If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

In this chapter the authors draw attention to the fact that there is a lot to be gained from bringing together transitional care programmes with approaches that address the wider health system environment in order to address the increasing complexity in the management of care transitions. The chapter reviews various models from Health System Performance frameworks and improvement models and seeks to elicit the programme logic underpinning such improvements. The authors aim to illustrate the application of organizational models to improve quality and safety using an international best-practice example. Lastly, the chapter ends with recommendations for policymakers, health care decision-makers and evaluators regarding the alignment of theory, model specification, implementation and attribution of quality and safety outcomes to effects.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Specifically, care transitions is defined and operationalised to encompass a wide view on inter-professional and inter-organisational interactions related to patient movements across care settings. The care transition concept is positioned somewhere between clinical handovers (between teams or shifts) on one end of a continuum (Østergaard et al., 2017) and integrated care on the other end (Groene et al., 2017). It recognises that handovers and associated forms of inter-professional communication and collaboration are essential features of effective care and invariably contribute to care transitions. ...
... Horizontal coordination through inter-professional and inter-organisational dialogue was further developed by Heskestad and Aase (2017), who described the potential benefits of the Meeting Point intervention in supporting knowledge exchange. Taking a broader system-wide perspective by addressing vertical coordination, Groene et al. (2017) described how the Healthy Kinzigtal model developed in Germany can provide a potential solution in the form of system-level governance and responsibility for care transitions. This model takes a socio-economic perspective on care transitions, providing incentives and capacity for providers and purchasers to overcome the fragmentation in care delivery. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite the breadth and diversity of research and policies on care transitions, research studies often report similar components that affect the quality and safety of care, including communication across professional groups and care settings, transfer of information, coordination of resources or training of healthcare personnel. In this article, we aim to deepen our understanding of care transitions by proposing a heuristic research framework that takes into account the components and factors influencing the quality and safety of care transitions in diverse settings. Methodology Using a pragmatic qualitative narrative meta-synthesis of empirically grounded research studies (N = 13) involving 31 researchers from seven countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK), we conducted a thematic analysis to identify the components analysed in the included studies. We then used these components to create a framework for researching care transitions. Results Our narrative synthesis found that the quality and safety of care transitions are influenced by a range of patient-centred, communicative, collaborative, cultural, competency-based, accountability-based and spatial components. These components are encompassed within a broader set of dimensions that require careful consideration: (1) the conceptualising of the care transition notion, (2) the methodology for researching care transitions, (3) the role of patients and carers in care transitions, (4) the complexity surrounding care transitions, (5) the boundaries intertwined in care transitions and (6) care transition improvement interventions. These six dimensions constitute an analytical framework for planning and conducting research on care transitions in diverse settings. Conclusion The proposed six-dimensional framework for researching quality and safety in care transitions offers a roadmap for future practice and policy interventions and provides a starting point for planning and designing future research.
... Integrated care aims to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of healthcare compared with today's situation. 1 The integrated care model 'Gesundes Kinzigtal' (ICM-GK) is considered a best practice example in Germany 2 and internationally 3 4 not least due to its population-oriented approach. Compared with other existing models based on the same contractual approach (so-called selective contracting) which focus on integrated care for selected diseases, ICM-GK addresses the full spectrum of morbidities and health issues for a population defined by residential area (with the only exception of dental care). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Patients often experience interface problems when treated by different specialists and in different healthcare sectors. Integrated care concepts aim to reduce these problems. While most integrated healthcare models focus on individual diseases, the integrated care model ‘Gesundes Kinzigtal’ applies a population-based approach and addresses the full spectrum of morbidities for a population defined by area of residence—the Kinzigtal. A special feature of the model is the joint savings contract between the regional management company and the statutory health insurers. The INTEGRAL study aims at assessing the effectiveness of ‘Gesundes Kinzigtal’ under routine conditions in comparison to conventional care over a period of 10 years in order to understand the benefits but also the potential for (unintended) harms. Methods and analysis Database Claims data from statutory health insurance funds 2005–2015. The evaluation consists of a quasi-experimental study, with Kinzigtal as intervention region, at least 10 further regions with a similar population and healthcare infrastructure as primary controls and an additional random sample of insurees from the federal state of Baden-Württemberg as secondary controls. Model-specific and ‘non-specific’ indicators adopted from the literature and enriched by focus group interviews will be used to evaluate the model’s effectiveness and potential unintended consequences by analysing healthcare utilisation in general. Temporal trends per indicator in the intervention region will be compared with those in each control region. The overall variation in trends for the indicators across all regions provides information about the potential to modify an indicator due to local differences in the healthcare system. Ethics and dissemination Ethic Commission of the Faculty of Medicine, Philipps-University Marburg (ek_mr_geraedts_131117). Results will be discussed in workshops, submitted for publication in peer-review journals and presented at conferences. Trial registration number DRKS00012804.
Article
Full-text available
Objective The study objective was to assess the effects of an interorganisational educational intervention called the ‘Meeting Point’ on patient safety culture among staff in hospital and nursing home wards. Design The study employs a quasi-experimental, non-randomised design with a hospital and nursing home intervention group and a hospital and nursing home control group. The study uses one preintervention and two postintervention survey measurements. The intervention group participated in an educational programme ‘The Meeting Point’ including interorganisational staff meetings combining educational sessions with a discussion platform focusing on quality and safety in transitional care of the elderly. Results The results show a stable development over time for the patient safety culture factor ‘Handoff and transitions’, and small improvements for ‘Overall perceptions of patient safety culture’ and ‘Organisational learning - continuous improvement’ for the hospital intervention group. No similar development was reported in the nursing home intervention group, which is most likely explained by ongoing organisational changes. Qualitative data show the existence of ongoing initiatives in the hospital to improve transitional care, but not all were connected to the ‘Meeting Point’. Conclusion The ‘Meeting Point’ has the potential to be a useful measure for healthcare professionals when aiming to improve patient safety culture in transitional care. Further refinement of the key components and testing with a more robust study design will be beneficial.
