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Abstract

This article takes a closer look at the bonding and stability mechanisms within the electron-positron dipole sea and how these result in the double helix theory of the magnetic field. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic repulsion will be further investigated.
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The Double Helix and the Electron-Positron Aether
Frederick David Tombe,
Northern Ireland, United Kingdom,
sirius184@hotmail.com
12th September 2017
Abstract. This article takes a closer look at the bonding and stability mechanisms within
the electron-positron dipole sea and how these result in the double helix theory of the
magnetic field. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic
repulsion will be further investigated.
The Inertial Frame of Reference
I. Newton’s first law of motion states that a moving body continues in its
uniform straight-line path unless acted upon by a force. The term force in the
context naturally excludes the inertial forces since these are actually a
consequence of the motion itself. Newton’s first law assumes that the concept of
straight line motion is already defined and understood, but in order to define it
we need to establish a physical basis that will link it to the inertial forces,
because uniform straight line motion involves a centrifugal force to every point
in space. This generally unrealized fact is pure geometry, as sure as
Pythagoras’s theorem. Centrifugal force is angular momentum dependent and it
obeys an inverse cube law in distance to the chosen point origin. See section
VIII below.
It will be proposed that space is densely packed with electrons and
positrons [1], [2], [3], [4], forming an elastic dielectric medium which does not
appear to rotate with respect to the average motion of the distant stars, and that
this medium will be entrained within the gravitational fields of planetary bodies
so as to form local frames of reference that will exist in a system of hierarchies
throughout the universe. These local frames of reference will be referred to as
inertial frames of reference, a name first invented in 1885 by German
physicist Ludwig Lange. Although this name is totally suitable, it must be
remembered that it first came to prominence in conjunction with Einstein’s
Special Theory of Relativity, [5], on the basis that an inertial frame of reference
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is void of gravity. Special relativity is however notorious for its internal
contradictions, [6], and so this fact will be disregarded. A frame of reference as a
meaningful physical entity in classical mechanics needs to be entrained within a
gravitational field in order to have any definition.
The electrons and positrons that make up an inertial frame of reference will
constitute what is erroneously believed to be the annihilated state as is
officially taught with respect to electron-positron pair annihilation. The question
then arises as to how the electrons and positrons themselves will bond with their
neighbours in a manner that is commensurate with the forces of electromagnetic
induction. The Coulomb force would act first so as to collapse the electron-
positron sea into rotating dipoles in which an electron and a positron undergo a
mutual orbit. Ampère’s Circuital Law would suggest that these rotating dipoles
attract each other, electron to positron, to form toroidal double helix rings. Such
rings would then constitute magnetic lines of force. We can then see how the
magnetic force of attraction would be explained as an electrostatic attraction
acting between electrons and positrons along the double helix. The question
then arises as regards the force that will act between neighbouring dipoles in
their equatorial planes such as to prevent the magnetic lines of force from
collapsing.
Centrifugal Force and Magnetic Repulsion
II. Consider two electron-positron dipoles sitting side by side while rotating in
the same plane and in the same direction. When the electron of one dipole
passes the positron of the other dipole in the opposite direction at closest
approach, the electrostatic field lines will connect directly between the two
particles. According to Coulomb’s law there should be a force of attraction
acting between them, as in the case of any two particles of opposite charge. If,
however the electrostatic force field, E, is based on tension in an aethereal fluid
that is flowing from the positron to the electron, their mutual transverse speed
will induce a curl in the velocity field. Above a certain threshold of angular
speed, the flow lines between the two dipoles will split and the two separate
regions of fluid will now be shearing past each other in opposite directions. The
pressure emanating from the sides of the opposing flow lines will then push the
two dipoles apart. A centrifugal repulsion will have taken the place of the
electrostatic attraction. A magnetic field would therefore appear to be a
centrifugal force field, and so it is proposed that particles are sinks or sources in
an electric fluid, the aether, this being the primary substance from which all
matter is made. As a convention, electrons will be considered to be aether sinks
while positrons are aether sources.
Electric current cannot be fully understood in the absence of such a primary
fluid flow at a deeper level than the flow of charged particles. Electrons would
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eat their way upstream in such a fluid while positrons would be pushed in the
opposite direction, and if the fluid were inviscid, charged particles would be
accelerated by the fluid due to pressure or tension but without taking on the
fluid’s actual velocity. Electric signals in a conducting wire travel at a speed
that is in the same order of magnitude as the speed of light, and this is probably
the speed of the electric fluid.
Intrinsic Magnetic Spin Moment
III. The intrinsic magnetic spin moment of an electron and a positron would
provide a stabilizing repulsive force in the equatorial plane of rotating electron-
positron dipoles which would definitively cause neighbouring dipoles, mutually
aligned in their equatorial planes, to repel each other. Unless we consider
magnetic field lines to be completely distinct from electrostatic field lines, the
obvious conclusion therefore is that the magnetic spin moment of electrons and
positrons is nothing other than the curl of the velocity fields of their electrostatic
fields, and that the magnetic repulsion arising from magnetic spin moment is in
fact caused by centrifugal force.
