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Longitudinal studies of athlete development: Their importance, methods and future considerations.

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Abstract

Theoretical models of human development suggest that talent identification and development research has not to date comprehensively considered their multivariate propositions and longitudinal research designs. This chapter aims to illustrate the significance of such methodological approaches by synthesizing and reviewing the existing longitudinal studies in physiology, psychological, and technical and tactical development areas. Findings do highlight a growing body of descriptive prospective and explanatory longitudinal studies. Future research needs to develop from these contributions, and so fundamental conceptual, methodological and analytical issues are highlighted in a final section. If achieved, it is predicted that more informative and novel contributions will occur leading to greater impact on both fields of research and practice.

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... Coaches' perceptions are crucial to assessing players' psycho-social capacities 68 Chapter 5 (Musculus & Lobinger, 2018). Earlier studies have shown that coaches' perceptions have a high prospective validity due to their holistic nature (Sieghartsleitner, Zuber, Zibung, & Conzelmann, 2019;Till et al., 2017). ...
... This indicates that the relative age effect is influenced by factors such as experience and cognitive and social-emotional development. A potentially even greater effect can be caused by individual variation in biological maturity (Till et al., 2017). This variation could be up to six years (Till et al., 2017) and increases with competitive level. ...
... A potentially even greater effect can be caused by individual variation in biological maturity (Till et al., 2017). This variation could be up to six years (Till et al., 2017) and increases with competitive level. In a recent study, Johnson and colleagues (2017) showed that the effect of maturity increases with age. ...
Thesis
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This thesis provided answers on four main questions. The answers on these questions shed new light on the understanding of the underlying processes of talent identification and talent development. I belief that not only those children with capacities to become successful in sport benefit of our studies, but all children. PE teachers and sport coaches working with young children should focus on the development of the six capacities. Well-developed capacities enable children to get the most out of their own abilities and have them experience the pleasure and excitement sport can offer.
... A interpretação robusta do contexto exige, portanto, uma análise longitudinal em que vários fatores são considerados, avaliados, e onde mais do que respostas concretas e passíveis de generalização se procuram e detalham os comos e os porquês de determinada intervenção pedagógica (i.e., abordagem interpretativa; Cobley & Till, 2017). De facto, mais do que perceber o que mudou no planeamento ou na avaliação, importa ter informação acerca das possíveis razões que levaram a tal mudança e como é que essa mesma mudança foi operacionalizada em contextos reais de prática. ...
... Regarding the assessment process, the familiarisation of the observer with a flexible and dynamic assessment instrument constitutes a barrier to be recognized. The detailed study of the assessment instrument, and the conception of its adaptations in a close relation with what was changed in the and why of a given pedagogical intervention (i.e., interpretive approach; Cobley & Till, 2017). In fact, more than understanding what changed in the planning or assessment, it is relevant to have information about the possible reasons that led such change and how it was operationalised in real contexts of practice. ...
... A interpretação robusta do contexto exige, portanto, uma análise longitudinal em que vários fatores são considerados, avaliados, e onde mais do que respostas concretas e passíveis de generalização se procuram e detalham os comos e os porquês de determinada intervenção pedagógica (i.e., abordagem interpretativa; Cobley & Till, 2017). De facto, mais do que perceber o que mudou no planeamento ou na avaliação, importa ter informação acerca das possíveis razões que levaram a tal mudança e como é que essa mesma mudança foi operacionalizada em contextos reais de prática. ...
... Regarding the assessment process, the familiarisation of the observer with a flexible and dynamic assessment instrument constitutes a barrier to be recognized. The detailed study of the assessment instrument, and the conception of its adaptations in a close relation with what was changed in the and why of a given pedagogical intervention (i.e., interpretive approach; Cobley & Till, 2017). In fact, more than understanding what changed in the planning or assessment, it is relevant to have information about the possible reasons that led such change and how it was operationalised in real contexts of practice. ...
... A interpretação robusta do contexto exige, portanto, uma análise longitudinal em que vários fatores são considerados, avaliados, e onde mais do que respostas concretas e passíveis de generalização se procuram e detalham os comos e os porquês de determinada intervenção pedagógica (i.e., abordagem interpretativa; Cobley & Till, 2017). De facto, mais do que perceber o que mudou no planeamento ou na avaliação, importa ter informação acerca das possíveis razões que levaram a tal mudança e como é que essa mesma mudança foi operacionalizada em contextos reais de prática. ...
... Regarding the assessment process, the familiarisation of the observer with a flexible and dynamic assessment instrument constitutes a barrier to be recognized. The detailed study of the assessment instrument, and the conception of its adaptations in a close relation with what was changed in the and why of a given pedagogical intervention (i.e., interpretive approach; Cobley & Till, 2017). In fact, more than understanding what changed in the planning or assessment, it is relevant to have information about the possible reasons that led such change and how it was operationalised in real contexts of practice. ...
... A interpretação robusta do contexto exige, portanto, uma análise longitudinal em que vários fatores são considerados, avaliados, e onde mais do que respostas concretas e passíveis de generalização se procuram e detalham os comos e os porquês de determinada intervenção pedagógica (i.e., abordagem interpretativa; Cobley & Till, 2017). De facto, mais do que perceber o que mudou no planeamento ou na avaliação, importa ter informação acerca das possíveis razões que levaram a tal mudança e como é que essa mesma mudança foi operacionalizada em contextos reais de prática. ...
... Regarding the assessment process, the familiarisation of the observer with a flexible and dynamic assessment instrument constitutes a barrier to be recognized. The detailed study of the assessment instrument, and the conception of its adaptations in a close relation with what was changed in the and why of a given pedagogical intervention (i.e., interpretive approach; Cobley & Till, 2017). In fact, more than understanding what changed in the planning or assessment, it is relevant to have information about the possible reasons that led such change and how it was operationalised in real contexts of practice. ...
