) carbohydrate 67.84 ± 0.04%, fiber 34.29 ± 0.40% and ash 47.80 ± 0.87% contents were found in U. rigida, C. crassa and C. lentillifera, respectively. Knowledge of the essential compositions in the macroalgae could lead to the potential development of novel seaweed products in the future.
Article
Marine algae are one of the renewable and economically valuable sea wealth. Different forms of seaweed preparations such as seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) also known as liquid seaweed fertilizer (LSF) have been used as bio-fertilizers and reported to produce beneficial effects on pulses and cereals. The present study deals with the effect of seaweed extract prepared from Gracilaria corticala on seedling growth and biochemical parameters of Vigna mungo L. (Black gram). SLF at 20 percent concentration increased the morphological parameters like length of shoot and root and fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, the pigment and protein content. The other concentrations showed declining trend.
Article
The effect of liquid extracts of two seaweeds, Caulerpa peltata and Gracilaria corticata on seed germination, growth and pigment contents of Greengram (Vigna radiata L.) was studied. The extracts promoted seed germination at lower levels of seaweed liquid fertilizer application. The plant treated with 4% seaweed liquid fertilizer of Gracilaria corticata showed maximum shoot length, root length, number of leaves, number of fruits, number of root nodules, chlorophyll contents (a,b and total chlorophyll).