Conference PaperPDF Available

What is the effect of artificial intelligence and robots on future work?

Authors:
Future jobs in robots
What is the effect of artificial intelligence and robots on future work?
Chen Li (Frank)
York University
Author Note
Frank (Chen Li), York University
This research paper is based on requirements at York University
Lecture Instructor: Rita Economou
Contact: yu304638@yorku.ca;
1
AI influences future jobs
Abstract
Alpha Go is the first time in public to showcase new technologies to professional
chess players. Artificial intelligence has become a controversial topic in the public,
some experts who worry about artificial intelligence will change the work positions in
human resources in the future. In a dangerous and unfamiliar environment, human
beings are being replaced by many kinds of artificial intelligence. Some experts
believe that new technologies have improved, which can create new jobs, and even
these technologies can also replace the old works. The future of human beings can
actively deal with the emergence of AI. On one side, the employment should adapt to
the development of robots that brought about by changes in the labor market;
however, how to meet the talent supply and market demand is the focus of the
government which should be more attention.
Keywords: robot, artificial intelligence, job opportunities, future
2
AI influences future jobs
On March 26, 2016, Alpha Go appeared the in the public at the first time to show
its new technologies against Lee Sedol who is one of the most professional players in
the field of playing chess, which was widely considered to be a milestone in the field
of artificial intelligence. This real match not only upset the chess community, but also
evoked a new understanding of artificial intelligence. Some experts, at that moment,
were worried about artificial intelligence which would lead to large-scale human
unemployment in the future. In this regard, human beings cannot emphasize on
artificial intelligence threat theory, but also think over what roles artificial intelligence
play in employment in the future. Therefore, we have responsibilities to consider
artificial intelligence and robots which will alter roles in employing in the future.
The emergence of robots and artificial intelligence is the need for human
development. As for the cooking robot, some people have no time to make dinner at
home, for which scientist discovered it which can replace human beings; robots have
come into a large number of universities in China recently to deal with the lack of
staffs to cook for students; a convenient and efficient electronic payment was
successful research and development to reduce the chances of calculating errors.
Because of human needs, more and more traditional products are intelligent. People
eager to experience more comfortable and convenient life, so more jobs will be
replaced by robots and artificial intelligence ultimately in the future. The reason why
artificial intelligence can be said to be the sublimation of human demand and the
inevitable results of technological development. Artificial intelligence has emerged on
3
AI influences future jobs
changing people's way of life, enhancing the efficiency of work, bring the positive
effect far more than its negative impacts.
Human beings’ works are being replaced by artificial intelligence in many sorts
of works. Manual labor and high-risk industries will accelerate the timetable in which
humans will be altered by machines. In the next 10 years, the number of physical
workers with suitable age will reduce to 100 million in China (Bao, 2017). The high
costs on laboring will reach the peak at replacing human beings. Moreover, the
shortage of labour has become the most serious problems in dangerous chemicals,
fireworks, and other high-risk industries, so “machine substitutions” which means
robots and artificial intelligence replace the positions of human, which is the trend. At
the same time, the service industry will have more and more positions which are
being replaced by robots. For example, the purchase of robots instead of catering
workers has been in some trendy restaurants; Apple's Siri intelligent speech system is
more mature, which may replace the customer service staff.
West and Karsten (2015) pointe that even if the society requires few workers
relatively, there is a need for a way to make a living. Even if the society requires few
workers relatively, there is a need for a way to make a living. Emerged technologies
could improve speed, quality and the cost of existing products as well as services, so
these improvements may also replace a considerable amount of workers. Automation
and artificial intelligence’s influences are changing economic status. In the world, the
4
AI influences future jobs
number of robots has gone up enormously from the past. Robots with a decreasing
price can work all days with no rest and make competitive with workers. In some
services, computers can use algorithm to complete functions which was designed by
users, for example, stock trading can be performed by computer algorithm in a few
seconds, and it is much faster than human beings to finish this operating (West &
Karsten, 2015).
Artificial intelligence development will not cause large-scale unemployment.
West and Karsten (2015) argue that the emergence of new things is always
accompanied by a variety of disputes, especially in the development of science and
technology. West (2015) uses a line chart to illustrate the number of industrial robots
worldwide, which has increased significantly in recent years. For example, an
estimated 1.2 million robots were used in 2003. However, robots rose to around 1.5
million in 2014 and are expected to increase to about 1.9 million in 2017. In fact,
from the development of history, human beings are not worried about being replaced
by artificial intelligence and produced large-scale unemployment problems. Industrial
revolution in the world had improved the labour efficiency gradually and promoted
the development of human society, which was better. Although robots cannot avoid
the problems that workers are in unemployed, the community will soon enter another
steady development stage, which will not bring long-term large-scale unemployment
tide. As for robots and AI as the representative of technological innovation can be said
to have gotten into a fourth industrial revolution, so intelligent machines and
5
AI influences future jobs
industrial development need to be widely developed and applied robots. Robots have
some specific abilities over people’s abilities. For example, humans cannot go to such
a dangerous work surroundings, robots could be arranged to enter the endangered
area, so these special works should be altered by the need to be developed by
intelligent electric robots, increasing the capacity of products and promoting
developing economy. The former factory workers will transit to the service industry,
people's main energy will also be put into the technological revolution, management,
and innovation so that from which could create more new jobs (Bao, 2016). In line
graph 2, West (2015) demonstrates the distribution of the industry during that period.
The health care and social assistance sector is expected to have the highest annual
growth rate of 2.6 per cent, in which will change the job opportunities about 5 million
in this decade. However, other areas where it is possible to grow, including:
professional services (3.5 million), construction (1.6 million), recreation (1.3 million),
national and local governments (929,000), finance (751,000) and education (675,000)
respectively (West, 2015).
Figure 1: Number of Industrial Robots Around the World
6
AI influences future jobs
Figure 2: Future employment projects by sector 2012-2022(in millions)
In the future, the close relationships between work and income may be cut off. In
some factories where produce cars, industrial robots have existed for twenty or thirty
years, so that this is not a new concept at all. With the improvement of the ability of
robots, so far only the work done by humans, gradually by the erosion of the robot. It
is no doubt that robot is no longer the robot, it is not only some simple mechanical
actions, it still has logical algorithm. So what should humans do in the future?
First of all, the government needs act to establish a complete safety net for
unemployed people who lose their jobs. Bao (2016) claimed that it did not mean that
unemployed people would be given support for them permanently, but the
government would like to provide them with some time to support them to find jobs.
In addition, any economy should set a minimum wage. An important thing about
7
AI influences future jobs
the success of economic development is intended to benefit everyone in the society,
that is, the majority of people, not just a little bit aimed at benefiting the pyramid. The
government needs to have a redistribution of wealth in society, for example, through
the spire of the rich for higher taxes, the income of tax subsidies to the social
stratigraphy crowd. According to Bao (2016), in the current society, a job has two
meanings, the first layer of meaning, jobs can make money to feed people’s families;
on the other hand, jobs also make the person have certain value to achieve, and feel in
this post to create their own value. In the future, artificial intelligence and robots will
cut off the correlation between the work and the income. In the future, people will cut
off the relationships between work and income, that is, how much a person's income
is rather than what the person has done. How many volunteers to be decided by his
own community, or what kind of research work could make decisions on the person’s
income (Bao, 2016).
Human beings could deal with the setting in AI in the future. For one thing, the
employees themselves should adapt to the development of artificial intelligence to
bring changes in labor market. Although so many robots are working in the cold
generation and dangerous working atmosphere, robots and artificial intelligence
cannot be facilitated a takeover by innovative management, strategic thinking, and the
need for emotional exchange. From the pipeline down, humans have to learn more
knowledge and new skills in order to switch to other new jobs. For another, how to
match the supply of talent and market demand is the focus of the government should
8
AI influences future jobs
pay more attention to. China's economy has already begun to transform, but now the
education system under the output of human resources and labor market have not
been able to do a good convergence. In conclusion, people need study the
transformation of the human market and an oriented demand, reasonable set of higher
education, promote re-education and training, and maximize structural unemployment
problems (Bao, 2016).
9
AI influences future jobs
References
Bao, H. (2016). Rational view of the impact of artificial intelligence development on
employment. Zhejiang Economy, 11, p.64.
Smith, A. and Anderson, J. (2014). AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs. [online] Pew
Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. Retrieved from:
http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/08/06/future-of-jobs/ [Accessed 3 Apr. 2017].
West, D. and Karsten, J. (2015). How robots, artificial intelligence, and machine
learning will affect employment and public policy | Brookings Institution.
Retrieved from:
https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2015/10/26/how-robots-artificial-
intelligence-and-machine-learning-will-affect-employment-and-public-policy/
[Accessed 3 Apr. 2017].
West, D. (2015). What happens if robots take the jobs? The impact of emerging
technologies on employment and public policy. Center for Technology
Innovation at Brookings, 1, pp.1-22.
10
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.