... A interpretação robusta do contexto exige, portanto, uma análise longitudinal em que vários fatores são considerados, avaliados, e onde mais do que respostas concretas e passíveis de generalização se procuram e detalham os comos e os porquês de determinada intervenção pedagógica (i.e., abordagem interpretativa; Cobley & Till, 2017). De facto, mais do que perceber o que mudou no planeamento ou na avaliação, importa ter informação acerca das possíveis razões que levaram a tal mudança e como é que essa mesma mudança foi operacionalizada em contextos reais de prática. ...
... Regarding the assessment process, the familiarisation of the observer with a flexible and dynamic assessment instrument constitutes a barrier to be recognized. The detailed study of the assessment instrument, and the conception of its adaptations in a close relation with what was changed in the and why of a given pedagogical intervention (i.e., interpretive approach; Cobley & Till, 2017). In fact, more than understanding what changed in the planning or assessment, it is relevant to have information about the possible reasons that led such change and how it was operationalised in real contexts of practice. ...
... On this basis, the aim of talent identification is to assess a person's potential for future performance (Rees et al., 2016;Vaeyens, Lenoir, Williams, & Philippaerts, 2008). However, identifying and predicting performance potential at a young age is a difficult and complex process, as development is non-linear, unstable and multifactorial (Cobley & Till, 2017). ...
... To further complicate matters, there are multiple interactions between prerequisites, which may change over time (Schmitt-Ney, Happ, Ball, & Groner, 1992;Cobley & Till, 2017). While an individual's genome could be described as being relatively static, the epigenome can be dynamic, altered by environmental conditions and stimuli (to a degree). ...
Article
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A recent article by Baker and Wattie (2018) provided an update on the widely citeded review of “Innate Talent” by Howe, Davidson and Sloboda (1998). The article summarizes that the defined criteria for “Innate Talent” are still valid, standing the test of time. However, new findings in epigenetics should be considered. The epigenome interacts with environmental factors, such as physical exercise, contributing to phenotypical and performance differences of the same gene. In this context, researchers in sport science face the task of defining ethical standards that are accepted by society. From an epigenetic perspective, one should refrain from thinking that genetics have a fixed performance outcome, since the epigenome is adaptable. Instead, research and practice should consider how created environments support athlete development.
... On this basis, the aim of talent identification is to assess a person's potential for future performance (Rees et al., 2016;Vaeyens, Lenoir, Williams, & Philippaerts, 2008). However, identifying and predicting performance potential at a young age is a difficult and complex process, as development is non-linear, unstable and multifactorial (Cobley & Till, 2017). ...
... To further complicate matters, there are multiple interactions between prerequisites, which may change over time (Schmitt-Ney, Happ, Ball, & Groner, 1992;Cobley & Till, 2017). While an individual's genome could be described as being relatively static, the epigenome can be dynamic, altered by environmental conditions and stimuli (to a degree). ...
Article
Full-text available
An the recent article by Baker and Wattie (2018), they provided an update on the widely cited review of “Innate Talent” by Howe, Davidson and Sloboda (1998). The article summarizes that the defined criteria for “Innate Talent” are still valid, standing the test of time. However, new findings in epigenetics should be considered. The epigenome interacts with environmental factors, such as physical exercise, contributing to phenotypical and performance differences of the same gene. In this context, researchers in sport science face the task of defining ethical standards that are accepted by society. From an epigenetic perspective, one should refrain from thinking that genetics have a fixed performance outcome, since the epigenome is adaptable. Instead, research and practice should consider how created environments support athlete development.
... For instance, typically learners are assessed in different moments over the scholar year and their outcomes are attributed, measured, and interpreted in comparison with the classmates or the overall benchmarks that are pre-defined [87]. Here, we advocate that a self-comparison of different aspects over time could be more useful and help learners assess their own evolution [91,92]. ...
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Quality in education is one of the 17 goals in the United Nations' sustainable agenda for 2030, presupposing careful planning and assessment of learning. Traditional planning in sports education (either in training or school settings) largely adopts predetermined learning sequences and temporal milestones that, in theory, enhance the learning process. However, learning is a context-dependent, non-linear process with considerable intra-and interindividual variability, whereby planning and assessment should also be non-linear. In this narrative review, the main findings suggest that the specific teaching or training contents and their relative (i.e., ordering or sequencing) and absolute timing (i.e., the specific time point where certain learning or adaptations are expected) should vary depending on the learners and the context. In a process-oriented perspective, this requires flexible planning and the establishment of ongoing bidirectional links between planning and assessment. In this framework, assessment should be a flexible, evolving, and daily pedagogical tool instead of a set of formal checkpoints. We further explored how planning and assessment could be linked to provide an ongoing feedback loop that respects the individuality of each learner and its context, and therefore hope this review helps bring about a change in current planning and assessment paradigms in sports education.
... Talent development programmes accord coaches, managers, and sport psychologists to longitudinally track athletes from junior to senior transitions (Cobley & Till, 2017) and also provide the necessary psychological and social support. The lack of talent development programmes and budget disempowers coaches and demotivates athletes to succeed at major games. ...
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Full-text available
There is increasing research interest on effective approaches to talent development and ways to establish a superior environment that facilitates the growth of junior athletes into senior and elite levels. There has been little research and funding dedicated to talent development programmes in Botswana. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide a critical overview of athletic talent development programmes in the unique context of Botswana, a developing country in Southern Africa with a small population. This paper is divided into three sections. The first section presents the historical evolution of sport in Botswana, particularly pre- and post-colonial sport, providing details of how Botswana sport has developed overtime. The second section shares information on the sport delivery system, and the role of sport governing bodies and the school sport administration, to describe how sport is currently implemented with implications on athletic talent development. In the third section, the paper builds a case for talent development and sport science research with a specific context of Botswana. This paper can benefit practitioners in the sport industry by helping them to develop context-specific talent development programmes in the country.
