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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEMON PEEL (CITRUS LIMON) EXTRACT

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Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract from the peel of the fruit of Citrus Limon (Family-Rutaceae) in conjugation with phytochemical analysis.Methods: The methanolic extract from the peel of the fruit of Citrus Limon (Family-Rutaceae) was separated from fruits, shade dried, powdered and extracted using methanol, analysed for phytochemical constituents using standard methods. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was examined against 2 bacterial strains among one is Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and other is Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and 1 fungal strains (Candida albicans) using agar well diffusion method.Results: The present investigation shows the phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits peel Citrus limon. Various phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides and citric acids and tannins. The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of the plant showed significant result against all the of the test organisms.Conclusion: The present study concluded that methanolic extract of the peel of Citrus Limon contains the high presence of phytochemicals. The methanolic extract of the plant was found to possess promising antimicrobial activity when compared with the standards.
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Original Article
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEMON PEEL (CITRUS LIMON) EXTRACT
JUNAB ALI
*
, BISWAJIT DAS, TRIDEEP SAIKIA
Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Azara, Guwahati 781017
Email: junab.gips@gmail.com
Received: 27 Jan 2017, Revised and Accepted: 20 Apr 2017
ABSTRACT
Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract from the peel of the fruit of Citrus Limon (Family-Rutaceae) in conjugation
with phytochemical analysis.
Methods: The methanolic extract from the peel of the fruit of Citrus Limon (Family-Rutaceae) was separated from fruits, shade dried, powdered and
extracted using methanol, analysed for phytochemical constituents using standard methods. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was
examined against 2 bacterial strains among one is Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and other is Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and 1 fungal
strains (Candida albicans) using agar well diffusion method.
Results: The present investigation shows the phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits peel Citrus limon.
Various phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides and citric acids and tannins. The
antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of the plant showed significant result against all the of the test organisms.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that methanolic extract of the peel of Citrus Limon contains the high presence of phytochemicals. The
methanolic extract of the plant was found to possess promising antimicrobial activity when compared with the standards.
Keywords: Citrus Limon, Antimicrobial, Zone of Inhibition, Agar disc diffusion method
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ijcpr.2017v 9i4.20962
INTRODUCTION
For a long period of time, there are many naturally occurring
materials which are having biologically active substance and show
biological activity for the health of human beings and they have a
great potential for producing new drugs. In plant chemotherapy, the
use of naturally occurring antimicrobial substances is gaining more
importance and have higher significant values [1].
According to WHO medicinal plants are used in order to the
therapeutic purpose and be used as a pioneering the synthesis, semi-
synthetic chemical drugs [2]. About 80 % of the world population use
herbal medicine to treat the ailment. From the statistics, it is under in
developed countries and higher in less developed countries [3].
Medicinal plants have an important role for the health of
individuals and communities. These plants have a great medicinal
value that lies various chemical substances which produce
physiological action on the human body. Medicinal plants contains
many chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids,
glycosides, saponins, resins, oleoresins, sesquiterpene, phenolic
compounds, fats and oils [4].
Citrus fruit is an important medicinal plant of the family Rutaceae. It
is used mainly for its alkaloids, which are having anticancer
activities and the antibacterial potential in crude extracts of
different parts (leaves, stem, root, juice, peel and flower) of lemon
against various bacterial strains. Citrus fruits have a broad spectrum
of biological activity including antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic,
anticancer and antiviral activities due to alkaloids [5].
The lemon peel extracts is done by different solvents such as
ethanol, methanol and acetone which are subjected to antibacterial
assay. Methanolic extract shows higher antimicrobial activity against
tested microorganisms (E. coli, S. aureus, Candida albicans and
Trichophyton rubrum.) [6].
