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THE USE
OF ORANGE (
K. Ould Yerou,
K.
Laboratory of Bioconversion; Microbiological
Received: 28 January 2017
/ Accepted:
ABSTRACT
Due to rapid growth of the food processing industry and the consumption of processed foods,
the demand for natural antimicrobial agents is on the rise. Cons
aware about the health effects of the synthetic preservatives used in food. Hence natural
preservatives are developed to meet the demand of consumers. These natural antimicrobials
are developed either from plants or their parts, anim
waste generated from the food industries is being considered as an alternative to produce
natural antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to utilize the waste generated from
the citrus fruit processing (peel) i
of Citrus sinensis in food
(Oil of olive and cream dessert
can be used as antimicrobial
and
Key Words: Citrus sinensis
peel
Author Correspondence, e-
mail:
doi:
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas
1. INTRODUCTION
The genus Citrus
, belonging to the Rut
genera and 1,300 species.
Citrus sinensis
(Lemon), Citrus reticulate
(tangerine),
orange), Citrus medica
(Citron), and
genus Citrus. Citrus
are well known as one of the world’s
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences
ISSN 1112-9867
Available online at
http://www.jfas.info
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences
International License.
Libraries Resource Directory
OF ORANGE (
CITRUS SINENSIS
) PEEL AS ANTIMICROBIAL AND
ANTI-OXIDANT AGENTS
K.
Ibri, D. Bouhadi, A. Hariri, B. Meddah , A.
T
Laboratory of Bioconversion; Microbiological Engineering and Safety,
Mascara, Algeria
/ Accepted:
25 July 2017 / Published online:
01
Due to rapid growth of the food processing industry and the consumption of processed foods,
the demand for natural antimicrobial agents is on the rise. Consumers have become more
aware about the health effects of the synthetic preservatives used in food. Hence natural
preservatives are developed to meet the demand of consumers. These natural antimicrobials
are developed either from plants or their parts, anim
als or even
microorganisms
waste generated from the food industries is being considered as an alternative to produce
natural antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to utilize the waste generated from
the citrus fruit processing (peel) i
ndustry. This study was to utilize the
powder from
(Oil of olive and cream dessert
) to
preserve their
and
antioxidant activity so
food preservation purpose.
peel
, powder, food, antimicrobial activity
, antioxidant
mail:
mhanine11@yahoo.fr
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas
. v9i3.7
, belonging to the Rut
aceae or Rue family [1],
comprises of about 140
Citrus sinensis
(Orange), Citrus paradise
(Grapefruit),
(tangerine),
Citrus grandis (shaddock),
Citrus
(Citron), and
Citrus aurantifolia
(lime) are some important fruits
are well known as one of the world’s
major fruit crops that are produced
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences
http://www.jfas.info
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences
is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution
Libraries Resource Directory
. We are listed under
Research Associations
) PEEL AS ANTIMICROBIAL AND
T
ir Touil
Engineering and Safety,
University of
01
September 2017
Due to rapid growth of the food processing industry and the consumption of processed foods,
umers have become more
aware about the health effects of the synthetic preservatives used in food. Hence natural
preservatives are developed to meet the demand of consumers. These natural antimicrobials
microorganisms
. Even the
waste generated from the food industries is being considered as an alternative to produce
natural antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to utilize the waste generated from
powder from
the peel
preserve their
quality, this peel
food preservation purpose.
, antioxidant
activity
comprises of about 140
(Grapefruit),
Citrus limon
Citrus
aurantium (sour
(lime) are some important fruits
of
major fruit crops that are produced
Research Article
Creative Commons Attribution
-NonCommercial 4.0
Research Associations
category.
K. Ould Yerou et al. J FundamAppl Sci. 2017, 9(3), 1351-1357 1352
in many countries with tropical or subtropical climate. Brazil, USA, Japan, China, Mexico,
Pakistan, and countries of the Mediterranean region, are the major Citrus producers. Citrus
fruits and their by-products are of high economic and medicinal value because of their
multiple uses, such as in the food industry, cosmetics and folk medicine. Anatomically, the
fruit consists of two distinct regions, the pericarp, also called the peel, skin or rind, and the
endocarp or pulp with juice sac glands. The skin consists of an epidermis of epicuticular wax
with numerous small aromatic oil glands that give of its particular smell. The pericarp
consists of the outer flavedo or epicarp, largely made of parenchymatous cells and cuticle.
The albedo or mesocarp lying beneath the flavedo consists of tubular-like cells joined
together to constitute the tissue mass compressed into the intercellular area. The fruit usually
contains a sweet pulp and several to numerous seeds within. The fruit pulp is typically formed
of eleven segments of juice filled with flavor that goes from sour to sweet. In orchards it is
sensitive to frost. [2]
These health benefits are as a result of vitamins, especially vitamin C [3], phytochemical
compounds like liminoids, synephrine, hesperidin flavonoid, polyphenols, pectin.A single
orange is said to have about 170 phytonutrients and over 60 flavonoids. [4].