... Although insightful, these studies only provide "snapshots" as to the impact of TID involvement; they cannot provide the full picture of the stability and time course of these impacts. Only longitudinal research designs can achieve such insights (Cobley & till, 2017). ...
Article
Despite literature highlighting numerous risks to the healthy psychosocial development of youth elite academy soccer players, little of this research is based on high-quality research designs. This study employed a prospective longitudinal cohort design to track psychosocial outcomes of academy involvement within male youth elite soccer players (n = 33, U12-U16 age groups) compared to age-matched soccer-active school pupils (n = 44) over 12 months. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the most commonly raised psychosocial concerns at four equally spaced data collection periods (T1–T4). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVAs) indicated that, over the year, both groups reported a healthy and improving stress and recovery balance, as well as positive and stable needs satisfaction and physical, psychological and social well-being. Academy players reported stable positive school-related quality of life, whereas school pupils reported increases from T3 to T4. Academy players reported consistent significantly higher total athletic identity and exclusivity of identity. Findings suggest that many concerns around negative psychosocial impacts of soccer academy involvement did not materialise in this context. However, heightened athletic identities remained a concern.
... Although researchers have been calling for prospective studies on expertise development since the first investigations into the DPF (e.g., Helsen et al., 1998), unfortunately almost no studies adopting the DPF have taken such an approach (see Ward et al., 2007, for a quasi-longitudinal design). Researchers in the field of talent identification and development in sport concluded that because talent may be domain specific , multi-factorial, interactive, and multi-disciplinary, longitudinal designs are needed to capture functional changes in multiple variables over time (Cobley & Till, 2017;see Baker, Cobley, Schorer, & Wattie, 2017, for an overview). Longitudinal research with promising athletes could offer important insights and would allow researchers to track developmental pathways of athletes who persist in long-term practice and as well as those who drop out (e.g., Abernethy et al., 2003). ...
Article
This chapter reviews the origins of the deliberate practice (DP) concept and explains how these ideas have stimulated applications to research in sport. It appraises both conceptual and methodological aspects of the deliberate practice framework (DPF) and discusses the reasons the DPF has remained a framework for examining expert performance rather than a theory for explaining it. A major consequence of the emergence of the DPF has been the re‐emphasis on the importance of the coach in athlete success. In terms of methodological improvements, designs such as qualitative approaches and time‐based analyses of the microstructure of practice show promise. One option is to examine practice more closely in situ . Another option is to take a prospective/longitudinal approach. A fundamental assumption within much of the discourse on DP is that innate talent is diametrically opposed to any type of practice.
... These limitations suggest that more studies with a longitudinal design are necessary to increase our understanding of the processes of selecting young football players who might become successful. 6,[56][57][58] In conclusion, this study with pre-liminary data, based on a cross-sectional sample illustrated that multiple component variables were likely related to selection and deselection. The youth academy selects no more 16 children per year, resulting in the exclusion of many others. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine whether players selected for the under 11 team of a professional youth football academy outperform their deselected peers in physical, technical and gross motor coordination skills, or in psycho-social capacities. Of the young players active at different amateur clubs yearly 2% were scouted to participate at trainings and matches from an academy before the first objective baseline testing (season 1 n = 54 boys, season 2 n = 49, age: 9.25 ± 0.46). Most of the scouted players (n = 103) were born in the first quarter of the year (47.6%) and started playing football at a young age (4.80 ± 0.84). Mann–Whitney U tests showed that the selected under 11 players (n = 31) from the reduced pool outperformed their deselected peers (n = 72) in the 30-m slalom sprint, dribble test and Loughborough soccer passing test, and on sport learning-, motor-, creative- and interpersonal capacity (P < 0.05). A discriminant analysis resulted in a significant discriminant function (Wilks’ Λ = 0.673, df = 16 and P = 0.002) with 69.6% of players classified correctly. In sum, the current system, tends to scout 9-year old soccer players with multiple years of soccer experience, and well-developed motor skills, who are predominantly born in the first quarter of the year. Of those players, the ones with better physical and technical skills, who are believed to have most potential to become elite in the future are selected. However, 25 of the players with a high probability of being selected were deselected. Whether this system is appropriate serves a broader ethical discussion within contemporary society.
... Although researchers have been calling for prospective studies on expertise development since the first investigations into the DPF (e.g., Helsen et al., 1998), unfortunately almost no studies adopting the DPF have taken such an approach (see Ward et al., 2007, for a quasi-longitudinal design). Researchers in the field of talent identification and development in sport concluded that because talent may be domain specific , multi-factorial, interactive, and multi-disciplinary, longitudinal designs are needed to capture functional changes in multiple variables over time (Cobley & Till, 2017;see Baker, Cobley, Schorer, & Wattie, 2017, for an overview). Longitudinal research with promising athletes could offer important insights and would allow researchers to track developmental pathways of athletes who persist in long-term practice and as well as those who drop out (e.g., Abernethy et al., 2003). ...
... Future research should aim to develop and implement a national standardised fitness testing battery allowing the quantification of the physical qualities of age-grade RU players throughout England for talent identification, player monitoring and development. A further focus on players aged below 16 years is required, whilst considering maturity status, alongside implementing longitudinal research designs [76,77] and considering the importance of physical qualities for match performance and longterm career outcomes. ...
