Article

Visual Data Mining: Analysis of Airline Service Quality Attributes

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Abstract

The objectives of the study are to identify the key airline quality attributes from online review posts and to examine the effect of identified airline quality attributes on eWOM communication. This study employed data-mining techniques and logistic regression on 901 passenger reviews to evaluate the service quality of passenger airlines. The major contribution was identifying the most salient topics of travelers complimenting and complaining reviews. Passengers’ comments support that service, staff, cabin seat comfort, and entertainment are among the most discussed themes in positive and negative reviews. Additionally, value, seat comfort, staff/service, and catering were found to be significant predictors of airline eWOM.

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... Further with regard to collecting data through questionnaire method, a popular method in customer satisfaction studies in hospitality and tourism literature (Pizam et al., 2016), it has been pointed out that data collection through questionnaire method limits the research process as the respondents are usually not willing to spend their time answering our questions and the random selection of the sample is also not usually possible (Lefever et al., 2007) The important role and impact of UGC in understanding customer preferences and customer satisfaction in hospitality literature is well documented (X. Y. Leung et al., 2019), while a similar trend seen in travel industry highlighting the analysis of user-generated text reviews with respect to the airline industry is relatively limited (Bogicevic et al., 2017;Martin-Domingo et al., 2019;Siering et al., 2018), with studies particularly focusing on customer ratings of attributes as part of online UGCs are even more scarce (Punel et al., 2019). While online text reviews are rich in content, consumers do not include all dimensions of service attributes while writing these reviews. ...
... These were further seen to impact customer satisfaction and re-flying intensions. Bogicevic et al. (2017) identified the most common themes in positive reviews to be related to seat comfort, food quality, staff attitude and service delivery, whereas the most negative reviews commented on the plane interior, service, timeliness and seat comfort. Further results from logistic regression used to predict the Electronic Word of Mouth, and the qualitative results indicate value, seat comfort, staff/service and catering to significantly influence passenger's recommendation. ...
... Equation (1) is estimated using the logistic regression method. Similar discrete choice model estimation methodology has been adopted by several studies in the literature (Bogicevic et al., 2017;Ong & Tan, 2010;Siering et al., 2018). With regard to attribute ratings, customers rate them based on a 5-point Likert scale similar to the way they did the overall airline experience. ...
... Previous studies on airline experiences have focused on how airline passengers evaluate the service quality of experience attributes and then they group individual attributes into categories. The attributes of cabin experience include the quality of food service (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, entertainment within the cabin (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, cabin facilities (Ahn et al., 2015;, overall environment of the cabin (Ahn et al., 2015), service provided by flight attendants (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, attractiveness of attendants (Ahn et al., 2015), and comfort of the seats (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017). For studies that group characteristics into categories, lim and lee (2020) categorised the individual characteristics of cabin experience into tangibles, reliability, empathy, responsiveness, and assurance. ...
... Previous studies on airline experiences have focused on how airline passengers evaluate the service quality of experience attributes and then they group individual attributes into categories. The attributes of cabin experience include the quality of food service (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, entertainment within the cabin (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, cabin facilities (Ahn et al., 2015;, overall environment of the cabin (Ahn et al., 2015), service provided by flight attendants (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, attractiveness of attendants (Ahn et al., 2015), and comfort of the seats (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017). For studies that group characteristics into categories, lim and lee (2020) categorised the individual characteristics of cabin experience into tangibles, reliability, empathy, responsiveness, and assurance. ...
... Previous studies on airline experiences have focused on how airline passengers evaluate the service quality of experience attributes and then they group individual attributes into categories. The attributes of cabin experience include the quality of food service (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, entertainment within the cabin (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, cabin facilities (Ahn et al., 2015;, overall environment of the cabin (Ahn et al., 2015), service provided by flight attendants (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017;, attractiveness of attendants (Ahn et al., 2015), and comfort of the seats (Ahn et al., 2015;Atalık et al., 2019;Bogicevic et al., 2017). For studies that group characteristics into categories, lim and lee (2020) categorised the individual characteristics of cabin experience into tangibles, reliability, empathy, responsiveness, and assurance. ...