2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study was conducted in the laboratory of microbiology, university of Mustapha
Stambouli - Mascara –Algeria
Plant materials
Oranges (Citrus sinensis) were purchased from local market (Mascara –Algeria) in February
and March 2006.
Samples
Oil of olive and cream dessert
Methods « AFNOR »
Preparation of Plant Material
The peels were carefully washed under running tap water followed by sterile distilled water.
These were sun dried for seven days, pulverized to a fine powder using a manual grinder
Preparation of samples of olive oil
For our analysis Carry on meeting in bottles of olive oil with doses of different powders,
bottles are well closed and put in place opaque during 48 hours.
K. Ould Yerou et al. J FundamAppl Sci. 2017, 9(3), 1351-1357 1353
After the broadcast on a thermal treatment wall -on Samples, the temperatures which are
Chosen : 150 ° C, 200 ° C and 250 ° C during 30 minutes, our samples obtained Cooled and
are undergo various analyzes( physical-chimiqual and microbiological) .
Preparation cream dessert
The custard is produced thick consistency June presenting , made from pasteurized milk ,
sugar, cocoa , starch and gelling then adding powder orange peel ,then applied analyzes
(physicochemical and microbiological).
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results
The results are presented in tables (1.2.3.4.5.6.7)
Table 1. Peroxide Index
Temperature
(° C)
Samples
Control With powder of orange peel
150 15 8,5
200 6,5 08
250 5,5 06
Table 2. Saponification Index
Temperature
(° C)
Samples
Control With powder of orange peel
150 182,32 187,23
200 183,02 185,13
250 186,53 185,83
We notice that this index in the control increases with increasing temperature but the added
sample Orange peel powder, saponification decreases with the increase of the treatment
temperature
K. Ould Yerou et al. J FundamAppl Sci. 2017, 9(3), 1351-1357 1354
Table 3. Acid Index
Temperature
(° C)
Samples
Control With powder of orange peel
150 0,44 1,24
200 0,96 1,48
250 2,28 1,72
According to our results, the acid number augments prominently among samples when
temperatures rise .This imperative means that olive oil does not remain insensitive to the
possible hydrolysis of fats, including glycerides.
Table 4. Total bacteria (CFU / Gx103)
Storage time
(days)
Samples
Control With powder of orange peel
1st day 9 16
Day 7 10 04
Day 15 uncountable 52
Table 5. Faecal germs (CFU / Gx103 )
Storage time
(days)
Samples
Control With powder of orange peel
1st day 00 00
Day 7 21 02
Day 15 66 70
Table 6. Psychrotrophs (CFU / Gx103 )
Storage time
(days)
Samples
Control With powder of orange peel
1st day 02 00
Day 7 uncountable 63
Day 15 37 00
K. Ould Yerou et al. J FundamAppl Sci. 2017, 9(3), 1351-1357 1355
Table 7. Yeasts and molds (UFC/Gx103)
Storage time
(days)
Samples
Control With powder of orange peel
1st day 10 00
Day 7 10 10
Day 15 140 30
Absence of pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Clostridium sulfite reducers. It
appears that the heat treatment was effective and good conservation, maintenance at the
production line. [5]
4. DISCUSSION
Citrus cinensis is a rich source of secondary metabolites which contribute to the
pharmacological activities attributed to this plant.
The antimicrobial potency of plants is believed to be due to tannins [6], saponins, phenolic
compounds, essential oils [7] and flavonoids. These compounds are known to be biologically
active and therefore aid the antimicrobial activities of the plants [8]. These secondary
metabolites exert antimicrobial activity through different mechanisms. Tannin as observed in
Citrus sinensis peel extract have been found to form irreversible complexes with
proline.Citrus plants could be regarded as medicinal due to the high level of flavonoid content
in them. [9]
A high quality orange is one that is mature with good color intensity uniformly distributed
over the surface. Such oranges must be firm with a fairly smooth texture and shape that is
characteristic of the variety, free from decay, defects and other blemishes.
In recent years there has been increasing interest in plant antioxidants because of their
potential health-promoting properties. The above antioxidant activities of Citrus cinensis are
attributed to the presence of five C-glycosyl flavones: lucenin-2, vicenin-2, stellarin-2,
lucenin-2-4′-methyl ether and scoparin; one 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl glycosyl flavonol: 3-
hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl glycosyl quercetin; and one flavone O-glycosides: chrysoeriol 7-O-
neoesperidoside [10]
These group of pigments as found in plants and together with anthocyanin play a role in
flower and fruit colouration. Also, they are present in dietary fruits and vegetable, and
exercise their antioxidant activity in several ways. Studies indicate that flavonoids are
K. Ould Yerou et al. J FundamAppl Sci. 2017, 9(3), 1351-1357 1356
excellent radical-scavengers of the hydroxyl radical, due to their to ability to inhibit the
hydroxyl radical and donate hydrogen atom. Oranges as excellent source of vitamin C [11]
contain powerful natural antioxidant, folate, dietary fiber and other bioactive components, like
carotenoids and flavonoids that prevent cancer and degenerative diseases.