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Rugby union (RU) is a skill-collision team sport played at junior and senior levels worldwide. Within England, age-grade rugby governs the participation and talent development of youth players. The RU player development pathway has recently been questioned, regarding player performance and well-being, which sport science research can address. The purpose of this review was to summarise and critically appraise the literature in relation to the applied sport science of male age-grade RU players in England focussing upon (1) match-play characteristics, (2) training exposures, (3) physical qualities, (4) fatigue and recovery, (5) nutrition, (6) psychological challenges and development, and (7) injury. Current research evidence suggests that age, playing level and position influence the match-play characteristics of age-grade RU. Training exposures of players are described as 'organised chaos' due to the multiple environments and stakeholders involved in coordinating training schedules. Fatigue is apparent up to 72 h post match-play. Well-developed physical qualities are important for player development and injury risk reduction. The nutritional requirements are high due to the energetic costs of collisions. Concerns around the psychological characteristics have also been identified (e.g. perfectionism). Injury risk is an important consideration with prevention strategies available. This review highlights the important multi-disciplinary aspects of sport science for developing age-grade RU players for continued participation and player development. The review describes where some current practices may not be optimal, provides a framework to assist practitioners to effectively prepare age-grade players for the holistic demands of youth RU and considers areas for future research.
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The modern-day landscape of Olympic and Professional sport is arguably more competitive than ever. One consequence of this is the increased focus on identifying and developing early athletic talent. In this paper, we highlight key challenges associated with talent (athlete) identification and development and propose possible solutions that could be considered by research and practice. The first challenge focuses on clarifying the purposes of talent identification initiatives such as defining what talent is and how its meaning might evolve over time. Challenge two centers on ways to best identify, select and develop talent, including issues with different approaches to identification, the need to understand the impact of development and the need to have appropriate resourcing in the system to support continued development of knowledge. Finally, we discuss two challenges in relation to the ‘healthiness’ of talent identification and development. The first examines whether a talent identification and development system is ‘healthy’ for athletes while the second focuses on how sport stakeholders could discourage the apparent trend toward early specialization in youth sport settings. Whilst this paper discusses the research in relation to these challenges, we propose multiple possible solutions that researchers and practitioners could consider for optimizing their approach to talent identification and development. In summary, talent is a complex and largely misunderstood phenomenon lacking robust research evidence, and given concerns that it is potentially unhealthy, talent identification and selection at younger ages is not recommended.
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We assessed the role of parental behaviors on sport performance anxiety. Measures of trait anxiety, parental pressure, and parent-initiated motivational climate were administered to youth swimmers throughout the season. High parental pressure within either a low mastery or a high ego motivational climate was associated with the highest levels of anxiety at all time points. An early-season, high-pressure/low-mastery combination was also associated with relative increases in anxiety over the season, whereas high pressure within a high mastery climate was associated with relative decreases. Results indicate that parental pressure can have differential effects depending upon motivational climate.
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Abstract The purpose of this review article was firstly to evaluate the traditional approach to talent identification in youth soccer and secondly present pilot data on a more holistic method for talent identification. Research evidence exists to suggest that talent identification mechanisms that are predicated upon the physical (anthropometric) attributes of the early maturing individual only serve to identify current performance levels. Greater body mass and stature have both been related to faster ball shooting speed and vertical jump capacity respectively in elite youth soccer players. This approach, however, may prematurely exclude those late maturing individuals. Multiple physiological measures have also been used in an effort to determine key predictors of performance; with agility and sprint times, being identified as variables that could discriminate between elite and sub-elite groups of adolescent soccer players. Successful soccer performance is the product of multiple systems interacting with one another. Consequently, a more holistic approach to talent identification should be considered. Recent work, with elite youth soccer players, has considered whether multiple small-sided games could act as a talent identification tool in this population. The results demonstrated that there was a moderate agreement between the more technically gifted soccer player and success during multiple small-sided games.
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Methods of assessing soccer players' performance have developed significantly in recent times. The fitness profiles and skill levels of a prospective elite soccer player is a valuable resource for coaches in the process of identifying talent. Traditional means to measure aerobic fitness have centred on the 'aerobic capacity' or '&OV0312;O(2max)' test (also known as the maximal oxygen consumption test) but, over time, this has been shown not to be a sensitive measure for specific aspects of soccer in a match situation. Therefore, numerous soccer-specific simulations have been designed to re-create exercise patterns similar to those experienced during a match. Some of these studies have yet to be validated, while others have been shown to result in a similar physiological load to that encountered during regular match play. Further developments have led to specifically designed intermittent sprint tests, which are used as a sensitive tool to accurately measure the fluctuations in players' ability both between and within soccer seasons. Testing procedures have also been developed that incorporate elements of both skill and physical ability. Soccer-specific field tests have been designed, incorporating skill and dynamic movements, and this opens up the possibility of teams testing the aerobic capacity of their elite players using soccer-specific movements. Valid studies assessing soccer-specific skills in an ecologically sound environment have been quite rare until recently. Some test protocols have been deemed largely irrelevant to soccer match play, while others have had limited impact on scientific literature. More recently, skill tests have been developed and shown to be valid and reliable methods of assessing soccer skill performance. Many new skill tests continue to be developed, and some have been shown to be highly reliable, but further study of these relatively novel concepts is required before a more solid recommendation can be made. Overall, while significant work has been completed to date, there is still a need for further focused investigations, which can more closely assess the physiological demands of an elite soccer player, with a particular emphasis on sport-specific exercises during the execution of soccer skills. In this regard, more reliable and specific performance tests can be designed to more efficiently assess soccer players in the future.
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Nightingale, SC, Miller, S, and Turner, A. The usefulness and reliability of fitness testing protocols for ice hockey players: A literature review. J Strength Cond Res 27(6): 1742-1748, 2013Ice hockey, like most sports, uses fitness testing to assess athletes. This study reviews the current commonly used fitness testing protocols for ice hockey players, discussing their predictive values and reliability. It also discusses a range of less commonly used measures and limitations in current testing protocols. The article concludes with a proposed testing program suitable for ice hockey players.
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The purpose of this article is to present cutting-edge research on issues relating to the theory, design, and analysis of change. Rather than a highly technical review, our goal is to provide management scholars with a relatively nontechnical single source useful for helping them develop and evaluate longitudinal research. Toward that end, we provide readers with “checklists” of issues to consider when theorizing and designing a longitudinal study. We also discuss the trade-offs among analytic strategies (repeated measures general linear model, random coefficient modeling, and latent growth modeling), circumstances in which such methods are most appropriate, and ways to analyze data when one is using each approach.