Article
Full-text available
Background Rates of readmission to hospital within 30 days are highest amongst those with chronic diseases. Effective interventions to reduce unplanned readmissions are needed. Providing support to patients with chronic disease via telephone may help prevent unnecessary readmission. This systematic review aimed to determine the methodological quality and effectiveness of interventions utilising telephone follow up (TFU) alone or in combination with other components in reducing readmission within 30 days amongst patients with cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes. MethodsA systematic search of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were conducted for articles published from database inception to 19th May 2015. Interventions which included TFU alone, or in combination with other components, amongst patients with chronic disease, reported 30 day readmission outcomes and met Effective Practice and Organisation of Care design criteria were included. The titles and abstracts of all identified articles were initially assessed for relevance and rejected on initial screening by one author. Full text articles were assessed against inclusion criteria by two authors with discrepancies resolved through discussion. ResultsTen studies were identified, of which five were effective in reducing readmissions within 30 days. Overall, the methodological quality of included studies was poor. All identified studies combined TFU with other intervention components. Interventions that were effective included three studies which provided TFU in addition to pre-discharge support; and two studies which provided TFU with both pre- and post-discharge support which included education, discharge planning, physical therapy and dietary consults, medication assessment, home visits and a resident curriculum. There was no evidence that TFU and telemedicine or TFU and post-discharge interventions was effective, however, only one to two studies examined each of these types of interventions. Conclusions Evidence is inconclusive for the effectiveness of interventions utilising TFU alone or in combination with other components in reducing readmissions within 30 days in patients with chronic disease. High methodological quality studies examining the effectiveness of TFU in a standardised way are needed. There is also potential importance in focusing interventions on enhancing provider skills in patient education, transitional care and conducting TFU.
Article
Full-text available
Background: There have been repeated calls to better involve patients and the public and to place them at the centre of healthcare. Serious clinical and service failings in the UK and internationally increase the urgency and importance of addressing this problem. Despite this supportive policy context, progress to achieve greater involvement is patchy and slow and often concentrated at the lowest levels of involvement. Methods: A selective narrative literature search was guided by the authors' broad expertise, covering a range of disciplines across health and social care, policy and research. Published systematic literature reviews were used to identify relevant authors and publications. Google and hand searches of journal articles and reference lists and reports augmented identification of recent evidence. Results: Patients and the wider public can be involved at most stages of healthcare, and this can have a number of benefits. Uncertainty persists about why and how to do involvement well and evaluate its impact, how to involve and support a diversity of individuals, and in ways that allow them to work in partnership to genuinely influence decision-making. This exposes patient and public involvement (PPI) to criticisms of exclusivity and tokenism. Conclusions: Current models of PPI are too narrow, and few organisations mention empowerment or address equality and diversity in their involvement strategies. These aspects of involvement should receive greater attention, as well as the adoption of models and frameworks that enable power and decision-making to be shared more equitably with patients and the public in designing, planning and co-producing healthcare.
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare systems across the world are experiencing increased financial, organizational and social pressures attributable to a range of critical issues including the challenge of ageing populations. Health systems need to adapt, in order to sustainably provide quality care to the widest range of patients, particularly those with chronic and complex diseases, and especially those in vulnerable and low-income groups. We report on a workshop designed to tackle such issues under the auspices of ISQua, with representatives from Argentina, Australia, Canada, Columbia, Denmark, Emirates, France, Ireland, Jordan, Qatar, Malaysia, Norway, Oman, UK, South Africa and Switzerland. We discuss some of the challenges facing healthcare systems in countries ageing rapidly, to those less so, and touch on current and future reform options.
Article
Full-text available
Importance Older adults acutely hospitalized are at risk of disability. Trials on comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and transitional care present inconsistent results.Objective To test whether an intervention of systematic CGA, followed by the transitional care bridge program, improved activities of daily living (ADLs) compared with systematic CGA alone.Design, Setting, and Participants This study was a double-blind, multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 hospitals with affiliated home care organizations in the Netherlands between September 1, 2010, and March 1, 2014. In total, 1070 consecutive patients were eligible, 674 (63.0%) of whom enrolled. They were 65 years or older, acutely hospitalized to a medical ward for at least 48 hours with an Identification of Seniors at Risk–Hospitalized Patients score of 2 or higher, and randomized using permuted blocks stratified by study site and Mini-Mental State Examination score (<24 vs ≥24). The dates of the analysis were June 1, 2014, to November 15, 2014.Interventions The transitional care bridge program intervention was started during hospitalization by a visit from a community care registered nurse (CCRN) and continued after discharge with home visits at 2 days and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. The CCRNs applied the CGA care and treatment plan.Main Outcomes and Measures The main outcome was the Katz Index of ADL at 6 months compared with 2 weeks before admission. Secondary outcomes were mortality, cognitive functioning, time to hospital readmission, and the time to discharge from a nursing home.Results The study cohort comprised 674 participants. Their mean age was 80 years, 42.1% (n = 284) were male, and 39.2% (n = 264) were cognitively impaired at admission. Intent-to-treat analysis found no differences in the mean Katz Index of ADL at 6 months between the intervention arm (mean, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.8-2.2) and the CGA-only arm (mean, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.2). For secondary outcomes, there were 85 deaths (25.2%) in the intervention arm and 104 deaths (30.9%) in the CGA-only arm, resulting in a lower risk on the time to death within 6 months after hospital admission (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99; P = .045; number needed to treat to prevent 1 death, 16). No other secondary outcome was significant.Conclusions and Relevance A systematic CGA, followed by the transitional care bridge program, showed no effect on ADL functioning in acutely hospitalized older patients.Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Registry: NTR2384