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... Further with regard to collecting data through questionnaire method, a popular method in customer satisfaction studies in hospitality and tourism literature (Pizam et al., 2016), it has been pointed out that data collection through questionnaire method limits the research process as the respondents are usually not willing to spend their time answering our questions and the random selection of the sample is also not usually possible (Lefever et al., 2007) The important role and impact of UGC in understanding customer preferences and customer satisfaction in hospitality literature is well documented (X. Y. Leung et al., 2019), while a similar trend seen in travel industry highlighting the analysis of user-generated text reviews with respect to the airline industry is relatively limited (Bogicevic et al., 2017;Martin-Domingo et al., 2019;Siering et al., 2018), with studies particularly focusing on customer ratings of attributes as part of online UGCs are even more scarce (Punel et al., 2019). While online text reviews are rich in content, consumers do not include all dimensions of service attributes while writing these reviews. ...
... These were further seen to impact customer satisfaction and re-flying intensions. Bogicevic et al. (2017) identified the most common themes in positive reviews to be related to seat comfort, food quality, staff attitude and service delivery, whereas the most negative reviews commented on the plane interior, service, timeliness and seat comfort. Further results from logistic regression used to predict the Electronic Word of Mouth, and the qualitative results indicate value, seat comfort, staff/service and catering to significantly influence passenger's recommendation. ...
... Equation (1) is estimated using the logistic regression method. Similar discrete choice model estimation methodology has been adopted by several studies in the literature (Bogicevic et al., 2017;Ong & Tan, 2010;Siering et al., 2018). With regard to attribute ratings, customers rate them based on a 5-point Likert scale similar to the way they did the overall airline experience. ...
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... Seat width and seat legroom for long-haul flights are the two most significant variables in the overall perception of passenger comfort in an aircraft, followed by seat recline, TV screen view and aisle space/access (Šebjan, Tominc, & Širec, 2017). Another study suggests that in-flight comfort is determined by the precise cabin announcements, safety demonstrations, crew competence and politeness, a pleasant aircraft interior, well-maintained facilities, and a diverse range of entertainment programs (Bogicevic, Yang, Bujisic, & Bilgihan, 2017). Participant 2 claimed that she had chosen the airline because of the comfort when asked regarding online/offline advertising. ...
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... Seat width and seat legroom for long-haul flights are the two most significant variables in the overall perception of passenger comfort in an aircraft, followed by seat recline, TV screen view and aisle space/access (Šebjan, Tominc, & Širec, 2017). Another study suggests that in-flight comfort is determined by the precise cabin announcements, safety demonstrations, crew competence and politeness, a pleasant aircraft interior, well-maintained facilities, and a diverse range of entertainment programs (Bogicevic, Yang, Bujisic, & Bilgihan, 2017). Participant 2 claimed that she had chosen the airline because of the comfort when asked regarding online/offline advertising. ...
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... Seat width and seat legroom for long-haul flights are the two most significant variables in the overall perception of passenger comfort in an aircraft, followed by seat recline, TV screen view and aisle space/access (Šebjan, Tominc, & Širec, 2017). Another study suggests that in-flight comfort is determined by the precise cabin announcements, safety demonstrations, crew competence and politeness, a pleasant aircraft interior, well-maintained facilities, and a diverse range of entertainment programs (Bogicevic, Yang, Bujisic, & Bilgihan, 2017). Participant 2 claimed that she had chosen the airline because of the comfort when asked regarding online/offline advertising. ...
... It was seen that research related to online reviews and ratings for airlines was very limited (Bogicevic et al., 2017;Brochado et al., 2019;Güngör et al., 2019;İbiş & Batman, 2016;Lacic et al., 2016;Siering et al., 2018a;Stamolampros et al., 2018;Yao et al., 2015). Using online reviews and ratings as data might help us to understand passengers' general overview regarding the airlines' services. ...
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... Skytrax receives about 1.26 million monthly visitors, with 87.47 percent of those searching using words like airline(s), air, and review-(s) [27]. When a series of verification and security features are added to the comments on Skytrax, they are found to be extremely accurate [28]. [29] collected customer feedback on Skytrax to assess airline passengers' emotions. ...
