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The Double Helix and the Electron-Positron Aether

Frederick David Tombe,

Northern Ireland, United Kingdom,

sirius184@hotmail.com

12th September 2017

Abstract. This article takes a closer look at the bonding and stability mechanisms within

the electron-positron dipole sea and how these result in the double helix theory of the

magnetic field. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic

repulsion will be further investigated.

The Inertial Frame of Reference

I. Newton’s first law of motion states that a moving body continues in its

uniform straight-line path unless acted upon by a force. The term force in the

context naturally excludes the inertial forces since these are actually a

consequence of the motion itself. Newton’s first law assumes that the concept of

straight line motion is already defined and understood, but in order to define it

we need to establish a physical basis that will link it to the inertial forces,

because uniform straight line motion involves a centrifugal force to every point

in space. This generally unrealized fact is pure geometry, as sure as

Pythagoras’s theorem. Centrifugal force is angular momentum dependent and it

obeys an inverse cube law in distance to the chosen point origin. See section

VIII below.

It will be proposed that space is densely packed with electrons and

positrons [1], [2], [3], [4], forming an elastic dielectric medium which does not

appear to rotate with respect to the average motion of the distant stars, and that

this medium will be entrained within the gravitational fields of planetary bodies

so as to form local frames of reference that will exist in a system of hierarchies

throughout the universe. These local frames of reference will be referred to as

“inertial frames of reference”, a name first invented in 1885 by German

physicist Ludwig Lange. Although this name is totally suitable, it must be

remembered that it first came to prominence in conjunction with Einstein’s

Special Theory of Relativity, [5], on the basis that an inertial frame of reference

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is void of gravity. Special relativity is however notorious for its internal

contradictions, [6], and so this fact will be disregarded. A frame of reference as a

meaningful physical entity in classical mechanics needs to be entrained within a

gravitational field in order to have any definition.

The electrons and positrons that make up an inertial frame of reference will

constitute what is erroneously believed to be ‘the annihilated state’ as is

officially taught with respect to electron-positron pair annihilation. The question

then arises as to how the electrons and positrons themselves will bond with their

neighbours in a manner that is commensurate with the forces of electromagnetic

induction. The Coulomb force would act first so as to collapse the electron-

positron sea into rotating dipoles in which an electron and a positron undergo a

mutual orbit. Ampère’s Circuital Law would suggest that these rotating dipoles

attract each other, electron to positron, to form toroidal double helix rings. Such

rings would then constitute magnetic lines of force. We can then see how the

magnetic force of attraction would be explained as an electrostatic attraction

acting between electrons and positrons along the double helix. The question

then arises as regards the force that will act between neighbouring dipoles in

their equatorial planes such as to prevent the magnetic lines of force from

collapsing.

Centrifugal Force and Magnetic Repulsion

II. Consider two electron-positron dipoles sitting side by side while rotating in

the same plane and in the same direction. When the electron of one dipole

passes the positron of the other dipole in the opposite direction at closest

approach, the electrostatic field lines will connect directly between the two

particles. According to Coulomb’s law there should be a force of attraction

acting between them, as in the case of any two particles of opposite charge. If,

however the electrostatic force field, E, is based on tension in an aethereal fluid

that is flowing from the positron to the electron, their mutual transverse speed

will induce a curl in the velocity field. Above a certain threshold of angular

speed, the flow lines between the two dipoles will split and the two separate

regions of fluid will now be shearing past each other in opposite directions. The

pressure emanating from the sides of the opposing flow lines will then push the

two dipoles apart. A centrifugal repulsion will have taken the place of the

electrostatic attraction. A magnetic field would therefore appear to be a

centrifugal force field, and so it is proposed that particles are sinks or sources in

an electric fluid, the aether, this being the primary substance from which all

matter is made. As a convention, electrons will be considered to be aether sinks

while positrons are aether sources.

