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Background: Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different martial art styles. Methods: One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year. Results: Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs. Conclusions: The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries. Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists.
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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA
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EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA
Injury rates in martial art athletes: anthropometric
parameters and training volume, but not foot morphology
indexes, are predictive risk factors for lower limb injuries.
Jacopo Antonino VITALE, Tito BASSANI, Fabio GALBUSERA, Alberto BIANCHI,
Nicolò MARTINELLI
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 Sep 22
DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07536-3
Article type: Original Article
© 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA
Article first published online: September 22, 2017
Manuscript accepted: September 13, 2017
Manuscript revised: August 28, 2017
Manuscript received: March 3, 2017
TITLE.
Injury rates in martial art athletes: anthropometric parameters and training volume, but not foot
morphology indexes, are predictive risk factors for lower limb injuries.
AUTHORS.
Jacopo A. Vitale1*, Tito Bassani1, Fabio Galbusera1, Alberto Bianchi2, Nicolò Martinelli2.
AFFILIATIONS:
1. LaBS Laboratory of Biological Structures Mechanics. IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi,
Milano, Italia.
2. Foot and Ankle Department. IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italia.
* CORRESPONDING AUTHOR.
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Ph.D
IRCCS Ortopedico Galeazzi
Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20136, Milano
E-mail: jacopo.vitale@grupposandonato.it
Phone: (+39) 0266214939
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ABSTRACT
Background: Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse
injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of
scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study
was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background
information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu,
thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different
martial art styles.
Methods: One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot
morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear
foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following
information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury
occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year.
Results: Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury
and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were
observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and
BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to
predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs.
Conclusion: The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot
morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries.
Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at
higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the
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present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs
for martial artists.
KEYWORDS: Injury; martial art; foot; overuse; acute; orthopedics.
INTRODUCTION
Practicing barefoot sports, such as martial arts, is common nowadays and an increasing interest
for these disciplines, also in females and children, has been showed in the last two decades.1
These athletic activities lead to several benefits for the subjects, such as development of balance,
coordination, strength, flexibility but also respect and discipline.2,3 Since the panorama of martial
arts is rather broad, they are commonly classified in two categories according to the fighting
approach: percussive and non-percussive4. The percussive styles imply the use of kicks and
punches launched with feet and hands (e.g. karate and taekwondo) while non-percussive styles
involve movements aimed to throw and lock the opponent without any strike (e.g. judo and
aikido).5-8
As a matter of fact, each martial art style entails several risks of injuries9,10 which can result
increased during specific conditions such as competitions and sparring sessions.11-13 In particular,
injuries can be classified as acute or overuse, being the former defined as caused by a specific
and identifiable event, the latter as a result of cumulative trauma or repetitive use and stress.14-16
Traumatic injury results from a direct trauma or when the force exerted at the time of injury on
the specific tissue exceeds the strength of that tissue causing a damage.17 On the other hand,
overuse injuries usually occur in sports involving long training sessions and when insufficient
time is provided for the injured region to heal adequately.17,18 Barefoot athletes, such as martial
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artists, can easily experience both acute and overuse injuries, especially to feet, ankles and
legs19,20,22,23. Common acute injuries are feet and leg contusions, toe dislocations and fractures,
mostly caused by kicks. Conversely, typical examples of overuse injuries include tendinopathies,
contractures, wounds, and stress fractures19,20 and are strongly associated with prolonged periods
of barefoot training.21
Previous studies reported that injuries among martial arts mostly occur to the lower extremities
due to the propensity of the athletes to regularly use lower limbs to kick the opponent and also to
protect themselves.12,13,20,22,23 The foot receives approximately 18% of the injuries in tae kwon
do22 and the most common problems observed in kick boxers were callosity (59%),
gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%).20
Results of a survey showed that bruises (29%), lacerations (17%) and digital jamming (25.8%)
were, in general, the most prevalent injuries for lower limbs in martial arts, while digital
dislocations or foot and ankle fractures were less common.23 Different fighting approaches can
lead to different kinds of injuries: percussive martial arts often determine injuries to feet and toes
while non-percussive styles can more easily cause fractures.6-8 To this regard, athletes practicing
percussive style emphasizing kicks (i.e. taekwondo) showed increased risk of acute injury than
other percussive styles (i.e. karate) while no differences were observed among the subjects
practicing non-percussive styles (i.e. judo, aikido or tai chi).8
Identifying possible injury risk factors, e.g. related to subject’s age, body mass and training
volume, would result essential for coaches and physicians to better prevent lower limb injuries in
martial art athletes. For example, concerning the relation between injuries and training volume it
has been showed that both poor athletic profile and prolonged training periods can determine an
increased risk of injury in combat sports.4 Furthermore, foot morphology should be accounted as
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possible risk factor since known to affect the biomechanical relation between the exchanged
ground reaction forces and the axes of rotation of ankle, knee, and lower extremity. In this
respect, previous studies evaluated foot morphology as possible intrinsic risk factor for acute and
overuse lower extremity injuries in runners, gymnasts or team sport players.24 Other studies
found significant correlations between foot morphology and lower limbs injuries in cross-country
running athletes25,26, army trainees27, runners28-30, basketball and football players31,32. In general,
it was reported that both excessive foot pronation or supination increased pain and lower
extremity injury risk.25 Concerning martial arts, only one study assessed foot morphology as
possible predictor of injuries but no statistically significant results were pointed out.21
The aim of the present study was thus to provide an exhaustive investigation of injury type
distribution and injury risk factors in percussive and non-percussive disciplines, in order to
support coaches and physicians to better prevent lower limb injuries in martial arts athletes. More
specifically, the following aims were accounted:
1. to describe the distribution of acute and overuse injuries in five martial art styles;
2. to study the injury rates in relation to the discipline type: percussive vs non-percussive;
3. to identify possible risk factors able to predict lower limb injuries;
4. to evaluate the differences in subject parameters and foot morphology indexes between
injured and non-injured athletes.