The Magnetic Field
IV. Part I of Maxwell’s 1861 paper “On Physical Lines of Force”, [7], treated
the aspects relating to the curl of the velocity field in a sea of tiny aethereal
vortices. These aspects are magnetic force and Ampère’s Circuital Law.
Maxwell didn’t mention the idea of a dielectric medium until Part III of the
same paper, but in order to amalgamate the concepts it is now proposed that
rotating electron-positron dipoles constitute dipolar aether vortices, with the
electrons being sinks and the positrons being sources, and that they are powered
up to such high speeds that their escape velocity is exceeded and they press
against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate, hence
hemming each other in [8], [9]. The broken flow lines in the equatorial plane will
have to terminate upwards and downwards with their neighbours in the axial
direction. This recalls the Newton’s rotating bucket. In other words, the
centripetal force that keeps the electrons and positrons in circular orbit is not
caused by the internal electrostatic attraction within each dipole, but rather by
the centrifugal force pressing inwards on them by their neighbouring dipoles
[10]. The fundamental principle behind centrifugal force is therefore based on the
hydrodynamical principle that a flowing fluid cannot move sideways through
shear lines. This can even be observed in the case of a toroidal vortex in water.
The circulating water doesn’t fly off at a tangent. Acknowledging the existence
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of the primary electric fluid therefore enhances the picture of the electron-
positron dipoles.
As a general rule it is proposed that the flow rate into electrons is greater
than the flow rate out of positrons, hence causing a tendency to collapse which
can only be prevented by vorticity and hence by centrifugal force. Rotation is
the stabilizer of the universe. It is also proposed that curl widens both the sinks
and the sources while obstructing the flow of aether between the positron and
the electron within a dipole.
When a source or a sink is placed in a magnetic field, it will be induced to
rotate like an idler wheel in the opposite direction to that of the surrounding
electron-positron dipoles. If the source or sink is then induced to move through
the field, at right angles to the magnetic axis, the flow will be broken on one
side only, hence causing a centrifugal pressure differential at right angles to the
direction of motion. This will cause a deflection expressed by the equation F =
qv×B [11]. The deflection will be in one direction for sinks and in the opposite
direction for sources. This is because the flow pattern will curl oppositely in
each case, even though the spin will be in the same direction. The breaking of
the flow on one side, when translational motion occurs, will be on opposite
sides for sinks and sources.
Ampère’s Circuital Law
V. When rotating electron-positron dipoles bond together along their rotation
axes to form a double helical toroid with nothing in the toroidal hole in the
middle, the Coulomb attraction along the double helix would tend to make the
helix collapse. If the circumferential speed of each rotating dipole is v, then ×v
= H where H is the vorticity or the magnetic intensity, and hence .H = 0
meaning that H is solenoidal. The speed v represents the flow of the primary
aethereal fluid, and this constitutes an electric current. At the hole in the middle
of the toroid there will be a concentration of electric fluid and the current
density will be ρv = J where ρ is the aether density in the hole. Since H forms a
circle around the inside of the double helix, it follows therefore that ×H = J.
This is Ampère’s Circuital Law and the concentration of electric current
through the hole in the toroid prevents the toroid from collapsing into the hole.
Unlike in the case of fluid pouring down a sink, a toroid involves only
solenoidal flow and so the fluid circulates around indefinitely. The fluid cannot
pass sideways through itself in the toroidal hole and so the toroid cannot
collapse. The double helix toroid is therefore the fundamental basis for stability
and the default alignment in the electron-positron sea.
Ampère’s Circuital Law means that when a current or a particle, neutral or
otherwise, moves through the electron-positron sea, it causes the electron-
positron dipoles to align with their rotation axes forming solenoidal rings
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around the direction of motion. It’s similar in principle to the creation of smoke
rings. Maxwell explains Ampère’s Circuital Law at equation (9) in Part I of his
1861 paper [7].
When a current flows through an already existing magnetic field, Ampère’s
Circuital Law will encounter a resistance and the reaction to this resistance will
be a compound centrifugal force of the form E = v×B. The three above
equations, ×v = H, ×H = J, and E = v×B are all identifiable in Maxwell’s
original equations, [12], and they relate to the curl of the velocity field in the
primary aethereal/electric fluid. E = v×B arises in both electric motors and
motionally induced electromagnetic induction. The equation ×v = H would be
more familiar in the form ×A = B. The difference between v and A is that v
represents the source current at the centre of a magnetic field, whereas A
represents the density of circulating current in the sea of rotating dipoles and is
therefore equal to µv where µ is related to the electron-positron sea density and
corresponds to magnetic permeability. The vector B which is equal to µH is the
magnetic flux density. The vector A was known to Maxwell as the
electromagnetic momentum and he equated it with Faraday’s electrotonic state.
