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Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems: Situation awareness

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  • SA Technologies
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... Developing appropriate SA has been shown to be a mission-critical goal for human-robot teams (Evans 2012). Several conceptions of SA exist; the most popular is Endsley's (1995) information-processing-based model. The informationprocessing-based model suggests an individual's SA comprises three levels, each distinct from the others, yet cumulative in nature. ...
... The informationprocessing-based model suggests an individual's SA comprises three levels, each distinct from the others, yet cumulative in nature. These are Level 1: perception of elements within the environment; Level 2: comprehension of their meaning; and Level 3: projection of their status in the near future (Endsley 1995). ...
... PAC has been shown to relate to operator performance and SA on tasks that require attention focus and shifting of attention (Chen and Barnes 2012) and will be assessed using the Derryberry and Reed (2002) self-report survey. WMC differences have been shown to affect performance in multirobot supervisory tasks (Ahmed et al. 2014) and SA (Endsley 1995;Wickens and Holland 2000) and will be assessed using the automated reading span task (Redick et al. 2012;Unsworth et al. 2005). ...
Technical Report
This study examined the effects of communication style on human performance, trust, situation awareness, and perceptions of a robot in a human–robot team. In a 2 × 2 mixed-factor study, 32 participants conducted a simulated cordon-and-search-style task while teamed with a robot. Participants were assigned to a communication style (directive vs. nondirective; within) and both groups experienced periods of high versus low task load (among subjects). Results indicate task load was a greater influence on the participants’ task performance than communication style, although there were some differential effects on response time and workload due to communication style. This may be due to a difference in feedback inherent in the differing communication styles.
... Among the fields that can be advanced by AR is situation awareness [3]. Situation awareness, originally defined as "the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future" [3], is often applied to complex, high-stress situations such as the processing of information by an aircrew in the cockpit of an airliner. ...
... Among the fields that can be advanced by AR is situation awareness [3]. Situation awareness, originally defined as "the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future" [3], is often applied to complex, high-stress situations such as the processing of information by an aircrew in the cockpit of an airliner. ...
... However, AR games provide a low-risk environment in which a user's situational awareness can be assessed and computational tools to improve their awareness can be prototyped and tested. Ensley's original situation awareness model proposes 3 phases or levels of situational awareness: perception of the situation, comprehension of the perceived data, and projection of the situation into the future [3]. AR systems have a wealth of tools that can be used to perceive the situation in analog and digital spaces. ...
Preprint
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Augmented reality (AR) games are a rich environment for researching and testing computational systems that provide subtle user guidance and training. In particular computer systems that aim to augment a user's situation awareness benefit from the range of sensors and computing power available in AR headsets. In this work-in-progress paper, we present a new environment for research into situation awareness and attention guidance (SAAG): an augmented reality version of the board game Carcassonne. We also present our initial work in producing a SAAG pipeline, including the creation of game state encodings, the development and training of a gameplay AI, and the design of situation modelling and gaze tracking systems.
... Several industries like construction have adopted the idea of integrating the knowledge of repeated situation assessments to a coherent picture (Sarter and Woods, 1991). Situation assessments are complex and are limited by cognitive limitations of working memory and attentional capacity (Endsley, 1995). SA intends to help decision-making in a dynamic environment where data processing is limited by human cognition. ...
... SA intends to help decision-making in a dynamic environment where data processing is limited by human cognition. Endsley's (1995) three-level SA model is the most widely used. It consists of three categories: ...
... The project personnel used these three applications to understand takt planning, supply chain activities, and the locations of resources with comprehensive pictures of the status on site and documented activities for past weeks' work. This is the use of SA on category 2 in Endsley's (1995) three-level SA model. The indoor cameras covered two takt areas at the same time. ...
... Through the review of psychological principles and models, three frameworks for assessing evacuation systems were identified, i.e., the research strategy for developing and testing evacuation systems proposed by Nilsson (2009), Situation Awareness (Endsley, 1995) and the Theory of Affordances (Hartson, 2003). These frameworks were used, and combined, into a design strategy for considering behavioural aspects in evacuation designs with evacuation elevators, i.e., to fulfil research objective I. ...
... The only framework previously proposed to deal with the situation of elevator evacuation behaviour is an analytical approach based on Situation Awareness (SA) published by Groner (2009). The concept of Situation Awareness can be defined as "the accuracy with which people perceive, understand and anticipate changes in their environment that are relevant for achieving their goals" (Endsley, 1995). The concept of SA have previously been used to analyse decision-making in different stressful situations, such as pilots in military air crafts (Endsley, 1995) and pipeline emergency response (Groner & Jennings, 2012). ...
... The concept of Situation Awareness can be defined as "the accuracy with which people perceive, understand and anticipate changes in their environment that are relevant for achieving their goals" (Endsley, 1995). The concept of SA have previously been used to analyse decision-making in different stressful situations, such as pilots in military air crafts (Endsley, 1995) and pipeline emergency response (Groner & Jennings, 2012). SA has also been used to analyse suitable evacuation systems in single tube road tunnels (Frantzich et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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As tall buildings and deep underground structures around the world increase in both numbers and complexity, the issues with evacuation of such structures, e.g., fatigue during evacuation or difficulties for people with functional limitations to evacuate, become more prominent. Elevator evacuation could be a possible solution to these matters but in order for such elevators to be an effective solution for evacuation, they have to be used by the evacuees. Thus, the human behaviour aspects of elevator evacuation, such as willingness to use the elevators and accepted waiting times, are crucial for their effectiveness. The current research aims to increase the knowledge of these aspects in order to improve the possibility to utilise elevator evacuation in buildings and other structures. To achieve this, three different experiments were conducted using different experimental methods and performed in different settings (i.e., high-rise buildings and a virtual underground metro station) to collect human behaviour data on elevator evacuation. The results show that even though there is a general reluctancy towards the use of elevators in a hypothetical evacuation scenario, most people tried to use an elevator to exit in a unnannounced evacuation scenario in a high-rise hotel building. In experiments performed in a virtual underground metro station, the willingness to use evacuation elevators was significantly increased by technical systems, such as information and guidance systems. In a similar manner, longer waiting times were accepted when count-down timers were present above the elevators, showing how long the evacuees had to wait before an elevator would arrive. To help designers consider the uncertainties associated with the behavioural aspects of elevator evacuation, a design strategy is proposed. This strategy can be used when incorporating evacuation elevators in the evacuation design of a building, or other facility.
... Sensemaking also differs from the widely used concept of SA ( Endsley, 1995). SA is an individually achieved state of knowledge, based on the perception of elements in the environment and the comprehension of their meaning, which is used to make predictions about the future ( Endsley, 1995). ...
... Sensemaking also differs from the widely used concept of SA ( Endsley, 1995). SA is an individually achieved state of knowledge, based on the perception of elements in the environment and the comprehension of their meaning, which is used to make predictions about the future ( Endsley, 1995). In contrast, the study of sensemaking is about the process of achieving these kinds of outcomes. ...
... According to Endsley (1995) Situation Awareness (SA) is the act of detection of threat in the environment and relaying it back to the system administrator. Generally, the model for threat detection are classified into three sections which are the perception phase, comprehension phase and projection phase. ...
... Generally, situation awareness model designed for computer network was designed for threat detection. Situation awareness was firstly introduced by (Endsley, 1995) in his work, in which the model has three major phases which are perception phase, comprehension phase and projection phase. The proposed situation awareness model has the following sub-models. ...
... The diversity of information sources (e.g. sensors or emergency personnel) and the volume of information they supply, make it difficult to get a quick picture of the situation (Endsley, 1995). Additionally, incoming information may be noisy, uncertain, fragmentary, or difficult to confirm immediately (Comes et al., 2011). ...
... In this way, situation awareness can be enhanced. According to the most widely cited and accepted definition by Endsley (1995), situation awareness is defined as "the perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future". The essence of this definition is the division of situation awareness in three sequential levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. ...
Conference Paper
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Situation awareness is crucial for decision makers during an emergency. An efficient knowledge management can enhance situation awareness by providing information about the most relevant factors of the situation. Scenario analysis, based on morphological analysis, represents a structured method that can support the identification of such factors. Various studies based on this method have already been presented in the literature, e.g. as a method to strategically enhance disaster preparedness. In this paper, we introduce an approach that allows us to analyze current information in order to dynamically identify an emerging risk scenario. First, morphological analysis is applied to construct a scenario space. Second, in order to quantify the relations between scenario-factors, a Bayesian network model is implemented. For identification of the scenario, current information about the scenario-factors are needed. Information can be gathered from different sources, e.g. sensors or observations by emergency personnel and processed in the Bayesian network model to calculate the posterior probabilities of the parameters in the model. We illustrate the approach for risk scenario identification by applying it to an example in the context of emergency management. To conclude, we discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach as a knowledge management tool for enhancing situation awareness.
... Pre-service teachers require explicit opportunities to learn to 'notice' and TE programs should provide these opportunities (Sherin, Jacobs, & Philipp, 2011;van Es, 2011). The construct of noticing expands on Dirkin's (1983) work on cognitive tunneling and Endsley's (1995) focus on situation awareness. Attending to student thinking, interpreting student thinking, and deciding how to respond are the basic elements of noticing students' thinking . ...
Research Proposal
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I submitted this prosal at the time of PhD application under REMATH project at Stockholm University.
... In general, predictive situation awareness has three main elements (Endsley 1995 Here, the perception element consists of collecting and pre-processing data from the monitoring nodes including feature extraction and any dimensionality reduction. Comprehension is provided by the anomaly detection module supplying the current system status, and Projection is performed through anomaly forecasting. ...
... Olukorrateadlikkus on seotud inimese identiteedi, kogemuste, tähelepanu, mälu, emotsioonide ja palju muuga. Endsley väidab, et olukorrateadlikkus koosneb kolmest faasist: info kogumine, infost arusaamine ja prognoos (Endsley, 1995b). Endsley on olukorrateadlikkuse termini kasutuselevõtjana andnud ülevaate erinevatest võimalustest olukorrateadlikkuse mõõtmiseks, keskendudes olukorrateadlikkuse globaalse hindamise tehnikale (ingl situation awareness global assessment technique, SAGAT) (Endsley, 1995a). ...
... For example, the probability of a car fatality in the US is twice the probability of a fatality in N orway -this is due to the totality of the system -not that drivers in the US are so much worse. Endsley ( 1995) defines three levels of situation awareness: ...
... SA is a concept that describes a system's knowledge of its environment and current state. It is defined as "the perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the understanding of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future" [1]. ...
... The theory explained that corporate size which the turnover of the company and location of a system of voluntary compliance keeps the dynamic nature of the system (Ioannis et al., 2016). The knowledge of a system may have aided the decision of the taxpayers to voluntary comply with the tax law (Endsley 1995;Rani et al., 2018). Corporate taxpayers perceived company size and location as attitudinal shift in their tax compliance. ...
Article
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The objective of this paper is to examine the corporate characteristics on sustaining voluntary tax compliance in Nigeria. A Situation awareness theory was used to explain the relationships between the corporate characteristics and tax compliance. The sample size of the study are the 166 listed companies in the Nigerian stock exchange. Out of the 166 questionnaires distributed to the companies only 76 companies responded (N = 76). The analysis was conducted with the aid of statistical package for social scientist using regression and correlation. The finding shows that corporate size and corporate location were found to be insignificant with voluntary tax compliance. Further finding reveals that corporate characteristics (size and location) have insignificant relationships with tax compliance. The study therefore, recommends recurrent awareness on the importance of voluntary compliance as it is the right and privilege of the taxpayers.
... Many studies have highlighted the limitations to rational choice theory, and yet methods grounded in this tradition remain popular in business. Current industry inquiries and interventions focus on controls which reduce human error by supporting rational choice theory, such as situational awareness (EMESRT, 2011;Endsley, 1995;State of Western Australia, 2019). Whilst rational choice models provide an explanation of how we make decisions, Klein (1999) makes an important distinction that the steps defined within situational awareness are a rational choice strategy with conditions such as: a need for justification, conflict resolution, optimisation and great complexity. ...
Thesis
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One of the most significant hazards workers face in the open cut mining sector is the potential for mining vehicle accidents; vehicle collisions result in 10 to 20 deaths annually within Australia. Mining vehicle interactions rely on operator decision making with no higher order controls to manage hazards associated with accidents. Hazards relate to the size and visibility of the vehicles, as well as the time they need to move around each other. Based on existing naturalistic decision making (NDM) theory, the research proposed two questions to explore the relationship between shared operator decision making and safe vehicle interactions: 1. How do operators make decisions during vehicle interactions? 2. How can shared operator decision making be influenced for safer vehicle interactions? An inductive approach was used to investigate the phenomenon which provided deep insight into individual operator decision making, by comparing individual operator decision making, and shared operator decision making. As a multimethod approach, naturalistic observations of mining vehicle operators and analysis of historical data sets (e.g. incident statements, historical focus group data and company procedures) were used to understand both normal interactions and accidents. Answering the first research question, the recognition primed decision (RPD) model was used as a theoretical frame to describe operator decision making for each vehicle interaction as the various dimensions of the model aligned closely with aspects of mining vehicle interactions. This study found that normal interactions occur when operators share decision making, linked to the same understanding of cues, interaction patterns and mental simulations, resulting in expected operator action scripts. Vehicle collisions are more likely to result when there is a breakdown of shared decision making, resulting in vehicle collision pathways which are either not recognised by one or both operators, or recognised too late for adjustment as operators run out of time to take evasive action. Answering the second research question, thematic analysis extended current NDM literature, identifying the four themes which influence shared decision making: 1. The timing of cues is important, however, as most interaction cues are passive, they may go unnoticed. Where cues are not adequately specified, there is a greater likelihood that operators will use the wrong cues to make only partially informed decisions. This emphasizes the need to ensure cues are contextually simple, salient and timely (e.g. specific light signals, defining the boundaries of work areas, triggers for the use of radio communication). 2. Collectively, if pairs of interacting operators imagine the same patterns from the cues they notice, it is more likely they share mental models. This emphasizes the need for operators to develop homogeneity of expert mental models, an understanding of common tasks and communication (e.g. training which reinforces routine interaction patterns). 3. Uncertainty reduces operators' confidence in a situation, driving them to imagine how interaction sequences may go wrong before they act, so they may slow down to obtain more information. This emphasizes the need for operators to agree on how a shared goal will allow the coordination of interdependent activities (e.g. formal and informal discussion on the meaning of cues and patterns). 4. As the complexity of interactions increase it is harder for operators to maintain cue-action relationships. Misunderstandings are problematic when operators are working closely together, and space and time are limited. This emphasizes the need to increase the adaptive capacity of situations to make them more resilient (e.g. by identifying and controlling 'choke points' by limiting vehicle speed, or the number of vehicles in an area). Contrasting current approaches within industry, the research demonstrates that the position of social constructionism provides different insights to that of positivism. Specifically, the research makes a number of contributions to current NDM literature by investigating shared decision making. Contrary to the current NDM research, which tends to assume that interacting decision makers act as individuals in isolation, the research shows that four additional theoretical frameworks are required to understand how decision makers collaborate to achieve common goals. 1. Team situational awareness provides a stronger position, highlighting the need for shared displays which provide decision makers with the right information from their own perspectives. 2. Analysis implies that decision makers in a common environment largely have shared mental models, but that the alignment of mental models in a temporal sequence can result in misunderstandings. 3. Sensemaking is more complex in shared decision making and requires decision makers to constantly search for uncertainty, cross-checking each other's actions to ensure they have the same goal. 4. Human error is inherent to shared decision making, resulting from the need to make approximate adjustments toward common goals. The environment in which shared decision making takes place requires an appropriate degree of adaptive capacity. The research includes three limitations. Firstly, the interpretation of data was restricted to the researcher's perspective of naturalistic observations and historical document analysis. Secondly, social reactivity may have influenced operator behaviours during naturalistic observations. Thirdly, the accuracy of the organisation's self-reporting. The research included reflexivity, member checking and triangulation to reduce the risk of these limitations. The research offers considerable insight into current NDM literature, finding that additional prerequisites must be satisfied for decision makers to successfully achieve common goals. The research provides theoretical and practical contributions for both researchers and practitioners to positively influence shared decision making in high risk operational environments. ii Declaration I certify that except where due acknowledgement has been made, the work is that of the author alone; the work has not been submitted previously, in whole or in part, to qualify for any other academic award; the content of the thesis is the result of work which has been carried out since the official commencement date of the approved research program; any editorial work, paid or unpaid, carried out by a third party is acknowledged; and, ethics procedures and guidelines have been followed.
... While the MAIDS adopts the JDL data fusion framework for efficient data processing and analytics, it automatically organizes itself for ingesting the right observation data for investigating on either cyber or physical behavior, or both, for subsequent high level reasoning and advanced context awareness. Such awareness concern: 1-Perception; 2-Comprehension; 3-Projection; 4: Decision; and 5-Performance feedback for operating in the smart space and preserving safety and security (Endsley, 1995). The multi-sensing of environmental parameters which are observed at multiple locations in the smart space have been generated. ...
Article
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The S4AllCities project has progressed rapidly during the last twelve months since it began in 2020 for the development of three distinct digital twins that collectively augment intelligence concerning cyber and physical security monitoring in smart urban spaces. These respectively specialize on; a) Distributed Edge Computing IoT (DEC-IoT); b) Malicious Actions Information Detection System (MAIDS); and c) Augmented Context Management System (ACMS) (S4AllCities, 2020). These three twins are built under a distributed System of Systems (SoS) architecture. Further, they each acquire real-time observations of both cyber and physical spaces while processing data for the critical extraction of knowledge at their levels. The extracted knowledge, represented as "events" at each of the respective twins levels, is communicated across the S4AllCities SoS Apache Kafka communication client/ server protocols. These respectively specialize in advancement of situation awareness at their levels. Namely, for the intelligent edge processing of observations in the urban space under the DEC-IoT ; the detection of unusualness and understanding of cyber and human behavior under the MAIDS; while augmenting all awareness for the final release of threat alerts and proposed regulated responses (ACMS). In this paper, we will introduce the S4AllCities SoS overall architecture and the three twins high level functions. Then we will focus on describing our development of the MAIDS sub-modules and their functions under the De-Facto Joint Director of Laboratory (JDL) data fusion framework. The JDL framework efficiently enables the intelligent monitoring, detection and interpretation of the potential presence of threats and/or attacks in urban spaces. These attacks are either of cyber, physical, or both malicious nature. The well-known Ends-ley model for the cognitive advancement of situational awareness is mapped into the JDL framework in the context of critical decision support on cyber-physical surveillance in urban spaces. The JDL is much more adaptive for big data processing, machine learning, context knowledge modelling and augmented situational awareness of the cyber-physical space.
... Participants showing interest in each other's skills and competence, listening to each other, and not fearing rejection promotes effective learning within teams (Edmondson 1999;Edmondson, 2018). Further, participants feeling safe to interact with others with open and trustful communication based on good intentions creates a solid foundation for establishing shared situational awareness (Endsley, 1995), which is important in emergency management training. Thus, our research question was, Is psychological safety established in simulated crisis preparedness and management training? ...
Conference Paper
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Crisis preparedness and management training is to a large degree about training for managing the unexpected. Psychological safety is a key aspect of creating an environment that upholds the criteria for optimizing mindful organizing. This provides a learning environment in which participants are not afraid of negative feedback and that is open and trustful-criteria important in creating shared situational awareness. Thus, our research question was, Is psychological safety established in simulated crisis preparedness and management training? In this study, we interviewed 10 informants and conducted a one-day observation of an exercise. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. We found that students, academic staff and facilitators, and mentors reported behaviour and a climate that were consistent with psychological safety but that elements such as more guidance and supervision and the evaluation of the roles of mentors were aspects for improvement.
... Social media are increasingly becoming a focus of disaster resilience research (Huang and Xiao 2015;Wang and Ye 2018a;Zou et al. 2018). Studies have been made in investigating the role of social media in situational awareness, the type of dynamic decision making founded in one's continuous perception and comprehension of changing elements of the environment and ability to make accurate projections of future changes (Endsley 1995). The methods include categorizing or quantifying the contents of the disaster-related messages (Huang and Xiao 2015;Imran et al. 2015;Wang and Ye 2018b;Alam et al. 2020). ...
Article
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Twitter can supply useful information on infrastructure impacts to the emergency managers during major disasters, but it is time consuming to filter through many irrelevant tweets. Previous studies have identified the types of messages that can be found on social media during disasters, but few solutions have been proposed to efficiently extract useful ones. We present a framework that can be applied in a timely manner to provide disaster impact information sourced from social media. The framework is tested on a well-studied and data-rich case of Hurricane Harvey. The procedures consist of filtering the raw Twitter data based on keywords, location, and tweet attributes, and then applying the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to separate the tweets from the disaster affected area into categories (topics) useful to emergency managers. The LDA revealed that out of 24 topics found in the data, nine were directly related to disaster impacts—for example, outages, closures, flooded roads, and damaged infrastructure. Features such as frequent hashtags, mentions, URLs, and useful images were then extracted and analyzed. The relevant tweets, along with useful images, were correlated at the county level with flood depth, distributed disaster aid (damage), and population density. Significant correlations were found between the nine relevant topics and population density but not flood depth and damage, suggesting that more research into the suitability of social media data for disaster impacts modeling is needed. The results from this study provide baseline information for such efforts in the future.
... More concretely, "IoT Social Environment" integrates IoT devices as part of the core of these environments as a mean for achieving the desired behavior. The "Situation Awareness" is a conceptual term focused on considering the contextual information, such as the number of devices nearby, the people involved, and other spatio-temporal factors to adapt the IoT devices behavior [7,8]. Therefore, new mechanisms are required to enable devices to anticipate continuous changes in IoT social environments and achieve a dynamic adaptation and collaboration. ...
Article
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Nowadays, there are millions of smart devices connected to the Internet. The purpose of these devices is to make people’s lives easier. Thanks to the collaboration among them, the possibilities that the Internet of Things brings can grow exponentially. However, many manufacturers develop closed protocols and devices to protect their market share, limiting in many ways this collaboration. This paper presents a conceptual architecture that improves the proactive collaboration between IoT devices regardless of the protocols developed by their manufacturers. This architecture aims to identify entities in smart environments, describe their features and interfaces, and identify strategies fostering their collaborations. As a result, devices from different manufacturers can communicate to create a collaborative environment in a simple, efficient, and affordable way. This architecture has been evaluated in a real and a simulated environment, to validate its feasibility and efficiency.
... Situational awareness is the ability to perceive, know, and grasp the current state of complicated, dynamic situations and being aware of what is going to be important to the task or goal at hand. Situation awareness can be studied in military command and control, combat aircraft, air traffic control, emergency services, and other domains where information flow is high and errors might be catastrophic (Endsley, 1995). Recent research shows that neurophysiological approaches can be used to examine cognitive processes linked with situation awareness in military simulations (Berka et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Ever since the dawn of antiquity, people have strived to improve their cognitive abilities. From the advent of the wheel to the development of artificial intelligence, technology has had a profound leverage on civilization. Cognitive enhancement or augmentation of brain functions has become a trending topic both in academic and public debates in improving physical and mental abilities. The last years have seen a plethora of suggestions for boosting cognitive functions and biochemical, physical, and behavioral strategies are being explored in the field of cognitive enhancement. Despite expansion of behavioral and biochemical approaches, various physical strategies are known to boost mental abilities in diseased and healthy individuals. Clinical applications of neuroscience technologies offer alternatives to pharmaceutical approaches and devices for diseases that have been fatal, so far. Importantly, the distinctive aspect of these technologies, which shapes their existing and anticipated participation in brain augmentations, is used to compare and contrast them. As a preview of the next two decades of progress in brain augmentation, this article presents a plausible estimation of the many neuroscience technologies, their virtues, demerits, and applications. The review also focuses on the ethical implications and challenges linked to modern neuroscientific technology. There are times when it looks as if ethics discussions are more concerned with the hypothetical than with the factual. We conclude by providing recommendations for potential future studies and development areas, taking into account future advancements in neuroscience innovation for brain enhancement, analyzing historical patterns, considering neuroethics and looking at other related forecasts.
... There are different definitions for situation awareness. One of the most famous of which provided by Mica Endsley in 1995 [1]: " Situational awareness or situation awareness (SA) is the perception of environmental elements and events with respect to time or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their future status." This definition makes a subtle distinction between three levels of situation awareness, i.e. perception (including observation), comprehension, and projection (including prediction). ...
Preprint
The highest level in the Endsley situation awareness model is called projection when the status of elements in the environment in the near future is predicted. In cybersecurity situation awareness, the projection for an Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) requires predicting the next step of the APT. The threats are constantly changing and becoming more complex. As supervised and unsupervised learning methods require APT datasets for projecting the next step of APTs, they are unable to identify unknown APT threats. In reinforcement learning methods, the agent interacts with the environment, and so it might project the next step of known and unknown APTs. So far, reinforcement learning has not been used to project the next step for APTs. In reinforcement learning, the agent uses the previous states and actions to approximate the best action of the current state. When the number of states and actions is abundant, the agent employs a neural network which is called deep learning to approximate the best action of each state. In this paper, we present a deep reinforcement learning system to project the next step of APTs. As there exists some relation between attack steps, we employ the Long- Short-Term Memory (LSTM) method to approximate the best action of each state. In our proposed system, based on the current situation, we project the next steps of APT threats.
... -confusion as to what stakeholders are to be involved and how do they relate to each other; -inadequate representation of the relation between entities during their entire life; -No reference to life cycle of the participant entities and no modelling of the human role; -there seems to be no statement in relation to an explicit set of qualities expected from a resilience framework (e.g. reliability, maintainability, ease of use, adaptability etc); -shared situational awareness, understood as a) the perception of environmental elements and events with respect to time or space, b) making sense of their meaning, and c) the projection of their future status [19], is not achieved due to issues similar to the problems encountered in Defence C2 failures [20], such as notably the lack of interoperability; -in respect to the previous point, calls to learn lessons from similar, albeit more evolved Defence high-level requirement descriptions but no detail of how these concepts and capabilities may integrate into the resilience concept applied to generic disasters. ...
Chapter
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The increasing rate of catastrophic events owing to climate change, pandemics, and significant changes in the international balance of power leading to armed conflicts have revealed disaster management weaknesses which need to be addressed as soon as possible so as to ensure the continued stability, safety and indeed existence of mankind. In this context, the concept of resilience framework has emerged; however, current such artefacts appear to be rather fragile, ambiguous, and difficult to use in practice in the face of said vulnerability and complexity. The question is: how can decision-makers ensure that a proposed resilience framework displays the necessary qualities and contains the required elements and guidance for the necessary local and cross-domain actions to increase resilience for their specific sector, organisation, or community? This paper attempts to define a multi-pronged approach to assess such artefacts in an integrated and holistic way so that the resilience frameworks are 'complete', understood, and actioned and thus effectively support disaster risk management.
... This demonstrates why situational awareness is so important, and in the extreme, it can be a matter of life and death. Situational awareness is about the cognitive process where individuals perceive and understand what is taking place in their environment (Endsley, 1995;Endsley, Jones, & Bolté, 2003). For a police officer, aggregated stress can negatively affect his/her situational awareness capacity. ...
Conference Paper
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Police officers' situational awareness during tactical intervention can be crucial for how they act and whether they use the correct level of force in extreme situations. This paper presents preliminary findings in ongoing research focusing on police tactical interventions and situational awareness. Twenty-one police officers were interviewed, and a video sequence of a shorter car chase was used to set the scene in the interviews. The interviewed police officers described their tactical decisions applying the standardized tactical approach applied in the Swedish police. In the analysis, a focus on how situational awareness is gained and how situational awareness is affected by tactical decisions is presented. The study indicates that the situational awareness process begins before the actual intervention (pre-intervention phase). During the actual intervention, situational awareness is very complex. Technology supporting police officers' cognition, as well as management and control of one or many risk areas, is identified.
Preprint
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Our recent research shows that the design philosophy of human factors research in the intelligence age is expanding from "user-centered design" to "user-centered design 2.0" and "human-centered AI", and the human-machine relationship presents a trans-era evolution from "human-machine interaction" to "human-machine teaming". These changes have raised new questions and challenges for human factors research, compelling us to re-examine the paradigm and agenda of human factors research that was traditionally based on non-intelligent technologies. In this context, this paper reviews the cross-generational expansion of the human factors research paradigm and summarizes the new conceptual models and frameworks we proposed to enrich the human factors research paradigm, including a human-agent teaming model, a human-agent joint cognitive ecosystem framework, and an intelligent sociotechnical systems framework. This paper further enhances these concepts and looks forward to the corresponding application of these concepts and future research agenda. This paper also looks forward to the future agenda of human factors research from three aspects: "human-AI interaction", "intelligent human-machine interface", and "human-machine teaming". It analyzes the role of human factors research paradigms on future research agenda. We believe that the research paradigms and the research agenda influence and promote each other. Human factors research in the intelligence age needs diversified and innovative research paradigms, thereby further promoting the development of human factors science.
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It remains unclear how organizational resilience is shaped by tie strength and helps firms go through crisis under COVID-19 pandemic background. A survey conducted among a sample of 215 Chinese firms indicates that: (1) both external and internal tie strength enhance three dimensions of resilience capacity, namely situation awareness, adaptive capacity and transformative capacity; (2) all three resilience capacity dimensions facilitate reactive crisis management strategy, while only adaptive capacity and transformative capacity have positive effects on proactive crisis management strategy; (3) both reactive and proactive crisis management strategies improve crisis management performance. The study contributes to literature of organizational resilience by probing into the theoretical model of “tie strength-resilience capacity-crisis management strategy-firm performance” which implies that organizational resilience is driven by internal and external tie strength and then facilitates crisis management performance through reactive and proactive strategies. The findings provide managerial implications about successfully coping with crisis, such as global pandemic, by leveraging firm's resilience capabilities facilitated by social relationship and implementing reactive and proactive strategies.
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The background for this paper is to prepare for the execution of a research project in systems engineering about situational awareness and human factors. The authors use a major defense company as the case for this research. The company is developing a new weapon system that allows one operator to operate multiple remote weapon systems. The systems will produce a large amount of data that the operators must use in their decision‐making process. To make the right decisions, the operators need good situational awareness. The authors have examined publications about situational awareness and human factors and elaborated on the research design for the upcoming research project. Findings in the literature suggest that situational awareness consists of three levels. In all three levels, several factors affect an operator's ability to build and maintain situational awareness. The hypothesis for the upcoming research project is that the company lacks in‐depth knowledge about situational awareness.
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Drivers of L3 automated vehicles (AVs) are not required to continuously monitor the AV system. However, they must be prepared to take over when requested. Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-vehicle environment that allows drivers to adapt their levels of preparedness to the likelihood of control transition. This study evaluates ambient in-vehicle lighting that continuously communicates the current level of AV reliability, specifically on how it could influence drivers' take-over performance and mental workload (MW). We conducted an experiment in a driving simulator with 42 participants who experienced 10 take-over requests (TORs). The experimental group experienced a four-stage ambient light display that communicated the current level of AV reliability, which was not provided to the control group. The experimental group demonstrated better take-over performance, based on lower vehicle jerks. Notably, perceived MW did not differ between the groups, and the EEG indices of MW (frontal theta power, parietal alpha power, Task-Load Index) did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest that communicating the current level of reliability using ambient light might help drivers be better prepared for TORs and perform better without increasing their MW.
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There is an increasing interest in how to organize operations carried out by multiteam systems (MTS). Large MTS typically operate with a dedicated integration team, responsible for coordinating the operation. We report a study of a military multiteam system that prosecute time-sensitive targets. We asked whether and how the integration team’s efficiency depends on its communication setting. Specifically, we studied how a co-located vs. a distributed communications setting influenced the shared situation awareness and whether the shared situation awareness again influenced the outcome of the decision processes. We found that performance fell when the integration team shifted from a co-located to a distributed setting. The fall in performance seemed to be mediated by a corresponding fall in situation awareness. Moreover, while the performance improved for each run in the co-located setting, we did not see such learning in the distributed setting. Qualitative observations revealed that misunderstandings lasted longer in a distributed configuration than in a co-located setting. We found that situation awareness at level 3 was the only level of situation awareness significant for predicting all dimensions of performance. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
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Teaming with Artificial Intelligence (AI) is changing the way seafarers work. We show that a new kind of seafaring is emerging, characterized by cooperation with AI systems. In this format of seafaring, navigation tasks are controlled automatically while human operators manage the automation, always “in the loop” and ready to take over control if necessary. Ideally, this arrangement sees improvements in overall system performance and safety. However, little is known today about how this format of work will unfold in real-world operations. We investigate this topic by interviewing operators (n = 5) on ferries recently outfitted with state-of-the-art automated navigation technology. We used a mixed-methods approach to analyze the case study interviews, combining quantitative text analysis with Grounded Theory qualitative analysis techniques. The results show that operators perceived a shift towards a backup role coincident with increasing agency of machine autonomy. This role shift was characterized by “button-pressing” to start the machine autonomy and subsequently intervening to stop it when things go wrong. We observed that this shift led to boredom, deskilling, stretched resources, and compromised organizational harmony – effects running counter to the intention of improved system performance and safety. Synthesizing the findings, we present (1) effects across three operational dimensions: (i) tasks, (ii) human-computer interaction, (iii) organization; and (2) a definition of collaborative (human-AI) seafaring. By identifying issues in the early implementation of highly automated ship navigation, we hope to guide designers of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASSs) away from potential pitfalls and towards development more in tune with real-world demands of collaborative work.
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Objective. To provide guidelines to define the place of human factors in the management of critical situations in anesthesia and critical care. Design. A committee of nineteen experts from SFAR and FHS group learned societies has been set up. A policy of declaration of links of interest was applied and respected throughout the whole process of producing guidelines. Likewise, it has not benefited from any funding from a company marketing a health product (drug or medical device). The committee followed the GRADE® method (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) to assess the quality of the evidence on which the recommendations were based. Methods. We aimed to formulate recommendations according to the GRADE® methodology for four different fields: 1/ communication, 2/ organization, 3/ training and 4/ working environment. Each question was formulated according to the PICO format (Patients, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome). The literature review and recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE® methodology. Results. The experts' synthesis work and the application of the GRADE® method resulted in 21 recommendations. The GRADE® method could not be entirely applied to all questions, so the recommendations were formulated as expert opinions. Conclusion. Based on a strong agreement between experts, we were able to produce 21 recommendations to guide human factors in critical situations.
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Productivity demands, time pressure, and cognitively demanding construction tasks increase workers' arousal and stress; however, it is not clear how these factors may worsen risk compensation effects and lead to unanticipated hazards. This paper examined the extent to which limited time and increased mental load amplify the risk compensatory behavior of workers. Using an immersive mixed-reality environment to simulate an electrical construction task, this paper applied a promising neuroimaging approach (functional near-infrared spectroscopy- fNIRS) to study changes in individuals' cognitive responses and decision dynamics under normal and stressful conditions. The results showed that workers failed to process surrounding information due to limited cognitive resources, and misperceived potential risks under time pressure and increased mental demand. These cognitive failures then led to increased overreliance on safety protections and at-risk decisions, and decreased safety performance. This paper offers valuable insights into the potential neural mechanism driving risk-taking and risk compensatory behaviors and the importance of counteracting risk compensation bias in the construction industry.
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Operators of complex systems across multiple domains (e.g., aviation, automotive, and nuclear power industry) are required to perform their tasks over prolonged and continuous periods of time. Mental fatigue as well as reduced cognitive flexibility, attention, and situational awareness all result from prolonged continuous use, putting at risk the safety and efficiency of complex operations. Mental state-based adaptive systems may be a solution to this problem. These systems infer the current mental state of an operator based on a selection of metrics ranging from operator independent measures (e.g., weather and time of day), to behavioral (e.g., reaction time and lane deviation) as well as physiological markers (e.g., electroencephalography and cardiac activity). The interaction between operator and system may then be adapted in one of many ways to mitigate any detected degraded cognitive state, thereby ensuring continued safety and efficiency. Depending on the task at hand and its specific problems, possible adaptations -usually based on machine learning estimations- e.g., include modifications of information, presentation modality or stimuli salience, as well as task scheduling. Research on adaptive systems is at the interface of several domains, including neuroergonomics, human factors, and human-computer interaction in an applied and ecological context, necessitating careful consideration of each of the aforementioned aspects. This article provides an overview of some of the key questions and aspects to be considered by researchers for the design of mental state-based adaptive systems, while also promoting their application during prolonged continuous use to pave the way toward safer and more efficient human-machine interaction.
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Submarine periscopes are moving from analog to digital, but there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the relative advantages that different digital human-machine interface configurations might provide to the operator. We experimentally compared the effectiveness of two digital concepts for displaying and analysing periscope imagery during a simulated submarine mission. OPTIX modelled a traditional periscope by presenting a narrow (20o horizontal arc) rotating image of the horizon. OPTIMUS displayed the full 360o panoramic representation of the horizon and was augmented with digital analysis tools. OPTIMUS supported faster and more accurate performance by participants (N = 32) and lowered perceived workload, compared to when the same participants used OPTIX. However, time taken to respond to situation awareness queries and awareness of one’s own performance (meta-awareness) was poorer when using OPTIMUS. OPTIMUS holds an advantage in that it can improve performance whilst reducing workload, but the SA and meta-awareness decrements are potentially problematic.
Article
The purpose of our experiment was to explore communication patterns that are characteristics of nuclear fire brigades during task phases that include unforeseen, non-routine events. We further aimed to understand how team performance was related to the frequency of intrateam communication during different task phases. Six nuclear fire brigades were video recorded during a simulated scenario and subsequent communication utterances were analysed. According to our results, on the central channel a higher frequency of “Simple answer” was negatively related, while on the lateral channel a higher frequency of “Command” and “Information without request” were positively related to team performance. Our results also indicate that while on the central channel communication frequencies were more balanced across adaptation phases, on the lateral channel there was a significant increase in intrateam communication when the teams entered non-routine phases. Furthermore, our results underline the different functions of the two communication channels: while the central channel supports maintaining contact between geographically dispersed team members with formal, standardised communication formulas, the lateral channel supports the modification of the team's strategy with a simpler, less formal communication mode. Relevance to industry The findings can be applied in nuclear firefighters' training and thereby contribute to the operational safety in nuclear power plants. By becoming more aware of the communication categories that support teamwork during adaptation, as well as of how best to utilise different communication channels, teams’ workload may be decreased, and team resources may be spared for team adaptation.
Article
Background Out-of-hospital providers must be situationally aware in order to maintain safety for themselves, their patients, the public, and their crew. They must be able to recognize situations, interpret them, and predict how those situations may unfold in the future. Method A mixed-methods explanatory sequential design where out-of-hospital providers in Oklahoma, USA, participated in an 18-minute online simulation and then had their situational awareness (SA) measured. Upon completion, participants provided feedback during scheduled interviews. Results A total of 156 out-of-hospital providers participated. Participants were not situationally aware. While not statistically significant, those with higher education had higher SA scores. Participants perceived that the simulation processes were beneficial to their ongoing care in the field, and were satisfied with the online simulation environment. Conclusions Out-of-hospital providers are not situationally aware during an online clinical simulation. While they are focused intently on the surroundings of the scene, they do not put that same focus on the patient. With the appropriate technology and setup, the use of the Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) during online simulation is feasible and could enhance clinical performance. Further studies are needed to determine if overall education or years of clinical experience play a role in out-of-hospital SA.
Article
This study reports usage of supervised automation and driver attention from longitudinal naturalistic driving observations. Automation inexperienced drivers were provided with instrumented vehicles with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) features (SAE level 2). Data was collected comparing one month of driving without support to two months where drivers were instructed to use automation as desired. On highways, level 2 automation was used respectively 63% and 57% of the time by Tesla and BMW users, with peak usage during slow stop-and-go traffic (0–30 km/h) and higher speeds (>80 km/h). On roads with speed limits below 70 km/h, automation was used less than 8%, and use on urban roads was incidental rather than habitual. Automation usage increased with time in trip, but no clear time of day effects were found. Head pose data could not classify driver attention, and we recommend gaze tracking in future studies. Head pose deviation was selected as alternative indicator for monitoring activity. Comparing among forms of automation usage on the highway, head heading deviation was smallest during ACC use, but did not differ between automation and baseline manual driving. Head heading deviation during manual driving was smaller in the baseline than the experimental phase, which suggests that motives for manual highway driving may be attention related. Automation usage did not change much over the first 12 weeks of the experimental condition, and there were no longitudinal changes in head pose deviation.
Chapter
Many production processes are changing towards hybrid CPPS, in which humans work together with intelligent as well as automated or autonomously acting systems. This enables economic advantages through more efficient processes, error reduction, and quality improvements. It further contributes to a sustainable production, which preserves resources and enhances operators' well-being. To achieve these advantages, an adequate system design is required. Here, various design approaches are available, such as the creation of active involvement of people and adequate situational awareness, and the consideration of both operators and automation as equal and independent actors. But how do they affect its performance and the operators in detail to achieve both economic and human-centered goals? We present the results of a first literature review on the interaction of humans and autonomous systems in production systems and the associated allocation of work (Human Autonomy Teaming, HAT) and open research problems, respectively. Finally, we propose and discuss preliminary ideas and starting points to solve these design issues as a basis for future research work.
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Objective Novice driver crash risk diminishes steeply over the first few months of driving. We explore the characteristics of driving over this period to identify behaviours that might underlie this change in risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1456 UK drivers aged 17–21 within six months of gaining their licence. We examined how various forms of driving exposure, such as weekly mileage and driving at night, were related to duration of licencing. We explored the factor structure of the Early Driving Development Questionnaire (EDD-Q); a new instrument designed to measure safety relevant attitudes and behaviours in recently qualified drivers. We examined the relationship of the derived factors to licence duration. Results There was little evidence that greater exposure to risky driving situations was more common in those with shorter licence durations. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses identified EDD-Q factors measuring risky style (12 items), skill deficiencies (8 items) and driving confidence (4 items). Licence duration was positively correlated with both risky style and confidence, with these relationships stronger for older novices. Licence duration was also negatively related to skill deficiencies (i.e., positively correlated with perceived driving skill development): this relationship was stronger in younger novices. Conclusions The negative correlation between license duration and skill deficiencies is consistent with the observation of decreasing novice crash involvement as experience is gained. The EDD-Q offers a new brief measure of aberrant driving that is specifically tailored for newly qualified drivers.
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Coordinating complex crisis responses generally requires comprehensive skills. When operating in the High Arctic, extreme environments make this task even more challenging. Training for these situations is thus of utmost importance, but such training requires extensive resources for full-scale exercises. Simulation is an alternative that can yield an effective learning process and learning outcomes. In this study, we explored how simulator-based accident training in high-risk, highly sensitive environments can be optimised. To do this, Exercise Isfjord was designed for students in the master’s Preparedness and Emergency Management programme at NORDLAB at Nord University. This exercise involved a grounded cruise ship from which passengers needed to be evacuated, in addition to a severe oil spill. Interviews with students, mentors, facilitators, and academic staff were conducted, and thematic analysis was used for analysing the data. Our findings indicate that a pedagogical wheel consisting of the six factors preparations, psychological safety, mentors, learning objectives, context realism, and evaluations promotes an optimal learning process in simulated-accident exercises in high-risk and highly sensitive environments. Thus, we recommend tailor-made simulated exercises for crisis management and emergency preparedness.
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With its various available frameworks and possible devices, augmented reality is a proven useful tool in various industrial processes such as maintenance, repairing, training, reconfiguration, and even monitoring tasks of production lines in large factories. Despite its advantages, augmented reality still does not usually give meaning to the elements it complements, staying in a physical or geometric layer of its environment and without providing information that may be of great interest to industrial operators in carrying out their work. An expert’s remote human assistance is becoming an exciting complement in these environments, but this is expensive or even impossible in many cases. This paper shows how a machine learning semantic layer can complement augmented reality solutions in the industry by providing an intelligent layer, sometimes even beyond some expert’s skills. This layer, using state-of-the-art models, can provide visual validation and new inputs, natural language interaction, and automatic anomaly detection. All this new level of semantic context can be integrated into almost any current augmented reality system, improving the operator’s job with additional contextual information, new multimodal interaction and validation, increasing their work comfort, operational times, and security.
Chapter
The COVID-19 crisis emphasizes the importance of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL), one of today’s most valuable skills, with which learners set their learning goals, monitor and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, and reflect upon them. In the current experimental study, an intervention program based on short online interactive videos was developed to promote SRL skills. This paper presents the impact of the intervention on students’ use of SRL skills and grades. It also explores four key pedagogical processes (teacher-student relationships, collaboration, autonomy, and feedback) as mediators for SRL strategies use and grades. The experimental and control groups were randomly assigned (N = 290 students, 18 classes, grades 7–12). Each teacher taught the same subject in two classes for a month, an amount of time that allows intervention to take effect. One of the classes participated in the video-based intervention program (experimental group), whereas the other performed all activities but did not have access to the videos (control group). Data was collected through an SRL and pedagogies usage questionnaire, SRL video prompts, and knowledge tests and was analyzed using the quantitative method. In addition to the theoretical contribution, a practical tool has been developed for educators who wish to employ online SRL training.KeywordsSRL - Self-Regulated LearningVideo-assisted learningERT - Emergency remote teachingSRL intervention programCOVID-19
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Aided target recognition (AiTR) systems, implemented in head-mounted and in-vehicle augmented reality (AR) displays, can enhance human performance in military operations. However, the visual appearance and delivery of AiTR may impact other important critical aspects of human performance like decision making and situational awareness (SA). Previous research suggests salient visual AR cueing, such as found in Computer-Aided Detection diagnostic systems, orient attention strongly toward cued targets leading to missed uncued targets, an effect which may be lessened by providing analog information about classification uncertainty and using less visually salient cueing techniques, such as soft highlighting. The objective of this research was to quantify the human performance impacts of two different types of AR AiTR visualizations in a simulated virtual reality defensive security task. Participants engaged in a visual camouflage discrimination task and a secondary SA Task in which participants observed and reported a peripheral human target. Critically, we manipulated the type of AiTR visualization used: 1) a traditional salient bounding box, 2) a softly glowing soft highlight, and 3) a baseline no-AiTR condition. Results revealed minimal impacts of the visual appearance of AiTR on target acquisition, target categorization, and SA but an observable reduction in user experience associated with soft highlight AiTR. Future research is needed to explore novel AiTR designs that effectively cue attention, intuitively and interpretably visualize uncertainty, and deliver acceptable user experience.
Article
An on-bike warning system has great potential to increase safety of cyclists. For an effective warning system, the implementation of warning signals is fundamental. However, more knowledge about the cyclist specific design of warnings and the influence of warnings on the cyclist is needed. To analyze the benefit of warnings in conflicts and the reaction pattern of cyclists we conducted a test-track experiment. We evaluated the data of 62 participants who were divided into three warning groups (between-subjects) and encountered different situations (within-subjects). The warning groups either received acoustic, vibro-tactile or no warnings. The situation variable consisted of three conflicts and two false warnings in the groups with warnings. We measured significantly shorter reaction times of persons who received acoustic and vibro-tactile warnings compared to the persons without warning. Furthermore, acoustic warnings led to shorter reaction times compared to vibro-tactile warnings. The reaction pattern was described by different bicycle dynamics variables. It was mostly influenced by the situation and rarely by the warning group. Based on the velocity curves and reaction times we identified learning effects describing how the warned participants adopted the warning system over the five situations. These findings indicate that a warning system offers great safety benefits to cyclists. Based on the current results, acoustic warnings are recommended when an urgent reaction is required.
Chapter
Global and national confidential inquiry reports show that 60 to 80% of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality are due to avoidable errors. This comprehensive and illustrated second edition offers a practical guide to the management of obstetric, medical, surgical, anaesthetic and newborn emergencies in addition to organisational and training issues. The book is divided conveniently into nine sections and updated throughout in line with modern research and practice. Several new chapters cover setting up skills and drills training in maternity services to reduce avoidable harm, managing obstetric emergencies during 'home births' and in low-risk midwifery units, and minimizing maternal and fetal morbidity in failed operative vaginal delivery. Each chapter includes a practical algorithm for quick reference, the scientific basis for proposed actions, a case-based practical exercise and useful learning tools such as 'Key Pearls' and 'Key Pitfalls'. An invaluable resource for obstetricians, neonatologists, midwives, medical students, anesthesiologists and the wider perinatal team.
Thesis
To drive in complex urban environments, autonomous vehicles need to understand their driving context. This task, also known as the situation awareness, relies on an internal virtual representation of the world made by the vehicle, called world model. This representation is generally built from information provided by multiple sources. High definition navigation maps supply prior information such as road network topology, geometric description of the carriageway, and semantic information including traffic laws. The perception system provides a description of the space and of road users evolving in the vehicle surroundings. Conjointly, they provide representations of the environment (static and dynamic) and allow to model interactions. In complex situations, a reliable and non-misleading world model is mandatory to avoid inappropriate decision-making and to ensure safety. The goal of this PhD thesis is to propose a novel formalism on the concept of world model that fulfills the situation awareness requirements for an autonomous vehicle. This world model integrates prior knowledge on the road network topology, a lane-level grid representation, its prediction over time and more importantly a mechanism to control and monitor the integrity of information. The concept of world model is present in many autonomous vehicle architectures but may take many various forms and sometimes only implicitly. In some work, it is part of the perception process when in some other it is part of a decisionmaking process. The first contribution of this thesis is a survey on the concept of world model for autonomous driving covering different levels of abstraction for information representation and reasoning. Then, a novel representation is proposed for the world model at the tactical level combining dynamic objects and spatial occupancy information. First, a graph based top-down approach using a high-definition map is proposed to extract the areas of interests with respect to the situation from the vehicle's perspective. It is then used to build a Lane Grid Map (LGM), which is an intermediate space state representation from the ego-vehicle point of view. A top-down approach is chosen to assess and characterize the relevant information of the situation. Additionally to classical free-occupied states, the unknown state is further characterized by the notions of neutralized and safe areas that provide a deeper level of understanding of the situation. Another contribution to the world model is an integrity management mechanism that is built upon the LGM representation. It consists in managing the spatial sampling of the grid cells in order to take into account localization and perception errors and to avoid misleading information. Regardless of the confidence on localization and perception information, the LGM is capable of providing reliable information to decision making in order not to take hazardous decisions.The last part of the situation awareness strategy is the prediction of the world model based on the LGM representation. The main contribution is to show how a classical object-level prediction fits this representation and that the integrity can also be extended at the prediction stage. It is also depicted how a neutralized area can be used in the prediction stage to provide a better situation prediction. The work relies on experimental data in order to demonstrate a real application of a complex situation awareness representation. The approach is evaluated with real data obtained thanks to several experimental vehicles equipped with LiDAR sensors and IMU with RTK corrections in the city of Compi_egne. A high-definition map has also been used in the framework of the SIVALab joint laboratory between Renault and Heudiasyc CNRS-UTC. The world model module has been implemented (with ROS software) in order to fulfll real-time application and is functional on the experimental vehicles for live demonstrations.
Chapter
Learning Analytics Dashboards (LADs) are data visualization tools built to empower teachers and learners to make purposeful decisions that impact the learning process. Due to their relatively recent emergence and the scarcity of studies on their design principles, dashboard design remains a major area of investigation in learning analytics research, and large scale diffusion to their stakeholders remains limited. We promote human-centered approaches for LADs design since their success in terms of acceptance and adoption greatly depends on the level of stakeholder involvement in their design. In this paper, we present a tool to support the participatory design of LADs. First experiments during a pilot study with teachers demonstrate that the proposed tool encourages group work, and in-depth exploration of LADs use.KeywordsLearning analyticsDashboardsParticipatory designSensemaking
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A relational framework is proposed for characterizing experienced physicists' representations of physics problem situations and the process of constructing these representations. A representation includes a coherent set of relations among (1) a mental model of the objects in the situation, along with their relevant properties and relations, (2) a mental model of theoretical idealizations of objects, and (3) parameter histories based on mental simulations of both models. Evidence from protocols and a small experiment support a conclusion that experienced physicists' processes of representing problem situations (a) use informal, commonsense knowledge, including envisionment of objects in the situations, and (b) are interactive, with mutual influences between informal knowledge and their technical, theoretical knowledge. We also describe characteristics of the mental models that represent problem situations and the process of constructing them, drawing from work by AI researchers on qualitative process models, and specifying several categories of rulers that would be needed for an implementation of the system as a simulation program.
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Although anecdotal evidence has suggested considerable individual differences in the abilities of pilots to acquire and maintain situation awareness (SA), specific research to validate this claim and investigate the locus of such differences is lacking. This article presents an initial investigation of individual differences in SA. A study was conducted in which experienced fighter pilots completed a battery of tests to measure their abilities along key dimensions hypothesized to be important for SA. These measures were compared to subjects' abilities in situation awareness. The presence of consistent individual differences in SA abilities was supported and several key abilities were identified.
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The situation awareness (SA) requirements of air-to-air fighter pilots were assessed through a series of analyses, including (a) unstructured interviews, (b) goal-directed task analysis, and (c) structured questionnaires administered to experienced pilot subjects. The resultant requirements and information on the relative priority among elements are presented along with a methodology for determining SA requirements in various systems. Limitations of the study and implications for cockpit design are discussed.
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The out-of-the-loop performance problem, a major potential consequence of automation, leaves operators of automated systems handicapped in their ability to take over manual operations in the event of automation failure. This is attributed to a possible loss of skills and of situation awareness (SA) arising from vigilance and complacency problems, a shift from active to passive information processing, and change in feedback provided to the operator. We studied the automation of a navigation task using an expert system and demonstrated that low SA corresponded with out-of-the-loop performance decrements in decision time following a failure of the expert system. Level of operator control in interacting with automation is a major factor in moderating this loss of SA. Results indicated that the shift from active to passive processing was most likely responsible for decreased SA under automated conditions.
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Possible limitations on the successful formal modeling of human expertise can only be identified if the evolving thought processes involved in acquiring expertise are understood. This paper presents a 5-stage description of the human skill-acquisition process, applies it to the skill of business management, and draws conclusions about potential uses and abuses of formal modeling.
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this chapter deals with mathematical models of monitoring behavior and empirical data supporting them short review of current views of data acquisition deals with the application of optimal estimation theory and optimal control theory to modeling human intervention in process control reviews general properties of human information processing with particular reference to process control and real-world tasks rather than to laboratory studies deals with supervisory control, including the detection and diagnosis of system failures, and the allocation of function between operator and machine (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Situation awareness (SA) is an important component of pilot/system performance in all types of aircraft. It is the role of the human factors engineer to develop aircraft cockpits which will enhance SA. Research in the area of situation awareness is is vitally needed if system designers are to meet the challenge of providing cockpits which enhance SA. This paper presents a discussion of the SA construct, important considerations facing designers of aircraft systems, and current research in the area of SA measurement.
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Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes.
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Human operators in nuclear power plants have a frustrating job, fraught with dilemmas. On the one hand they take on a terrible responsibility to protect the public from risk of exposure to radiation; on the other hand they are paid to keep the turbines rolling and to avoid outage, so as to make money for their employer. On the one hand they are expected to follow explicit rules and regulations laid out by both their employer and the government regulatory body; on the other hand they are expected to be resourceful human beings, ready to. add their intelligence and common sense where purely automatic operation fails. On the one hand they are judged by their peers according to their speed of decision and action; on the other hand they know that they might best leave their hands in their pockets and count to 100 if a real emergency were to occur. They are aware that under the stress of such emergencies, their judgement may not be reliable; yet there is the danger that they will err on the side of assuming observed abnormalities are not serious, and not take the appropriate emergency action. They know the critical reason they are there is to take over in rapidly changing situations; but they know they may not be up to it.
Conference Paper
Situation awareness is a fundamental requirement for effective air traffic control forming the basis for controller decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in air traffic control, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness requirements for air traffic control. This was conducted as a goal-direct task analysis in which the major goals, subgoals, decisions and associated situation awareness requirements for En Route Air Traffic Control (ATC) were delineated based on elicitation from eight experienced Air Traffic Control Specialists. This effort was supported by available task analyses and video-tapes of simulated air traffic control tasks. A determination of the major situation awareness requirements for En Route ATC was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance controller situation awareness and provides a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for air traffic control.
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The effects of loud noise are examined by observing its influence upon a combined tracking and multi-source monitoring task. Tracking (the primary task) improves in noise, as does the detection of centrally located signals in the monitoring task. Peripheral signals are detected less often in noise. The data are interpreted in terms of increased selectivity of attention with arousal.
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A group of ten subjects showed impaired performance, when watch-keeping on a display made up of steam-pressure gauges, in 100 db. noise as compared with 70 db. On the easier task of watch-keeping on a display made up of small lights, another group of twenty subjects showed no overall effect of noise. Individual subjects who showed a practice effect on the latter task comparable to that shown by all subjects on the former one, however, also showed a similar effect of noise. In addition, performance on the light-watching became relatively less efficient in noise with continued exposure: and although parts of the task were still adequately carried out, others were not. The fact that noise effects are thus functions of individual differences, of visibility of signal, and of length of performance in noise, allows us to explain the negative findings of many previous workers.
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Twenty subjects, working individually, monitored a simple vigilance task, a modified “Mackworth Clock Test,” for 1 3 4 hr in noise (112.5 db SPL) and for 1 3 4 hr in quiet (79 db SPL). No difference in efficiency attributable to noise level was found. This result is in conflict with previous reports from this and other laboratories which ascribed decrement in performance on vigilance tasks to noise levels. Vigilance tasks in which performance decrements due to noise were found, differed from the present task in that they required subjects to scan a series of displays in addition to maintaining vigil over each display. It is, therefore, suggested that flexibility of attention may be affected by noise, whereas vigilance without the requirement for flexibility may be unaffected.
Article
Investigated dominant simplifying strategies people use in adapting to different information processing environments. It was hypothesized that judges operating under either time pressure or distraction would systematically place greater weight on negative evidence than would their counterparts under less strainful conditions. 6 groups of male undergraduates (N = 210) were presented 5 pieces of information to assimilate in evaluating cars as purchase options. 3 groups operated under varying time pressure conditions, while 3 groups operated under varying levels of distraction. Data usage models assuming disproportionately heavy weighting of negative evidence provided best fits to a signficantly higher number of Ss in the high time pressure and moderate distraction conditions. Ss attended to fewer data dimensions in these conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
"… three experiments relating performance changes to noise levels are reported. Noise levels used were about 80 db representing 'quiet' and 110 db representing 'noise."' Ss in these 3 experiments were paid volunteer male undergraduates. In Experiment I, 9 Ss were exposed to successive half hours of experimental and control sessions "to check Broadbent's previously reported results that performance on a prolonged vigilance task was poorer in noise than in quiet." In Experiment II, 14 Ss were exposed to successive periods of experimental and control sessions "as a result of a suggestion by Miles that Ss working in high energy noise fields could not keep an accurate count on how far they had gone in a repetitive task." In Experiment III, 14 Ss were exposed to successive periods of experimental and control sessions to compare judgments in quiet and in noise. "It is clear that noise produces readily measurable changes in human performance." The effects of psychological stress may have been more important than noise in determining the results. 16 refs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
examines the effects on performance of environmental conditions, fatigue states, and cyclical fluctuations in bodily processes information-processing models effects of stress on performance theories of arousal and stress factors involved in the moderation of stress effects (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Five experiments (184 undergraduates) examined recognition of attended and unattended visual material. In dual-task conditions, Ss performed complex mental multiplication, designed to require full conscious attention, as a primary task while faces were presented as secondary stimuli. In single-task conditions, Ss attended either to the faces or to the multiplication. A delayed surprise recognition test for the faces was given. Introspective ratings of how much Ss attended to the faces during encoding were collected. Three sources of converging evidence indicated that unattended encoding occurred in dual-task conditions: Accuracy of multiplication was equivalent in single- and dual-task conditions; intention to encode failed to influence recognition performance; and introspective ratings were positively correlated with recognition performance when Ss attended to the faces, but were uncorrelated in dual-task conditions. Attended encoding produced superior recognition performance. Unattended encoding yielded reliable recognition performance, indicating that conscious attention is useful but not necessary for long-term storage. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed and tested a model of voting that considers the information-processing limits of the human mind. The predecision information-search behavior of 20 undergraduates was recorded along with their concurrent verbal protocols as the Ss prepared to vote in 3 simulated elections. Based on these data and other research in decision making, the following 2-stage process model of voter cognition was constructed: (a) If candidate receives a negative overall evaluation, vote against candidate. (b) Otherwise, compare candidates on a few salient particular items and choose the favored candidate on these items. The process model was tested in a survey of 107 registered voters before an actual election. For those survey respondents who expressed a candidate preference and for whom the model made a prediction, the model's prediction matched the indicated vote preference in 94% of the cases. The model's strengths and weaknesses are discussed, and a slightly modified version of the model is suggested. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
After an initial consideration of psychological experimentation, the author describes a long series of experiments in the fields of perception, imagination, and remembering, using material which approximated that found in everyday life. The work on perceiving utilized chiefly geometrical diagrams; and that on imagination, ink-blots. The results in these two cases revealed the influence of the subjects' attitudes and indicated their tendency to introduce previously learned material. In the experiments on remembering two methods were used, one the method of repeated reproduction by a given subject and the other the method of serial reproduction where the material reproduced by one subject became the learning material for a second subject whose recall constituted the learning material for a third subject, etc. This latter series of experiments showed that proper names and titles are very unstable in recall, that there is a bias toward the concrete, that individualizing aspects of the material (stories) tend to be lost, and that abbreviations and rationalizations occur. Throughout the book emphasis is placed on the social determinants of the manner and matter of recall, a point of view which is supported in the anthropological material cited. "Remembering is not the re-excitation of innumerable fixed, lifeless and fragmentary traces. It is an imaginative reconstruction, or construction, built out of the relation of our attitude towards a whole active mass of organized past reactions or experience, and to a little outstanding detail which commonly appears in image or in language form." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper describes the process of attaining the insight required to solve a particular problem—the Mutilated Checkerboard (MC) problem. It shows that attaining insight requires discovering an effective problem representation, and that performance on insight problems can be predicted from the availability of generators and constraints in the search for such a representation. To test these claims we varied the salience of features leading to the critical concept of parity in the MC problem. Using chronometric measures, verbal protocols, and computer simulations, we explored first why it is difficult to find a representation for the Checkerboard problem, and then tested four potential sources of search constraint for reducing the difficulty: cue salience manipulations, prior knowledge, hints, and heuristics. While subjects used each of these four sources of constraint, a particular heuristic—noticing properties of the situation that remained invariant during solution attempts (the Notice Invariants heuristic)—proved to be a particularly powerful means for focusing search. In conjunction with hints and independently, it played a major part in producing the insight that yielded an effective problem representation and solution.
Article
Information display boards may be used to test assumptions about underlying cognitive processes in decision situations. However, the question may be raised whether information processing in a complex decision situation is indepemdent of the structure of the information display board used. In a study employing 96 subjects, the design of the information display board, the number of alternatives, and the number of attributes were varied. Twelve groups of eight subjects were presented with one hypothetical choice among riskless multiattribute decision alternatives (apartments). Results showed that information search patterns were not influenced by the design of the information display board, but that the relative number of attributes included in the decision process was. The number of available attributes appeared to be the strongest determinant of information search patterns. A higher number of attributes induced information search patterns consistent with the noncompensatory conjunctive decision rule. It is suggested that the decision situation employed, which forced the decision maker to remember each piece of information acquired, underlies the difference between the results in the present study and previous findings.
Article
Investigators in the field of stress concur that exposure to intense stressors impairs individuals' decision making. A considerable ambiguity exists, however, with respect to the factors and processes that mediate this effect. The present study tested the proposition that deficient decision making under stress is due, to a significant extent, to individuals' failure to adequately fulfill a most elementary requirement of the decision-making process, i.e., the systematic consideration of all relevant decision alternatives. Participants in this experiment were required to solve decision problems while under stress. Their performance was compared to that of an unstressed control group. Stress was found to induce a tendency to offer solutions before all decision alternatives had been considered and to scan such alternatives in a nonsystematic fashion. In addition, patterns of alternatives-scanning were found to be correlated with the quality of solutions to decision problems.
Article
Considerable evidence indicates that domain specific knowledge in the form of schemas is the primary factor distinguishing experts from novices in problem-solving skill. Evidence that conventional problem-solving activity is not effective in schema acquisition is also accumulating. It is suggested that a major reason for the ineffectiveness of problem solving as a learning device, is that the cognitive processes required by the two activities overlap insufficiently, and that conventional problem solving in the form of means-ends analysis requires a relatively large amount of cognitive processing capacity which is consequently unavailable for schema acquisition. A computational model and experimental evidence provide support for this contention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Conference Paper
I argue from studies of human performance including slips of action and skilled typing that human processing structures are of a special sort, with weak binding between functions and arguments, with strong excitatory and inhibitory interactions among simultaneous processes and with the parts of action sequences neither stongly ordered nor tightly coupled I argue that analyses of human performance imply a class of processing stuctures quite different than is commonly envisioned within Artificial Intelligence.
Article
A baseline description of a cognitive model that has been successfully implemented on high-speed, low-altitude navigation fighter plane missions illustrates designs for an intelligent assistance system for future French combat aircraft. The outcomes are based on several empirical studies. Task complexity (risk, uncertainty, time pressure) is extreme and provides a prototypical example of a rapid process control situation which requires specific assistance problems. The paper is divided into three sections: 1.1. A general review discusses implications of the specific requirements for coupling an intelligent assistance system to pilots. Special attention is paid to understanding and coherence of the aid, both of which directly influence the nature of the system.2.2. An empirical analysis of missions carried out by novice and experienced pilots forms the basis for a cognitive model of in-flight navigation problem solving. Because of time pressure and risk, pilots have as much difficulty applying solutions as diagnosing problems. Pilots tend to develop a sophisticated model of the situation in order to anticipate problems and actively avoid or minimize problem difficulty. In contrast, poor solutions tend to be found for unexpected problems and generally result in renunciation of the mission and/or crash.3.3. The cognitive model described above serves as the basis for a computer cognitive model for flying high-speed, low-altitude navigation missions. The model splits functional knowledge into two levels: the local level deals with sub-goals and short-term activities; the global level deals with mission objectives and handles medium- and long-term activities. A resource manager coordinates the two levels. The program uses an Al actor programming style. This computer cognitive model serves to develop an intelligent navigation assistance system which can function as an automaton or as a tactical support system.
Article
This review points out confusion surrounding the concept and use of mental models from the viewpoints of both human factors and psychology. Noted are the ways in which the notion is conceived according to the needs and approaches of different specialties, and the relationships of mental models to other forms of knowledge representation are considered. The manner in which the human factors community has and should utilize the concept in applications across a number of fields is addressed and discussed in relation to the psychological perspective.