According to the observations reported by the previous studies, the following hypotheses were
advanced:
1. Injury rates will be found different according to martial art style and discipline type;
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2. Subject parameters (i.e. age, sex, weight, height, and training volume), but not foot
morphology indexes, will be identified as predictive of the presence or absence of injury;
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Subjects
A cohort of patients (N=1321) that underwent a routine medical examination at the Foot and
Ankle Department of the IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, over a period of 12 months (from
March 2015 to February 2016), was studied. By screening all the subjects, a subgroup of 130
martial artists (109 males and 21 females, age: 25.4±11.83 years; BMI: 23.3±4.3) was
retrospectively evaluated. Specifically, subjects practicing martial arts, non-injured or with
injuries occurred during training or competition to the lower limbs (leg, knee, ankle and foot) in
the preceding year were accounted. The following martial art styles were considered: judo,
karate, kung fu, thai boxe and aikido. Data from physical examination and from interview
questionnaire, routinely conducted and supervised by expert foot surgeons (AB and NM), were
analyzed after being anonymized (JAV, TB and FB). The authors do not report any conflict of
interests.
Outcome measures
Interview questionnaire
The questionnaire provided the following subject information: age (years), sex, weight (kg),
height (m), Body Mass Index (BMI, kg * m-2), training volume defined as hours of training per
week (h * week-1), practiced martial art, and injury history.
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Physical examination
The following foot morphology indexes were obtained from the physical examination:
Navicular Height (NH), defined as the distance from the floor to the navicular tuberosity.33,34
The navicular bone of each foot was palpated and a mark was made with a ballpoint pen on
the most prominent aspect. The subjects sat on a box while the foot was placed in a subtalar
joint neutral position. A stainless hardened digital caliper (model 506-207; Mitutoyo,
Kawasaki, Japan) was used to measure NH (figure 1). Data are reported as mean of right and
left NH and expressed in millimeters (mm).
Navicular Drop (ND), defined as the difference in height of navicular tuberosity when the
subtalar joint is placed in neutral position as compared with when the foot is positioned in a
relaxed standing foot posture.34,35This measurement is considered reliable and repeatable36
and it quantifies the midfoot mobility. The same digital height gauge was used to measure the
ND. Data are reported as mean of right and left ND and expressed in millimeters (mm).
Rear Foot (RF), defined as the angle between the bisection of the lower one third of the leg
and the bisection of the calcaneus, with the subject in standing position and the subtalar joint
positioned in neutral.37 A goniometer (model 27340; Gima, Bologna, Italy) was used to
measure RF (figure 2). Data are reported as mean of right and left RF and expressed in
degrees.
< Please insert figure 1 and figure 2 about here >
Classification of martial art styles and injuries
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According to the classification provided from the literature,22 aikido and judo were defined as
non-percussive styles while karate, kung fu and thai boxe were considered percussive disciplines.
According to that previously reported,14,15 injuries were classified as:
Acute injury (AI), defined as a trauma resulting from a specific event.14,15 Fractures,
contusions, dislocations, ligament ruptures, organ injury, open wounds and sprains were
accounted.
Overuse injury (OI), defined as a gradual-onset injury caused by repeated micro-trauma and
not by a single identifiable event.14,15 Bursitis, warts, lacerations, impingement, inflammation,
joint laxity, stress fractures, tendinitis and contractures were included.