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Development of achievement-related motives in young athletes is believed to be influenced by the motivational climate created by coaches. In a longitudinal multilevel design utilizing 47 youth basketball teams, coach-initiated motivational climate was used to predict changes in 9–13year old athletes’ achievement goal orientations over the course of a season. Mastery climate scores on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports were associated with significant increases in mastery goal orientation and decreases in ego orientation scores on the Achievement Goal Scale for Youth Sports. Ego motivational climate scores were significantly related to increases in ego goal orientation scores. These relations were not influenced by athletes’ age or gender. Intraclass correlations indicated low within-team consensus in athletes’ motivational climate scores, suggesting an individual- rather than team-level perceptual construct. These and other findings indicate that achievement goal orientation research can be extended downward to children below the age of 11.
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A reliable and valid method of measuring and monitoring a gymnast's total physical fitness level is needed to assist female gymnasts in achieving healthy, injury-free participation in the sport. The Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (GFMT) was previously designed as a field-test to assess physical fitness in female competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to further develop the GFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the GFMT. A total of 105 competitive female gymnasts ages 6-18 underwent testing using the GFMT. Fifty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total GFMT scores and the gymnasts' competition level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r(2)). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. The relationship between total GFMT scores and subjects' current USAG competitive level was found to be good (r(2) = 0.60). Reliability testing of the GFMT total score showed good test-retest reliability over a one week period (ICC=0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component items was good (ICC = 0.80-0.92). The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the GFMT.
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ObjectivesGrounded in the self-determination and achievement goal frameworks [Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sports and exercise (pp. 161–176). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268; Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press], the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in perceptions of the motivational climate to changes in athletes' need satisfaction and indices of psychological and physical well-being over the course of a competitive sport season.DesignA field correlational longitudinal design, including two data collections over the course of a competitive season, was used.MethodParticipants were 128 British university athletes (M age=19.56; SD=1.83). Athletes completed questionnaires assessing perceptions of the motivational climate; the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness; subjective vitality and physical symptoms.ResultsAn increase in perceptions of a task-involving climate positively predicted an increased satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. In turn, changes in the satisfaction of the needs for autonomy and relatedness emerged as significant predictors of changes in subjective vitality.ConclusionFindings suggest that for sport participation to facilitate athlete well-being, the sporting environment should be marked in its task-involving features.
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This review synthesises the biomechanical and skill acquisition/sport expertise literature focused on the skill of cricket batting. The literature is briefly reviewed and the major limitations, challenges, and suggested future research directions are outlined. This is designed to stimulate researchers to enhance the understanding of cricket batting biomechanics and skill acquisition and in turn assist cricket coaches develop efficacious batting skill development programmes. An interdisciplinary approach between biomechanists and skill acquisition specialists is advocated to further knowledge of the underlying processes and mechanisms of cricket batting expertise. Issues such as skill measurement, practice design, ball machines, skill transfer, the impact of Twenty/20 cricket, video simulation, and skill decomposition are discussed. The ProBatter ball machine systems are introduced along with suggestions for best practice approaches for coaches when designing batting skill development programmes.
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Embedded in achievement goal theory (Ames, 1992; Meece, Anderman, & Anderman, 2006), this study examined how perceptions of coach and peer motivational climate in youth sport predicted moral attitudes, emotional well-being, and indices of behavioral investment in a sample of British adolescents competing in regional leagues. We adopted a longitudinal perspective, taking measures at the middle and the end of a sport season, as well as at the beginning of the following season. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that perceptions of task-involving peer and coach climates were predictive of more adaptive outcomes than were perceptions of ego-involving peer and coach climates. Predictive effects differed as a function of time and outcome variable under investigation. The results indicate the importance of considering peer influence in addition to coach influence when examining motivational climate in youth sport.
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One reason sport psychologists teach psychological skills is to enhance performance in sport; but the value of psychological skills for young athletes is questionable because of the qualitative and quantitative differences between children and adults in their understanding of abstract concepts such as mental skills. To teach these skills effectively to young athletes, sport psychologists need to appreciate what young athletes implicitly understand about such skills because maturational (e.g., cognitive, social) and environmental (e.g., coaches) factors can influence the progressive development of children and youth. In the present qualitative study, we explored young athletes’ (aged 10–15 years) understanding of four basic psychological skills: goal setting, mental imagery, self-talk, and relaxation. Young athletes (n = 118: 75 males and 43 females) completed an open-ended questionnaire to report their understanding of these four basic psychological skills. Compared with the older youth athletes, the younger youth athletes were less able to explain the meaning of each psychological skill. Goal setting and mental imagery were better understood than self-talk and relaxation. Based on these findings, sport psychologists should consider adapting interventions and psychoeducational programs to match young athletes’ age and developmental level.
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In learning and development, self-regulation can be described as the extent to which individuals are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally proactive participants in their learning process (Zimmerman, 198946. Zimmerman , B. J. 1989. A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81: 329–339. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references, 200648. Zimmerman , B. J. 2006. “Development and adaptation of expertise: The role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs”. In The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance, Edited by: Ericsson , K. A. , Charness , N. , Feltovich , P. J. and Hoffman , R. R. 705–722. New York: Cambridge University Press. [CrossRef]View all references). We examined the relationship between self-regulation and performance level in elite (n = 159) and non-elite (n = 285) youth soccer players aged 11–17 years (mean 14.5 years, s = 1.4). The players completed a questionnaire that assessed planning, self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, effort, and self-efficacy. A logistic regression analysis was performed (controlling for age) to determine which self-regulatory aspects were associated with players' performance level (elite vs. non-elite). High scores on reflection and effort were associated with a higher level of performance. Findings suggest that elite players may be more aware of their strong and weak points as well as better able to translate this awareness into action. In addition, elite players appear to be more willing to invest effort into practice and competition. It is suggested that these better developed self-regulatory skills may translate into a more effective learning environment and ultimately result in an increased capacity for performance in elite players relative to their non-elite peers.
