PosterPDF Available

New spinosaurid dinosaur finds from the Wessex Formation (Wealden Group, Early Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight.

Authors:
  • Dinosaur Isle Museum

Abstract

The discovery in Surrey of Baryonyx walkeri in 1983 was a highly significant event that reinvigorated the study of British Dinosaurs. In the 1990’s isolated vertebrae and teeth plus a phalanx confirmed the presence of spinosaurids on the Isle of Wight. The Island’s Wessex formation includes the richest dinosaur containing deposits in Europe and systematic sieving of these, the plant debris beds has yielded many spinosaurid teeth. However collectors have recently made some highly important finds from a site on the Island’s southwest coast. These include substantial sections of the crania of at least two individuals. The area is heavily collected and unfortunately some material has not come to the collection although the majority is now in the care of Dinosaur Isle Museum. Future research will include a description of the cranial osteology and dental morphology as well as CT scanning to establish the endocranial anatomy and relationship of the trigeminal nerve to the numerous pits on the premaxillae, maxillae and dentaries.
INTRODUCTION
The discovery in Surrey of Baryonyx walkeri in 1983 was a highly significant event that reinvigorated the study of British Dinosaurs. In
the 1990’s isolated vertebrae and teeth plus a phalanx confirmed the presence of spinosaurids on the Isle of Wight. The Island’s Wessex
Formation includes plant debris beds which are the richest dinosaur containing deposits in Europe. Systematic sieving of these beds has
yielded many spinosaurid teeth. However collectors have recently made some highly important finds from a site on the Island’s south-
west coast. These include substantial sections of the crania of at least two individuals. The area is heavily collected and unfortunately
some material has not come to the collection although the majority is now in the care of Dinosaur Isle Museum. Future research will in-
clude a description of the cranial osteology and dental morphology as well as CT scanning to establish the endocranial anatomy and re-
lationship of the trigeminal nerve to the numerous pits on the premaxillae, maxillae and dentaries.
One of the skulls is approximately 10% bigger than the other. The larger is referred to as ‘Bary.1’ and the smaller as ‘Bary.2’. Many of
the skull fragments in the collection are not illustrated here.
TEETH A. Baryonyx teeth and skull fragments found on the beach at Chilton Chine on the southwest coast
of the Isle of Wight. B. Apical root profile. C & D IWCMS : 2002.6. C. A basal part of the distal carina to show
tail-like termination. D. Lateral view. E. IWCMS : 2002.7 Juvenile spinosaurid tooth crown in lateral view. F.
IWCMS : 2002.8 Premaxillary or anterior maxillary tooth crown in mesolateral view. D & F from bed L6 c.
250m southeast of Chilton Chine. E from bed L9 exposed at beach level west of Grange Chine.
ABBREVIATIONS: bo basiocciput; bpt basipterygoid process of the basisphenoid; bs basisphenoid; ct cultriform process of the
paraspenoid; la lacrimal; ls lateral sphenoid; f frontal; oc occipital condyle; p parietal; pap paroccipital process; pro prootic; so supraoccipi-
tal.
REFERENCES
Radley, J. D. & Barker, M.J. 1998. Stratigraphy, Palaeontology and correlation of the Vectis Formation (Wealden Group, Lower Cretaceous)
at Compton Bay, Isle of Wight, Southern England. Proceedings of the Geologist’s Association. 109. 187-195.
Sweetman, S.C. 2011. The Wealden of the Isle of Wight. In: Batten, D.J. (Ed.), English Wealden Fossils. Palaeontological Association, Field
Guides to Fossils Series, 14. 69-71.
The Wealden Group of the Isle of Wight comprises the Barremian Wessex For-
mation and the overlying late Barremian earliest Aptian Vectis Formation. The
former is primarily composed of varicoloured overbank mudstones and siltstones
with interbedded fluvial sandstones. It also incorporates plant debris beds, the
main source of vertebrate fossils (Sweetman 2011). The latter represents deposi-
tion in a shallow coastal lagoon (Radley & Barker1998).
FOSTER SPECIMEN Posterioventral section of the skull and brain case presumed
from Bary.2 and associated with the dorsal section, comprised of parietals and frontals
found a few meters away.
B. Premaxilla left lateral view (Bary.1)
A. Premaxilla ventral view (Bary.1)
C. Premaxilla ventral view (Bary.2)
Reconstruction of ‘Baryonyx’
skull by Andrew Cocks based
principally on Baryonyx walk-
eri and Suchomimus tenerensis.
D. Premaxilla anterior
view (Bary.1)
F. Distal dentary
left lateral view
(? Bary.2)
Near right: Dorsal view of pos-
terior skull of Bary.2.
Far right: Posterior and right
lateral views of the brain case of
Bary.1 (IWCMS 2014.95).
E. Left maxilla in medial view (? Bary.1)
A-F: ICMWS : 2014.95
Scale bar = 50mm
CT Figure 1.: 3D rendering of Bary.1
shown from a posterior right lateral
view with the two blocks virtually fit-
ted together.
CT Figure 2.: 3D rendering of Bary.1
shown from a direct right lateral view
with the two blocks virtually fitted to-
gether.
In both figures the lower block is
shown as a preliminary segmentation
dilated by three voxels, whereas the
upper block is shown in raw state with
a manipulated opacity curve.
CT Figure 1.
CT Figure 2.
University of Southampton µ-VIS X-ray imaging centre.
CT scanning methods.
Four micro-focus X-Ray computed tomography -CT) scans were car-