No injury (NI). This last group refers to subjects who did not suffer any kind of injury.
Statistical analysis
All collected data were stored in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and the statistical analysis were
performed with MATLAB (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA).
Distribution of injuries
The differences in the percentage of subjects reporting absence of injury (NI) or the presence of
acute or overuse injury (AI and OI), in relation to the five different styles (judo, karate, kung fu,
thai boxe and aikido) and to the kind of martial art (percussive and non-percussive), were
assessed by Chi-square test (orFisher’sexacttestwherenecessary) at 0.05 significance level.
Predictors of injury
The following six variables were accounted as potential predictors of injury: age, training
volume, BMI, NH, ND and RF . Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate
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the significance of the accounted variables in predicting the presence or absence of injury as
dichotomic outcome. In this case, the presence of injury accounted for both acute and overuse
injuries. Furthermore, the presence of injury was differentiated into acute and overuse injuries
thus leading to three-nomial outcome and multinomial logistic regression analysis was
accordingly performed to test the significance of the predictors. A p-value <0.05 was considered
statistically significant.
Subject parameters among injury groups
Subjects age, BMI, training volume, NH, ND and RF were presented as mean ± SD, and the
differences among the three injury-related groups (AI, OI and NI) were assessed. The normality
of the distribution of each parameter was checked using graphical methods and Shapiro–Wilk’s
test. Whereas navicular height was normally distributed in the three groups, all the other variables
deviated significantly from normality. To compare navicular height among the three groups, one-
way ANOVA followed by the TukeyKramer post-hoc test was used. The ranks of the non-
normally distributed data were compared among AI, OI and NI groups using the non-parametric
Kruskal–Wallistest followed bypairwisecomparisons performed usingDunn’s procedure with
Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A p-value < 0.05 was set a prior for all statistical
analyses.
RESULTS
Considering the 130 evaluated subjects, the distribution of the practiced martial art style was the
following: Judo, 35; Karate, 26; Kung Fu, 38; Thai Boxe, 21; Aikido, 10. Concerning the martial
art type, 85 subjects practiced percussive approach of fighting while 45 attended non-percussive.
Injury rates
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Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustained any kind of injury, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute
injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) registered an overuse injury. More precisely, of the 35 acute
injuries 11 fractures (31.4%), 5 contusions (14.3%), 7 ligament ruptures (20.0%), 2 open wounds
(5.7%), and 10 sprains (28.6%) were observed. In addition, the overuse injuries were 1 bursitis
(4.0%), 2 warts (8.0%), 9 lacerations (36.0%), 4 inflammations (16.0%), 4 tendinitis (16.0%),
and 5 contractures (20.0%).
Kung fu athletes reported the lowest percentage of acute injuries (18.4%) and the highest number
of subjects with no injury (65.8%). On the contrary, thai boxe registered the highest number of
acute injuries (38.1%) and aikido had the larger percentage of subjects who occurred an overuse
injury (40%). Concerning the kind of martial art, percussive styles had lower number of overuse
injury (16.5%) than non-percussive disciplines (24.4%) and similar rates of acute injuries were
detected. Nevertheless, no significant differences in the frequency of injuries were observed.
Table 1 shows the injury rates by style and type of martial art.
< Please insert table 1 here >
Predictors of injury
The results of multiple and multinomial logistic regression analyses are reported in Table 2.
When predicting the presence or absence of injury as dichotomic outcome, the training volume
and the age of the subjects were found as significant predictors (p<0.01), while BMI, NH, ND
and RF were not able to predict the presence or absence of injury. Similar results were observed
according to the multinomial logistic regression: age and training volume were significantly
predictive for the presence or absence of both acute and chronic injury (age: p<0.05 and training
hours: p<0.01). Moreover, the BMI was found to be a significant predictor only for overuse
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injury (p<0.05) while NH, ND and RF revealed to be not predictive.
< Please insert table 2 here >
Subject parameters among injury groups
Comparing the mean values of subject parameters among the NI, AI and OA groups, as reported
in Table 3 significant differences were found in age (p<0.001), training volume (p<0.001) and
BMI (p<0.001). NI group presented the lower age, training volume and BMI values compared to
the subjects that suffered acute (p<0.01) and overuse injury (p<0.001). Conversely, NH, ND and
RF values did not vary significantly among groups (Table 3).