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To systematically review interventions that aim to improve the governance of patient safety within emergency care on effectiveness, reliability, validity and feasibility. Design A systematic review of the literature. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PsychInfo were searched for studies published between January 1990 and July 2014. We included studies evaluating interventions relevant for higher management to oversee and manage patient safety, in prehospital emergency medical service (EMS) organisations and hospital-based emergency departments (EDs). Two reviewers independently selected candidate studies, extracted data and assessed study quality. Studies were categorised according to study quality, setting, sample, intervention characteristics and findings. Results Of the 18 included studies, 13 (72%) were non-experimental. Nine studies (50%) reported data on the reliability and/or validity of the intervention. Eight studies (44%) reported on the feasibility of the intervention. Only 4 studies (22%) reported statistically significant effects. The use of a simulation-based training programme and well-designed incident reporting systems led to a statistically significant improvement of safety knowledge and attitudes by ED staff and an increase of incident reports within EDs, respectively. Conclusions Characteristics of the interventions included in this review (eg, anonymous incident reporting and validation of incident reports by an independent party) could provide useful input for the design of an effective tool to govern patient safety in EMS organisations and EDs. However, executives cannot rely on a robust set of evidence-based and feasible tools to govern patient safety within their emergency care organisation and in the chain of emergency care. Established strategies from other high-risk sectors need to be evaluated in emergency care settings, using an experimental design with valid outcome measures to strengthen the evidence base.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Multi-morbidity, poly-pharmacy and cognitive impairment leave many old patients in a frail condition with a high risk of adverse outcomes if proper health care is not provided. Knowledge about available competence is necessary to evaluate whether we are able to offer equitable and balanced health care to older persons with acute and/or complex health care needs. This study investigates the sufficiency of nursing staff competence in Norwegian community elderly care. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1016 nursing staff in nursing homes and home care services with the instrument "Nursing Older People - Competence Evaluation Tool". Statistical analyses were ANOVA and multiple regression. Results: We found that nursing staff have competence in all areas measured, but that the level of competence was insufficient in the areas nursing measures, advanced procedures, and nursing documentation. Nursing staff in nursing homes scored higher than staff in home care services, and older nursing staff scored lower than younger nursing staff. Conclusions: A reason for the relatively low influence of education and training on competence could be the diffuse roles that nursing staff have in community elderly care, implying that they have poor standards against which to judge their own competence. Clearer role descriptions for all groups of nursing staff are recommended as well as general competence development in geriatric nursing care.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The NHS Ombudsman’s report Care and Compassion which gives an account of ten investigations into NHS care of older people makes difficult reading. For example ‘Hospital staff at Ealing Hospital NHS Trust left Mr J forgotten in a waiting room, denying him the chance to be with his wife as she died’. We suggest that improving clinical governance will not improve patient care unless systemic and widespread changes enable compassionate care to be delivered. The recent Care Quality Commission Report Dignity and Nutrition reviewing care in some of the hospitals identified in Care and Compassion found that some of the problems still remained. The Point of Care document published in 2009 by the Kings Fund suggests actions that could promote compassionate care in acute medical settings. We suggest that they are also relevant in primary care. Nothing personal: Disturbing undercurrents in cancer care by Mitzi Blennerhassett outlines her cancer treatment and her experience, at times, of a lack of compassion. Compassionate care can enhance staff efficiency, help elicit better patient information, and so inform treatment plans which lead to better recovery and increased satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
Stroke is a leading cause of serious, long-term disability, the effects of which may be prolonged with physical, emotional, social, and financial consequences not only for those affected but also for their family and friends. Evidence for the effectiveness of stroke unit care and the benefits of thrombolysis have transformed treatment for people after stroke. Previously viewed nihilistically, stroke is now seen as a medical emergency with clear evidence-based care pathways from hospital admission to discharge. However, stroke remains a complex clinical condition that requires health professionals to work together to bring to bear their collective knowledge and specialist skills for the benefit of stroke survivors. Multidisciplinary team working is regarded as fundamental to delivering effective care across the stroke pathway. This paper discusses the contribution of team working in improving recovery at key points in the post-stroke pathway.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Preventable patient harm due to adverse events (AEs) is a significant health problem today facing contemporary health care. Knowledge of patients' experiences of AEs is critical to improving health care safety and quality. A systematic review of studies of patients' experiences of AEs was conducted to report their experiences, knowledge gaps and any challenges encountered when capturing patient experience data. Data sources: Key words, synonyms and subject headings were used to search eight electronic databases from January 2000 to February 2015, in addition to hand-searching of reference lists and relevant journals. Study selection: Titles and abstracts of publications were screened by two reviewers and checked by a third. Full-text articles were screened against the eligibility criteria. Data extraction: Data on design, methods and key findings were extracted and collated. Results: Thirty-three publications demonstrated patients identifying a range of problems in their care; most commonly identified were medication errors, communication and coordination of care problems. Patients' income, education, health burden and marital status influence likelihood of reporting. Patients report distress after an AE, often exacerbated by receiving inadequate information about the cause. Investigating patients' experiences is hampered by the lack of large representative patient samples, data over sufficient time periods and varying definitions of an AE. Conclusion: Despite the emergence of policy initiatives to enhance patient engagement, few studies report patients' experiences of AEs. This information must be routinely captured and utilized to develop effective, patient-centred and system-wide policies to minimize and manage AEs.
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to ensure effective participation of patients in healthcare are called by many names-patient centredness, patient engagement, patient experience. Improvement initiatives in this domain often resemble the efforts of manufacturers to engage consumers in designing and marketing products. Services, however, are fundamentally different than products; unlike goods, services are always 'coproduced'. Failure to recognise this unique character of a service and its implications may limit our success in partnering with patients to improve health care. We trace a partial history of the coproduction concept, present a model of healthcare service coproduction and explore its application as a design principle in three healthcare service delivery innovations. We use the principle to examine the roles, relationships and aims of this interdependent work. We explore the principle's implications and challenges for health professional development, for service delivery system design and for understanding and measuring benefit in healthcare services.
