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The effect of High dissolved oxygen level (Kaqun) water on cognitive functions

The effect of High dissolved oxygen level (Kaqun) water on
cognitive functions
Iván Szalkai dr.
external instructor University’s Miskolc Health Faculty
The number of elderly people is gradually increasing in modern societies. People who lose
their self-sufficiency are an increasing problem for themselves, their families, and society.
Today we are considered to be patient approach, and given appropriate therapy and social care
of this. Different approach to slowing the aging process is the goal, and the corresponding
preventive care. Having regard to frequent hypoxia among elderly, we treated a old group
with in water dissolved oxigen. They drank for one month 0,5 , 1 , and 1,5 l Kaqun water a
Results: significantly reduced the systolic blood pressure, the stress index in the 1 , 1,5 l
groups, increased the frequency of hand tremor, and reduced the work memory usage time
-the cognitive time.
Discussion: The high oxygen level water (Kaqun water) improves circulation control and
brain function of the elderly, which reduces the appearance of age-related diseases. Useful
preventive geriatric tool.
The test was randomized, double blind and placebo controlled. Authorisation number
of the test: IV-R-015-14-4/2012
Kay words: high dissolved oxygen level water, Kaqun water, preventive geriatry,
blood pressure, stress, brain function, cognitive time
In the modern societies continues to grow the proportion of older people. Because of special
socialization, people are waiting for the solution of the problem from health care. In smoll
family societies, the problem is solved by the state. In the department of internal medicine the
range of retired people around 70%. The health consciousness, their self-sufficiency is
problematic of the elderly people. The preventive geriatric approach slowly gains space. The
system of used tools is useful but not always targeted. The health consciousness of the elderly
people, their self-sufficiency is problematic. It is not uncommon when a patient to take 10 to
15 kinds of medication. Almost all elderly people are taking medication for circulation and
nervous system. Not one drug degrades quality of life. According to our experience, food
supplements are taken without logic.
On elderly people often find hypoxia-related illnesses. The cause of hypoxia are the weakened
breathing and circulation, little movement, lack of fluid. The extracellular water space
decreases in the old age. This water body is important for the oxygen supply of cells
(intracellular water space). According to our measurements that motion alone increases the
oxygen level of extracellular water space.
The oxygen is basic of life, this is well know. The roll of water in the intra and extracellular
space we know less. Kaqun water is specially produced water for consumption and bathing
(functional water), whose physical properties, ph, oxygen level are different from normal
drinking water (OTH permit 420-2/2007, OKI expert opinion: 6212/2011). Kaqun water is a
fluid, which contains 16 mg oxygen per litre, pH value is between 7.5 and 8.5 (slightly
alkaline) and it has lower osmotic pressure than cytoplasm, whose effect mechanism is:
- The modified absorption and utilization conditions, reducing the size of the water
clusters, where the average cluster size is 4-8 water molecules because of the
tetrahedron structure. This size can penetrate through the openings of the cell wall
along with the dissolved substances in them.
- A high rate of oxygen, which is believed to be the consequence of reduced
hydrogen ration and so the oxygen molecules are inherently reduced in electron
- A burst-like pro-oxidant (ROS) effect, which acts as a signal for the body,
enhances apoptosis, accelerates cell regeneration, enhances the function of natural
killer cells, promotes vasodilation and potentiates the body’s antioxidant enzyme
- The alkaline effect due to the rearrangement of the water molecules, which reduces
acid deposition and so tissue edema as well.
We associate the deceleration of memory, neural and cognitive functions with old age. We
assume this is due to the accumulation of pro-oxidant radicals, metabolites accumulating in
the body and the decrease of neural and mental activity.
The decline of neural and mental functions is one of the early signs of aging, which can be
objectively determined by measurements.
The aim of the study is:
1. To justify or reject the hypothesis that the consumption of Kaqun water influences:
a. basic mental functions
b. has impact on the operation of the autonomic nervous system
c. influences blood pressure
d. affects vasodilation
2. To examine whether these effects depend on the dosage
3. To examine the rate of development in time and durability of the effects
The study was a placebo controlled, randomized, double blind trial.
The materials: Kaqun water, placebo: tap water in Kaqun bottle.
A total of 60 people took part. They formed 4 groups with 15 people each.