Part II of Maxwell’s 1861 paper dealt with electromagnetic induction. Maxwell
began treating the vector A in Part II beginning at equation (58), but it seems he
didn’t notice that it corresponds to the displacement current which he proposed
in Part III of the same paper in his treatment of the elasticity of the luminiferous
medium. The vector A is nowadays known as the magnetic vector potential, but
its physical significance has been lost.
The vector A is the fine-grained electric current in a magnetic field giving
rise to the field’s kinetic energy ½LI2. In the steady state it circulates within the
tiny dipoles at the speed of light, but in the dynamic state it becomes
electromagnetic radiation and transmits from dipole to dipole at that same speed
[13], [14]. In the steady state, the velocity field in a rotating dipole is curled, but
the electric field, being exclusively the electrostatic field ES, is still irrotational
because the acceleration is purely radial. When angular acceleration occurs
however, A/∂t will be non-zero, and the E field will curl. The newly induced
transverse component of the E field will therefore obey EK = A/∂t, and so we
will have ×EK = B/∂t which, bar the absence of a negative sign, is the
Maxwell-Faraday law for time varying electromagnetic induction, but it also
applies when a magnetic field is in the process of being generated in a primary
circuit. It’s similar in principle to Newton’s Second Law of Motion with
inductance replacing inertial mass, and the negative sign is introduced by
convention to highlight Lenz’s Law. Since energy is transferred during
electromagnetic induction, this suggests that wireless EM radiation is a wave of
fine-grained angular acceleration accompanied by a net vortex flow of electric
fluid momentum [14]. Angular acceleration causes aether to overflow from one
dipole to its neighbour.
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Inertial Centrifugal Force
VI. An objection is often raised that if space is densely packed with electrons
and positrons, that this would impact upon inertial motion by creating a
dissipative resistance, whereas nothing like this is observed in planetary orbits.
On the contrary, it is the very presence of rotating electron-positron dipoles in
space which gives rise to the inertial forces that determine the uniform straight-
line path. As a body moves through the electron-positron sea, the physical
interaction induces a reorientation of the immediately surrounding rotating
dipoles such that their rotation axes trace out concentric rings around the path of
motion. A centrifugal force therefore presses inwards on the body from all
sides, at right angles to its direction of motion. This is identical in principle to
how Maxwell explained the formation of a magnetic field around an electric
current. As the induced reorientation of the dipoles propagates outwards from
the moving body in a wave-like manner, the body will experience a centrifugal
force to every point in space. Apart from where the surrounding dipoles contact
the moving body directly, each centrifugal force will be indirectly due to the
individual rotating electron-positron dipole which exists at the origin in question
[15]. The combined effect of every centrifugal force, to every point in space,
results in the fact that moving bodies are sitting at the centre of a pressure field
that extends into the space beyond, dropping off as per the inverse cube law.
This is the circular energy flow mechanism that underlies Newton’s first law of
motion. The centrifugal pressure field is an extension of the body’s kinetic
energy and it amounts to a weak magnetic field. See the full analysis in section
VII below, and as regards the issue of leakage to far field radiation in low
energy situations, see section II, Far Field Radiation, in “Electromagnetic
Radiation in the Near Magnetic Field [16]. It should be emphasized that
centrifugal force is measured relative to a point and is hence represented by a
position vector as opposed to a displacement vector. It is therefore camouflaged
in terrestrial situations where Cartesian coordinates are used in connection with
displacement vectors. The physical importance of inertial centrifugal force on
the large scale mainly emerges in rotating systems and in radial force fields
where it can actively oppose a centripetal force or displace particles in a fluid as
in the case of a centrifuge. Centrifugal force can also reverse the angular
momentum in a rotating rattleback [17].
The Inertial Path
VII. Consider a body in motion in an inertial frame of reference. We can write
the position vector of this body relative to any arbitrarily chosen polar origin as,
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r = rr
̂ (1)
where the unit vector r
̂ is in the radial direction and where r is the radial
distance. Taking the time derivative and using the product rule, we obtain the
velocity,
= r
̂ + rω (2)
where is the unit vector in the transverse direction and where ω is the
angular speed about the polar origin. Taking the time derivative a second time,
we obtain the expression for acceleration in the inertial frame,
r
̈ = r
̈r
̂ + ω + ω + r(dω/dt) rω2r
̂ (3)
Re-arranging and multiplying across by mass m leads to,
mr
̈ = m(r
̈ − rω2)r
̂ + m(2vrω + rdω/dt) (4)
†see the note at reference [7] regarding Maxwell’s equation (77)
where ω is the angular speed and vr is the radial speed. The radial
component of equation (4) contains a centrifugal force, mr
̈, and an inertial
centripetal force, m2, while the transverse component contains a Coriolis
force, mrdω/dt, which equals 2mvrω when angular momentum is conserved. In
the case of uniform straight-line motion, the total acceleration is zero, but when
a constraint is introduced, an imbalance occurs in the inertial symmetry. For
example, if the body is tethered to a pivot, the inertial centrifugal force pulls on
the constraint, hence inducing a reactive centripetal tension within the material
of the constraint. This tension cancels with the inertial centrifugal force and the
resultant is a net inertial centripetal force which curves the path of motion.