< Please insert table 3 about here >
DISCUSSION
Introducing the study, two main hypotheses were advanced about the results: to find different
injury rates among the martial art styles and between the discipline types; to identify the subjects
parameters (i.e. age, sex, weight, height, and training volume), but not the foot morphology
indexes, as predictive risk factors for the presence or absence of injury. The present findings,
extensively discussed in the following paragraphs, fully confirmed the second hypothesis but not
the first one.
The first aim of the study was to describe the presence of acute and overuse injuries among five
different martial arts: three percussive styles, mostly characterized by punches and kicks (karate,
kung fu and thai boxe) and two non-percussive styles, consisting mainly in throwing and joints
locking techniques (judo and aikido). The 46.2% of the total sample sustained an injury to the
lower limb within one preceding year but no differences were observed in the distribution of
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acute and overuse injuries in relation to the style and type of practiced martial art (Table 1). This
result demonstrates that the absence or presence of acute or overuse injuries is not related to the
martial art style and to the percussive or non-percussive fighting approach (Table 1). This finding
is in agreement with the results from Zetaruk et al.8 These authors compared the injury rates in
five martial arts styles and reported comparable injury distributions among all styles with the
exception of taekwondo practitioners who were the most likely to sustain injuries if compared
exclusively to karate athletes. In the present work, the mostly observed acute injury was toes
fracture, followed by ankle sprains, while among the overuse injuries large number of feet
lacerations/callosity and gastrocnemius contractures were reported. These injuries, all located in
the lower body region (legs, ankles and feet), are partially explained by the fact that martial
artists train barefoot. This observation is indeed confirmed by previous studies which highlighted
that barefoot athletes suffered injuries principally to the lower limbs.12,13,21
The second aim of the study was to identify possible risk factors able to predict lower limb
injuries and to evaluate the distribution of these factors in injured and non-injured subjects. The
training volume, age and BMI were found significantly predictive for the presence or absence of
acute and overuse injury (Table 2) but not able to distinguish between the two kinds of injury
(see AI vs OI, Table 2). Concerning the training volume, the athletes who not suffered injuries
used to train for a lower number of hours per week (Table 3). This result is in agreement with
previous studies10,8 and demonstrates that larger barefoot training volumes provide an increased
risk of injury. Considering the age factor, the comparisons pointed out that the non-injured
subjects exhibited lower age than athletes who sustained acute or overuse injuries (Table 3), in
agreement with previous studies which reported that younger participants in martial arts were at
lower risk of injury than adults8,11 . This finding can be partially explained by considering that the
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young athletes tend to have lower body weight and lower ability to produce the same level of
force than the older ones.38 Similarly to training volume and age, also the BMI index resulted a
significant risk factor for injuries but more specifically about the overuse injury (see NI vs OI,
Table 2). To this regard, higher values of BMI were observed for the OI group, classified as
overweight, than AI and NI (Table 3). As expected, the higher was the weight/height ratio, the
higher was the risk to suffer an overuse injury.39 According to these findings, it can be recognized
that martial arts represent safer physical activities for younger practitioners with moderate BMI
and training volume values.
In contrast with these results, the foot morphological indexes (NH, ND and RF), quantifying
midtarsal joint pronation, were found not able to predict the absence or presence of acute or
overuse injury (Table 2). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed among the injury
type groups (NI, AI and OI) (Table 3) thus indicating that the foot morphological variables did
not influence the presence of injuries. This finding is in agreement with that reported by other
authors assessing the relation between foot morphology and lower limb injuries in martial arts.21
However, other investigators showed that larger values of RF, NH, and ND were associated with
musculoskeletal injuries.40-42 Allen et al. reported that excessive foot pronation, measured as ND,
in young healthy adults was a significant risk factor contributing to anterior cruciate ligament
injury41 and, in addition, athletes with medial tibial stress syndrome showed significant higher
values in both NH and ND than non-injured runners.29
It is worth noting that the mean values of NH, ND and RF pointed out in the present study were
found in the range of normality provided in literature for healthy adults and athletes.33,43 More
specifically, Brody et al. reported approximately 10.0 mm as normal ND values in athletes and
15.0 mm as upper limit for normal range.33 Nilsson et al identified normal ND values ranging
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from 6.0 to 18.0 mm, and NH values from 36.0 to 55.0 mm.43 Furthermore, recent studies have
reported that RF values ranging from 1.0° to 8.0° can be considered neutral and normal in healthy
adult populations.44,45 Therefore, in the present study, NH, ND, and RF mean values (see Table 3)
are representative of anormalconditionoftheathletes’footanatomy.