Article
Full-text available
The current approach to patient safety, labelled Safety I, is predicated on a 'find and fix' model. It identifies things going wrong, after the event, and aims to stamp them out, in order to ensure that the number of errors is as low as possible. Healthcare is much more complex than such a linear model suggests. We need to switch the focus to what we have come to call Safety II: a concerted effort to enable things to go right more often. The key is to appreciate that healthcare is resilient to a large extent, and everyday performance succeeds much more often than it fails. Clinicians constantly adjust what they do to match the conditions. Facilitating work flexibility, and actively trying to increase the capacity of clinicians to deliver more care more effectively, is key to this new paradigm. At its heart, proactive safety management focuses on how everyday performance usually succeeds rather than on why it occasionally fails, and actively strives to improve the former rather than simply preventing the latter. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Patients most likely want to interact with the person behind the professional, writes Raymond Chadwick , but it’s impossible to insist that staff connect emotionally with all patients Since Robert Francis QC’s report of 2013 on the inquiry at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, the word “compassion” has taken on new significance. Its exact meaning may not be obvious, but clearly it’s a good thing, and we need more of it. Francis wrote that patients “must receive effective services from caring, compassionate and committed staff working within a common culture.”1 In relation to training nurses he called for “an increased focus . . . on the practical requirements of delivering compassionate care.” This, he opined, would require aptitude tests for compassion during selection, training supported by national standards in “fundamental aspects of compassionate care,” and “leadership which constantly reinforces . . . standards of compassionate care.” So we now have “values based recruitment,”2 an e-learning programme called Compassion in Practice ,3 and the “6 Cs”—care, compassion, competence, communication, courage, and commitment—as a vision for nurses, midwives, and care staff.4 But what do we understand by compassion? The Francis report did …
Article
Full-text available
It is now widely accepted that the mixed effect and success rates of strategies to improve quality and safety in health care are in part due to the different contexts in which the interventions are planned and implemented. The objectives of this study were to (i) describe the reporting of contextual factors in the literature on the effectiveness of quality improvement strategies, (ii) assess the relationship between effectiveness and contextual factors, and (iii) analyse the importance of contextual factors. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews searching the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase and CINAHL. The search focused on quality improvement strategies included in the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group taxonomy. We extracted data on quality improvement effectiveness and context factors. The latter were categorized according to the Model for Understanding Success in Quality tool. We included 56 systematic reviews in this study of which only 35 described contextual factors related with the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions. The most frequently reported contextual factors were: quality improvement team (n = 12), quality improvement support and capacity (n = 11), organization (n = 9), micro-system (n = 8), and external environment (n = 4). Overall, context factors were poorly reported. Where they were reported, they seem to explain differences in quality improvement effectiveness; however, publication bias may contribute to the observed differences. Contextual factors may influence the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions, in particular at the level of the clinical micro-system. Future research on the implementation and effectiveness of quality improvement interventions should emphasize formative evaluation to elicit information on context factors and report on them in a more systematic way in order to better appreciate their relative importance.
Article
Full-text available
Following the Public Inquiry into avoidable deaths and poor standards of care at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, the English National Health Service (NHS) is aiming to become a system devoted to continual learning and improvement of patient care. The paper aims to explore current perceptions of healthcare staff towards reporting and organisational learning for improving patient safety. Based on a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 35 healthcare professionals in two NHS organisations, the paper argues that previously identified barriers to incident reporting remain problematic, and that less centralised processes that aim to learn from everyday clinical work might be better suited to generate actionable learning and change in the local work environment. The findings might support healthcare organisations in understanding better the practical processes of organisational learning at the local level. The findings might also support researchers in developing new approaches and strategies for integrating learning about risk at the local level with effective organisational change to improve patient safety.
Article
Full-text available
To determine whether Care Navigation (CN), a nurse-led hospital-based coordinated care intervention, reduced the use of hospital services and improved quality of life for patients with chronic illness. Randomised controlled trial; participants were allocated to CN or standard care. Patients with chronic illness presenting to the emergency department of Nepean Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales. High-risk status for an unplanned admission was defined as i) three or more unplanned hospital admissions in 12 months for patients aged ≥ 70 or at least one admission for cardiac or respiratory disease in patients aged 16-69 years; or ii) judged by a CN nurse to be high risk and likely to benefit. Numbers of re-presentations or readmissions, quality of life, time to re-presentation, readmission or death, length of stay, and access to hospital and community health services. 500 participants were randomised between May 2010 and February 2011; 359 by previous unplanned admission and 141 by clinical impression. The CN group received more community health services (rate ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.35-2.81; P < 0.001) than participants receiving standard care; however, this did not result in statistically significant differences in number of re-presentations (rate ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-1.01; P = 0.07), number of readmissions (rate ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.70-1.04; P = 0.11), quality of life at 24 months (mean difference, 0; 95% CI, - 0.10 to 0.09, P = 0.93), or other measures. CN did not improve quality of life or reduce unplanned hospital presentations or admissions despite community health services almost doubling. Future service development should explore potential benefits of linking navigated intrahospital care to ongoing, proactive care planning and delivery in the community. ACTRN12609000554268.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Patient transitions between primary and hospital care include referral, discharge, and simultaneous care by the outpatient clinic and the general practitioner (GP). Research on referrals and discharge shows that safety incidents in these transitions are common. We developed the multifaceted Transitional Incident Prevention Programme (TIPP), which aims to improve transitional patient safety preventing future incidents. With this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the TIPP programme on transitional patient safety, and to evaluate its implementation and the acceptance in GP-practices and hospitals. Methods: The TIPP intervention study is a controlled before and after study combined with qualitative methods. The study will be conducted in both rural and urban settings including three hospitals, together with referring primary care practices. The TIPP intervention is aimed at three aspects of transitional safety: 1) Healthcare process, 2) Transitional patient safety culture, and 3) Patient participation. Together with the participating hospital departments, GPs and patients, we will develop a tailored improvement programme, taking into account the different context of each setting.