The inertial centripetal force m2 in equation (4) with respect to one
polar origin, is an inertial centrifugal force with respect to the origin at the same
distance along a line through the moving body on the other side of it. From the
perspective of the moving body, there is therefore a centrifugal force to every
point in space giving rise to a cylindrical vector field in the likeness of the
magnetic field that surrounds an electric current. The centrifugal force to any
point on a particular cylindrical shell, concentric to the path of motion, will be a
resolution of the centrifugal force to a point on the shell, that acts
perpendicularly to the path of motion. The perpendicular centrifugal force will
drop off with an inverse cube law in distance from the moving body (see
equation (6)). Since centrifugal force is the radial gradient of kinetic energy
(∂/∂rmr2ω2] = mrω2), it is now proposed that this cylindrical vector field
represents the extension of the body’s kinetic energy.
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The idea that a moving entity could yield up energy to a surrounding
medium and have it returned during deceleration is observed in the case of an
electromagnetic field. When the power supply to an electric circuit is
disconnected, its magnetic field collapses and its stored energy, ½LI2, flows
back into the circuit giving the current a final surge forward. Another rather
obvious connection between the inertial forces and magnetism is the fact that
the Coriolis force has a similar form to the magnetic force, F = qv×B, if we
adopt Maxwell’s idea that it is caused by a sea of molecular vortices pressing
against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate [7], [8], [9], and
where the vorticity, H = 2ω, represents the magnetic intensity, where ω is the
circumferential angular speed of the vortices and where B = µH.
It is therefore proposed that kinetic energy, ½mv2, is a pressure, and an
extended pressure field which drops off with an inverse cube law in distance,
and that it is induced by the fine-grained centrifugal force interaction between
the immediately surrounding vortices and the molecules of the moving body as
they shear past each other. These vortices will be the rotating electron-positron
dipoles introduced in section I, and they will form double helix vortex rings
around the moving body, centred on the line of motion, similar in principle to
smoke rings. To the front and rear of the motion, the vortices would therefore
have to be continually aligning and de-aligning, and the associated precession of
the vortices would be fully compatible with a Coriolis force acting equally and
oppositely at the front and the rear of the motion. This process would be
identical in principle to Maxwell’s explanation for Ampère’s Circuital Law. The
kinetic energy pressure field, or inertial field, that accompanies a moving body
is therefore in principle just a variation on the magnetic field theme. It is a weak
magnetic field and a circular energy flow mechanism.
Planetary Orbits
VIII. In planetary orbital theory there is an additional factor to be taken into
consideration. Although an inertial frame of reference is defined within the
boundaries of a gravitational field, the analysis in section VII above only
applies when gravity itself is negligible. In the orbital problem however, gravity
is highly significance and we are dealing with two inertial frames of reference
shearing past each other. These two gravity sinks undermine the inertial
centrifugal pressure between the planets. Meanwhile conservation of angular
momentum causes the two transverse terms in equation (4) to cancel. This is
recognized in Kepler’s second law, which is the law of equal areas. We can
therefore reduce the problem to a scalar equation in the radial distance. Writing
the centrifugal term in the form +rω2, the radial scalar equation becomes,
r
̈ = −k/r2 + rω2 (5)
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where k is the gravitational constant. Taking l to be the angular momentum
constant equal to r2ω, we can write Leibniz’s equation in the form,
r
̈ = −k/r2 + l2/r3 (6)
or specifically for circular orbits,
r
̈ = −GM/r2 + v2/r (7)
where G is the universal gravitational constant and M is the mass of the
planet being orbited. The inter-play between the gravitational inverse square
law attractive force and the centrifugal inverse cube law repulsive force
involves two different power laws, and this leads to stable orbits that are
elliptical, circular, parabolic, or hyperbolic. The centrifugal force will
physically occur at the interface between the two inertial frames of reference. It
will arise as a shear interaction between electron-positron dipoles at the
interface, and since the gravitational field tails on the outer sides of the two
planets will interfere with the inertial centripetal force mechanism, this results
in the fact that equations (5), (6), and (7) represent the only physical realities in
the radial direction. Centrifugal force is therefore exposed as a real force.
There is considerable unease in orthodox physics circles surrounding the
centrifugal force terms in equations (5), (6), and (7). While it is obviously a real
force which opposes gravity, it is seldom named as such in modern textbooks.
And it is certainly not an equal and opposite reaction to gravity because its
existence is independent of gravity, and it does not in general have the same
magnitude. The cognitive dissonance surrounding centrifugal force is typified in
a quote which appeared in a classical dynamics textbook written in 1965 by
Jerry B. Marion [18]. Regarding the centrifugal force term in planetary orbital
analysis, Marion says,
This quantity is traditionally called the centrifugal force, although it is not a “force” in
the ordinary sense of the word. We shall, however, continue to use this unfortunate
terminology since it is customary and convenient. Jerry B. Marion, 1965
So, what is it if it’s not a force? Of course it’s a force, and it’s a centrifugal
force. But some textbooks even propose the absurd idea that it is the centripetal
term in equation (4), as if a centripetal force could suddenly become a
centrifugal force simply by it being taken across to the other side of an equation.
The transition from equation (4) to equation (5) will continue to cause a
problem so long as the deeper physical meaning behind the inertial terms is
fully understood.
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Conclusion
IX. There exists a primary electric fluid, or aether, with momentum field A such
that ×A = B, where B is magnetic flux density, implying that space is filled
with tiny aethereal vortices. These vortices press against each other with
centrifugal force while striving to dilate [19], [20], [21], [22], [23]. Each vortex
comprises of an electron sink in the aether, and a positron source. Gauss’s law
for electrostatics applies to irrotational sinks and sources where ×A = 0.
Centrifugal force and magnetic repulsion are inextricably linked, while
magnetic attraction is simply Coulomb’s law of electrostatics channelled along
a double helix of electrons and positrons.
References
[1] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field” (2006)
Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 24, Number 2, p.34, (March/April 2013)
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http://vacuum-physics.com/Maxwell/maxwell_oplf.pdf
† Equation (77) in Maxwell’s paper is his electromotive force equation and it exhibits a strong
correspondence to equation (4) in this article. The transverse terms 2mvrω (where vorticity H = )
and mdvt/dt (where vt is the transverse speed equal to ) correspond to the compound centrifugal
term µv×H and the Faraday term −∂A/∂t, with m corresponding to µ, and where A is the
electromagnetic momentum.
[8] Whittaker, E.T., “A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity”, Chapter 4, pages 100-102,
(1910)
“All space, according to the younger Bernoulli, is permeated by a fluid aether, containing an
immense number of excessively small whirlpools. The elasticity which the aether appears to
possess, and in virtue of which it is able to transmit vibrations, is really due to the presence of these
11
whirlpools; for, owing to centrifugal force, each whirlpool is continually striving to dilate, and so
presses against the neighbouring whirlpools. It will be seen that Bernoulli is a thorough Cartesian
in spirit; not only does he reject action at a distance, but he insists that even the elasticity of his
aether shall be explicable in terms of matter and motion. This aggregate of small vortices, or " fine-
grained turbulent motion," as it came to be called a century and a half later,* is interspersed with
solid corpuscles, whose dimensions are small compared with their distances apart. These are
pushed about by the whirlpools whenever the aether is disturbed, but never travel far from their
original positions. A source of light communicates to its surroundings a disturbance which
condenses the nearest whirlpools; these by their condensation displace the contiguous corpuscles
from their equilibrium position; and these in turn produce condensations in the whirlpools next
beyond them, so that vibrations are propagated in every direction from the luminous point. It is
curious that Bernoulli speaks of these vibrations as longitudinal, and actually contrasts them with
those of a stretched cord, which, "when it is slightly displaced from its rectilinear form, and then let
go, performs transverse vibrations in a direction at right angles to the direction of the cord." When
it is remembered that the objection to longitudinal vibrations, on the score of polarization, had
already been clearly stated by Newton, and that Bernoulli's aether closely resembles that which
Maxwell invented in 1861-2 for the express purpose of securing transversality of vibration, one
feels that perhaps no man ever so narrowly missed a great discovery. Bernoulli explained
refraction by combining these ideas with those of his father. Within the pores of ponderable bodies
the whirlpools are compressed, so the centrifugal force must vary in intensity from one medium to
another. Thus a corpuscle situated in the interface between two media is acted on by a greater
elastic force from one medium than from the other; and by applying the triangle of forces to find
the- conditions of its equilibrium, the law of Snell and Descartes may be obtained. * Cf . Lord
Kelvin's vortex-sponge aether, described later in this work.”
