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Students’ Morphological Errors in Writing Recount Text at Muhammadiyah University of Metro

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Abstract

The objectives of this research are to find out the kinds of students’ morphological error in writing recount text and to find out the difficulties faced by the student in writing recount text. This research is a descriptive qualitative. It means this study focused to describe and analyze the students’ error. Based on the result that mentioned previously, the researcher found that the number of students’ omission and misformation errors are high. The highest students’ errors made in misformation are about 51, 19 %. Most of the students used wrong form of morphological in their writing. The second is the students errors made in omission are around 32, 74 %.The students not adding bound morpheme, they omit the necessary item in their sentences. The third, the students made errors in addition and misordering are about 13, 69 % and 2, 38 %. The students add unnecessary item and put incorrect placement of morpheme in their writing. On the other hand, according to table 4.2 the researcher conclude that the number of error is five or 31, 25 % students made error in global error and 11or 68, 75 % students made in local error. Key Words: Morphological errors, students’ writing
Premise Journal Vol 4 No 1 April 2015 ISSN: 2442-482x (cetak) ISSN: 977244248DD3 (electronic)
Students’ Morphological Errors in Writing Recount Text at Muhammadiyah
University of Metro
Juriah and Fitri Palupi Kusumawati
English Study Program of FKIP Muhammadiyah University of Metro
fitripalupi1985@yahoo.com
The objectives of this research are to find out the kinds of students’ morphological
error in writing recount text and to find out the difficulties faced by the student in
writing recount text. This research is a descriptive qualitative. It means this study
focused to describe and analyze the students’ error. Based on the result that
mentioned previously, the researcher found that the number of students’ omission and
misformation errors are high. The highest students’ errors made in misformation are
about 51, 19 %. Most of the students used wrong form of morphological in their
writing. The second is the students errors made in omission are around 32, 74 %.The
students not adding bound morpheme, they omit the necessary item in their sentences.
The third, the students made errors in addition and misordering are about 13, 69 %
and 2, 38 %. The students add unnecessary item and put incorrect placement of
morpheme in their writing. On the other hand, according to table 4.2 the researcher
conclude that the number of error is five or 31, 25 % students made error in global
error and 11or 68, 75 % students made in local error.
Key Words: Morphological errors, students’ writing
INTRODUCTION
Recount is kind of text that taught in
writing course in university. It is the
Premise Journal Vol 4 No 1 April 2015 ISSN: 2442-482x (cetak) ISSN: 977244248DD3 (electronic)
text to tell event that happen in the
past. Because the event happens in the
past, so the sentences must use simple
past tense. According to Knapp (2005:
224), Recount Text, basically it is
written out to make a report about an
experience of a series of related event.
A recount is written out to inform an
event or to entertain people. Recount
Text is text function as for telling an
incident in the past. Recount is to tell
“what happened”. A recount text has a
social function. The purpose of a
social function is to retell an event
with a purpose to inform or entertain
the readers (Siahaan and Shinoda,
2008: 9). Recount tells a series of
events and evaluate their significance
in some way. It is also to give
audience a descriptions of what
occurred and when it occurred. The
story recount has expressions of
attitude and feeling, usually made by
narrator about the events.
Morphology is the identification,
analysis and description, of the
structure of word (word as units in the
lexicon are the subject matter of
lexicology). While words are generally
accepted as being the smallest unit of
syntax, it is clear that in most
languages, word can be related to other
words by rules. Based on the
researcher’s experience, the researcher
found there are some students of
Muhammadiyah University of Metro
make an error in morphological
because the students’ morphological
structure mastery is still low. Some
students still confuse how to
identifythe morphemes and the ways
in which they are distribute or
combined into longer utterances. On
the other hand, the students often make
some kinds of error in their writing.
The students do not know when to use
the appropriate verb usage concerning
about the time will be use when they
asked to make English writing and
they has difficulties to change from
simple present tense into simple past
tense. Based on the problems above,
the writers are interested to analyzing
the students’ morphological errors in
their writing especially in writing
recount text.
Premise Journal Vol 4 No 1 April 2015 ISSN: 2442-482x (cetak) ISSN: 977244248DD3 (electronic)
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The previous research on analysis of
morphological error is taken from
Oktari entitled “An analysis of
morphological errors in the students
writing’ of SMPN 6 Metro at the
second semester in the academic year
of 2009/2010. The writers found that
there are many students often make
error if they lack knowledge of
structure and the students’ paragraph
writing is morphologically low. Most
of the students made errors in omission
is about 238 errors or 67,51 %, 99
errors or 27,97 % in misformation, 7or
1,97 % in addition and the last 9 or
2,54 % in misordering. The second
research is taken from Nugraha
entitled “An analysis of the tenth grade
students’ writing ability in recount text
of SMA Muhammadiyah 1 Metro odd
semester academic year 2011/2012.