The present study has some limitations. Firstly, no sampling method was adopted and a relatively
small sample for each martial art style was included. Therefore, the results should be interpreted
with caution and, in addition, the participants are not representative of athletes practicing other
sports. Secondly, since the study performed retrospective evaluation, future ad-hoc prospective
studies should also be accounted to consolidate the obtained results. In addition, further potential
risk factors,suchasthetrainingexperienceortheathletes’physicalattributes, should be studied
in the future. Finally, it is worth noting that some methodological differences in the techniques
used to measure foot morphology could be observed between the present work and other studies.
The discrepancies in the assessment of foot morphology between studies should be more
carefully controlled to avoid possible bias in the results.
CONCLUSIONS
In martial arts athletes, the injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido and thai boxe.
The foot morphology variables were found not related with the presence or absence of acute and
overuse lower limb injuries. Conversely, age, BMI and training volume resulted predictive risk
factors for injuries, indicating that older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of
barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers, coaches and the
medical staff should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more
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accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists. For example, strengthening
the lower extremities with both open and closed kinetic chain exercises could improve the ability
to exert and absorb higher forces during training and competition. Moreover, it is worth
recommending to perform injury prevention exercises without shoes in barefoot sports.
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the electronic c opy of the article thr ough online internet an d/or intranet file sharin g systems, electronic mailing or any other mean s which may allow ac cess to the Article. The use of all or any
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TITLES FOR TABLES.
Table 1.
Title: Injury distribution by martial art style and percussive (*) and non-percussive (**) type.
Legend: Values are number of participants with percentages (%). Number of subjects (N)
reporting no injuries (NI), acute injury (AI) and overuse injury (OI). No significant differences
were detected accordingtotheFisher’sexacttestandChi-squared test.
Table 2.
Title: Predictors of injury.
Legend: Significance of training volume, age, BMI, and foot morphology parameters (NH, ND
and RF) as predictors for the absence or presence of injury. Injury outcome characterized as
dichotomic (NI vs AI+OI) and trimodal (NI, AI, OI).
Table 3.
Title: Characteristics of the subjects categorized in three groups: no injury (NI), acute injury
(AI), and overuse injury (OI).
Legend: Training volume, age, BMI values and foot morphology parameters (NH, ND and RF),
expressed as mean ± SD, in the three considered injury-related groups: NI, AI, and OI with the
corresponding number of subjects reported between tenses. Significance of comparing
differences among groups and post-hoc comparisons are reported as well.
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TITLES FOR FIGURES.
Figure 1.
Title: Measurement of Navicular Height (NH) and Navicular Drop (ND) with the use of the
digital caliper.
Figure 2.
Title: Measurement of the Rear Foot (RF) with the use of the goniometer.
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Table 1. Injury distribution by martial art style and percussive (*) and non-percussive (**)
types.
N
NI
AI
OI
Judo**
35
18 (51.4)
10 (28.6)
7 (20.0)
Karate*
26
14 (53.8)
7 (27.0)
5 (19.2)
Kung Fu*
38
25 (65.8)
7 (18.4)
6 (15.8)
Thai Boxe*
21
10 (47.7)
8 (38.1)
3 (14.2)
Aikido**
10
3 (30.0)
3 (30.0)
4 (40.0)
Total
130
70 (53.8)
35 (27.0)
25 (19.2)
Percussive
85
49 (57.6)
22 (25.9)
14 (16.5)
Non-percussive
45
21 (46.7)
13 (28.9)
11 (24.4)
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Table 2. Predictors of injury.
injury outcome
training
volume
age
BMI
NH
ND
RF
NI vs AI+OI
p<0.01
p<0.01
p=0.09
-
-
-
NI vs AI
p<0.01
p<0.05
-
-
-
-
NI vs OI
p<0.01
p<0.05
p<0.05
-
-
-
AI vs OI
-
-
-
-
-
-
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Table 3. Characteristics of the subjects categorized in three groups: no injury (NI), acute injury (AI), and overuse injury (OI).
training volume
(h*week-1)
age
(years)
BMI
(kg*m-2)
NH
(mm)
ND
(mm)
RF
(degrees)
NI (N=70)
4.1 2.1
20.0 9.9
21.1 4.1
37.8 9.3
9.2 4.9
4.1 2.8
AI (N=35)
5.8 2.7
29.8 13.9
23.1 3.9
39.9 7.7
8.5 5.6
3.1 3.7
OI (N=25)
6.8 2.6
34.8 15.3
25.9 4.9
40.3 5.9
9.6 6.6
3.5 4.3
significance
p<0.001
p<0.001
p<0.001
-
-
-
post-hoc comparisons
NI < AI (p<0.01)
NI < OI (p<0.001)
NI < AI (p<0.01)
NI < OI (p<0.001)
NI < AI (p<0.01)
NI < OI (p<0.001)
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