The citrus peels are rich in nutrients and contain many
phytochemicals, these are β and γ-sitosterol, glycosides and volatile
oils. Some polyethoxylated, phenolic compound, ascorbic acid,
flavones have several important activities, which are very rare in
other plants. Citrus peels also used in scurvy, digestion, respiratory
disorders, peptic ulcer, eye infections, gums, gout, skin care, piles,
urinary disorders, weight loss traditionally. In addition, it also used
in disinfect and sterilizing reagent. So the target of this present study
is to identify the phytochemical components of Citrus limon and to
determine the antimicrobial effects of the dried peel extract on E.
coli, S. aureus, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of plant materials
Citrus limon was collected from Azara market, Guwahati India. The
plant specimen was authenticated by Dr. G. C. Sarma, Curator,
Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Assam. The voucher
specimen has been deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of
Botany, Gauhati University with voucher no Acc. No.-18219 dated
28-10-2016 for future reference.
Chemicals and reagents
Methanol, Ethanol, Petroleum Ether(PE), Chloroform, hydrochloric
acid, Dragondorff reagent, Mayer’s reagent, Wagner’s reagent,
Benedict’s reagent, sulphuric acid, lead acetate, Molisch’s reagent,
Fehling solution A and B, sodium citrate, copper sulphate, ferric
chloride, sodium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid, benzene, chloroform,
ammonia, nitric acid, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), potassium nitrite,
gelatine, Beef extract, Peptone, Sodium Chloride, Dextrose and agar. All
the chemicals and solvents used were of standard analytical grades.
Preparation of extracts of Citrus lemon peels
The Citrus lemon peels were dried under shade and then undergone
crushing in an electric blender to form powdered. Then it was defatted
by Petroleum ether dried the marc again extracted with chloroform
then again dried the marc and finally extracted with methanol using
Soxhlet’s extractor. The percent yield of methanolic extract was then
calculated out.
Preparation of extract/drug stock solution
The stock solution of Citrus limon peel extract was prepared on each
occasion by careful weighing and dissolving in a suitable volume of
Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) to get a concentration of 100 mg/ml. A
International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research
ISSN- 0975-7066 Vol 9, Issue 4, 2017
Ali et al.
Int J Curr Pharm Res, Vol 9, Issue 4, 79-82
80
tablet of ciprofloxacin was dissolved in an appropriate volume of
water to get 5 mg/ml of stock solution.
Phytochemical screening
Phytochemicals screening were done using standard method. All the
experiment has been repeated in triplicate for final confirmation of
the result.
1. Test for saponins: To 1 ml of aqueous extract was added to few
volume of distilled water in a test tube. The solution was shaken
vigorously and observed for a stable persistent froth for 20 min.
2. Test for alkaloids: Two methods were used to test for
alkaloids. First, evaporate 20 ml of ethanol extract, the dry residue
dissolved in 5 ml of HCl (2N) and filtered. A few drops of Mayer's
reagent and Wagner was added, the presence of precipitate
indicates the alkaloids.
Second, 3 to 15 ml of the aqueous extract was added 2 ml of NH
4
OH à
10%. The alkaloid was extracted 3 times with 10 ml chloroform. The
chloroform layer was washed 3 times with 2 ml of HCL (10%). This
was divided into two portions. Mayer’s reagent was added to one
portion and Wagner’s reagent to the other. The formation of a brown
or white precipitate was regarded as positive for the presence of
alkaloids.
3. Test for sterols and steroids: Extracts were treated with
chloroform and filtered. The filtrates were treated with few drops of
Conc. Sulphuric acid, shaken and allowed to stand. Appearance of
golden yellow colour indicates the presence of triterpene.
4. Test for the phenolic compounds: Flavonoids: The ethanol
extract 5 ml was added to a concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4) (1
ml) and 0.5g of Mg. A pink or red coloration that disappears on
standing 3 min. indicates the presence of flavonoids.
5. Tannins: Two methods were used to test for tannins. First, about
1 ml of the ethanol extract was added in 2 ml of water in a test tube.