Electric current cannot be fully understood in the absence of such a primary

fluid flow at a deeper level than the flow of charged particles. Electrons would

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eat their way upstream in such a fluid while positrons would be pushed in the

opposite direction, and if the fluid were inviscid, charged particles would be

accelerated by the fluid due to pressure or tension but without taking on the

fluid’s actual velocity. Electric signals in a conducting wire travel at a speed

that is in the same order of magnitude as the speed of light, and this is probably

the speed of the electric fluid.

Intrinsic Magnetic Spin Moment

III. The intrinsic magnetic spin moment of an electron and a positron would

provide a stabilizing repulsive force in the equatorial plane of rotating electron-

positron dipoles which would definitively cause neighbouring dipoles, mutually

aligned in their equatorial planes, to repel each other. Unless we consider

magnetic field lines to be completely distinct from electrostatic field lines, the

obvious conclusion therefore is that the magnetic spin moment of electrons and

positrons is nothing other than the curl of the velocity fields of their electrostatic

fields, and that the magnetic repulsion arising from magnetic spin moment is in

fact caused by centrifugal force.

The Magnetic Field

IV. Part I of Maxwell’s 1861 paper “On Physical Lines of Force”, [7], treated

the aspects relating to the curl of the velocity field in a sea of tiny aethereal

vortices. These aspects are magnetic force and Ampère’s Circuital Law.

Maxwell didn’t mention the idea of a dielectric medium until Part III of the

same paper, but in order to amalgamate the concepts it is now proposed that

rotating electron-positron dipoles constitute dipolar aether vortices, with the

electrons being sinks and the positrons being sources, and that they are powered

up to such high speeds that their escape velocity is exceeded and they press

against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate, hence

hemming each other in [8], [9]. The broken flow lines in the equatorial plane will

have to terminate upwards and downwards with their neighbours in the axial

direction. This recalls the Newton’s rotating bucket. In other words, the

centripetal force that keeps the electrons and positrons in circular orbit is not

caused by the internal electrostatic attraction within each dipole, but rather by

the centrifugal force pressing inwards on them by their neighbouring dipoles

[10]. The fundamental principle behind centrifugal force is therefore based on the

hydrodynamical principle that a flowing fluid cannot move sideways through

shear lines. This can even be observed in the case of a toroidal vortex in water.

The circulating water doesn’t fly off at a tangent. Acknowledging the existence

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of the primary electric fluid therefore enhances the picture of the electron-

positron dipoles.

As a general rule it is proposed that the flow rate into electrons is greater

than the flow rate out of positrons, hence causing a tendency to collapse which

can only be prevented by vorticity and hence by centrifugal force. Rotation is

the stabilizer of the universe. It is also proposed that curl widens both the sinks

and the sources while obstructing the flow of aether between the positron and

the electron within a dipole.

When a source or a sink is placed in a magnetic field, it will be induced to

rotate like an idler wheel in the opposite direction to that of the surrounding

electron-positron dipoles. If the source or sink is then induced to move through

the field, at right angles to the magnetic axis, the flow will be broken on one

side only, hence causing a centrifugal pressure differential at right angles to the

direction of motion. This will cause a deflection expressed by the equation F =

qv×B [11]. The deflection will be in one direction for sinks and in the opposite

direction for sources. This is because the flow pattern will curl oppositely in

each case, even though the spin will be in the same direction. The breaking of

the flow on one side, when translational motion occurs, will be on opposite

sides for sinks and sources.

Ampère’s Circuital Law

V. When rotating electron-positron dipoles bond together along their rotation

axes to form a double helical toroid with nothing in the toroidal hole in the

middle, the Coulomb attraction along the double helix would tend to make the

helix collapse. If the circumferential speed of each rotating dipole is v, then ∇×v

= H where H is the vorticity or the magnetic intensity, and hence ∇.H = 0

meaning that H is solenoidal. The speed v represents the flow of the primary

aethereal fluid, and this constitutes an electric current. At the hole in the middle

of the toroid there will be a concentration of electric fluid and the current

density will be ρv = J where ρ is the aether density in the hole. Since H forms a

circle around the inside of the double helix, it follows therefore that ∇×H = J.

This is Ampère’s Circuital Law and the concentration of electric current

through the hole in the toroid prevents the toroid from collapsing into the hole.

Unlike in the case of fluid pouring down a sink, a toroid involves only

solenoidal flow and so the fluid circulates around indefinitely. The fluid cannot

pass sideways through itself in the toroidal hole and so the toroid cannot

collapse. The double helix toroid is therefore the fundamental basis for stability

and the default alignment in the electron-positron sea.

Ampère’s Circuital Law means that when a current or a particle, neutral or

otherwise, moves through the electron-positron sea, it causes the electron-

positron dipoles to align with their rotation axes forming solenoidal rings

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around the direction of motion. It’s similar in principle to the creation of smoke

rings. Maxwell explains Ampère’s Circuital Law at equation (9) in Part I of his

1861 paper [7].

When a current flows through an already existing magnetic field, Ampère’s

Circuital Law will encounter a resistance and the reaction to this resistance will

be a compound centrifugal force of the form E = v×B. The three above

equations, ∇×v = H, ∇×H = J, and E = v×B are all identifiable in Maxwell’s

original equations, [12], and they relate to the curl of the velocity field in the

primary aethereal/electric fluid. E = v×B arises in both electric motors and

motionally induced electromagnetic induction. The equation ∇×v = H would be

more familiar in the form ∇×A = B. The difference between v and A is that v

represents the source current at the centre of a magnetic field, whereas A

represents the density of circulating current in the sea of rotating dipoles and is

therefore equal to µv where µ is related to the electron-positron sea density and

corresponds to magnetic permeability. The vector B which is equal to µH is the

magnetic flux density. The vector A was known to Maxwell as the

electromagnetic momentum and he equated it with Faraday’s electrotonic state.

Part II of Maxwell’s 1861 paper dealt with electromagnetic induction. Maxwell

began treating the vector A in Part II beginning at equation (58), but it seems he

didn’t notice that it corresponds to the displacement current which he proposed

in Part III of the same paper in his treatment of the elasticity of the luminiferous

medium. The vector A is nowadays known as the magnetic vector potential, but

its physical significance has been lost.

The vector A is the fine-grained electric current in a magnetic field giving

rise to the field’s kinetic energy ½LI2. In the steady state it circulates within the

tiny dipoles at the speed of light, but in the dynamic state it becomes

electromagnetic radiation and transmits from dipole to dipole at that same speed

[13], [14]. In the steady state, the velocity field in a rotating dipole is curled, but

the electric field, being exclusively the electrostatic field ES, is still irrotational

because the acceleration is purely radial. When angular acceleration occurs

however, ∂A/∂t will be non-zero, and the E field will curl. The newly induced

transverse component of the E field will therefore obey EK = ∂A/∂t, and so we

will have ∇×EK = ∂B/∂t which, bar the absence of a negative sign, is the

Maxwell-Faraday law for time varying electromagnetic induction, but it also

applies when a magnetic field is in the process of being generated in a primary

circuit. It’s similar in principle to Newton’s Second Law of Motion with

inductance replacing inertial mass, and the negative sign is introduced by

convention to highlight Lenz’s Law. Since energy is transferred during

electromagnetic induction, this suggests that wireless EM radiation is a wave of

fine-grained angular acceleration accompanied by a net vortex flow of electric

fluid momentum [14]. Angular acceleration causes aether to overflow from one

dipole to its neighbour.

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Inertial Centrifugal Force

VI. An objection is often raised that if space is densely packed with electrons

and positrons, that this would impact upon inertial motion by creating a

dissipative resistance, whereas nothing like this is observed in planetary orbits.

On the contrary, it is the very presence of rotating electron-positron dipoles in

space which gives rise to the inertial forces that determine the uniform straight-

line path. As a body moves through the electron-positron sea, the physical

interaction induces a reorientation of the immediately surrounding rotating

dipoles such that their rotation axes trace out concentric rings around the path of

motion. A centrifugal force therefore presses inwards on the body from all

sides, at right angles to its direction of motion. This is identical in principle to

how Maxwell explained the formation of a magnetic field around an electric

current. As the induced reorientation of the dipoles propagates outwards from

the moving body in a wave-like manner, the body will experience a centrifugal

force to every point in space. Apart from where the surrounding dipoles contact

the moving body directly, each centrifugal force will be indirectly due to the

individual rotating electron-positron dipole which exists at the origin in question

[15]. The combined effect of every centrifugal force, to every point in space,

results in the fact that moving bodies are sitting at the centre of a pressure field

that extends into the space beyond, dropping off as per the inverse cube law.

This is the circular energy flow mechanism that underlies Newton’s first law of

motion. The centrifugal pressure field is an extension of the body’s kinetic

energy and it amounts to a weak magnetic field. See the full analysis in section

VII below, and as regards the issue of leakage to far field radiation in low

energy situations, see section II, ‘Far Field Radiation’, in “Electromagnetic

Radiation in the Near Magnetic Field” [16]. It should be emphasized that

centrifugal force is measured relative to a point and is hence represented by a

position vector as opposed to a displacement vector. It is therefore camouflaged

in terrestrial situations where Cartesian coordinates are used in connection with

displacement vectors. The physical importance of inertial centrifugal force on

the large scale mainly emerges in rotating systems and in radial force fields

where it can actively oppose a centripetal force or displace particles in a fluid as

in the case of a centrifuge. Centrifugal force can also reverse the angular

momentum in a rotating rattleback [17].

The Inertial Path

VII. Consider a body in motion in an inertial frame of reference. We can write

the position vector of this body relative to any arbitrarily chosen polar origin as,

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r = rr

̂ (1)

where the unit vector r

̂ is in the radial direction and where r is the radial

distance. Taking the time derivative and using the product rule, we obtain the

velocity,

= r

̂ + rω (2)

where is the unit vector in the transverse direction and where ω is the

angular speed about the polar origin. Taking the time derivative a second time,

we obtain the expression for acceleration in the inertial frame,

r

̈ = r

̈r

̂ + ω + ω + r(dω/dt) − rω2r

̂ (3)

Re-arranging and multiplying across by mass m leads to,

mr

̈ = m(r

̈ − rω2)r

̂ + m(2vrω + rdω/dt) (4)

†see the note at reference [7] regarding Maxwell’s equation (77)

where ω is the angular speed and vr is the radial speed. The radial

component of equation (4) contains a centrifugal force, mr

̈, and an inertial

centripetal force, −mrω2, while the transverse component contains a Coriolis

force, mrdω/dt, which equals 2mvrω when angular momentum is conserved. In

the case of uniform straight-line motion, the total acceleration is zero, but when

a constraint is introduced, an imbalance occurs in the inertial symmetry. For

example, if the body is tethered to a pivot, the inertial centrifugal force pulls on

the constraint, hence inducing a reactive centripetal tension within the material

of the constraint. This tension cancels with the inertial centrifugal force and the

resultant is a net inertial centripetal force which curves the path of motion.

The inertial centripetal force −mrω2 in equation (4) with respect to one

polar origin, is an inertial centrifugal force with respect to the origin at the same

distance along a line through the moving body on the other side of it. From the

perspective of the moving body, there is therefore a centrifugal force to every

point in space giving rise to a cylindrical vector field in the likeness of the

magnetic field that surrounds an electric current. The centrifugal force to any

point on a particular cylindrical shell, concentric to the path of motion, will be a

resolution of the centrifugal force to a point on the shell, that acts

perpendicularly to the path of motion. The perpendicular centrifugal force will

drop off with an inverse cube law in distance from the moving body (see

equation (6)). Since centrifugal force is the radial gradient of kinetic energy

(∂/∂r[½mr2ω2] = mrω2), it is now proposed that this cylindrical vector field

represents the extension of the body’s kinetic energy.

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The idea that a moving entity could yield up energy to a surrounding

medium and have it returned during deceleration is observed in the case of an

electromagnetic field. When the power supply to an electric circuit is

disconnected, its magnetic field collapses and its stored energy, ½LI2, flows

back into the circuit giving the current a final surge forward. Another rather

obvious connection between the inertial forces and magnetism is the fact that

the Coriolis force has a similar form to the magnetic force, F = qv×B, if we

adopt Maxwell’s idea that it is caused by a sea of molecular vortices pressing

against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate [7], [8], [9], and

where the vorticity, H = 2ω, represents the magnetic intensity, where ω is the

circumferential angular speed of the vortices and where B = µH.

It is therefore proposed that kinetic energy, ½mv2, is a pressure, and an

extended pressure field which drops off with an inverse cube law in distance,

and that it is induced by the fine-grained centrifugal force interaction between

the immediately surrounding vortices and the molecules of the moving body as

they shear past each other. These vortices will be the rotating electron-positron

dipoles introduced in section I, and they will form double helix vortex rings

around the moving body, centred on the line of motion, similar in principle to

smoke rings. To the front and rear of the motion, the vortices would therefore

have to be continually aligning and de-aligning, and the associated precession of

the vortices would be fully compatible with a Coriolis force acting equally and

oppositely at the front and the rear of the motion. This process would be

identical in principle to Maxwell’s explanation for Ampère’s Circuital Law. The

kinetic energy pressure field, or inertial field, that accompanies a moving body

is therefore in principle just a variation on the magnetic field theme. It is a weak

magnetic field and a circular energy flow mechanism.

Planetary Orbits

VIII. In planetary orbital theory there is an additional factor to be taken into

consideration. Although an inertial frame of reference is defined within the

boundaries of a gravitational field, the analysis in section VII above only

applies when gravity itself is negligible. In the orbital problem however, gravity

is highly significance and we are dealing with two inertial frames of reference

shearing past each other. These two gravity sinks undermine the inertial

centrifugal pressure between the planets. Meanwhile conservation of angular

momentum causes the two transverse terms in equation (4) to cancel. This is

recognized in Kepler’s second law, which is the law of equal areas. We can

therefore reduce the problem to a scalar equation in the radial distance. Writing

the centrifugal term in the form +rω2, the radial scalar equation becomes,

r

̈ = −k/r2 + rω2 (5)

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where k is the gravitational constant. Taking l to be the angular momentum

constant equal to r2ω, we can write Leibniz’s equation in the form,

r

̈ = −k/r2 + l2/r3 (6)

or specifically for circular orbits,

r

̈ = −GM/r2 + v2/r (7)

where G is the universal gravitational constant and M is the mass of the

planet being orbited. The inter-play between the gravitational inverse square

law attractive force and the centrifugal inverse cube law repulsive force

involves two different power laws, and this leads to stable orbits that are

elliptical, circular, parabolic, or hyperbolic. The centrifugal force will

physically occur at the interface between the two inertial frames of reference. It

will arise as a shear interaction between electron-positron dipoles at the

interface, and since the gravitational field tails on the outer sides of the two

planets will interfere with the inertial centripetal force mechanism, this results

in the fact that equations (5), (6), and (7) represent the only physical realities in

the radial direction. Centrifugal force is therefore exposed as a real force.

There is considerable unease in orthodox physics circles surrounding the

centrifugal force terms in equations (5), (6), and (7). While it is obviously a real

force which opposes gravity, it is seldom named as such in modern textbooks.

And it is certainly not an equal and opposite reaction to gravity because its

existence is independent of gravity, and it does not in general have the same

magnitude. The cognitive dissonance surrounding centrifugal force is typified in

a quote which appeared in a classical dynamics textbook written in 1965 by

Jerry B. Marion [18]. Regarding the centrifugal force term in planetary orbital

analysis, Marion says,

This quantity is traditionally called the centrifugal force, although it is not a “force” in

the ordinary sense of the word. We shall, however, continue to use this unfortunate

terminology since it is customary and convenient. Jerry B. Marion, 1965

So, what is it if it’s not a force? Of course it’s a force, and it’s a centrifugal

force. But some textbooks even propose the absurd idea that it is the centripetal

term in equation (4), as if a centripetal force could suddenly become a

centrifugal force simply by it being taken across to the other side of an equation.

The transition from equation (4) to equation (5) will continue to cause a

problem so long as the deeper physical meaning behind the inertial terms is

fully understood.

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Conclusion

IX. There exists a primary electric fluid, or aether, with momentum field A such

that ∇×A = B, where B is magnetic flux density, implying that space is filled

with tiny aethereal vortices. These vortices press against each other with

centrifugal force while striving to dilate [19], [20], [21], [22], [23]. Each vortex

comprises of an electron sink in the aether, and a positron source. Gauss’s law

for electrostatics applies to irrotational sinks and sources where ∇×A = 0.

Centrifugal force and magnetic repulsion are inextricably linked, while

magnetic attraction is simply Coulomb’s law of electrostatics channelled along

a double helix of electrons and positrons.

References

[1] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field” (2006)

Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 24, Number 2, p.34, (March/April 2013)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6371

[2] Tombe, F.D., “The Electron-Positron Sea” (2014)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-

Quantum%20Theory%20/%20Particle%20Physics/Download/5507

[3] Simhony, M., “The Electron-Positron Lattice Space, Cause of Relativity and Quantum Effects”,

Physics Section 5, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1990)

http://web.archive.org/web/20040606235138/www.word1.co.il/physics/mass.htm

[4] Fleming, Ray, “The Zero-Point Universe” (2012)

http://thezeropointuniverse.com/

[5] Dingle, H., “On Inertia and Inertial Frames of Reference”, Quarterly Journal of the Royal

Astronomical Society, Volume 8, Page 262 (1967)

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1967QJRAS...8..252D

[6] Dingle, H., “The Case Against Special Relativity”, Nature, Volume 216, pages 119-122, (1967)

https://www.nature.com/articles/216119a0

[7] Clerk-Maxwell, J., “On Physical Lines of Force”, Philosophical Magazine, Volume XXI, Fourth

Series, London, (1861)

http://vacuum-physics.com/Maxwell/maxwell_oplf.pdf

† Equation (77) in Maxwell’s paper is his electromotive force equation and it exhibits a strong

correspondence to equation (4) in this article. The transverse terms 2mvrω (where vorticity H = 2ω)

and mdvt/dt (where vt is the transverse speed equal to rω) correspond to the compound centrifugal

term µv×H and the Faraday term −∂A/∂t, with m corresponding to µ, and where A is the

electromagnetic momentum.

[8] Whittaker, E.T., “A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity”, Chapter 4, pages 100-102,

(1910)

“All space, according to the younger Bernoulli, is permeated by a fluid aether, containing an

immense number of excessively small whirlpools. The elasticity which the aether appears to

possess, and in virtue of which it is able to transmit vibrations, is really due to the presence of these

11

whirlpools; for, owing to centrifugal force, each whirlpool is continually striving to dilate, and so

presses against the neighbouring whirlpools. It will be seen that Bernoulli is a thorough Cartesian

in spirit; not only does he reject action at a distance, but he insists that even the elasticity of his

aether shall be explicable in terms of matter and motion. This aggregate of small vortices, or " fine-

grained turbulent motion," as it came to be called a century and a half later,* is interspersed with

solid corpuscles, whose dimensions are small compared with their distances apart. These are

pushed about by the whirlpools whenever the aether is disturbed, but never travel far from their

original positions. A source of light communicates to its surroundings a disturbance which

condenses the nearest whirlpools; these by their condensation displace the contiguous corpuscles

from their equilibrium position; and these in turn produce condensations in the whirlpools next

beyond them, so that vibrations are propagated in every direction from the luminous point. It is

curious that Bernoulli speaks of these vibrations as longitudinal, and actually contrasts them with

those of a stretched cord, which, "when it is slightly displaced from its rectilinear form, and then let

go, performs transverse vibrations in a direction at right angles to the direction of the cord." When

it is remembered that the objection to longitudinal vibrations, on the score of polarization, had

already been clearly stated by Newton, and that Bernoulli's aether closely resembles that which

Maxwell invented in 1861-2 for the express purpose of securing transversality of vibration, one

feels that perhaps no man ever so narrowly missed a great discovery. Bernoulli explained

refraction by combining these ideas with those of his father. Within the pores of ponderable bodies

the whirlpools are compressed, so the centrifugal force must vary in intensity from one medium to

another. Thus a corpuscle situated in the interface between two media is acted on by a greater

elastic force from one medium than from the other; and by applying the triangle of forces to find

the- conditions of its equilibrium, the law of Snell and Descartes may be obtained. * Cf . Lord

Kelvin's vortex-sponge aether, described later in this work.”

[9] O’Neill, John J., “PRODIGAL GENIUS, Biography of Nikola Tesla”, Long Island, New York,

15th July 1944, quoting Tesla from his 1907 paper “Man’s Greatest Achievement” which was

published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel,

“Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of

a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous ether - which is

acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles,

all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious

velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears,

reverting to the primary substance”.

http://www.rastko.rs/istorija/tesla/oniell-tesla.html

http://www.ascension-research.org/tesla.html

[10] Tombe, F.D., “The Speed of Light” (2014)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-

Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/5373

[11] Tombe, F.D., “The Coriolis Force in Maxwell’s Equations”, (2010)

Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 25, Number 2, p.22, (March/April 2014)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/3161

[12] Tombe, F.D., “Maxwell’s Original Equations” (2011)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays

Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/3889

[13] Tombe, F.D., “Displacement Current and the Electrotonic State” (2008)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-

Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/228

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[14] Lodge, Sir Oliver, “Ether (in physics)”, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Fourteenth Edition, Volume

8, Pages 751-755, (1937)

This quote is in relation to the speed of light,

“The most probable surmise or guess at present is that the ether is a perfectly incompressible

continuous fluid, in a state of fine-grained vortex motion, circulating with that same enormous

speed. For it has been partly, though as yet incompletely, shown that such a vortex fluid would

transmit waves of the same general nature as light waves— i.e., periodic disturbances across the

line of propagation—and would transmit them at a rate of the same order of magnitude as the

vortex or circulation speed” (Sir Oliver Lodge, 1937)

The article then goes on to cite Lord Kelvin, “The Vortex Theory of Ether,” Phil. Mag. (1887) and

Math. and Phys. Papers, vol. iv. and passim; also G. F. FitzGerald, Proc. Roy. Dub. Soc. (1899), or

Collected Papers, pp. 154, 238, 472.

http://gsjournal.net/Science-

Journals/Historical%20PapersMechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/4105

[15] Tombe, F.D., “Centrifugal Force and the Electron-Positron Sea” (2015)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6132

[16] Tombe, F.D., “Electromagnetic Radiation in the Near Magnetic Field” (2017)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320101955_Electromagnetic_Radiation_in_the_Near_Magn

etic_Field

[17] Tombe, F.D., “The Rattleback and the Gyroscopic Force” (2010)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-

Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/3160

[18] Marion, Jerry B., “Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems”, Chapter 10.6, page 275,

(1965)

[19] Tombe, F.D., “Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind E = mc²” (2017)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/6767

[20] Tombe, F.D., “The 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch Experiment” (2015)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mathematical%20Physics/Download/6314

[21] Tombe, F.D., “Induction of Electrostatic Repulsion by Strong Gravity” (2017)

https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-

Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7167

[22] Tombe, F.D., “The Significance of the Inertial Forces in Electromagnetism” (2019)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332912193_The_Significance_of_the_Inertial_Forces_in_E

lectromagnetism

[23] Tombe, F.D., “Radiation Pressure and E = mc2 ” (2018)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325859308_Radiation_Pressure_and_E_mc

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