ried out using the custom 450\225kVp HUTCH CT scanner at the µ-VIS
X-Ray imaging centre to cover both the upper and lower blocks of
‘Bary.1’ . The X-Ray conditions were set to 320kVp and 675µA, with 2
mm of Cu filtration. During each µ-CT scan the specimens were rotated
through 360° whilst 3142 projections were collected averaging 16 frames
per projection with an exposure time of 250 ms. Each resulting volume
has a voxel (cubic pixel) resolution of 135.4 µm. The raw data was pro-
cessed using VGStudio MAX 2.1 (volume graphics GmbH, Germany) to
segment the fossilised bone from the matrix
... Baryonyx walkeri Charig and Milner 1987 is characterized by an elongated body and a head very long and shallow, as well as an elongated and narrow snout (Fig. 7). The full length of the skull is estimated to have been 91-95 cm, based on comparison with that of the related genus Suchomimus (Charig and Milner, 1997;Munt et al., 2017). Baryonyx has a large number of finely-serrated, conical teeth. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to obtain diverse morphometric data from digitized 3D models of scientifically accurate palaeoreconstructions of theropods from eight representative families. The analysed polyvinyl chloride (PVC) models belong to the genera Coelophysis , Dilophosaurus , Ceratosaurus , Allosaurus , Baryonyx , Carnotaurus , Giganotosaurus , and Tyrannosaurus. The scanned 3D models were scaled considering different body-size estimations of the literature. The 3D analysis of these genera provides information on the skull length and body length that allows for recognition of major evolutionary trends. The skull length/body length in the studied genera increases according with the size of the body from the smallest Coelophysis with a ratio of 0.093 to ratios of 0.119–0.120 for Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus , the largest study theropods. The study of photogrammetric 3D models also provides morphometric information that cannot be obtained from the study of bones alone, but knowing that all reconstructions begin from the fossil bones, such as the surface/volume ratio (S/V). For the studied theropod genera surface/volume ratio ranges from 35.21 for Coelophysis to 5.55 for Tyrannosaurus . This parameter, closely related to the heat dissipation, help in the characterization of the metabolism of extinct taxa. Accordingly, slender primitive forms of the Early Jurassic (i.e. Coelophysis and Dilophosaurus ) had relatively smaller skulls and higher mass-specific metabolic rates than the robust large theropods of the Cretaceous (i.e. Giganotosaurus and Tyrannosaurus ) . This work presents a technique that, when applied to proper dinosaur models, provides extent and accurate data that may help in diverse study areas within the dinosaur palaeontology and palaeobiology.
... Several new and important discoveries have been made on the Isle of Wight since Sweetman (2011: Chapter 4) wrote about the geology (Fig. 6) and fossils of the Wealden succession. These include the partial rear end of a sauropod (Anon., 2011, 2012a); a second Yaverlandia fossil (Anon., 2012b); the jawbones and snout of two baryonychid dinosaurs (Anon., 2013(Anon., , 2015a, and two baryonychid braincases (Munt et al., 2017); the articulated remains of the rear half of the ornithopod dinosaur Valdosaurus canaliculatus (Anon., 2013(Anon., , 2014Barrett, 2016); a new small crocodile, related to Bernissartia (Anon., 2012c; Sweetman et al., 2015); and an almost complete specimen of the ornithopod dinosaur Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis (Anon., 2015b, 2017), thought to be the most complete example of this dinosaur found in Britain (Peaker, 2016). A number of these specimens are on display at Dinosaur Isle, Sandown, Isle of Wight, including the baryonychid remains, which have been mounted in a scale inliers, the Wealden Supergroup and younger Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks, some of the places mentioned in the text, and the sites discussed (numbered). 1, East Hill, Hastings, known locally as Rock-a-Nore, TQ 83030955. ...
Article
The non-marine Wealden succession of southern England contains a great variety of fossils, new finds of which continue to reveal novel insights into the animals and plants that inhabited this part of the world during much of the Early Cretaceous. Although seldom common, careful searching during the past few years has yielded megafossils that add to previous knowledge of occurrences of taxa and palaeoenvironmental conditions. Particularly significant in this respect has been the recovery of a large number of new insect species, but there have also been numerous finds of vertebrate bones and other body parts, such as teeth, skulls, a claw and a cranial endocast. In addition, the taxonomy of some of these groups and, in the case of dinosaurs, the ichnotaxonomy of their footprints and trackways, has been reviewed and/or reassessed. In this paper, we provide an illustrated account of the research that has been published on Wealden geology and the fossils that have been recovered from the succession since a field guide to English Wealden fossils was issued by the Palaeontological Association in 2011. It is aimed at providing the reader with a document of first resort for fossil identification purposes and a lead into the literature for further information
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.