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Describes the development of a new instrument, the Life Experiences Survey (LES), for the measurement of life changes. The LES is a 57-item self-report measure that is divided into 2 sections: Section 1 consists of 47 items that refer to life changes in a wide variety of situations; Section 2 consists of 10 items that are designed primarily for use with students. It was designed to eliminate certain shortcomings of previous life stress measures and allows for separate assessment of positive and negative life experiences as well as individualized ratings of the impact of events. The reliability and possible sex differences of the LES are discussed, and the LES is compared with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, the Psychological Screening Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, and the Schedule of Recent Experiences using undergraduate samples. Several studies bearing on the usefulness of the Life Experiences Survey are presented and the implications of the findings are discussed.
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We undertook two studies to determine the validity and reliability of the revised Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2). In Study 1, 201 female athletes (mean age 16.4 years) were administered the initial version of the PMCSQ-2 and a measure of reported tension and pressure experienced in sport. Exploratory principal component analysis suggested that the PMCSQ-2 contained two higher-order scales (Task-Involving and Ego-Involving climates), each with three subscales (Task: Cooperative Learning, Effort/ Improvement, Important Role; Ego: Intra-Team Member Rivalry, Unequal Recognition, Punishment for Mistakes). In Study 2, 385 female volleyball players (mean age 15.2 years) completed the PMCSQ-2, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and a measure of Team Satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to six competing models. The oblique six-factor model and oblique hierarchical model provided comparable fit to the data. Acceptable fit was reached based on model respecification. Across Studies 1 and 2, internal consistency was found to be acceptable for the higher-order scales and subscales (with the exception of the Intra-Team Member Rivalry subscale). We found evidence for the concurrent validity of the instrument.
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Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
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Longitudinal changes in height, weight and physical performance were studied in 33 Flemish male youth soccer players from the Ghent Youth Soccer Project. The players' ages at the start of the study ranged from 10.4 to 13.7 years, with a mean age of 12.2 +/- 0.7 years. Longitudinal changes were studied over a 5 year period. Peak height velocity and peak weight velocity were determined using non-smoothed polynomials. The estimations of peak height velocity, peak weight velocity and age at peak height velocity were 9.7 +/- 1.5 cm x year-1, 8.4 +/- 3.0 kg x year-1 and 13.8 +/- 0.8 years, respectively. Peak weight velocity occurred, on average, at the same age as peak height velocity. Balance, speed of limb movement, trunk strength, upper-body muscular endurance, explosive strength, running speed and agility, cardiorespiratory endurance and anaerobic capacity showed peak development at peak height velocity. A plateau in the velocity curves was observed after peak height velocity for upper-body muscular endurance, explosive strength and running speed. Flexibility exhibited peak development during the tear after peak height velocity. Trainers and coaches should be aware of the individual characteristics of the adolescent growth spurt and the training load should also be individualized at this time.
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Strength and power diagnosis can provide valuable insights into the different capacities of athletes. The strength and power tests chosen should be reliable and valid and take into account the requirements of the sport and what is a meaningful change in performance. The results of these tests need to be reported in a clear, meaningful, and timely manner for coaches if they are to have maximal impact on training programs. The practitioner can use this evidence-based information in conjunction with the art of coaching to maximize training program effectiveness.
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This book discusses the most important techniques available for longitudinal data analysis, from simple techniques such as the paired t-test and summary statistics, to more sophisticated ones such as generalized estimating of equations and mixed model analysis. A distinction is made between longitudinal analysis with continuous, dichotomous and categorical outcome variables. The emphasis of the discussion lies in the interpretation and comparison of the results of the different techniques. The second edition includes new chapters on the role of the time variable and presents new features of longitudinal data analysis. Explanations have been clarified where necessary and several chapters have been completely rewritten. The analysis of data from experimental studies and the problem of missing data in longitudinal studies are discussed. Finally, an extensive overview and comparison of different software packages is provided. This practical guide is essential for non-statisticians and researchers working with longitudinal data from epidemiological and clinical studies.
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This study longitudinally examined age-related changes in the match-running performance of retained and released elite youth soccer players aged 8-18 years. The effect of playing position on age-related changes was also considered. Across three seasons, 263 elite youth soccer players were assessed in 1-29 competitive matches (988 player-matches). For each player-match, total distance and distances covered at age group-specific speed zones (low-speed, high-speed, sprinting) were calculated using 1 Hz or 5 Hz GPS. Mixed modeling predicted that match-running performance developed nonlinearly, with age-related changes best described with quadratic age terms. Modeling predicted that playing position significantly modified age-related changes (P < 0.05) and retained players covered significantly more low-speed distance compared with released players (P < 0.05), by 75 ± 71 m/h (mean ± 95% CI; effect size ± 95% CI: 0.35 ± 0.34). Model intercepts randomly varied, indicating differences between players in match-running performance unexplained by age, playing position or status. These findings may assist experts in developing training programs specific to the match play demands of players of different ages and playing positions. Although retained players covered more low-speed distance than released players, further study of the actions comprising low-speed distance during match play is warranted to better understand factors differentiating retained and released players. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Article
Objective There is limited understanding of how sport motivation is associated with deliberate practice in youth team sport athletes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospective associations between intrinsic motivation and individual deliberate practice in specializing team sport athletes. Design Longitudinal. Method Estonian adolescent team sport athletes (N= 163; Mage – 13.6 years at the beginning of study) completed the Sport Motivation Scale and training diary across a 12-month period. Results Both individual deliberate practice and intrinsic motivation increased over the 1-year period. Greater baseline intrinsic motivation predicted subsequent individual deliberate practice and greater initial individual deliberate practice predicted greater subsequent intrinsic motivation. The bidirectional relationship between athletes intrinsic motivation and individual deliberate practice were replicated across both time lags. Conclusion The findings have significant implications for the importance placed on intrinsic motivation as a means of increasing of individual deliberate practice as well being an important outcome variable in specializing team sport athletes.