Article
Full-text available
Background The role of ambulance services has changed dramatically over the last few decades with the introduction of paramedics able to provide life-saving interventions, thanks to sophisticated equipment and treatments available. The number of 999 calls continues to increase, with adverse events theoretically possible with each one. Most patient safety research is based on hospital data, but little is known concerning patient safety when using ambulance services, when things can be very different. There is an urgent need to characterise the evidence base for patient safety in NHS ambulance services. Objective To identify and map available evidence relating to patient safety when using ambulance services. Design Mixed-methods design including systematic review and review of ambulance service documentation, with areas for future research prioritised using a Delphi process. Setting and participants Ambulance services, their staff and service users in UK. Data sources A wide range of data sources were explored. Multiple databases, reference lists from key papers and citations, Google and the NHS Confederation website were searched, and experts contacted to ensure that new data were included in the review. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, Science Direct, Emerald, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), NHS Evidence, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment , the FADE library, Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH), OpenDOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories) and Open System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE) and Zetoc (The British Library's Electronic Table of Contents) were searched from 1 January 1980 to 12 October 2011. Publicly available documents and issues identified by National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA), NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) and coroners’ reports were considered. Opinions and perceptions of senior managers, ambulance staff and service users were solicited. Review methods Data were extracted from annual reports using two-stage thematic analysis, data from quality accounts were collated with safety priorities tabulated and considered using thematic analysis, NPSA incident report data were collated and displayed comparatively using descriptive statistics, claims reported to NHSLA were analysed to identify number and cost of claims from mistakes and/or poor service, and summaries of coroners’ reports were assessed using thematic analysis to identify underlying safety issues. The depth of analysis is limited by the remit of a scoping exercise and availability of data. Results We identified studies exploring different aspects of safety, which were of variable quality and with little evidence to support activities currently undertaken by ambulance services. Adequately powered studies are required to address issues of patient safety in this service, and it appeared that national priorities were what determined safety activities, rather than patient need. There was inconsistency of information on attitudes and approaches to patient safety, exacerbated by a lack of common terminology. Conclusion Patient safety needs to become a more prominent consideration for ambulance services, rather than operational pressures, including targets and driving the service. Development of new models of working must include adequate training and monitoring of clinical risks. Providers and commissioners need a full understanding of the safety implications of introducing new models of care, particularly to a mobile workforce often isolated from colleagues, which requires a body of supportive evidence and an inherent critical evaluation culture. It is difficult to extrapolate findings of clinical studies undertaken in secondary care to ambulance service practice and current national guidelines often rely on consensus opinion regarding applicability to the pre-hospital environment. Areas requiring further work include the safety surrounding discharging patients, patient accidents, equipment and treatment, delays in transfer/admission to hospital, and treatment and diagnosis, with a clear need for increased reliability and training for improving handover to hospital. Funding The National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.
Thesis
Full-text available
Background: Research has shown that frail, older individuals are especially vulnerable in the discharge process due to complex continuing care needs. Informal caregivers can play an important role in securing patients’ autonomy in their encounter with the health care services and in supporting their older relative during the discharge process. Shorter hospital stays, which has become a key characteristic in the contemporary health care services, put pressure on formal and informal care delivery in the municipalities. Contemporary policy initiatives emphasize active participation by the patients themselves and their informal caregivers to strengthen the emphasis on the users’ individual needs. Recent research calls for involving the informal caregivers in the decision-making process to ensure successful post-discharge outcomes for the patient and the informal caregivers. However, while the existing research is predominantly concerned with information exchange, there is a scarcity of research on the informal caregivers’ actual participation in the discharge planning. Aims: The general aim of this dissertation was to describe and explore the role of informal caregivers in the discharge process when older relatives, 80 years and older, were discharged from the hospital to community care. The specific aims were: to describe the participation reported by informal caregivers in the discharge planning, to describe which factors contributed to a successful post-discharge outcome, and to explore the informal caregivers’ experiences of influencing decision-making at and after hospital discharge for home-dwelling older relatives. Methods: The dissertation was designed to address participation in the discharge process from the perspectives of patients and informal caregivers using a mixed methods design with a sequential explanatory approach. Recruitment of participants and data collection for this PhD study was carried out in two phases. In Phase One, between October 2007 and May 2009, a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaire interviews with a consecutive sample of 254 patients and 262 caregivers was conducted. In Phase Two a follow-up qualitative interview study with 19 informal caregivers was conducted between March 2010 and July 2010. Bivariate cross-tabulations and Chi-square tests for association and trend were conducted with the nominal and ordinal variables from Phase One. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to describe the informal caregivers’ participation in discharge planning (Paper I) and to describe predictors of a patient-reported successful post- IX discharge outcome (Paper II). Free text comments from the questionnaire were analyzed using a content analysis (Paper II), while the qualitative data from the follow-up study of Phase Two were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach (Paper III). Results: The younger generation caregivers, mainly adult children, appear to be better informed and they engage in dialogue and cooperate with the personnel at the hospital to a greater degree than the older generation caregivers, mainly consisting of spouses. However, only half of all the informal caregivers reported participation in planning the patient discharge (Paper I). The findings highlight that having someone at home upon homecoming from the hospital and having adequate formal home-care services are significantly associated with patient-reported success in managing well in the early post-discharge period (Paper II). The informal caregivers wanted to actively participate, but gaining influence was often perceived to be complicated and required a great deal of resourcefulness. The informal caregivers described an ongoing struggle that was not always resolved until the situation became unbearable for the informal caregivers. The informal caregivers appeared to be indispensable as intermediaries between the patient and the health care services (Paper III). Conclusion: The importance of informal caregivers as intermediaries was supported by findings from both methodological approaches. The informal caregivers appear to be indispensable intermediaries without whom the patients become even more vulnerable in the discharge process. The findings underline how the different generations of caregivers experience the discharge process differently and that the younger generation caregivers seem to have better chances of participation. This study shows that focusing on informal caregivers and their participation is an investment toward better patient outcomes, and that more research is required to explore how informal caregivers can be actively included in the discharge process.
Article
Objective: Research has identified numerous safety risks in perioperative patient handover. In handover from ward to operating room (OR), patients are often transferred by a third person. This adds to the risk of loss of important information and of caregivers in the OR not identifying possible risk factors. The aim of this study was to describe the implementation process and completion rate of a new preoperative, ward-to-OR checklist. Our goal was a 90% fulfillment. Method: This study is a prospective, observational study in a Danish University Hospital including all patients undergoing surgery in 2013. The checklist was a screen page with 27 checkboxes of information relevant for a safe handover. The checklist should be completed in the ward before handover to the OR and should be checked in the OR before receiving the patient. The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle method was used in the implementation process of the checklist. Results: A total of 17.361 patients were included. In wards with only elective surgery (plastic and breast surgery), the checklist was used in 1.419 of 2.286 patients (62.1%). In wards with both elective and emergency surgery (abdominal, orthopedic, urology, gynecology and obstetrics), the checklist was used in 1.963 of 7.460 elective patients (26.3%) and in 812 of 7.615 emergency patients (10.7 %). Conclusion: Our goal of a 90% fulfillment was not reached. The electronic checklist seemed to be used most frequently in wards with only elective surgery.