... Effective knowledge-discovery approaches can reveal, in an automatic way, understandable and useful structures, trends and patterns in the considered data to improve accuracy and provide decision explanation in aviation industry decision support. Many data mining techniques-including those rooted in the field of computational intelligence-have been applied to the airline data analysissee, e.g., [5][6][7][8][9][10]. However, their essential drawback is their non-transparent, black-box, and accuracy-oriented nature, i.e., they do not provide any deeper (or any) explanations and justifications of the decisions made. ...
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... The content of one article [7] was unavailable and was also excluded from the further research. The final distribution of articles into the four described groups shows table 1. ...
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... Websites are a vital source of information for wouldbe travelers as they help in making decisions such as destination choices, activities at a destination as well as accommodation options (Tsokota, von Solms, & van Greunen, 2014). Bogicevic, Yang, Bujisic, and Bilgihan (2017) debate that social media has become integral in the 21 st century as it provides information on products, prices and hospitality organizations. Social media consequently theaters remarkably as a major source of big data for analytics in the hospitality industry (Nave, Rita, & Guerreiro, 2018). ...
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This article reports an experiment designed to investigate the short-term sales effects of product-related conversations. The results show that exposure to favorable comments aids acceptance of a new product, while unfavorable comments hinder it.
Chapter
Successful businesses are increasingly aware of the importance of service delivery in generating competitive advantages, loyal customers, and long-term economic success (Wagner 1994; Jones and Sasser 1995; Liu et al., 2000). It is widely acknowledged that well-designed customer-service programs enhance customer satisfaction, customer retention, market share, revenue, and profits (Reichheld and Sasser, 1990; Rust and Zahorik, 1993, 1995; Anderson et al., 1994; Jones and Sasser, 1995; Anderson et al., 1997; Loveman, 1998; Hoffman and Kelley, 2000; Johnston, 2001). These issues are of particular importance in the airline industry, in which the delivery of high-quality service to passengers has been shown to be essential (Sultan and Simpson, 2000; Aksoy et al., 2003; Park et al., 2004; Chen and Chang, 2005; Chen, 2008). However, although the link between airline service quality and passenger satisfaction has been established empirically, the exact nature of the relationships that exist among the constructs of airline service quality, passenger satisfaction, and loyalty remains unclear (Park et al., 2004). The role of value in the airline industry is also unclear. Because service failures can occur in airline services as they can occur in the best-run companies in any business setting, improved complaint management and service recovery are obviously important (Boshoff, 1997, 1999; Johnston, 1995). The providers of airline services, like all service providers, need to implement effective complaint-management and service-recovery strategies to ensure (or at least enhance) consumer retention (Liu et al., 2000). However, there is lack of a reliable measurement tool to capture the impact of particular airline service-quality attributes and service-recovery actions on passengers’ behavioural intentions. The purposes of this study are, therefore: (i) to develop an integrated model of customer satisfaction and loyalty in the context of airline service failure; (ii) to undertake empirical testing of the position and effect of perceived value in such a model; (iii) to identify a set of pertinent service-quality dimensions for airline services; and (iv) to provide evidence for the causal relationships among the constructs of service quality, perceived value, overall customer satisfaction, and loyalty. The questionnaire contained items extracted from the existing literature on airline service quality (Park et al., 2004; Chen, 2008; Chen and Chang, 2005).
Article
This study differs from previous studies by applying multivariate statistical analysis and multi-criterion decision-making methods to the improvement of service quality. We use the rough set theory (RST) with a flow graph approach to determine customer attitudes regarding service quality, which can assist managers in developing strategies to improve service quality and thus satisfy the needs of customers. A set of rules is derived from a large sample of airline customers, and its predictive ability is evaluated. The flow graph and the cause-and-effect relationship of the decision rules are heavily exploited in service quality characteristics. As compared with the results of other data-mining analyses, our results are encouraging. This study demonstrates that the combination of the RST model and flow graphs assists in identifying the needs of customers, determining their characteristics, and facilitating the development of an improvement strategy.
Article
Historically, airline quality has been measured through the use of surveys that ask the consumers to make a comparison between expectations and outcomes. This method was informative but very cumbersome in a rapidly changing environment. This paper outlines the efforts of the consumer researchers to develop a weighted, consumer oriented rating scale for the U.S.A. domestic airline industryas an alternativeto survey-basedrating scales.The AirlineQualityRating(AQR)approach has been successfully employed in the United States by the major airlines and by the general public. Development considerations are offered for facilitating the adaptation of the AQR’s weighted average approach to the world airline industry.