5. CONCLUSION
Natural products have been and will be important sources of new pharmaceutical compounds.
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in natural product research due to the failure of
alternative drug discovery methods to deliver many lead compounds in key therapeutic areas.
In this sense, considering the health benefits of C. sinensis it presents excellent options for
treating or helping in a disease due to its bioactive compounds (drug candidates) that show
important activities or for developing new products, there is the need for public enlightenment
on the importance of C. sinensis and finding and discovering new and effective drug
compounds, so this review represents an excellent source of information about this natural
product.
6. REFERENCES
[1] Loussert, 1989 : Les Agrumes Volume 2 Production ; ÉDITIONS TEC ET DOC /
LAVOISIER .
[2] Bouhadi D, 2000: Development and study of the quality of a new "Carrot -Orange" type
and conservation test .Memory for the graduation of an engineer. University of Mascara,
Algeria.
[3] Hoffman, D. W., 1971: The Assessment of Soil Productivity for Agriculture.
GuelphUniversity.
[4] Guignard, 2000: Biochimie végétale, préface de potier P2ème Edition Dunod ;Paris.
[5] April Jean-Loup, 1997: New dictionary of clinical bacteriology, Ellipses.
[6] Cheftel J-C, Cheftel H and Besancom P, 1977: Introduction to Biochemistry and Food
Technology.TEC and DOC.Lavoisier.
[7]Dupaigne P, 1972: Fruit drinks, preparation preservation. French Institute of Fruit
Research Overseas.
[8] Oikeh E. I., Oriakhi K. and Omoregie E. S,2013: Proximate Analysis and Phytochemical
Screening of Citrus sinensis Fruit Wastes .The Bioscientist: Vol. 1(2):164-170, September,
2013.
K. Ould Yerou et al. J FundamAppl Sci. 2017, 9(3), 1351-1357 1357
[9] Zebra Chinelo A, Okeke CUand Bibian O, 2014: Flavonoid Content of Citrus Species
Grown in Awka, Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria Aziagba International Journal of
Agriculture and Biosciences.
[10] Barreca, D.; Bellocco, E.; Leuzzi, U.; Gattuso, G. 2014: First evidence of C- and O
glycosyl flavone in blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice and their influence on
antioxidant properties. Food Chem., 149, 244–252.
[11] Choi M.H, Kim G.H, Lee H.S,2002: Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color
and pigment stability in blood orange (Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage Food
Research International; Volume 35, Issue 8, 2002, Pages 753–759.
How to cite this article:
Ould Yerou K, Ibri K, Bouhadi D, Hariri A, Meddah B, Tir Touil A. The use of orange
(citrus sinensis) peel as antimicrobial and anti-oxidant agents. J. Fundam. Appl. Sci., 2017,
9(3), 1351-1357.
... Citrus is one of the major fruit crops in the world that are well-cultivated in tropical and subtropical region (Rafiq et al., 2018). The pericarp consisted of the outer flavedo (epicarp), largely made of parenchymatous cells and cuticle (Yerou et al., 2017). Citrus fruits health benefits are due to their vitamins, especially vitamin C, phytochemical compounds like limonoids, synephrine, hesperidin flavonoid, polyphenols and pectin. ...
... An orange fruit contains about 170 phytonutrients and more than 60 flavonoids (Swati et al., 2021). The mesocarp beneath the flavedo is made up of tubular-like cells joined together to constitute the tissue mass compressed into the intercellular area (Yerou et al., 2017;Sulekha and Jaya, 2018). In addition, consumers have become more aware of the health effects of the synthetic preservatives used in food. ...
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Development and study of the quality of a new "Carrot -Orange" type and conservation test .Memory for the graduation of an engineer
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Bouhadi D, 2000: Development and study of the quality of a new "Carrot -Orange" type and conservation test.Memory for the graduation of an engineer. University of Mascara, Algeria.
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Guignard, 2000: Biochimie végétale, préface de potier P2ème Edition Dunod ;Paris.
New dictionary of clinical bacteriology, Ellipses
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April Jean-Loup, 1997: New dictionary of clinical bacteriology, Ellipses.
Fruit drinks, preparation preservation
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Dupaigne P, 1972: Fruit drinks, preparation preservation. French Institute of Fruit Research Overseas.
Flavonoid Content of Citrus Species Grown in Awka
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Zebra Chinelo A, Okeke CUand Bibian O, 2014: Flavonoid Content of Citrus Species Grown in Awka, Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria Aziagba International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences.