Invasive Alien Fauna of Nepal: Current
Situation and Future Perspectives
Prem Bahadur Budha1,*
1Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University
*Corresponding author, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Invasive alien species (IAS) occur in all major taxonomic groups such as micro-organisms, fungi, plants,
invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. These species are introduced either
accidentally or intentionally by human agencies. The established IAS in non-native range are being a serious
global issue. Although invasion by alien species has been considered as one of the major conservation
threats, scientific studies based on systematic approach are still lacking in Nepal particularly for fauna. Wide
ranges of fauna are already introduced in Nepal including livestock breeds, wild mammals, birds, fish,
molluscs, insects and freshwater prawn. This paper includes altogether 69 species of alien fauna of Nepal
comprising insects (21 species), freshwater prawn (one species), platyhelminths (one species), fish (16
species), wild mammals (2 species), birds (3 species), and livestock breeds (25 improved breeds). Among
reported alien species some species are member of top 100 dangerous invasive species of the world,
some are serious pests of crops, vegetables and fruits and some are biocontrol agents such as predators,
parasitoids, leaf minors, as well as some commercially exploited species such as silkworm, honey bees, fish
and livestock breeds.
Keywords: Alien, invasive species, fish, pests, snail, slug, insect.
Species which are introduced outside their natural
distribution range are known as alien. There are
several terminologies have been used for alien
species such as exotic species, introduced species,
non-native species, non-indigenous species and
invasive species. But not all alien species are
invasive but some of them have been established as
invasive, start competing with native species causing
a negative impact on local species, ecosystems and
habitats. Biological invasions by non-indigenous
species (NIS) are widely recognized as a significant
component of human-caused global environmental
change, often resulting in a significant loss in the
economic value, biological diversity and function
of invaded ecosystems (Humle, 2003). Invasive
alien species (IAS) belong to all major taxonomic
groups such as micro-organisms, fungi, plants,
invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and
mammals (Fig. 1 and 2) comprising highest number
of animal species of “100 world’s worst IAS” (Lowe
et al., 2000). Mostly all these IAS are introduced
by human agencies either accidentally with trading
goods or intentionally in the form of commodities
such as livestock, pets, nursery stock, and produce
from agriculture and forestry (McNeely et al.,
2001). Invasive species are the global concern due
to economic and biodiversity loss across the world.
A study result of six countries (Australia, Brazil,
India, South Africa, United Kingdom and United
States) alone estimated 120,000 alien species in
these countries causing economic loss of $ 314
billion every year (Pimentel et al., 2001).
In comparison to alien plant species of Nepal,
alien fauna are poorly investigated and relatively
neglected. Budha (2013) produced the first
preliminary documentation on invasive alien fauna
of Nepal and provided the first hand information
about 27 aliens species including one species of
crustacean, seven species of insects, nine species
of molluscs, nine species of fish and one species
of bird, however many more species need to be
explored to produce the complete list of animal
alien species. Nevertheless, there is a complete gap
of information on the impacts of introduced faunal
aliens and their invasive nature in Nepal.
This paper provides a baseline data on the
introduced alien and invasive fauna of Nepal and
briefly discusses the potential impacts of worst
invasive species on native biodiversity and human
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The work is primarily based on the best available
published information and field observations
made by author. All non-native species were
collected from journal articles, books and reports.
Native ranges of species were verified and year
of introduction in Nepal for each species were
No of species
Figure 1. Major groups of IAS among “100 world’s worst
invasive alien species” (Lowe et al., 2000). Figure 2. Proportion
of animal species among the most dangerous 100 IAS of the
included wherever data were available. The most
dangerous invasive species of world tallied with
the list of Nepalese fauna and their impacts are
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Alien and Invasive Animal Species
Introduced in Nepal
Alien species in this paper includes livestock breeds,
wild mammals and birds, fish, insects, molluscs and
helminthes. Invasive species among all known alien
animal species have been identified. All alien species
are grouped under separate heading as follows;
Introduced Livestock Breeds
Livestock raising is a fundamental component of the
farming systems of Nepal which provides draught
power for tilling farmland and transporting goods,
wool, and meat besides manuring field crops and
nourishing the farmer. It has been the second
major economic activity substantially contributing
to household income through sale of cattle, sheep,
goat and sheep for meat and milk products. The
emphasis has been given to the improved livestock
breeds to increase national production. Table 1
shows the important livestock breeds introduced in
Table 1. Improved livestock breeds
introduced in Nepal
Livestock Year of
1. Jersey 1840s UK
2. Holeistin 1950s EU
3. Brown Swiss 1950s Switzerland
4. Haryana 1964 India
5. RD Sindhi 1950s India
6. Tharparkar 1950s India
7. SiriBuffalo 1950s India
8. Murrha Unknown India
9. Jamunapari 1920s India
10. Barberi 1930s India
11. Shannan 1970s Israel
12. Bengal black India
13. Corriedale 1940s UK
14. Merino 1950s
15. Pollwarth 1950s
16. Rambuillet 1950s Europe
17. Landrace 1950s
18. Hampshire 1950s Europe
19. Yorkshire 1950s USA
20. Duroc 1950s
Chicken, Turkey birds
21. New hamshire 1940s USA
22. White leghorn 1940s USA
23. Austrolorp 1970s Australia
24. Giri Raj
25. Turkey bird 2001
Source: Shah (2010)
Wild Mammals and Birds
Alpaca Vicugna pacos (Mammalia:
Artiodactyla: Camelidae): Five alpacas,
native to south America (Andes of southern Peru,
northern Bolivia and Chile) were first brought by air
cargo of Lufthansa jet in 1997 (Subedi, 2000). The
commercial farming of alpaca has been started for
high quality wool in Godavari, Lalitpur district.
Russian Wild Boar Sus scrofa scrofa
(Mammalia: Artiodactyle: Suidae): There
are 20 subspecies of wild boar divided into four
major subspecies groups based on their relative
lengths and shapes of the lacrimal bones these
are: Western race (scrofa group), Indian race
(crystatus group), Eastern race (leucomystax group)
and Sundaic race (vittatus group). The native wild
boar of Nepal belongs to cristatus group but the
introduced wild boar belongs to scrofa group.
The exact date of its introduction in Nepal is not
yet properly documented. The available report
indicates that it was released in Shivapuri National
Park in 1980s (HMG/N, 1995). It is believed that
the late King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah brought
this species as a gift from Russia and released in
Shivapuri National Park which is different with native
wild boar by brown colour, but the native species is
black (Chalise, 2013). Unless tracing out the official
records or evidences, this wild boar was probably
reared in the Royal palace before the King’s death in
1972 and released in Shivapuri later. Chalise (2013)
also pointed out that the introduced species have
been spread in hills from east to west, however, it is
still matter of investigation whether the introduced
species is restricted within Shivapuri area or spread
to other parts of the country. This is the most
problematic wild animal in Shivapuri National Park
(=Nagarjun-Shivapuri National Park) responsible of
human wildlife conflict.
Ostrich Stuthio camelus (Aves:
Struthioniformes: Struthionidae): The ostrich
is the largest and flightless bird native to Africa. It
was introduced from Australia in Nepal in 2009
(www.ostrichnepal.com). The commercial
farming of Ostrich has been started in Gangoliya,
Rupandehi for its egg, meat, feathers and leather.
The farming is now extended to Dang district.
Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae (Aves:
Struthioniformes: Dromaiidae): The Emu, soft
feathered and flightless bird which is second largest
extant bird in the world. It is native to Australia.
It has been recently introduced in Nepal for
Budgerigar Melopsittacus sp. (Psittaciformes:
Psittaculidae)- Budgerigars are common pet
parakeets, which have been illegally traded in
Kathmandu. These birds were seen in home
garden in Kathmandu in 1992 but there are no
subsequent reports in Nature (per. commun.
The exact number of exotic fish species in Nepal
varies according to different authors ranging from
8 to 11 (Shrestha, 1994, 2013; Sharma, 2008),
however, the list of the most of the aquarium
species have not yet been updated. Based on the
database available in web site of Fishbase (www.
fishbase.org), there are altogether 238 species of
fish have been reported from Nepal including 16
introduced species, 4 endemic species, 178 native
species and doubtful occurrence of 38 species.
Some of the introduced fishes viz. Clarias batrachus,
Gambusia affinis erroneously considered as native
by some authors (Shrestha, 2013; Sharma 2008).
The list of exotic fish species of Nepal are included
in Table 2.
Table 2. Exotic fish species of Nepal
Order: Family: Zoological name Common name Origin Introduced year
ORDER: ANGUILIFORMES, Family: Clariidae
1. Clarias batrachus Philippine Catfish Indonesia Unknown
2. Clarias gariepinus African Catfish Africa 1996-97
ORDER: CYPRINIFORMES, Family: Cyprinidae
3. Barbonymus gonionotus Silver Barb SE-Asia Unknown
4. Ctenopharyngodon idella Chinese Grass Carp China 1965/66
5. Cyprinus carpio Common Carp E-Asia 1979
6. Cyclocheilichthys apogon Beardless Barb
7. Hypophthalmys molitrix Silver Carp China 1967/68
8. Hypophthalmys nobilis Big-head Carp China 1971
9. Carassius auratus Gold Fish E-Asia Unknown
10. Carassius carassius Crucian Carp Europe Unknown
ORDER: CYPRIONODONTIFORMES, Family: Poecilidae
11. Gambusia affinis Mosquito Fish N America 1994
ORDER: PERCIFORMES, Family: Cichlidae
12. Oreochromis mossambicus Mozambique Tilapia Africa 1985
13. Oreochromis niloticus Nile Tilapia Africa 1985
ORDER: SALMONIFORMES: Family; Salmonidae
14. Onychorynchus mykiss Rainbow Trout N America 1971, 1988
15. Onychorynchus rhodurus The Biwa Trout Japan 1975
16. Salmo trutta Brown Trout Europe 1969
Source: Shrestha (1994, 2013); Gurung et al. (1994), Rai et al. (2003, 2005), Sharma (2008), Bista et al. (2011), www.fishbase.org
(Accessed 7 May 2014)
Insects, Non-insect Arthropods and
Exotic species of insects and non-insect
invertebrates are the most neglected groups and
the information on how many species of alien
and invasive species occur in Nepal are not yet
documented properly. Many species have been
established as pests causing serious problems in
agriculture viz. The Potato Tuber Moth (PTM)
Phthorimaea operculella, The San José Scale
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (=Diaspidiotus
perniciosus), The Leucaena Psyllid Heteropsylla
cubana and The African Giant Land Snail
Lissachatina fulica. The list of introduced species of
arthropods and molluscs are given in table 3 and 4.
Table 3. List of Alien and invasive species of Arthropods in Nepal
Order/Family/Zoological Name Common Name Introduced in Nepal
CLASS: CRUSTACEA, ORDER: DECAPODA, Family: Palaemonidae – Freshwater Prawn
1. Macrobrachium rosenbergii Giant Freshwater Prawn≠1986, 1999
CLASS: INSECTA: ORDER: DIPTERA: Family: Agromyzidae - Leaf minor
2. Liriomyza huidobrensis S-American Leaf Minor** Unknown
Family: Tephritidae - Fruit flies, gall fly
3. Dacus (Didacus) ciliatus Ethiopean Melon Fly** 1978
4. Carpomya vesuviana Fruit Fly** Unknown
5. Carpomya pardalinia Baluchistan Melon Fly** Unknown
6. Bactrocera (Paratridacus) diversa Guava Fruit Fly ** Unknown
7. Bactrocera (Daculus) oleae Olive Fruit Fly** Unknown
8. Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) caudate Fruit Fly** Reported in 1976
9. Procecidochares utilis Gall Fly* 1963 from New Zealand
ORDER: HOMOPTERA, Family: Aphididae – Aphids
10. Ceratovacuna lanigera Sugarcane Wooly Aphid (SWA)** Unknown
11. Eriosoma lanigerum Wooly Apple Aphid (WAA)** 1962
Family: Diaspididae - Scale insect
12. Quadraspidiotus pernicious San Jose Scale** 1962 from India
Family: Margarodidae - Cushion scale insect
13. Icerya purchase Cottony Cushion Scale** Unknown
Family: Psyllidae - Psyllids
14. Heteropsylla cubana Ipil-ipil (Leucaena) Psyllid** 1987
ORDER: COLEOPTERA, Family: Chrysomelidae
15. Zygogramma bicolorata Parthenium Defoliator*
ORDER: HYMENOPTERA, Family Braconidae – Parasitoids
16. Apanteles subandinus PTM Parasitoid* 2009-10
17. Orgilus Lepidus PTM Parasitoid* 2009-10
18. Copidosoma koehleri PTM Parasitoid* 2009-10
19. Apis mellifera European honey bee≠
ORDER: LEPIDOPTERA, Family: Bombycidae
20. Bombyx mori The silworm≠
21. Phthorimaea operculella PTM 1966 from India
Source: Kapoor & Malla (1978, 1979), Joshi (2004); Kapoor (2005), Sharma and Subba (2005), CABI (2009), FAO (2009),
Shrestha (2011), Budha (2013). Note: * Biocontrol agents, ** pests, ≠ Commercially exploited species
There are nine species of alien molluscs reported
from Nepal, however origin of Gulella bicolor is
still doubtful. African Giant Land Snail Lissachatina
fulica is well established in almost all Tarai districts
and some mid hill districts of Nepal (Budha and
Naggs, 2008) which is becoming a serious pest of
vegetables. The presence of another serious pest
of rice Pomacea canaliculata is not yet confirmed
however this species is already established in India,
China, Sri Lanka and SE Asian countries and shape
and size is similar with native species Pila globosa but
the further work is needed to confirm the status of
Table 4. List of alien and invasive species of molluscs in Nepal
Order/Family/Zoological Name Common Name Origin Introduced in
CLASS: GASTROPODA, ORDER: STYLOMMATOPHORA- Terrestrial snails and slugs
1. Lissachanina fulica African Giant Land Snail 1930s-40s
2. Gulella bicolor Two-toned gulella Unkown
3. Deroceras leave The Marsh Slug Unknown
Order: Systelommatophora, Family : Veronicelidae
4. Laevicaulis alte The Veronicellid Slug Unknown
5. Pomacea canaliculata The Golden Apple Snail Not confirmed
6. Filopaludina sumatrensis Unknown
7. Pseudosuccinea columella Unknown
8. Planorbarious corneous Unknown
9. Viviparus sp. Unknown
Source: Budha and Naggs (2008), Irikov and Beckev (2011)
Helminth: Terrestrial flat worm Platydemus
manokwari is reported from Langtang National
Park and Nagarjun-Shivapuri National Park. Further
analysis of this species is needed.
Commercialized Alien Fauna
The Silkworm Bombyx mori: The silkworm
is native to China which has been introduced
throughout the world for the commercial
production of silk. It is now entirely domesticated
and not known in the wild state. Among the
commercialized insects, subspecies of European
honey bee Apis mellifera ligustica introduced in
1990 and later another sub species carnica was
introduced but not successful. Similarly Bombyx mori
was introduced 1911, 40, 50s in Nepal but the
commercial farming started only after 1967.
The European Honey Bee Apis mellifera:
It is native to Europe. This European species has
been introduced in Hindukush- Himalayan region
for getting high yields of honey. Introduction of
Apis mellifera in Asia have encountered a number
of problems such as the inter-species transmission
of bee pests and diseases (Ahmad et al., 2004).
Robbing behaviour is the interspecific relations
between introduced A. mellifera and native Apis
cerana which displace the later one.
Fish species: Fish is the major source of protein
for fisher communities depending on capture fishery
for livelihood. Fisheries sector contributed over
0.94 % in national GDP and 2.72 % in AGDP with
a growth rate of 6.3% (Mishra and Upadhyaya,
2011). Therefore, fisheries and aquaculture is a
priority sector of government of Nepal. To boost
up the fish production in Nepal many introduced
species viz. Rainbow trout, Carps, tilapia, catfish
have been commercially exploited in different parts
in Nepal in ponds, natural lakes, reservoirs and cold
water river streams.
The Most Dangerous Invasive Fauna
Introduced in Nepal
The African Giant Land Snail Lissachatina
This species is also known as Achatina fulica. It
is a member among 100 of the world’s worst
invasive alien species. It is native to East Africa but
introduced throughout the world. A single pair
of this snail was released in Culcutta by a British
malacologist William Henry Benson in 1847 (Naggs,
1997). Probably the existing populations of this
species in S and SE Asia belong to the single pair
which has spread by the end of 1930s throughout
South and South East Asian countries to Australia
(Raut and Barker, 2002). Although the exact date
of its arrival in Nepal is not known, it was likely
entered to Nepal during 1930s-1940s in eastern
Nepal (Budha and Naggs, 2008; Raut, 1999).
Now, it has already been established in all districts
of Tarai region including hill districts such as Kaski,
Parbat, Baglung, Gulmi, Syangjha, Palpa, Surkhet,
Chitwan, Dhading, Myagdi and Dang. It is a serious
pest of crops, vegetables and fruits in most of the
established areas. The main cause of its dispersal in
Nepal is due to human agency. The rate of spread
is very rapid and some people, regarding it as a
Chank shell, an important Hindu religious symbol
of worship, unwittingly carry it to their homes.
Specimens subsequently released into traditional
home gardens rapidly become major pests, feeding
on garden produce (Budha and Naggs, 2008).
The Golden Apple Snail Pomacea
This is a freshwater mollusc native to South
America but has been spread widely through the
aquarium trade and as food value (Watanabe et
al., 2000; Mordan et al., 2003). It is already spread
in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Vietnam, Thailand
and Australia (Joshi, 2005). It is a serious pest of
paddies where it eats the shoots of rice seedlings.
This species has not yet been reported from Nepal.
Probably, it has been already introduced in Nepal
and has been considered as the native species Pila
globosa due to similar colour pattern and same shell
size (Budha, 2013). It can be distinguished from P.
globosa due to golden-brown colour, thin, horny
operculum and characteristic bright pink egg mass.
The Mosquito Fish
This is small larvivorous fish native to southern parts
of Illinois and Indiana, throughout the Mississippi
River and its tributary waters, to as far south as
the Gulf Coast in the northeastern parts of Mexico
(Krumholz, 1944). It has been introduced in several
countries in the world to control mosquito larvae.
Although the exact date of the introduction in Nepal
is not known, it was first reported by Shrestha
(1994) in Bagmati river, Kathmandu. But there are
no subsequent reports of this species in other part
of Nepal. The existence of this species in Nepal is
doubtful. The mosquito fish is a small, harmless-
looking fish native to the fresh waters of the eastern
and southern United States. It has become a pest
in many waterways around the world following
initial introductions early last century as a biological
control of mosquito. In general, it is considered
to be no more effective than native predators of
mosquitoes. The highly predatory mosquito fish
eats the eggs of economically desirable fish and
preys on and endangers rare indigenous fish and
Out of about 70 known species of Tilapia (all
native to Africa), 10 species have been used for
aquaculture (ADB, 2005). Two species of Tilapia in
culture practices in Nepal are O. mossambicus and
O. niloticus. The previous one is listed among the
worst invasive species of the world. In Nepal it has
also released in large natural lakes such as Phewa,
Begnas, Rupa lakes of Pokhara valley, Indrasarobar
and other parts.
Clarias batrachus, a air breathing catfish, native to SE
Asia (Indonesia), is another member of the world’s
worst invasive species. It is introduced in several
part of the world including Nepal. Another catfish
is C. garipenius, which is native to Africa is also
commercialized in Nepal. It has been reported in
the natural river system in eastern Nepal, tributaries
of Tamor river (Sharma, 1999).
Rainbow and Brown trout: Rainbow trout
is a coldwater carnivorous fish that feed upon
aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, eggs and larvae
of native fishes and other fish fry. It is native to
Pacific coast of North America and the Kamchatka
Peninsula. It has been introduced to 87 countries
worldwide (Welcomme, 1992) as commercial
table and game fish. In Nepal, it is highly prioritized
species for commercial purpose but it is also listed
in the worst invasive species of the world (Lowe
et al., 2000). Both of above trout, Rainbow and
Brown have negative impacts on local biodiversity
in the established areas (Kitano, 2004). These two
species have been successfully established in rivers
and streams in Japan and Himachal Pradesh, NW
India (Kitano, 2004, http://hpfisheries.gov.in). They
are reportedly forced the native fish species to shift
their foraging habitats in picking benthic insects from
the streambed and the biomass and responsible in
reducing prey species by 75 % (Fausch et al., 1997;
Nakano et al., 1999).
Terrestrial Flatworm Platydemus manokwari
The terrestrial flat worm P. manokwari is listed as
the 100 most dangerous invasive species in the
world feeding upon native snails and earthworms
in introduced areas. Terrestrial molluscs are the
principal prey in the field (Justine et al., 2014). It
was confined to the Indo-Pacific region within the
bounds of the Ogasawara Islands, Japan in the
north; near Mackay in Queensland, Australia to the
south; French Polynesia to the east; with the most
westerly extent of the flatworm in the Maldives
(Justine et al., 2014). It has been accidentally
introduced, probably together with plants and soil,
to various islands in the Pacific region including
Australia, Guam, Palau, Hawaii, Federated States of
Micronesia, French Polynesia, and Samoa. It prefers
wet and humid conditions. The possible threshold
temperature for the establishment of P. manokwari
is 10°C (Sugiura, 2009). It is recently reported
from the national parks of Nepal in Langtang
National Park and Nagarjun-Shivapuri National
Park. It is still not known how it is introduced in
these areas. Unless the further investigation on
molecular taxonomic studies to confirm its status, it
is provisionally identified as P. manokwari based on
the morphological characters.
Impacts of Invasive Species
Every alien species that becomes established alters
the composition of native biological communities
in some way. The ecological impact of the loss of
biodiversity due to IAS depends to a large extent
on the link between native species (McNeely et al.,
2001). Although impact analyses of invasive species
have not yet been carefully studied in Nepal,
some reports clearly indicate that invasive species
play destructive role in natural ecosystem and
human economy. It was reported that 42 percent
reduction of the native fishes in Begnash lake,
Pokhara after the introduction of Bighead Carp,
Silver Carp and Grass Carp (Swar and Gurung,
1988). More than seven species have been
vanished from Indrasarobar (Swar, 1992) and only
two native fish species Neolissocheilus hexagonolepis
and Nazirator chelynoides are left (Saud and
Shrestha, 2007). Invasion of this fish in Yamuna
river eat detritus, filamentous and cellular algae,
zooplankton, fish, insects. It is spread to Godavari,
Krishna, Cauveri, Yamuna and Ganga river in India
(Ganie et al., 2013). In high altitude mountains the
rainbow trout farming is considered one of the
successful technologies in Nepal (Gurung, 2008)
without noticing of its voracious nature of predation
on natural aquatic fauna if released into natural
water bodies. Local breeds such as Achhame, Lulu
cows are in threat and most of the hill cows in
eastern part of Nepal have been replaced by Siri
The insect pest species are major problems in
agricultural productivity by reducing significant loss
of yield for example the PTM is an introduced
species which causes 30-85% losses of stored
potato and the standing crop (Joshi, 1989; Lal,
1998; Chandla and Verma, 1998; Chandel and
Chandla, 2005), often reached to 100% during
heavy infestation if control measures are not
applied (Das, 1992; NPRP, 2004/05; SSMP, 2008).
Liriomyza huidobrensis is a serious pest for the
floriculture industry where leaf-miner damage
directly affects the marketable portion or in
vegetable crops where the leaves are sold as the
edible part, i.e. spinach, beet greens, Asian greens,
lettuce and leeks.
Altogether 68 species of alien species have been
reported in this paper including 20 species of
insects including commercial insects, pests and
biocontrol agents (predator, parasitoid, defoliator,
gall insect), one freshwater prawn, one species of
platyhelminths, 16 species of fish, 2 species of wild
mammals, 3 species of birds, and 25 species of
livestock breeds. Out of all reported alien species
8 species are the most dangerous species of the
world listed in the top 100 invasive species of the
world among which existence of Mosquito fish
Gambusia affinis and its distribution in Nepal is
yet to be verified. Likewise doubtful presence of
another species the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea
canaliculata is yet to be proved taxonomically.
In comparison to the invasive plant species, their
distribution pattern, impact studies have been
comparatively better studied than animal species.
Some of the invasive species causes serious loss of
crop yield such as Lissachatina fulica, Phthorimaea
operculella and Liriomyza huidobrensis, impact
assessments of most of invasive species in Nepal
are still to be performed. Documentation of all
alien and invasive animal species, their distribution
mapping, impacts studies are urgently required
to overcome the negative ecological impacts and
economic as well as biodiversity loss of the country.
ADB. 2005. An impact evaluation of the
developments of genetically improved farmed tilapia
and their dissemination in selected countries. Asian
Development Bank. p.124.
Ahmad, F., Pratap, U., Joshi, S.R. and Gurung, M.B.
2004. Indigenous honeybees: allies for mountain
farmers. Leisa Magazine, pp. 12-13.
Bista, J.D., Shrestha, B.K., Baidya, A.P., Prasad,
S., Nepal, A.P. and Wagle, S.K. 2011. Spawning
performance and post spawning mortality of
Chinese carp broods reared in ponds of mid-hill
region: In: T.B. Gurung, P.K. Pokharel, C.R. Upreti,
B.R. Joshi, S.M. Pradhan and S. K. Wagle (eds.),
Proceedings of the 8th National Workshop on livestock
and fisheries Research, Nepal Agricultural Research
Council, pp. 55-59.
Budha, P.B. 2013. Invasive alien species: Animals:
In: Biological diversity and conservation (eds.) P.K. Jha,
F.P. Neupane, M.L. Shrerstha and I.P. Khanal. Nepal
Academy of Science and Technology, Khumaltar,
Lalitpur. Nepalpedia series 2, pp. 389-395.
Budha, P.B. and Naggs, F. 2008. The Giant African
Land Snail Lissachatina fulica (Bowdich) in Nepal.
The Malacologist 50: 19-21.
CABI Crop Protection Compendium 2009.
Quadraspidiotus perniciosus. Datasheet http://www.
Chalise, M.K. 2013. Wild Boars of Nepal (Nepalka
Jangali Bandelharu, in Nepali), RevoScience 3(7): 20-
Chandel, R.S. and Chandla V.K. 2005. Integrated
control of potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea
operculella) in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of
Agricultural Science 75: 837-39.
Chandla, V.K. and Verma, K.D. 1998. Potato tuber
moth and its management: Indian Experience. In:
International Potato Center Newsletter 2(1): 5-7.
Das, G.P. and K.V. Raman, 1994 Alternate host of
the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella
(Zeller). Crop protection 13: 83-86.
FAO. 2009. Global overview of forest pests and
diseases. FAO forestry paper 156, Rome, Italy.
Fausch, K.D., Nakano, S. and Kitano, S. 1997.
Experimentally induced foraging mode shift by
sympatric charrs in a Japanese mountain stream.
Behavioral Ecology, 8: 414-420.
Ganie, M.A., Bhat, M.D, Khan, M.I., Praveen, M.
Balkhi, M.H. and Malla, M.A. 2013. Invasion of
the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus
(Pisces: Cichlidae; Peters, 1852) in the Yamuna
river, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Ecology and the
Natural Environment 5(10): 310-317.
Gurung T.B. 2008. Proceedings of the workshop
on scaling-up of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) farming strategies in Nepal (Ed). Published
by: Fisheries Research Division, Godawari, Lalitpur,
Gurung, T.B., U. Silwal, L.S. Lama and K.B. Khatry.
1994. A study on multiple techniques of Common
Carp (Cyprinus carpio, Lin.) in year cycle. In:
Annual report 1993-94, Fishery Research Centre
HMG/N, 1995. Shivapuri management plan: A
policy framework for participatory management
of natural resources, protection and development
of the Shivapuri area, Kathmandu. His Majesty’s
Government of Nepal and Food and Agriculture
Humle, P.E. 2003. Biological invasions: Winning the
science battles but the losing the conservation war?
Oryx 37(2): 178-193.
Irikov, A. and Beckev, D. 2011. Five new
introduced snails species (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in
Nepal. Journal of Conchology 40(5): 575-576.
Joshi, S. L. 1989. Comparative life cycle of the
potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)
(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on potato tubers and
foliages and its economic loss in yield. Journal of
Entomological Society of Nepal 1: 59-69.
Joshi, R.C. 2005. Managing invasive alien mollusc
species in rice. In: International Rice Research Notes
30.2. 2005. Invasion of the alien mollusks. pp.
Joshi, S. L. 2004. Status of potato tuber moth,
Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera:
Gelechiidae) as an insect pest on potato crop and
its reaction on different varieties of stored potato.
Paper presented at the Fourth National Conference
on Science and Technology, 23-26 March 2004.
Kathmandu, Nepal. pp. 1-5.
Justine J, Winsor L, Gey D, Gros P, Thévenot
J. 2014. The invasive New Guinea flatworm
Platydemus manokwari in France, the first record for
Europe: time for action is now. PeerJ 2:e297 http://
Kapoor, V.C. and Malla, Y.K. 1978. The infestation
of the gall fruit fly, Procecidocharers utilis (Stone) on
Crofton weed, Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengel
in Kathmadu. The Indian Journal of Entomology 40:
Kapoor, V.C. and Malla, Y.K. 1979. Tephritids
(Diptera: Tephritidae) of Nepal and India(A
taxonomic review). Journal of the Bombay Natural
History Society, 75: 932.
Kapoor, V.C. 2005. Taxonomy and biology of
economically important fruit flies of India. Israel
Journal of Entomology 35-36: 459-475.
Kitano, S. 2004. Ecological impacts of Rainbow,
Brown and Brook Trout in Japanese inland waters,
Global Environment Research 8(1): 41-50.
Krumholz, L. 1944. Northward Acclimatization of
the Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis affinis.
Copeia 1944 (2): 82.
Lal, L. 1998. Role of primary infestation of potato
tuber moth on the damage in country stores. The
Journal of Indian Potato Association 25(1-2): 8-82.
Lowe S., Browne M., Boudjelas S., and De Poorter,
M. 2000. 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien
Species: a selection from the Global Invasive Species
Database. Published by The Invasive Species
Specialist Group (ISSG) a specialist group of the
Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the World
Conservation Union (IUCN), 12pp. [First published
as special lift-out in Aliens 12, December 2000].
Updated and reprinted version: November 2004.
McNeely, J.A., H.A. Mooney, L.E. Neville, P. Schei,
and J.K.Waagle (eds.) 2001. A Global Strategy on
Invasive Alien Species. IUCN Gland, Switzerland,
and Cambridge, UK. x + 50 pp.
Mishra, R. and Upadhyaya, K.K. 2011.
Opportunities, challenges and research needs in
fisheries and aquaculture. In: T.B. Gurung, P.K.
Pokharel, C.R. Upreti, B.R. Joshi, S.M. Pradhan and
S. K. Wagle (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th National
Workshop on livestock and fisheries Research, Nepal
Agricultural Research Council, pp. 83-89.
Mordan, P., Naggs, F., Ranawana, K. Kumburegama,
S., and Grimm, B. 2003. A guide to the pest and
Exotic gastropods of Sri Lanka. Natural History
Naggs, F. 1997. William Benson and the early study
of land snails in British India and Ceylon. Archives of
Natural History. 24: 37-88.
Nakano, S, Fausch, K.D. and Kitano, S.1999.
Flexible niche partitioning via a foraging mode shift:
a proposed mechanism for coexistence in stream-
dwelling charr. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68: 1079-
NPRP. 2004/05. Annual Report. National Potato
Research Program. NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur,
Nepal. p. 70.
Pimentel, D., McNair, S., Janecka, J., Wightman, J.,
C. Simmonds, C. O’Connell, E. Wong, L. Russel, J.
Zern, T. Aquino and T. Tsomondo 2001. Economic
and environmental threats of alien plant, animal,
and microbe invasions. Agriculture, Ecosystems &
Environment, 84(1): 1-20.
Rai, A.K., B.B. Maharjan, H.R. Shrestha, T.B.
Gurung and S.K. Wagle 2003. Recent trends and
current status of aquatic ecosystem and fisheries
in the Central Himalayan Region of Nepal. Paper
presented Global challenge program on water and
food 21-23 December 2003, Dhaka, Bangladesh).
Rai, A.K., Bhujel, R.C., Basnet, S.R. and Lamsal,
G.P. 2005. Rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss)
culture in the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal: A
Success story. Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural
Research Institution (APAARI), FAO Regional office
for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand.
Raut, S.K. 1999. The Giant African Land Snail
Achatina fulica Bowdich in Nepal and Bhutan.
Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 96:
Raut, S.K. and Barker, G.M. 2002. Achatina fulica
Bowdich and other Achatinidae as pests in tropical
agriculture. In: Molluscs as crop pests G.M Barker
(ed.), CAB International, pp 55-114.
Saud, T.B., and Shrestha, J. 2007. Fish and benthic
fauna in Kulekhani reservoir, Makwanpur. Nepal
Journal of Science and Technology 8: 63-68.
Shah, S.G. 2010. Livestock breeds of Nepal,
Sharma, C.M. 2008. Freshwater fishes, fisheries,
and habitat prospects of Nepal. Aquatic Ecosystem
Health & Management 11(3): 289-297.
Sharma, S. 1999. Pollution level of Nepalese water
resources. In: Nepal Nature’s Paradise. Hillside Press
Lt., Kathmandu, pp. 504-526.
Sharma, A. and Subba, B.R. 2005. General biology
of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium lamarrei (H.
Milne- Edwards) of Biratnagar, Nepal. Our Nature 3:
Shrestha, B.B. 2011. Status of Parthenium weed
and the Zygogramma beetle in Nepal. International
Parthenium News. January pp. 6-7.
Shrestha, J. 1994. Fishes, fishing implements and
methods of Nepal. Craftsman Press, Bangkok,
Shrestha, J. 2013. Biodiversity: Fish. In: Biological
diversity and conservation (eds.) P.K. Jha, F.P.
Neupane, M.L. Shrerstha and I.P. Khanal. Nepal
Academy of Science and Technology, Khumaltar,
Lalitpur. Nepalpedia series 2, pp. 69-81.
SSMP. 2008. Training books on major insects pest
and diseases of vegetables and their management,
HELVETAS, Kathmandu, Nepal. 131 p.
Subedi, S. 2000. Andean Ilamas in the Himalaya.
Nepali Times, Issue 15 (3 November-09
Sugiura, S. 2009. Seasonal fluctuation of invasive
flatworm predation pressure on land snails:
Implications for the range expansion and impacts of
invasive species. Biological Conservation 142: 3013-
Swar, D.B. 1992. Effect of impoundment on the
indigenous fish population in Indrasarobar reservoir,
Nepal. In: Proceedings of 2nd Asian reservoir fisheries
workshop held in Hangzhou (15-19 October, 1990),
People’s Republic of China (Ed. S.S. DeSilva).
Reservoir Fishery Management in Asia, Ottawa,
Swar D B; T B Gurung (1988) Introduction and
cage culture of exotic carps and their impact on
fish harvested in Lake Begnas, Nepal. Hydrobiologia
Watanabe, T., Tanaka K., Higuchi, H. Miyamoto,
K. Kiyonaga, T. Kiyota, H. Sizuki, Y. and Wada,
T. 2000. Emergence of the apple snail, Pomacea
canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae) after
irrigation in a paddy. Applied Entomology and
Zoology, 35(1): 75-79.
Welcomme, R.L. 1992. A history of international
introductions of inland aquatic species. ICES
(International Council for Exploitation of the Sea),
Marine Science Symposium, 194: 3-14.