Article
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relationships among overall service quality, customer satisfaction, and behavioural intentions by considering the moderating impact of in-flight ambient conditions (air quality, temperature, odour, and noise) in the low-cost airline industry. A survey was conducted on international flights. Results of the structural equation modelling from a sample of 402 passengers indicated that quality and satisfaction are significant drivers of intentions; and satisfaction acted as a significant mediators. Additionally, supporting the moderating impact of ambience, findings from the tests for metric invariance revealed that the effect of satisfaction on intentions was stronger for the high air quality, temperature, odour, and noise groups than for the low groups; and the strength of the relationship between quality and intentions was greater in the high noise group than in the low noise group. Our results will help practitioners/researchers develop effective strategies/theories for passenger satisfaction and retention.
Article
The paper examines the perceptions of and satisfaction with air transportation services in a sample of persons aged 65 and over at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. This study finds that the performance of service attributes such as meals, information announcements, and on-board restrooms do not meet the respondents' expectations. It also finds that the service needs of the younger and older elderly passengers differ.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the service quality and customer satisfaction of the top 14 U.S. airlines between 2007 to 2011 using data from the Department of Transportation Air Travel Reports. The objectives of this study were to compare customer satisfaction and service quality with respect to airlines quality dimensions and subsequently to determine the relationships between the dimensions of service quality and passengers’ satisfaction on airlines services. A critical review of the literature revealed that the airline industry has been struggling with many challenges: cutting costs, managing fluctuating demand, keeping up with tight quality requirements while trying to maintain superior services and satisfy the needs of various customer groups. Data were collected from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report on the following measures: percentage of on-time arrival, passengers denied boarding, mishandled baggage and customer complaints. Using a quantitative research method, Microsoft Excel version 2010 was used to analyze the data using percentages, mean and standard deviation. Results indicate that while the traditional carriers are converging toward a higher level of service quality, using the four measures, there continue to be significant variation. In this study, over a five year period 2007 to 2011, the service quality of low cost airlines was generally found to be higher than that of traditional legacy airlines. Implications related to operating costs, market share, infrastructure and customer service were evident.
Article
This study examines the underlying forces of service quality influences on passengers" satisfaction in aircraft transport. The study examines which dimensions have a positive influence on service quality and which dimensions have the most and least important impact on service quality in international air travel, as perceived by airline passengers. The findings of this study are based on the analysis of a sample of 270 respondents. This study analyzed the data from passengers of three classes, economy, business and premium. The results suggest that there are different factors of in-flight service quality that are important according to the customer seat class. The dimensionality of perceived service quality in international air travel was explored and three dimensions were identified. These dimensions include in-flight service, in-flight digital service and back-office operations. The findings reveal that these three dimensions are positively related to perceive service quality in international air travel and of these dimensions, Cuisines provided, seat comfort safety are the most important dimension in in-flight service quality. Personal entertainment is the most important dimension as perceived by airline passengers in In-flight digital service quality. Online ticket booking is another dimension in back-office operations. In addition, the findings indicate that passengers" satisfaction on different airline companies on basis of the services delivered.
Article
Airline service quality to many U.S. passengers may be the ultimate oxymoron based on stories, statistics and the perception that airlines help to foster. In reviewing data from the last 25 years from the Service Disquality Index (SDI) it appears that service quality in the U.S. is only met in times of economic distress or the after effects of terrorism. Due to recent actions mandated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, the chase for ancillary revenues and airlines perhaps finally practicing some constraint, major U.S. airlines are finally meeting minimum standards for service quality as reflected in recent SDI scores.
Article
In this paper we propose a framework to investigate service quality asymmetrically. An asymmetric response model within structural equation framework is developed to study the relationship between service quality and the passenger’s behavioral intention in the cross-strait direct flight (Taiwan–Shanghai). The results reveal that service quality in the loss region has more impact on behavioral intention than service quality in the gain region. Hence, attention should be paid to the service quality of important attributes in the loss region and strategies should ensure service quality of those important attributes that meet passenger’s expectations.