The researcher said that the students
still difficulty in making recount text,
because the students who get the
score up to 87 - 93 just 1 people
and 8 people got 80 86 score, 73
79 were 6 people, 66 - 72 just 16
people, 59 65 were 12 people, and
just 1 people who got score 52 58.
It means that more students got the
higher score then lower score.
or 1,97 % in addition and the last 9 or
2,54 % in misordering. The students
have many problems in learning
English. The students still less learned
English especially in writing. They
still confused to use the tense in
recount text. They not only used past
tense when they are writing recount
text, but also use present tense. The
teacher should give explanation about
formula of past tense before the
teacher asks the students to make a
recount text. Based on the two
researches above, the researcher will
focus to morphological errors in the
students writing recount text and the
researcher believes that this research
will be better than the previous
research because in this research
determine the proportion of errors
based on surface strategy taxonomy
where the researcher will classify the
error limited in omission, addition,
misformation, misordering and
Premise Journal Vol 4 No 1 April 2015 ISSN: 2442-482x (cetak) ISSN: 977244248DD3 (electronic)
communicative effect taxonomy
limited in local error and global error
that will be found in students writing
recount text.
The theory review supporting this
research includes the concept of
analysis, the concept of error analysis,
the concept of error, types of error, the
concept of morphology, morpheme,
free and bound morpheme, inflectional
and derivational morpheme, the
concept of teaching morphology,
concept of writing, the process of
writing, the concept of recount text,
the generic structure of recount text,
surface strategy taxonomy and
communicative effect taxonomy.
METHOD
In this research, the researchers use
descriptive qualitative as the research
design, the researchers do the test to
analyze students' writing ability in
recount text. The researchers use the
test to do the research first. From this
instrument, the researchers want to
know about the students’ errors in
recount text. The process of this test is
at the first the researchers ask the
students to write recount text that
consist of some parts based on the
theme. The students do the task to
make recount text with theme or based
on their experience.
Recount text is as a dependent
variable. To get the description of
students’ difficulty in making recount
text, the researcher analyzes the aspect
of recount text. They are :
Orientation: it is a statement which
contains of topic an activities or event
that will inform, there are : what,
when, who the participants and
personal attitudes ( what the author
thinks or the what ).
Records of events: It contains about
the detail of information which
happened. Based on the topic that is
told in the orientation, that is consist of
time vacation, the time of leaving and
means of transport, activities during
the activities, the author’s comment
that express personal attitudes.
Premise Journal Vol 4 No 1 April 2015 ISSN: 2442-482x (cetak) ISSN: 977244248DD3 (electronic)
Re - Orientation: It contains closure
that can be author’s comment or
personal attitude that happens in the
vacation.
(Pardiyono:2007)
Recount text is one of the texts in
genre writing. It has three parts in
recount text. They are orientation,
records of events, and re-orientation. It
has purpose to retell about the event in
the past time.
In this research, the researchers use the
second semester of Muhammadiyah
University of Metro. The researchers
use purposive sampling technique
because the respondents are the
English students who have strong
connection with this study and the
students have studied about
morphology in first semester. As
sample the researchers will choose 10
students from the second semester to
do the test. Arikunto (2006: 95) states
that instrument is the tools selected
and used by the researchers in their
activities to collect data so that these
activities became systematic and easier
for them. The instrument to collect the
data in this research is test. Arikunto
(2010: 53) states that test is a tool or
procedure used to determine or
measure something in the situation, the
way and the rules that have been
determined. The consideration of
choosing instrument is that the writer
can see the data objectively, and result
of the students’ writing are their own
expression base on the topic will be
given. By giving the topic, it will be
expected the students will be able to
express their ideas, feelings, and
thoughts easier. This research only
analyzes the morphological aspect and
ignores the content, form, style and
mechanic of the students recount
writing.
The researchers classify the errors to
find out frequencies of error, each
errors classified by using surface
strategy taxonomy and communicative
effect taxonomy. In case of surface
strategy taxonomy, error will be
classified into omission, addition,
misformation and misordering. On the
other hand, based on communicative
effect taxonomy, the error will be
classified into local and global error.
Premise Journal Vol 4 No 1 April 2015 ISSN: 2442-482x (cetak) ISSN: 977244248DD3 (electronic)
DISCUSSION
Based on the data, the researchers
conclude that most of the students
have difficulties in morphological. The
number of students’ omission and
misformation errors are high. The
highest students’ errors made in
misformation are about 51,19 %. Most
of the students used wrong form of
morphological in their writing. They
get difficulties to transform verb in
present tense into past tense. The
second is the students errors made in
omission are around 32, 74 %. The
students not adding bound morpheme,
they omit the necessary item in their
sentences. The third, the students made
errors in addition and misordering are
about 13, 69 % and 2, 38 %. The
students add unnecessary item and put
incorrect placement of morpheme in
their writing. The distribution of
morphological errors though
communicative effect Taxonomy
according to table 4.2 the researcher
conclude that the number of local error
is high or 68, 75 %. The students omit
the necessary item of morphology in
their sentences. Meanwhile, the
number of students’ errors that made
in global errors is 31, 25 %. They
made unclear sentences and used
wrong word formation.