2 to 3 drops of diluted ferric chloride (Fecl
3
) solution was added and
observed for green to blue-green or blue-black coloration. Second, 2
ml of the aqueous extract was added to 2 ml of water, 1 to 2 drops of
diluted ferric chloride (Fecl3) solution were added. A dark green or
blue-green coloration indicates the presence of tannins.
6. Test for Glycoside: 2 ml of concentrated H
2
SO
4
was added carefully
and shaken gently. A reddish brown colour indicated the presence of
steroidal ring i. an eglycone portion of the glycoside [13, 14].
Culture media
The media employed for the study was solid agar media.
Microbial strains
Three bacterial strains [Staphyllococcus aureus (ATCC 25923),
Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and two fungi [Candida albicans
(ATCC 10231), and Trichophyton rubrum (ATCC 28188)] were used.
Stains were obtained from Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of
Pharmaceutical Science, Azara, Guwahati.
Sterilization of materials
The petri dishes and pipettes packed into metal canisters were
appropriately sterilized in the hot air oven at 170 °C for 1 h at each
occasion. A solution of the extract and culture media were
autoclaved at 121 °C for 15 min.
Antibacterial activity
The antimicrobial act ivity of the different extr acts of the plant
was assayed by agar-well diffusion met hod as describe d in
NCCLS, 1993 [15]. Petri plates containing 20 ml nutrient agar
medium was seeded with bacterial strains. Wells of
appro ximately 10 mm was bored using a well cut ter. Plant
extracts were prepared in DMSO (stock: 1 mg/ml DMSO). The
plant extracts of 25, 50, and 100 µl concentrations were a dded.
Cipro floxacin (20 µl) and DMSO (100 µl) were used as positive
and negati ve controls respectively.
The plates were then incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The antimicrobials
present in the plant extract are allowed to diffuse out into the medium
and interact with the test organisms in the freshly seeded plate. The
diameter of the zone of inhibitions was measured in millimetres after
24 h.
Antifungal activity
The dextrose agar plates were prepared and inoculated with a fungal
culture. Wells of approximately 10 mm was bored using a well cutter
and samples of different concentration were added. The zone of
inhibition was measured in millimetres after overnight incubation
and compared with that of standard antifungal (Fluconazole) (10 µl)
which was used as positive control and DMSO (10%) as the negative
control [14].
RESULTS
The present systematic examination shows the phytochemical
analy sis, antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extr act of the
peel of the fruit of Ci trus limon. The yield % of the extraction of
metha nol was 18.05%. It was dark brown so lid powder in
appearance.
Phytochemical analysis
The phytochemical analysis with the methanolic extracts of the
dried fruit of plant Citrus limon showed the presence of alkaloids,
saponin, sterols, Steroids, terpenoids, protein and amino acid,
tannins, carbohydrate are given in (table 1).
Antimicrobial activity
Generally, Plant extracts are rich in antimicrobial compounds. The in
vitro antimicrobial study of the methanolic extracts of fruits peel of
Citrus limon under different concentration with the standard are
mentioned in (table 2). The methanolic extracts of dried fruits peel
of the plant Citrus limon showed antimicrobial activity against most
of the test organisms.
Table 1: Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of dried fruits peel of Citrus limon (family-Rutaceae)
S. No.
Phytochemical test
Reagent used
(test performed)
Observation
lt
1
Alkaloids test
Mayer’s test
Wagner’s test Dragendroff’s test
Frothing observed
+
2
Saponin test
Foam test
Turbidity obtained
+
3
Flavonoid test
Lead acetate test
Golden yellow colour observed
+
4
Carbohydrate test
Molisch’s test
Benedict’s test
Fehling’s test
Yellow colour observed
+
5
Glycoside test
Modified Borntrager’s
Brownish black ppt not observed
+
6
Steroid test
Salkowski’s test
Ring not formed
+
7
Tannins test
Tannins test
Gelatin test
+
8
Proteins and amino acids
Xanthoproteic test
Reddish black not seen
+
+sign indicates the presence and–sign indicates absence.
Ali et al.