Article
This paper focuses on studying the relationship between customer satisfaction, measured by customer complaints, and the service quality of Chinese carriers. By using a quarterly unbalanced panel data set covering twelve large and small carriers, our fixed effect Tobit analysis shows that customer complaints rise with increases in the number of damaged bags, but at a declining rate. By contrast, the on-time performance of scheduled flights has no significant effect on customer complaints. Furthermore, non-state or privately owned carriers receive significantly more customer complaints compared with state-owned carriers, and the largest number of complaints are made in the third quarter, which covers the high season of the summer holidays.
Article
The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of service quality in the airline industry by developing a conceptual framework and measurement scale. Based on an extensive literature review, qualitative and empirical research, a hierarchical model of service quality for the airline industry is proposed. Analysis of data from 544 passengers indicates that the proposed model fits the data well. Reliability and validity of the measurement scale are established using a pilot test and the substantive survey. This study extends the literature on service quality in the fields of transportation management by providing a comprehensive framework and measurement scale. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Article
This paper uses simple structural equation modelling to investigate relationships between service quality, airline image, customer value and behavioural intentions for passengers to fly on low cost carriers. In particular it focuses on flier’s expectations of the types of services that they can enjoy. The analysis indicates that service quality has a significant positive effect on customer value, airline image and behavioural intentions, but that airline image does not itself significantly influence behavioural intentions.
Article
Few studies have been conducted of whether in-flight cabin and in-flight attributes influence air travelers' selection of a low-cost airline. This study developed an integrative model to investigate relationships between ambient conditions, space/function, cognitive and affective evaluations, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. The relative importance of ambience and space/function in forming intentions, and a mediating impact of cognitive and affective evaluations and passenger satisfaction, were also examined. A survey was conducted on international low-cost airlines while in-flight. Overall, findings derived from a structural model indicated that air quality, temperature, layout, and equipment/amenities significantly induce favorable cognitive and affective evaluations and satisfaction, thereby influencing passengers' positive behavioral intentions. Additionally, mediating impacts of some variables were found. The findings offer meaningful implications for marketing researchers and practitioners in the low-cost airline industry.
Article
The notion of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communication has received considerable attention in both business and academic communities. Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the effectiveness of eWOM communication. The scope of published studies on the impact of eWOM communication is large and fragmented and little effort has been made to integrate the findings of prior studies and evaluate the status of the research in this area. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of eWOM research. Building upon our literature analysis, we used the social communication framework to summarize and classify prior eWOM studies. We further identified key factors related to the major elements of the social communication literature and built an integrative framework explaining the impact of eWOM communication on consumer behavior. We believe that the framework will provide an important foundation for future eWOM research work.
Article
With the number of impaired air passengers having increased globally, air service providers may have the potential to create a lucrative niche market. However, it is less clear what the service needs of these passengers are as well as providing facilities and services. This paper aims to explore the service needs of impaired air passengers and to identify factors affecting the facilities and services. The results of data from a sample of 180 respondents from among airline, airport and government staff are presented in this research. These results show that the top three items which travellers complained about in relation to airlines are the lack of provision of a user-friendly on-board restroom, wheelchair services and the distance between cabin seats and restroom on board. The results also show that female staff are more likely to be willing to help impaired passengers than male staff. In considering the factors comprising perceived needs, two factors, i.e. “Compensation and improvement schemes” and “Not suitable for taking a flight” appear to have significant effects. The managerial implications are also discussed.
Article
The current research systematically develops and empirically validates a scale to measure word-of-mouth communication and investigates two forms of customer commitment and service quality as potential antecedents. The findings support the hypotheses that affective commitment is positively related to word-of-mouth communication but that high sacrifice commitment is not related to word-of-mouth communication. Interestingly, the effect of service quality on word-of-mouth communication appears to be industry dependent. A distinction is made between word-of-mouth activity and word-of-mouth praise.
Article
This paper investigates air passengers’ perceptions of 11 factors that may influence their buying behaviour namely, in-flight service, reservation-related service, airport service, reliability, employee service, flight availability, perceived price, passenger satisfaction, perceived value, airline image, and overall service quality. Analysis of variance and an independent sample t-test are applied to data collected from Korean and Australian international air passengers. The results reveal that passenger perceptions are significantly different across airlines, seat classes, and usage frequencies.