CONCLUSION
Based on objective of the research and
result the analysis of the data presented
in the previous chapter, the conclusion
can be cited like the following:
The kinds of students morphological
errors in students text writing based on
surface strategy taxonomy and
communicative effect taxonomy will
be explain below:
After analyzing the data, the researcher
found that the students made some
errors related to morphological aspect.
Most of the students made errors in
inflectional morpheme. The students’
omit morpheme s to indicate that the
noun is plural or omit morpheme ed
to indicate that the sentences are past
form. Besides, the students also made
some errors in derivational morpheme.
The students add morpheme ly to
indicate the word is adjective and the
Premise Journal Vol 4 No 1 April 2015 ISSN: 2442-482x (cetak) ISSN: 977244248DD3 (electronic)
students made errors to determine
pronoun or verb to indicate past form.
Based on the explanation previously,
the researchers conclude that there are
some difficulties faced by the students
in writing text. First, the students have
difficulty to differ between plural and
singular noun. For example, “I got
many experience”.In this sentence, the
word experience is plural noun, so the
word experience should be writing as
experiences. Second, the students have
difficulty to transform sentences into
past tense. For example “I look
something beautiful”. In this sentence
the word look should be adding
morpheme ed to indicate the sentence
is past tense. The students often did
not change verb one to be verb two
when they make sentences in the past
form. Third, the students have
difficulty to choose the right words to
arrange sentences. For example I
stayed in Banyuwangi during 2
weeks, the word during is improper
for thus sentence. The sentence above
should be written as I stayed in
Banyuwangi for 2 weeks. The last,
some students have difficulty to make
sentences into good order. For
example “Finally, I came to Lampung
back”. The sentence is in incorrect
order. The sentence should be written
“Finally, I came back to Lampung.
REFERENCES
Booji. (2005). The Grammar of Word:
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Morphology. New York: Oxford
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Harmer. (2007). The Practice of
English Language Teaching, Third
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Peter Knaap. (2005). Genre, text, and
grammar. Sydney: University of New
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Nugraha. (2012). An Analysis Of The
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... The second previous study is about the students' morphological errors in writing recount text at Muhammadiyah University of Metro by Juriah &Kusumawati (2015). The method was descriptive qualitative with the students at Muhammadiyah University of Metro with using Surface Strategy Taxonomy by Dulay et al. ...
Thesis
Morphology is a part of linguistics’ branches. The study itself is about how to form or create a word. The word can be the smallest unit of language which is known as morpheme that is combined with another word to produce more different word, whether the word changes the class and meaning or not at all, which many students still do not understand, hence, the researcher took interest to studied and analysed morphological errors made by students. Since most of students still find difficulty in arranging words, therefore, the researcher chose to did an analysis of morphological errors, which the error is based on Linguistics Category Taxonomy that was found on first year students’ final examination papers in intensive writing class which is started on early semester. Intensive writing class is a type of writing performance that focuses more on students’ word formation and their grammar. The researcher used qualitative method with purposeful sampling. After doing some research, the researcher found some morphological errors on students’ writings in 1B class on their final examination paper academic year 2019/2020 by using purposeful sampling that selectively used one class among two classes to understand the core of problem better. Between eight types of morphological errors, the students had simple past tense incorrect as the highest error with 58,09% and comparative adjective/adverb incorrect as the lowest error with 0,33%. This result showed that most of students have lack of understanding in past tense while they have understood comparative adjective/adverb well. In order to reduce students’ lack of morphological understanding, the researcher suggests that teacher should be able to give more knowledge about morphology and how to create the word properly by fully knowing about grammar, especially the past tense one.
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The Grammar of Word: An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology
  • Booji
Booji. (2005). The Grammar of Word: An Introduction to Linguistic Morphology. New York: Oxford University.
Teaching by Principle
  • Brown
Brown.(2001). Teaching by Principle. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Genre, text, and grammar
  • Peter Knaap
Peter Knaap. (2005). Genre, text, and grammar. Sydney: University of New
Teaching Genre Based Writing
  • Pardiyono
Pardiyono.( 2007). Teaching Genre Based Writing. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.
Tehnical writing made easier. UK: Senior Word Wrangler
  • Spuida
Spuida. (2002). Tehnical writing made easier. UK: Senior Word Wrangler.