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Research has shown that psychological skills training can be effective in enhancing athletes’ performance and positively influencing cognitive and affective states (cf. Williams & Krane, 2001). However, to date, little work has been conducted investigating such processes with adolescent high‐performing swimmers. The present study examined the effects of a seven‐week psychological skills training (PST) program on competitive swimming performance and positive psychological development. Thirty‐six national level swimmers (13 boys, 23 girls; M = 13.9 years old) followed a PST program for 45 minutes per week. The intervention consisted of goal setting, visualization, relaxation, concentration, and thought stopping. Performance times were obtained from official meets. Participants completed seven inventories measuring quality of performance, and six positive psychological attributes: mental toughness, hardiness, self‐esteem, self‐efficacy, dispositional optimism, and positive affectivity. Findings demonstrated that there was a significant post‐PST program improvement in three separate swimming strokes, each over 200 m. Non‐significant improvements were shown in 10 other events. There was also an overall significant improvement in participants’ post‐intervention positive psychological profiles
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This study evaluated the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics of three individual adolescent junior rugby league players, and compared their characteristics with a cross-sectional population matched by age and skill level. Cross-sectional anthropometric and fitness assessments were conducted on 1,172 players selected to the Rugby Football League's (RFL's) talent development programme (i.e., the Player Performance Pathway) between 2005 and 2008. Three players of differing relative age, maturational status and playing position were measured and tracked once per year on three occasions (Under 13s, 14s, 15s age categories) and compared against the cross-sectional population. Results demonstrated that the later maturing players increased height (Player 1 = 9.2 %; Player 2 = 7.8 %) and a number of fitness characteristics (e.g., 60m speed - Player 1 = -14.9 %; Player 2 = -9.9 %) more than the earlier maturing player (Player 3 - Height = 2.0 %, 60m sprint = -0.7 %) over the two year period. The variation in the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics between the three players highlights the importance of longitudinally monitoring individual characteristics during adolescence to assess dynamic changes in growth, maturation and fitness. Findings showcase the limitations of short-term performance assessments at one-off time points within annual-age categories; instead advocating individual development and progression tracking without de-selection. Coaches should consider using an individual approach, comparing data with population averages, to assist in the prescription of appropriate training and lifestyle interventions to aid the development of junior athletes.
Article
Objectives: The current study provided a longitudinal evaluation of the anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players across three annual-age categories (i.e., under 13s, 14s and 15s) considering playing position and selection level. Design: Longitudinal design. Methods: Eighty-one junior rugby league players selected to a talent development programme were tracked over a two year period. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds) and fitness (lower and upper body power, speed, change of direction speed and maximal aerobic power) characteristics were measured on three occasions (i.e., under 13s, 14s and 15s). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA; controlling chronological and maturational age) analysed changes across annual-age categories in relation to playing position and selection level. Results: Findings identified significant improvements in anthropometric and fitness characteristics across annual-age categories (p<0.001). MANOVA and MANCOVA analysis identified significant overall effects for playing position (p<0.001) and selection level (p<0.05) throughout the two year period. Interactions between playing position and time were identified for height, vertical jump and estimated V˙O2max (p<0.05). Selection level by time interactions were identified for 20m, 30m and 60m sprint (p<0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the improvement of anthropometric and fitness characteristics within junior representative rugby league players. Interactive effects for playing position and selection level by time highlight the variation in the development of characteristics that occur during adolescence. Tracking the progression of characteristics longitudinally during adolescence, instead of at one-off time points, may assist selection and/or performance assessments within rugby league and other youth sport contexts.
Article
Objectives: Little is known regarding the social-psychological predictors of burnout in the dance domain. Drawing from basic needs theory, a sub-theory in the self-determination theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study examined whether changes in vocational dancers' autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction mediated the relationships between changes in the dancers' perceived autonomy support and burnout over a school year. Method: Dancers (N= 219) enrolled in vocational dance training, completed a questionnaire package tapping the variables of interest at three time points over a 36-week period. Results: SEM indicated that the observed decreases in the dancers' perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted observed changes in reported basic need satisfaction that occurred over the school year. In turn, increases in the dancers' global burnout were negatively predicted by changes in satisfaction of the three needs. The three basic needs fully mediated the 'autonomy support-global burnout' relationship. When the sub-dimensions of burnout were examined independently, there were inconsistencies in the salience of each basic need. The increases in emotional and physical exhaustion experienced by the dancers over the school year were unrelated to changes in autonomy, competence and relatedness satisfaction. Changes in competence need satisfaction negatively predicted reduced accomplishment. Increases in the dancers' dance devaluation were negatively predicted by changes in satisfaction of the three needs. Conclusions: Overall, the tenets of self-determination theory are supported. Findings point to the relevance of promoting and sustaining autonomy supportive training environments if burnout is to be avoided in elite dance settings.
Article
Research on expertise, talent identification and development has tended to be mono-disciplinary, typically adopting genocentric or environmentalist positions, with an overriding focus on operational issues. In this paper, the validity of dualist positions on sport expertise is evaluated. It is argued that, to advance understanding of expertise and talent development, a shift towards a multidisciplinary and integrative science focus is necessary, along with the development of a comprehensive multidisciplinary theoretical rationale. Here we elucidate dynamical systems theory as a multidisciplinary theoretical rationale for capturing how multiple interacting constraints can shape the development of expert performers. This approach suggests that talent development programmes should eschew the notion of common optimal performance models, emphasize the individual nature of pathways to expertise, and identify the range of interacting constraints that impinge on performance potential of individual athletes, rather than evaluating current performance on physical tests referenced to group norms.
