Theoretical models of human development suggest that talent identification and development research has not to date comprehensively considered their multivariate propositions and longitudinal research designs. This chapter aims to illustrate the significance of such methodological approaches by synthesizing and reviewing the existing longitudinal studies in physiology, psychological, and technical and tactical development areas. Findings do highlight a growing body of descriptive prospective and explanatory longitudinal studies. Future research needs to develop from these contributions, and so fundamental conceptual, methodological and analytical issues are highlighted in a final section. If achieved, it is predicted that more informative and novel contributions will occur leading to greater impact on both fields of research and practice.