[9] O’Neill, John J., PRODIGAL GENIUS, Biography of Nikola Tesla”, Long Island, New York,
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published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel,
Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of
a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous ether - which is
acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles,
all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious
velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears,
reverting to the primary substance”.
http://www.rastko.rs/istorija/tesla/oniell-tesla.html
http://www.ascension-research.org/tesla.html
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[13] Tombe, F.D., “Displacement Current and the Electrotonic State” (2008)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-
Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/228
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[14] Lodge, Sir Oliver, “Ether (in physics)”, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Fourteenth Edition, Volume
8, Pages 751-755, (1937)
This quote is in relation to the speed of light,
“The most probable surmise or guess at present is that the ether is a perfectly incompressible
continuous fluid, in a state of fine-grained vortex motion, circulating with that same enormous
speed. For it has been partly, though as yet incompletely, shown that such a vortex fluid would
transmit waves of the same general nature as light waves i.e., periodic disturbances across the
line of propagationand would transmit them at a rate of the same order of magnitude as the
vortex or circulation speed” (Sir Oliver Lodge, 1937)
The article then goes on to cite Lord Kelvin, “The Vortex Theory of Ether,” Phil. Mag. (1887) and
Math. and Phys. Papers, vol. iv. and passim; also G. F. FitzGerald, Proc. Roy. Dub. Soc. (1899), or
Collected Papers, pp. 154, 238, 472.
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http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6132
[16] Tombe, F.D., “Electromagnetic Radiation in the Near Magnetic Field” (2017)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320101955_Electromagnetic_Radiation_in_the_Near_Magn
etic_Field
[17] Tombe, F.D., “The Rattleback and the Gyroscopic Force” (2010)
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Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/3160
[18] Marion, Jerry B., “Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems”, Chapter 10.6, page 275,
(1965)
[19] Tombe, F.D., Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind E = mc²” (2017)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/6767
[20] Tombe, F.D., “The 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch Experiment” (2015)
http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6314
[21] Tombe, F.D., “Induction of Electrostatic Repulsion by Strong Gravity” (2017)
https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-
Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7167
[22] Tombe, F.D., “The Significance of the Inertial Forces in Electromagnetism” (2019)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332912193_The_Significance_of_the_Inertial_Forces_in_E
lectromagnetism
[23] Tombe, F.D., Radiation Pressure and E = mc2 (2018)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325859308_Radiation_Pressure_and_E_mc
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... In Maxwell's hydrodynamical analysis in Section I above, he bases the magnetic intensity, H, and the magnetic flux density, B, on the finegrained circumferential aether circulation in his sea of tiny vortices. However, all papers relating to "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic field", [6], [7], instead apply H directly to the vorticity of the vortices, and hence Maxwell's electromagnetic momentum, A, becomes his displacement current, [4], [5]. It's upon this basis that we will operate in this article. ...
... We need to investigate the deeper origins of the electric and magnetic fields that are involved in the electromagnetic wave propagation mechanism, and to this end it is proposed that the wave carrying medium is in fact Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices, as modified by "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field" [6], [7], which replaces his molecular vortices with rotating electron-positron dipoles. These tiny vortices press against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate, [17], [18], [19]. ...
... In a rotating dipole, the aethereal flow from positron to electron will be cut due to the vorticity, the separate flows surrounding the electron and the positron will be passing each other in opposite directions, and so the Coulomb force of attraction will be disengaged. Hence, the two particles will press against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate, since the aether can't pass laterally through itself, and meanwhile the two vortex flows will be diverted up and down into the axial direction of the double helix, [7]. Despite the absence of the Coulomb force in the equatorial plane, E C is still nevertheless radial, and like the Coulomb force, as explained in Appendix F, it still satisfies Gauss's Law, this time with a negative sign in the form, ...
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The Lorentz transformations are best known for the relativistic Lorentz factor, γ = 1/√(1 – v^2/c^2), which appears in the equations of special relativity. It is also known that the Lorentz transformations can be used to derive the Biot-Savart law in the form B = μεv×E, and also the magnetic force in the form E = v×B. What is not so well-known, however, is that the emergence of these two cross-product equations from a Lorentz transformation has got no bearing on the Lorentz factor itself. It is often argued that the magnetic force, E = v×B, is a relativistic effect, yet aside from the very obvious fact that magnetism is observable at laboratory speeds, it will be demonstrated in this article that magnetism is a consequence of the physical structure of 4-D space-time, and that it is definitely not a relativistic effect.
... I. When corrected for Einstein's "General Theory of Relativity", Leibniz's radial planetary orbital equation, [1], takes on the form, mr̈ = −GMm/r 2 + L 2 /mr 3 − 3GML 2 /mc 2 r 4 (1) ...
... II. In order to better understand how gravity acts to reduce centrifugal force, we will identify the Minkowski 4D space-time continuum with Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices [2], as amended by "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field", [3], [4]. This means that Maxwell's vortices become dipolar vortices, each containing an aether sink (electron) and an aether source (positron). ...
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Centrifugal force is an inertial effect which is induced by motion through the Minkowski 4D space-time continuum. While it can act in opposition to gravity, there is evidence from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, that gravity, if strong enough, can affect the physical structure of the 4D space-time continuum in such a way as to destroy the centrifugal force and convert it into an electrostatic force of attraction that augments the gravity. The physical nature of centrifugal force and the manner in which it can be altered by gravity will now be investigated.