Article
This article reviews a series of studies (n = 51) examining physical attributes, physiological characteristics, on-court performances and nutritional strategies of female and male elite basketball players. These studies included relevant information on physical and physiological variables, such as height, weight, somatotype, relative size, aerobic profile, strength, anaerobic power, agility and speed. Six main findings emerged from our review: (i) differences in physical attributes exist among playing positions and skill levels (e.g. guards tend to be lighter, shorter and more mesomorphic than centres); (ii) maximum aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) values of female and male players are 44.0-54.0 and 50-60 mLO(2)/kg/min, respectively; (iii) male and female players of higher skill levels tend to have higher vertical jump values; (iv) the more skilled female and male players are faster and more agile than the less skilled players; (v) guards tend to perform more high-intensity movements during game play compared with forwards and centres; and (vi) a water deficit of 2% of bodyweight can lead to reduced physical and mental performance during an actual game. Five limitations associated with the testing protocols used in the studies are outlined, among them the lack of a longitudinal approach, lack of tests performed under physical exertion conditions, and lack of studies using a time-motion analysis. In addition, three practical recommendations for the basketball coach and the strength and conditioning coach are presented. It is concluded that the data emerging from these studies, combined with the knowledge already obtained from the studies on physical and physiological characteristics of elite basketball players, should be applied by basketball and strength and conditioning coaches when planning training programmes for elite basketball players.
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The present study was designed to assess selected psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) (Ryan, 1982), a multidimensional measure of subjects' experience with regard to experimental tasks. Subjects (N = 116) competed in a basketball free-throw shooting game, following which they completed the IMI. The LISREL VI computer program was employed to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to assess the tenability of a five factor hierarchical model representing four first-order factors or dimensions and a second-order general factor representing intrinsic motivation. Indices of model acceptability tentatively suggest that the sport data adequately fit the hypothesized five factor hierarchical model. Alternative models were tested but did not result in significant improvements in the goodness-of-fit indices, suggesting the proposed model to be the most accurate of the models tested. Coefficient alphas for the four dimensions and the overall scale indicated adequate reliability. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of accurate assessment of psychological constructs and the use of linear structural equations in confirming the factor structures of measures.
Article
In this article, we examine subjective vitality, a positive feeling of aliveness and energy, in six studies. Subjective vitality is hypothesized to reflect organismic well-being and thus should covary with both psychological and somatic factors that impact the energy available to the self. Associations are shown between subjective vitality and several indexes of psychological well-being; somatic factors such as physical symptoms and perceived body functioning; and basic personality traits and affective dispositions. Subsequently, vitality is shown to be lower in people with chronic pain compared to matched controls, especially those who perceive their pain to be disabling or frightening. Subjective vitality is further associated with self-motivation and maintained weight loss among patients treated for obesity. Finally, subjective vitality is assessed in a diary study for its covariation with physical symptoms. Discussion focuses on the phenomenological salience of personal energy and its relations to physical and psychological well-being.
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We report the initial stages of validation of the 64-item Test of Performance Strategies, a self-report instrument designed to measure the psychological skills and strategies used by athletes in competition and during practice. Data were obtained from a sample of 472 athletes competing across a range of performance standards in a wide variety of sports. Exploratory factor analyses of their responses produced eight competition strategy subscales and eight practice strategy subscales, each consisting of four items. Internal consistencies of the subscales ranged from 0.66 to 0.81 (x = 0.75). Correlations among strategies were examined within and between performance contexts. Subgroups defined by age, sex and current standard of performance in sport differed significantly in their psychological skills and strategies.
Article
I review research on psychological characteristics and sports performance and examine the literature on talent identification with particular reference to soccer to derive implications for the use of psychological variables in the talent identification and development process. Although the many cross-sectional studies of psychological characteristics and performance in all football codes conducted over the last 30 years have revealed no clear patterns, studies of both general inventories and specific variables are still being conducted. Reports on talent identification in all codes have increased in recent years, but most are descriptive in nature. In this review, I suggest that research on systematic expert observation has potential as a practical approach, but more studies of this type are needed. Considering the examination of specific psychological variables, only a solitary investigation of creativity in adolescents has shown promise. Further research on creativity and talent identification is required to replicate the positive results found in that study. In summarizing the research on psychological characteristics and talent identification, I conclude that cross-sectional research on adults cannot be extrapolated for use in talent identification with adolescents. I propose that resources would be more effectively used in the provision of psychological skills training for adolescent soccer players, pending more sophisticated research on a wider range of psychological variables. It is recommended that longitudinal or quasi-longitudinal research is essential to determine whether the same psychological variables are important for outstanding performance throughout the process of development and whether psychological variables measured during adolescence can predict outstanding performance in adulthood.
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The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Latent Growth Model (LGM) to researchers in exercise and sport science. Although the LGM has several merits over traditional analysis techniques in analyzing change and was first introduced almost 20 years ago, it is still underused in exercise and sport science research. This statistical model can be applied to any repeated measures data, but it is most useful when one has an a priori hypothesis about the patterns of change. The strengths of latent growth modeling include: (a) both individual and group levels of change are estimated, (b) either a linear or a curvilinear trajectory can represent individual change, (c) occasions of measurement need not be equally spaced, (d) the statistical model can account for measurement errors, (e) the model can easily include multiple predictors or correlates of change, and (f) as in general structural equation models, statistical models are flexible and allow one to extend the basic idea in several ways, such as comparing changes between groups and examining the change in multivariate latentfactors. In this paper, the basics and an extension of latent growth modeling are explained, and examples with longitudinal physical performance data are presented, along with detailed analysis procedures and considerations.
Specific Overtraining Short Overtraining Symptoms Questionnaire (SOSQ-Lemyre
  • Ind
Ind. Specific Overtraining Short Overtraining Symptoms Questionnaire (SOSQ-Lemyre, Roberts & Stray-Gundersen, 2007)
Motivational Climate Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2
  • Soc. -Environ
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