1. Consumption of 0.5l Kaqun water daily
2. Consumption of 1l Kaqun water daily
3. Consumption of 1.5l Kaqun water daily
4. Control group; consumption of 1l water daily
Table 1. Group characteristics
composition age
male female total average standard
1. 5 8 13 65,69 years 4,73
2. 3 12 15 63,73 years 6,56
3. 3 8 11 68,36 years 6,12
4. 2 7 9 66.44 years 7,9
total /
13 35 48 65,93 years 6,33
The dropout during the examination was not due to side effects. One volunteer
complained about headache, but relationship with the water consumption could not be proven.
The study included volunteers of both sexes between 50 and 75 years of age, who did
not consume Kaqun water nor bathed in Kaqun water for 2 months prior to the study. Health
status was appropriate for their age. The sorting of the people was done in order of arrival.
Members of the control group.
When selecting the sample, the following criteria had to be fulfilled by the volunteers: self-
sufficient, or still active worker in the given age group, lives an active social life, has average
health status, engedély
The examination consisted of the following tests:
1. Serial reflex time (SRT) – testing the dominant hand 32 times. We analyzed the
average P200 time, filtering out the 3 highest values we deem as a learning phase. We
also examined the wave of the P200 time. Normal value is 200msec.
2. Cognitive reflex time (CRT) – recognizing different sounds, signaling with the push of
a button, making it more difficult with counting backwards, pushing the button and
simultaneously saying the number. Length of the test is 32 times. Normal value is 300
msec. In the examination we did not include the 3 highest values and values under
reflex time. We deemed the highest value a learning value, which falsely stretches the
results and the values under 200msec are not the results of a cognitive process.
3. HVR measurement, standard deviation, standard deviation % in normal condition and
after 10 squats (30 watt load). We recorded base data and the differences. The
standard deviation data represents the stimuli of the sympathetic and parasympathetic
nervous system, so can be used as stress index. We determine the minimal and average
value of vasodilatation, which shows the flexibility of the capillaries.
4. Measuring oxygen saturation
5. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. The heart rate was measured in a relaxed
state and after load in an every 10 second cycle, the fit index, ie. the time when the
heart rate reached the relaxed heart rate after load.
Instruments for measuring:
Oxygen saturation: Innomed joint-stock company Oxycard device, which records the
oxygen saturation of the peripheral blood and the average heart rate.
Other tests: Kellényi’s tremometer, which records the time between a signal and the
response. A software dynamically record the measures valued after statistical analysis.
Statistical analysis: FFT analysis, linear correlation- and regression analysis, standard
error analysis, normality test, dependent variables (equality of averages test, stochastic
homogeneity test), and to assess the significance level of the changes.
5 measurements were performed on the selected subjects, at the beginning, then on the
7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days.
Evaluation of blood pressure
The blood pressure was measured before everything else, after at least 10 minutes
rest. The results are as follows (comparison of median values). The number in parentheses
is the biggest value of reduction.
1. figure. Change the systolic blood pressure in the time of experiment.
Kaqun water significantly reduces systolic blood pressure. In the 1.5l/day p= 0,0147,
in the 1 l/day group p=0,0259, while in the 0.5 l/day group this is p=0,0174. Data of control
group isn’t follow moving of test groups. Rather, is increased slightly. The result is
2. figure. Change the diastolic blood pressure. In the control group increased the pressure, in the Kaqun
group depend on dose decreased.
The diastolic blood pressure was in the normal value for each group of them. There
was a significant decrease (p=0,0416) found only 1.5 l / day group, although it was noticeable
the other Kaqun groups as well. The datas of control group rather increased.
Relaxed vegetative index analysis
The vegetative index is the quotient of the average R-R distance divided by the
standard deviation. The heart frequency is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, an
immediate reaction can be seen to the body’s physical and psychological effects (Viggiani et
al. 2008; Matvejev 2007). The hypothesis of the study is that the consumption of Kaqun water
improves the body’s cope with stress to physical impacts. Heart frequency is an immediate
indicator of the body’s physical and psychological effects. The rating is monitored the the
between the R-R peaks, and the standard deviation of this. The standard deviation shows the
vividness of the autonomic nervous system (change of sympathic and parasympathic effects).
Among costumers use 1,5 l Kaqun Water pro die and have increased sensitivity to stress, the
decrease it are significant (p=0,0135). In one liter/day group as normal, both the normal and
the exercise group the decreasing of stress index was significant (p=0,002726; 0,010959). In
group use 0,5 l /day water, wasn’t significant result.
SRT analysis
The change in reflex time shows the difference in the speed of the nerve impulses. The
measurement was done with the classic method, push-button reply for acoustic stimuli. The
time between the sounds was random. We kept the lowest values, the three highest values
were excluded. We observed among the elderly people the low degree slowdown of the reflex
3. figure. Change of reflex time. The effect is depend on dose, the 1,5 and 1 l/day are similar, the control is
It’s noteworthy that the reflex time of the studied population differs only slightly from
the normal 200 msec value. During the reflex examination we have excluded all disturbing
factors, the volunteers only focused on the automatic execution of the task. During the test,
the standard deviation shows fatigue, lack of attentions concentration of test subject. The
greatest degree of improvement shows group, is started from worst position. Therefore the use
of water accelerates the reflex time and improves the concentration also.
Cognitive reaction time
The study of the time requirement of cognitive processes measures the usage time of
the work memory in case of divided attention. It can be seen that compared to the base time
significant acceleration can be seen against the control group. Normal range of cognitive time
300 msec. Significance levels: 1,5 l/day group start higher than 300 msec – p=0,024937; 1
l/day group p=0,00098; 05 l/day group p=0,00403
The rate of use memory (consciousness) is determining the organization’s operation
and maintenance oh health life-plating in terms of. This is prerequisite for adaptation for the
load, the prevention of ageing.
Oxygen saturation analysis
The consumption of water with high oxygen content should result in the increase of
oxygen saturation, the improvement of the body’s oxygen supply. The increase in saturation
was 1% in the control group. The reason of the 1% increase is probably the water bodies
being filled up. By comparison, we have experienced saturation increase in the 1.5 l/day
Kaqun group. The linear correlation analysis considered the changes in the 1.5 l group
significant. The data raise the possibility of that the filling of the water bodies improves
oxygen saturation in itself.
Table 2. Oxygen saturation
1.5 l/day 1 l/ day 0.5 l/day Control
Change in % 2 0,73 0,54 1
Dosage and efficacy and maximum time of effect appearance
An important question is in what dosage should the water be consumed and when does
the maximum impact appear at given dosage.
Table 3. Evaluating efficacy
Sist. RR Diast.
index SRT CRT Saturation Total points
1.5 l 2 1 3 1 3 1 11
1 l 1 3 1 2 2 2 13
0.5 l 2 2 2 3 1 3 13
We put in this table depending on the scale of changes first, second or third place.
From this we can prepare the dosage suggestions. So:
Consumption of 0.5l daily is recommended to increase the CRT.
Consumption of 1l daily is recommended to decrease systolic blood pressure and reduce stress
Consumption of 1.5l daily is recommended for other cases.
The appearance of maximum impact generally falls on the third week in case of both the 1.5l
and 1l dosage, and then the values decrease. The exception in the cognitive time but even here
the difference between the third and fourth week is minimal. Therefore basically the three
week consumption followed by a one week break is the recommended.
The high oxygen content "ionized" waters basically change the cluster structure of water,
modify the H - O rate in favor of the oxygen, thus changing the electrical activity of the water
molecules as well. The osmotic pressure of this water (300 mOsm/l) is higher than the
osmotic pressure of cytoplasm (280 mOsm/l). This pressure difference also helps the lower
sized clusters of water molecules flow into the cell. The structure of water clusters determines
its effect. (Clark et al 2010) This influx is also supported by the transport proteins of the cell
membrane (Szalkai, 2011).
Cellular metabolism contains such redox processes, where even under physiological
conditions oxygen with oxidative properties (Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS) and nitrogen
(Reactive Nitrogen Species, RNS) compounds are created. They include free radicals with
one or more unpaired electrons on their external electron shell, such as hydroxyl radicals,
superoxide radicals, nitric oxide radicals or lipid peroxyl radicals and highly reactive
molecules without radical properties such as hydrogen peroxide or hypochlorous acid. Due to
the effect of Kaqun water, the amount of free radicals in the body increases, which start
biological processes representing dangerous signals for the body. Although free radicals and
reactive compounds created in a specified concentration and location do plan an important
role as signals for the physiological functioning of the cells (Droge, 2002). Thanks to their
great reactive properties, they play a regulatory role in the signal transduction pathways, since
getting into interaction with signaling molecules and enzyme proteins they can influence their
Nowadays more and more studies confirm the signaling role of the redox system. The redox
signal triggers specific regulatory processes (e.g. apoptosis at cellular level, vasodilation at
tissue level, (Touyz, 2006. etc.). Redox processes have a role and place in the operation of the
body, they can’t be considered as clearly negative participants, although they play a role in
many lesions and diseases. Nowadays the regulatory role of free radicals is considered more
primary as their pathological role, which is not about free radicals, but about the pathology,
exhaustion of the body’s control system. The oxygen molecule is not dangerous, but during
transformation with electron uptake free radicals are developed and these have harmful effects
as well.