Article
Objective: This study aimed to determine whether pharmacist-provided home-based medication review (HBMR) can reduce readmissions in the elderly. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Patient's home. Participants: Records of patients referred to a care transition program from March 2011 through March 2015 were reviewed. Patients aged 60 years and older taking more than 5 medications and had at least 2 unplanned admissions within 3 months preceding the first home visit were included. Intervention: Pharmacist-provided HBMR. Main outcome measures: Primary outcome was readmission rate over 6 months after the first home visit. Secondary outcomes included emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits and mortality. Drug-related problems (DRPs) were reported for the HBMR group. Multivariate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratio (HR) were calculated with adjustments for covariates. Results: The study included 499 patients (97 HBMR, 402 no HBMR). Pharmacist-provided HBMR reduced readmissions by 26% (IRR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.92, P = 0.007), reduced ED visits by 20% (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66-0.98, P = 0.030) and increased outpatient visits by 16% (IRR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.95-1.41, P = 0.150). There were 8 and 44 deaths in the HBMR and no HBMR groups respectively (HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.29-1.81, P = 0.492). Pharmacists identified 464 DRPs, with 169 (36.4%) resolved within 1 month after the home visit. Conclusions: The study suggests that pharmacist-provided HBMR is effective in reducing readmissions and ED visits in the elderly. More studies in the Asian population are needed to determine its long term benefits and patient's acceptability.
Article
Emergency ambulance calls represent one of the routes of emergency hospital admissions from care homes. We aimed to describe the pattern of ambulance call rates from care homes and identify factors predicting those homes calling for an ambulance most frequently. We obtained data from South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust on 3138 ambulance calls relating to people aged 65 and over from care homes in the Torbay region between 1 April 2012 and 31 July 2013. We supplemented this with data from the Care Quality Commission (CQC) website on home characteristics and outcomes of CQC inspections. We used descriptive statistics to identify variation in ambulance call rates for residential and nursing homes and fitted negative binomial regression models to determine if call rates were predicted by home type (nursing versus residential), the five standards in the CQC reports, dementia care status or travel time to hospital. One hundred and forty-six homes (119 residential and 27 nursing) were included in the analysis. The number of calls made ranged from 1 to 99. The median number (IQR; range) of calls per resident per year was 0.51 (0.21–0.89; 0.03–2.45). Nursing homes had a lower call rate than residential homes [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.29; 95% CI: 0.22–0.40; P < 0.001]; care homes failing the quality and suitability of management standard had a lower call rate compared to those who passed (ARR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50–0.90; P = 0.006); and homes specialising in dementia had a higher call rate compared to those not specialising (ARR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.23–1.96; P < 0.001). These findings require replication in other regions to establish their generalisability and further investigation is required to determine the extent to which call rate variability reflects the different needs of resident populations or differences in care home policies and practice.
Article
Objectives: Patients and consumers make many choices that affect their health and their health care. Some of these decisions are informed by evidence, but many are not. A growing body of research indicates that those who are more activated or engaged in their health are more likely to seek out and use information to inform their health decisions. In this paper we review the evidence about patient activation and information seeking, health behaviors, and health outcomes. We also review what is known about how to increase patient activation, and how best to support patients who are at different levels of activation to use information to support their choices. Discussion: Strategies can be tailored to support and information for patients at different levels of activation. These strategies might be implemented in different clinical settings and situations, tailored and targeted approaches for care transitions, health coaching, and in the use of shared-decision-making. Conclusions: Efforts to support informed consumer choices have largely been a 'one size fits all' approach. Understanding consumers, and trying to meet them where they are, is likely to be the focus of the 'next generation' of interventions to support informed consumer choices.
Article
The English National Health Service has made a major investment in nine partnerships between higher education institutions and local health services called Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). They have been funded to increase capacity and capability to produce and implement research through sustained interactions between academics and health services. CLAHRCs provide a natural 'test bed' for exploring questions about research implementation within a partnership model of delivery. This protocol describes an externally funded evaluation that focuses on implementation mechanisms and processes within three CLAHRCs. It seeks to uncover what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances.
Article
Background: Hospitals across the United States are pursuing strategies to reduce avoidable readmissions but the evidence on how best to accomplish this goal is mixed, with no specific clinical practice shown to reduce readmissions consistently. Changes to hospital organizational practices, a key component of context, also may be critical to improving performance on readmissions, but this has not been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand how high-performing hospitals improved risk-stratified readmission rates, and whether their changes to clinical practices and organizational practices differed from low-performing hospitals. Design: This was a qualitative study of 10 hospitals in which readmission rates had decreased (n=7) or increased (n=3). Participants: A total of 82 hospital staff drawn from hospitals that had participated in the State Action on Avoidable Readmissions quality improvement initiative. Results: High-performing hospitals were distinguished by several organizational practices that facilitated readmissions reduction, that is, collective habits of action or interpretation shared by organization members. First, high-performing hospitals reported focused efforts to improve collaboration across hospital departments. Second, they helped postacute providers improve care by sharing the hospital's clinical and quality improvement expertise and data. Third, high performers enthusiastically engaged in trial and error learning to reduce readmissions. Fourth, they emphasized that readmissions represented bad outcomes for patients, de-emphasizing the role of financial penalties. Both high-performing and low-performing hospitals had implemented most clinical practice changes commonly recommended to reduce readmissions. Conclusions: Our findings highlight several organizational practices that hospitals may be able to use to enhance the effectiveness of their readmissions reduction efforts.
Article
Background: Much has been written lately regarding hospitalisations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSH) and their strengths and weaknesses as a quality management indicator. The idea underlying ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSC) is that effective treatment of acute conditions, good management of chronic illnesses and immunisation against infectious diseases can reduce the risk of a specified set of hospitalisations. Methods: The present paper applies group consensus methods to synthesise available evidence with expert opinion, thus identifying relevant ACSC. It contributes to the literature by evaluating the degree of preventability of ACSH and surveying the medical and systemic changes needed to increase quality for each diagnosis group. Forty physicians proportionally selected from all medical disciplines relevant to the treatment of ACSC participated in the three round Delphi survey. The setting of the study is Germany. Results: The proposed core list is a subset of 22 ACSC diagnosis groups, covering 90% of all consented ACSH and conditions with a higher than 85% estimated degree of preventability. Of all 18.6 million German hospital cases in the year 2012, the panelists considered 5.04 million hospitalisations (27%) to be sensitive to ambulatory care, of which 3.72 (20%) were estimated to be actually preventable. If only emergencies are considered, the ACSH share reduces to less than 8%. The geographic distribution of ACSH indicates significant regional variation with particularly high rates and potential for improvement in the North Rhine region, in Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt, northern and eastern Bavaria and the Saarland. The average degree of preventability was 75% across all diagnosis groups. By far the most often mentioned strategy for reducing ACSH was 'improving continuous care'. Conclusion: There are several good reasons why process indicators prevail in the assessment of ambulatory care. ACSH rates can however provide a more complete picture by adding useful information related to the overall patient outcome. The results of our analysis should be used to encourage debate and as a basis for further confirmatory work.
Article
This book offers a global perspective on healthcare reform and its relationship with efforts to improve quality and safety. It looks at the ways reforms have developed in 30 countries, and specifically the impact national reform initiatives have had on the quality and safety of care. It explores how reforms drive quality and safety improvement, and equally how they act to negate such goals. Every country included in this book is involved in a reform and improvement process, but each takes place in a particular social, cultural, economic and developmental context, leading to differing emphases and varied progress. Methods for tackling common problems - financing, efficiencies, effectiveness, evidence-based practice, institutional reforms, quality improvement, and patient safety initiatives - also differ. Representatives from each nation provide a chapter to convey their own situation. The editors draw a conclusion from these numerous contributions and synthesize the themes emerging into a coherent ‘lessons learned’ summary that delivers value to the numerous stakeholders. Healthcare Reform, Quality and Safety forms a compendium of the current 'state of the art' in global healthcare reform. This is the first book of its type, and offers a unique opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas to the mutual benefit of countries involved in the project. The content will be of interest to governments, policymakers, managers and leaders, clinicians, teaching academics, researchers and students. © 2015, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Russell Mannion and Julie Johnson. All rights reserved.
Article
Background: Health systems are faced with a large array of transitional care interventions and patient populations to whom such activities might apply. Purpose: To summarize the health and utilization effects of transitional care interventions, and to identify common themes about intervention types, patient populations, or settings that modify these effects. Data sources: PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (January 1950-May 2014), reference lists, and technical advisors. Study selection: Systematic reviews of transitional care interventions that reported hospital readmission as an outcome. Data extraction: We extracted transitional care procedures, patient populations, settings, readmissions, and health outcomes. We identified commonalities and compiled a narrative synthesis of emerging themes. Data synthesis: Among 10 reviews of mixed patient populations, there was consistent evidence that enhanced discharge planning and hospital-at-home interventions reduced readmissions. Among 7 reviews in specific patient populations, transitional care interventions reduced readmission in patients with congestive heart failure and general medical populations. In general, interventions that reduced readmission addressed multiple aspects of the care transition, extended beyond hospital stay, and had the flexibility to accommodate individual patient needs. There was insufficient evidence on how caregiver involvement, transition to sites other than home, staffing, patient selection practices, or care settings modified intervention effects. Conclusions: Successful interventions are comprehensive, extend beyond hospital stay, and have the flexibility to respond to individual patient needs. The strength of evidence should be considered low because of heterogeneity in the interventions studied, patient populations, clinical settings, and implementation strategies. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2015. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Article
Introduction: Handover of surgical patients from ward to operating room is a sensible point for information and communication failures. Guidelines were developed for preparation of surgical patients. Our aim was to explore if patients are sufficiently prepared for surgery according to local guidelines and to identify challenges and solutions for correct preparation through interactive table simulation-based workshops involving the various professions and specialties. Methods: Firstly, specific tasks in the hospital guidelines were monitored for all surgical procedures during one week. Secondly, workshops including table simulations involving the various professions and specialties were held. Results: In total, 314 surgical procedures were performed of which 196 were eligible for analysis. Emergency procedures showed the poorest results with non-completed tasks comprising 58% of electronic patient management system tasks, 26% of anaesthesia record tasks, 24% of medication tasks, 14% of blood test tasks and 12% of patient record tasks. In two workshops held for each of four specialties, a total of 21 participants mapped the preoperative patient journey with related responsibilities, tasks and written documentation. Furthermore, challenges and suggestions for solutions were identified. Conclusions: Completion of mandatory tasks for surgical patient preparation was poor. Workshops with table simulations actively involved the stakeholders from various professions and specialties in describing the patient trajectory and mandatory tasks according to hospital guidelines in addition to identifying challenges and solutions for improvement. Funding: none. Trial registration: not relevant.
Article
BACKGROUND Previous data suggest that direct pharmacist interaction with patients through medication reconciliation, discharge counseling, and postdischarge phone calls decreases the number of adverse drug events (ADEs) and plays an overall positive role in transitional care. Previous studies have evaluated pharmacist involvement in improving transitional care, but these studies did not include multiple postdischarge follow-up phone calls.OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of pharmacist involvement in transitions of care as measured by decreased medication errors (MEs) and ADEs, patients' knowledge related to communication about their medications as measured by improvement in the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores, and 30-day all-cause inpatient readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits.METHODS This was a prospective, randomized, single-period longitudinal study that occurred from November 2012 through June 2013 at an urban, tertiary, academic medical center. Patients admitted to 2 designated internal medicine units on high-risk medications or with greater than 3 prescription medications upon discharge were included for randomization. The control group received the usual hospital standard of care. The study group received face-to-face medication reconciliation, a patient-specific pharmaceutical care plan, discharge counseling, and postdischarge phone calls on days 3, 14, and 30 to provide education and assess study endpoints.RESULTSA total of 278 patients were included in the final analysis, with 141 in the control group and 137 in the study group. Fifty-five patients (39%) in the control arm experienced an inpatient readmission or ED visit within 30-days postdischarge compared to 34 patients (24.8%) in the study arm (P = 0.01). Eighteen patients (12.8%) in the control group experienced an ADEs or MEs compared to 11 patients (8%) in the study group (P > 0.05). The HCAHPS scores during the study period showed a 9% improvement for the assessed questionnaire domain (P > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that pharmacist involvement in hospital discharge transitions of care had a positive impact on decreasing composite inpatient readmissions and ED visits. Statistically significant difference in medication-related events and HCAHPS scores were not observed. Patients with moderately complex medication regimens benefited from a continuity of care involving a pharmacy team during transitions in care. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2015;1. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2015. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine
Article
Decisions made by front-line ambulance staff are often time critical and based on limited information, but wrong decisions in this context could have serious consequences for patients. There has been little research carried out in the ambulance service setting to identify areas of risk associated with decisions about patient care. Aim The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine potential system-wide influences on decision-making in the ambulance service setting and to identify useful areas for future research and intervention. Methods We used a multisite, multimethod qualitative approach across three ambulance service trusts. In phase 1 we carried out 16 interviews to contextualise the study and provide discussion points for phase 2. For phase 2, university and ambulance service researchers observed paramedics on 34 shifts and 10 paramedics completed ‘digital diaries’ that reported challenges to decision-making or to patient safety. Six focus groups were held, three with staff ( n = 21) and three with service users ( n = 23). From observation and diary data we developed a typology of decisions made at the scene. Data from these and other sources were also coded within a human factors framework and then thematically analysed to identify influences on those decisions. In phase 3, workshops were held at each site to allow participants and stakeholders ( n = 45) to comment on the study findings. Participants were asked to rank influences on decisions using a ‘paired comparison’ method. Results Interviews provided the context for further qualitative exploration. Nine types of decision were identified from observations and digital diaries, ranging from emergency department conveyance and specialist emergency pathways to non-conveyance. A synthesis of findings from the observations, diaries and staff focus groups revealed seven overarching system influences on decision-making and potential risk factors: meeting increasing demand for emergency care; impacts of performance regime and priorities on service delivery; access to appropriate care options; disproportionate risk aversion; education, training and professional development for crews; communication and feedback to crews; and ambulance service resources. Safety culture issues were also identified. Data from the service user focus groups reflected similar issues to those identified from the staff focus groups. Service user concerns included call handling and communication, triage, patient involvement in decisions, balancing demand, resources, access to care, risk aversion, geographical location and vulnerable patients. Group discussions highlighted a lack of awareness by the public of how best to use emergency and urgent care services. Workshop attendees were satisfied that the findings reflected relevant issues. The two issues ranked highest for warranting attention were staff training and development and access to alternative care. Conclusions Multiple qualitative methods allowed a range of perspectives to be accessed and validation of issues across perspectives. Recommendations for future research include exploring effective ways of providing access to alternative care pathways to accident and emergency, assessing public awareness and expectations of ambulance and related services, exploring safe ways of improving telephone triage decisions and assessing the effects of different staff skill levels on patient safety. Funding The National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research programme.
Article
Shared decision-making (SDM), a collaborative process in which patients and providers make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient's values and preferences, is being increasingly advocated as the optimal approach to decision-making for many health care decisions. The rapidly paced and often chaotic environment of the emergency department (ED), however, is a unique clinical setting that offers many practical and contextual challenges. Despite these challenges, in a recent survey emergency physicians reported there to be more than one reasonable management option for over 50% of their patients and that they take an SDM approach in 58% of such patients. SDM has also been selected as the topic on which to develop a future research agenda at the 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Shared Decision-making in the Emergency Department: Development of a Policy-relevant Patient-centered Research Agenda" (http://www.saem.org/annual-meeting/education/2016-aem-consensus-conference). In this paper the authors describe the conceptual model of SDM as originally conceived by Charles and Gafni and highlight aspects of the model relevant to the practice of emergency medicine. In addition, through the use of vignettes from the authors' clinical practices, the applicability of SDM to contemporary EM practice is illustrated and the ethical and pragmatic implications of taking an SDM approach are explored. It is hoped that this document will be read in advance of the 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, to facilitate group discussions at the conference. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Article
Emergency Caesarean section is performed when the life of the pregnant woman and/or the foetus is considered at risk. A 30-min standard for the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) is a common practice and is supported by national organisations including The Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Danish obstetric departments report the DDI to a national database. A national arbitrarily set standard recommends that 95% of ECSs should be achieved within the 30-min DDI standard. In 2011, 34.4% of ECSs, performed at our hospital, were achieved within the 30-min time frame. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a simulation-based team training programme on the proportion of ECSs achieved within a 30-min time frame. We performed an interventional before-and-after study. We evaluated a total of one hundred 30-min ECSs before and after the intervention. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of 30-min ECSs achieved within a 30-min time frame. A total of 20 team training courses were held during May/June 2013. These courses trained 239 of 252 team members (comprised of: 36 obstetricians, 45 scrub nurses, 83 midwifes, 38 anaesthesiologists, 37 nurse anaesthetists) in handling of 30-min ECS. This corresponds to 95% of staff. The proportion of 30-min ECSs achieved within a 30-min time frame was higher after team training (87.5%, 95% CI 79.2-93.4%) compared with before training (74.0%, 95% CI 64.0-82.4%) (P = 0.017). Team training may contribute positively to an increase in the proportion of ECSs achieved within a 30-min time frame. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Article
Following the global economic recession, health care systems have experienced intense political pressure to contain costs without compromising quality. One response is to focus on improving the continuity and coordination of care, which is seen as beneficial for both patients and providers. However, cultural and structural barriers have proved difficult to overcome in the quest to provide integrated care for entire populations. By holding groups of providers responsible for the health outcomes of a designated population, in the United States, Accountable Care Organizations are regarded as having the potential to foster collaboration across the continuum of care. They could have a similar role in England's National Health Service. However, it is important to consider the difference in context before implementing a similar model, adapted to suit the system's strengths. Working together, general practice federations and the Academic Health Science Networks could form the basis of accountable care in England. © The Author(s) 2015.
Article
In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. ContextIn 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations. IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. FindingsDrawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their work around them.