... It is the aether and the stuff of all matter, [6]. It is further proposed that space is densely packed with rotating electron-positron dipoles with circumferential speeds which determine the speed of light, [7], [8]. When these dipoles are induced to angularly accelerate (or precess), electric current overflows to the immediate neighbour, at this same speed, causing the neighbour to angularly accelerate too. ...
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In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Hermann Arndt Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar and they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio, which became known as Weber's constant, was measured numerically to be c√2, where c was very close to the speed of light. Since this experiment had nothing to do with optics, the question then arises as to whether they had perhaps actually measured the speed of electric current, which just happens to be close to the speed of light for the reason that the speed of light is in turn determined by the speed of electric current within the context of the medium for the propagation of light. We must establish the physical commonality between light and electric current.
... It is proposed that this aethereal electric current, when flowing in a conducting wire, will be hemmed in by a surrounding dense sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles which pervades all of space and which serves as the medium for the propagation of light. Such a sea of rotating dipoles, as well as serving as a dielectric, doubles for a sea of dipolar vortices in the aethereal electric fluid mentioned in the preceding section, [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. This dielectric vortex sea, referred to by Maxwell as the luminiferous medium, can then accommodate dielectric polarization and magnetization, both of which serve as reactive impedances to the flow of electric current. ...
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While it is generally accepted that electric current involves the motion of electric charge through conducting channels, there is observable evidence in the field of pulse transmission, that electric current exhibits wave-like behaviour, and that two electric pulses can pass right through each other in opposite directions along the same wire. An attempt will be made to reconcile these two seemingly contradictory natures of electric current.
... for the special case of the tiny rotating electron-positron dipoles that densely pervade all of space, and which serve as the medium for the propagation of light, [2], [3]. In equation (1), m is the mass of the electron, and also of the positron, c is the speed of light, and r is the radius of the rotating dipole. ...
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The purpose here is to investigate why under certain conditions, cathode rays, being a stream of particles, can be diffracted in a crystal as if they were X-rays, hence apparently exhibiting wave behaviour.
... II. Planck's constant has the dimensions of angular momentum and so it is proposed that it refers to the angular momentum of the tiny rotating electronpositron dipoles that make up the medium for the propagation of light waves. See "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field", [1], [2]. Hence, ...
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The Planck-Einstein relation, E = hf, relates the energy of discrete pulses of black body radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays to their wave frequency. This relationship appears to contradict the wave theory of light. An investigation will now take place regarding whether the Planck-Einstein relation, and Planck’s constant itself, lie in the domain of the medium for the propagation of light, or in the vestibule of the atom, or in both.
... This is the underlying principle behind both magnetic repulsion and electrostatic repulsion at the deepest fundamental level. Maxwell's tiny aethereal vortices will therefore now be identified with rotating electron-positron dipoles, [11]. ...
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When a theory of electromagnetism promotes the idea that the medium for the propagation of light waves is an elastic solid comprised of electric particles, the question is always going to be asked as to why this medium would not generate friction in the planetary orbits, such as would cause the planets to spiral into the Sun. It would be impossible for a moving body to completely avoid any physical interaction with these electric particles, and so, in order to comply with Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion, this interaction must be the actual cause of the inertial forces, as opposed to being the cause of any dissipative friction.
... Ten years later in 1930, Paul Dirac proposed that all space is pervaded by a sea of electrons and positrons. Things were getting back on track again, but unfortunately the Dirac Sea was never applied to electromagnetic wave theory, where it should have been applied [10], [11], [12], [13]. ...
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Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (1831-1879), who happened to die in the same year that Einstein was born. The physical medium in question was known to Maxwell as the luminiferous medium although Einstein later referred to it as a Lichtäthers (luminiferous aether). Maxwell provided us with a reasonably clear picture of what the physical structure of this medium would need to be. He proposed that all of space is filled with a sea of molecular vortices comprised of tiny aethereal whirlpools, each surrounded by electric particles. This was an idea, which according to Tesla in 1907, had in essence, long been known to men of old.
... It is proposed that the electromagnetic Poynting vector represents a complex electric current undergoing a fine-grained vortex flow of electric fluid through a dense sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles [5], [6], [7], [8]. These dipolar vortices will have a vorticity, H, equivalent to the magnetic intensity, where H = 2ω. ...
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The Poynting vector, S = E×H, represents the rate of flow of electromagnetic energy per unit area per unit time. It appears in Poynting’s theorem because of the involvement of Ampère’s circuital law and Faraday’s law of time-varying electromagnetic induction. It will now be investigated as to whether or not the Poynting vector has any significance if the E field is an electrostatic field, or would it just amount to multiplying apples and bananas?