The life span of free radicals is in vivo 10-7, 10-4 sec which enables them to act as signals and
exert their effects not only at the place of creation but further away as well. The physiological
location of the creation and control of free radicals is in the cell mitochondrion. Here the
continuously created free radicals are neutralized by the superoxide dismutase enzyme. In the
presence of iron or copper ions it is very aggressive. OH radical is created, which stays for
10-9 sec. No enzyme is able neutralize this (Fenton-reaction). As we have seen it, this reaction
also has a role in water polymerization. The control of the body takes place in the earlier,
peroxide phase.
Should the balance of the pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant system be upset degenerative
diseases begin; this is called oxidative stress.
The living cells, as electrical systems continuously create and maintain an extreme,
complex, 3-dimensional electric, i.e. redox pattern. The most efficient and quick physiological
(and pathological) control is done by reactive oxygen and nitrogen derivatives. In the aerobe
cells the coordinated mitochondrial network consumes 90% of the oxygen used, securing the
energy provided by ATP for cellular processes. This dynamic mitochondrial energy and the
redox system change from moment-to-moment depending on the intra- and extracellular
signs. When the oxygen is few compared to the current energy demand of the cell (reduced
oxygen supply or increased energy demand) the coordinated intracellular mitochondrial
network issues a hypoxic redox signal with the increased ROS emission. The increased ROS
emission, as a secondary messenger system induces a coordinated complex response with
redox-sensitive factors and molecules.
The oxidative processes in the body are bound to two compounds, ROS and RNS
group. The RNS enzyme has three different isoforms. The neuronal nRNS (in central and
peripheral neurons) and endothelial eRNS (mainly in endothelial cells) which are
continuously expressed calcium- and calmodulin dependant enzymes. The inducible iRNS
are created in immune cells and several other cell types. The transcriptional activation of
iRNS can be caused by endogenous mediators (chemokines, cytokines) or exogenous factors
(bacterial toxins, viral infections, allergens, ozone, hypoxia, tumors etc.)
The effects induced by ROS in the signal transduction pathways can be divided into
four main groups (Waldeck et al., 2009)
- By increasing the IC concentration of certain ions (e.g.: Ca2+) contraction and cell
migration is triggered
- By activating certain transcription factors (AP-1, NFκB, HIF-1) inflammation is
- The matrix can modify the proteins of the extracellular matrix by affecting the
- Reversibly inactivates such protein tyrosine phosphatases like mitogen-activated
protein kinases (MAPK), which by representing an important IC signal
transduction pathway ultimately activate transcription factors (e.g.: c-myc, p38),
which control apoptosis, cell growth and differentiation
ROS and RNS also operate as neurological signals; they play a role in the neural
signaling processes, in the formation of neuroplasticity and memory. NO is a free radical
molecule capable of freely diffundating through the cell membrane and can act as
neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and signaling molecule. It controls the neurotransmitter
emission, and through this way the synaptic activity and can control the excitability of
midbrain dopamine neurons. However, neurotransmitters also have antioxidant and free
radical catching properties, thus they regulate neurotransmission and the protective effects
towards neurons.
The consumption of Kaqun water creates a reactive radical peak (-OH, O2- and H2O2)
from the moment of consumption for about 20 seconds, which with the above mentioned
mechanism, on one hand enhances the effect of free radicals and promotes apoptosis, the
stimulation of immune system, on the other hand provokes the body’s own antioxidant system
(Tóth, 2007).
Several mechanisms may be responsible for the effect of Kaqun water:
1. Creation of free radicals, which has a direct vasodilational activity
and plays a signaling role; quickens the neurotransmission speed as a
neurotransmitter (decrease of reflex time) and information processing
on the nerve cells (improvement of memory time).
2. Improved energy processes due to the higher oxygen consumption of
3. Improved oxygenation due to the indirect effect of the fluid
compartments filling up.
Lucas wrote it in 2011 that the training enhances the Hgb level in the brain of elderly people
and parallel the cognitive functions have improved. This coincides with our own observations.
Shpirer has published in 2012 about the decrease of attention in people with apnea due to
The consumption of Kaqun water affects the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which can
be associated with the increase of the spontaneous vasodilation capacity, the increase of the
flexibility of the vessel wall. The mental state is significantly improved, which can be seen
significantly in the acceleration of both the reflex time and the cognitive time.
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