Int J Curr Pharm Res, Vol 9, Issue 4, 79-82
81
Table 2: Antimicrobial activity methanolic extract of dried fruits peel of Cirtuslimon (family-Rutaceae) using disc diffusion assay
Name of the compounds and their
concentration
Antibacterial activity diameter of inhibition
zone (mm)
Antifungal activity diameter of inhibition
zone (mm)
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
C. albicans
Trichophyton rubrum
Standard Ciprofloxacin (20 µl)
41
39
_
_
Standard Fluconazole (20
µl)
_
_
31.5
30.1
Plant extract
(25 µl)
13.5
10.2
10.3
9.8
Plant extract
(50 µl)
18.35
15.60
16.5
10.8
Plant extract
(100 µl)*
20.6
19.5
22.2
17.5
*significant activity
Fig. 1: Zone of inhibition vs concentration
DISCUSSION
Antimicrobial activity of dried fruits peel of Citrus limon has been
evaluated. Phyto-constituents present in plants namely alkaloids,
saponin, sterols, terpenoids are having an exciting set of circumstances
that makes it possible to do something for more extensive of modern
therapies against a wide range of microorganisms. The present study
was done against the variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria,
and fungal strains were selected for screening antimicrobial impact of
the extracts to see the antimicrobial spectrum. Results of this study
shows that the methanolic extracts of the peel of the fruit of Citrus
limon were highly successful in producing the desired result against
most of the Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungal
strains in agar well diffusion method.
Phytochemical constituents of plants such as tannins, alkaloids,
flavonoids, phenolic compounds and several other aromatic
compounds are secondary metabolites which can be used in achieving
a defence mechanism against plundering by many micro-organisms.
The practical exhibition and explanation of antimicrobial activity
against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and on
various fungal strains may be an indication of something presence of
broad spectrum antibiotic compounds in the extracts which is
shown in fig. 3. The 100µg/ml concentration of dried fruits peel of
Citrus limon have an influencing antimicrobial activity.
CONCLUSION
Medicinal Plant in plant kingdom are the important source of drug
and plays a great role for the health of individual and communities.
Many plants have been tested for the presence of compounds with
therapeutic activity. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to evaluate
the antimicrobial activity of fruits peel of Citrus limon.
From the study, the antibacterial activity of the peel of the dried fruit
of Citrus limon was judged by using disk diffusion method. The
microorganisms that have been selected for study were Gram-
positive, S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli and fungus like C.
albicans, and T. rubrum. Study of this micro-organism was done as
they have the capacity of rapidly developed antibiotic resistance as
antibiotic use increases.
After doing the study of a methanolic extract of Citrus limon peel
showed the presence of various phytochemicals of which include
alkaloids, saponin, sterols, Steroids, and terpenoids.
Tt the end of the conclusion we know about the significant
antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts when estimated with
standards. So, after lots test, decision and thoughts it was found that
the minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts was less
than 100µg/ml and therefore the plant was considered to have a
very good antimicrobial activity.
However, further studies are definitely required to put light on the
unknown biological activities of Citrus lemon peel and its effect on
living organisms, tissues or cells against various diseases.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
Declare none
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How to cite this article
Junab Ali, Biswajit Das, Trideep Saikia. Antimicrobial activity of
lemon peel (Citrus limon) extract. Int J Curr Pharm Res
2017;9(4):79-82.
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  • S Velu
  • Abu Bakar
  • F Mahyudin
  • N A Saari
  • N Zaman
Velu S, Abu Bakar F, Mahyudin NA, Saari N, Zaman MZ. In vitro antimicrobial activity of musk lime, in vitro antimicrobial activity of musk lime. Int Food Res J 2014;12;379-86.
Study antimicrobial activity of lemon
  • J Maruti
  • C B Dhanavade
  • J S Jalkute
  • Ghosh Kailash
Maruti J, Dhanavade CB, Jalkute JS, Ghosh Kailash DS. Study antimicrobial activity of lemon. Br J Pharmacol Toxicol 2011;2:119-22.