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Electric energy that is generated at a power station flows in one direction only, away from the station and to the consumer, yet, at both the generator end and at the consumer end, the electric current itself alternates to-and-fro. How can this be possible? We will now take a closer look at the transient state that arises in an electric circuit during the first moments after the power is connected, or after each moment of direction reversal in the case of AC. It’s only in the transient state that transmission occurs, whether it be wireless transmission or cable transmission.
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The centrifugal force and the Coriolis force will be described. There is a controversy over whether these forces are real or fictitious. This controversy will be examined in conjunction with its significance to electromagnetism.
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The Coriolis force is a consequence of Newton's first law of motion and it can be observed in a radial force field as a transverse deflection of the radial component of the motion by an amount required to conserve angular momentum. It is a physical reality most commonly associated with atmospheric cyclones, but it can also be observed deflecting the effect of gravity on a comet or causing a pivoted gyroscope to defy gravity. In a paper which he wrote in 1835 in connection with water wheels, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis referred to its mathematical formula 2mv×ω as the "compound centrifugal force". This is an interesting choice of name which suggests that it is the sum of two centrifugal forces, yet without giving any indication as to how this might be. The physical origins of the Coriolis force will now be traced to differential centrifugal pressure in the dense background sea of tiny aethereal vortices which serves as the medium for the propagation of light.
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The aether (or electricity) is a fluid-like substance that is the stuff of all matter and space, and it flows constantly between positive and negative particles, with particles being merely aether sources and aether sinks. Space is densely packed with aether sinks (electrons) and aether sources (positrons). These electrons and posi-trons are paired into tiny dipoles. Within each dipole, the electron and the positron will undergo a mutual circular orbit. In the steady state, these tiny dipolar aether vortices will align with their neighbours according to two superimposed principles. Their rotation axes will mutually align and trace out solenoidal lines around a magnetic dipole. The resulting electron-positron double helix that winds its way around each such line is what causes the electrostatic tension that makes it into a 'magnetic line of force'. When large scale aether flow, constituting either an externally applied gravitational field or an electric current (electric field), is superimposed, the tiny vortices will become linearly polarized. This will result in a 'couple force' acting on the tiny vortices which will cause them to precess such that their precessional axes will be aligned with the externally applied field lines. Centrifugal pressure therefore acts at right angles to both magnetic and electric lines of force. In the dynamic state the alignment of the dipoles is undergoing change and the tiny dipoles will be angularly accelerating , either in magnitude or direction (precession). This realignment will be accompanied by a net vortex flow of pressurized aether that passes between neighbouring dipoles. This net flow of momentum is electromagnetic radiation and it has a wave-like nature, in that the flow will constantly be emerging from positrons and sinking into electrons. The average speed of this flow is what determines the speed of light.
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A summary of how Maxwell used the experimental result of the 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment in order to establish that light is a transverse wave in the same elastic solid that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. 1856 was the first historical connection between the speed of light and electromagnetism.
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The radial lines of force that are associated with both electrostatic and gravitational fields indicate the presence of fluid-like sinks and sources in matter, whether or not we know where these lead to. This article will examine how two sinks can be either mutually attractive or mutually repulsive depending on the rate of flow.
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It is proposed that all space is permeated with a dense electrically neutral sea of electrons and positrons which serves as the medium for the propagation of light. The challenge remains to devise a stable bonding mechanism within this luminiferous medium that conforms with Maxwell's equations by providing the necessary solidity and the physical mechanism that will give rise to the characteristics of electromagnetic waves, while at the same time allowing for the fluidity that would avoid the problem of friction in the planetary orbits.
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This article follows on from the double helix theory of the magnetic field. A closer look will be taken at the relationship between electromagnetic radiation on the one hand and a magnetic field on the other.
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When the electromagnetic wave equation is derived in modern textbooks, Maxwell’s displacement current is used. While investigating the physical meaning of displacement current, this article will take a closer look at the magnetic vector potential A, which Maxwell considered to be a momentum lurking in behind the magnetic field.
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Although Maxwell’s most important equations had already appeared throughout his seminal paper entitled “On Physical Lines of Force” [1], which was written in 1861, it was not until 1864 that Maxwell created a distinct listing of eight equations in his follow up paper known as “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” [2]. This was in a section headed as ‘General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field’. While Maxwell refers to twenty equations at the end of this section, there are in fact only eight equations as such. Maxwell arrives at the figure of twenty because he splits six of these equations into their three Cartesian components. Maxwell’s eight original equations, Jtotal = Jconduction + ∂D/∂t (A) ∇×A = μH (B) ∇×H = Jtotal (C) E = μv×H − ∂A/∂t − ∇ψ (D) D = eE (E) E = RJconduction (F) ∇∙D = ρ (G) ∇∙J + ∂ρ/∂t = 0 (H) will be discussed in depth in individual sections throughout this paper.