Article
Stated preference (SP) analysis is a technique widely used by market research and transportation professionals to understand decision-making behavior and consumer choice models. This discussion covers the role of SP as a tool to enhance understanding of air travelers’ preferences and priorities for airline services and the potential for SP research to play a greater role in product development and demand forecasting for different types of airline services. Two case studies of previously conducted research for a major airline in Asia are used to explore how SP data have been used to evaluate passenger preferences and priorities. SP experience gained from other transportation modes (e.g., urban rail and bus services) is also examined and the potential applications of these lessons to the airline industry are suggested.
Article
This study measures airline service quality based on data collected at a Turkish airline using SERVQUAL scores weighted by loadings derived from factor analysis. The results demonstrated that “responsiveness” dimension is the most important, while “availability” is the least important element of quality. Passengers’ educational level is an important variable affecting their expectations and perceptions. Additionally, passengers’ gap scores significantly differed by their educational level, frequency of flight, and flight purposes.
Article
Online reputation mechanisms harness the bi-directional communication capabilities of the Internet in order to engineer large-scale word-of-mouth networks. They are emerging as a promising alternative to more established assurance mechanisms, such as branding and formal contracting, in a variety of settings ranging from online marketplaces to Internet search engines. At the same time, they are transforming a concept that had traditionally fallen within the realm of the social sciences into an engineering design problem. This paper surveys our progress in understanding the new possibilities and challenges that these mechanisms represent. It discusses some important dimensions in which Internet-based reputation mechanisms differ from traditional word-of-mouth networks and surveys the most important issues related to designing, evaluating and using them. It provides an overview of relevant work in game theory and economics on the topic or reputation. It further discusses how this body of work is being extended and combined with insights from computer science, information systems, management science and psychology in order to take into consideration the special properties of online mechanisms such as their unprecedented scalability, the ability to precisely design the type of feedback information they solicit and distribute, and challenges associated with the volatility of identities and the absence of many familiar contextual cues in online environments.
Article
This article reports an experiment designed to investigate the short-term sales effects of product-related conversations. The results show that exposure to favorable comments aids acceptance of a new product, while unfavorable comments hinder it.
Article
The author examines consumer affective responses to product/consumption experiences and their relationship to selected aspects of postpurchase processes. In separate field studies of automobile owners and CATV subscribers, subjects reported the nature and frequency of emotional experiences in connection with product ownership and usage. Analysis confirms hypotheses about the existence of independent dimensions of positive and negative affect. Both dimensions of affective response are found directly related to the favorability of consumer satisfaction judgments, extent of seller-directed complaint behavior, and extent of word-of-mouth transmission.
Article
The study examines issues related to service quality and customer loyalty in the commercial airline industry. The results of an empirical study, using data collected on two air carriers, indicate that current levels of perceived service quality are below potential and that customer loyalty to airlines is low. A significant relationship was found to exist between service quality (carrier image) and retained preference, a measure of customer loyalty.
Article
Due to the paucity of literature dealing with Internet usages, this research attempted to determine users' preferences to airline Web sites with a segmentation approach. The measurement of the users' preferences was accomplished through a two-stage, analytical scheme embracing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Consequently, 16 Web site-related attributes were developed for a mail survey that yielded 328 useful samples. Two distinct segments, named Bargain Seekers and Utilitarians, were collectively determined by a cluster analysis, the importance rankings, and mean scores. Bargain Seekers tended to be younger females with a college degree, an annual income lower than $60,000, and used the Internet over 2 hours daily. In the final analysis, marketing implications along with suggestions for future studies are rendered.
Article
This study set out to examine the service quality and customer satisfaction delivered by the national airline company in Northern Cyprus, using a SERVQUAL scale. For this purpose, the translated instrument was purified using an item categorization technique and administered to 270 current users of the national airline company at an international university in the region. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the predicted five-dimensional structure of SERVQUAL was partially confirmed by the data. SERVPERF scores gave a better prediction of overall satisfaction and showed almost the same reliability and validity as those from which expectations were subtracted. The largest service gaps were identified with the reliability and responsiveness dimensions, and the smallest with the empathy dimension. Reliability and responsiveness dimensions were found by path analysis to be significant determinants of customer satisfaction. Implications of the results are discussed.
Article
Explores the extent to which the form of the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer behaviour is different under conditions of "low" satisfaction and "high" satisfaction. Three behavioural variables (word-of-mouth, feedback to the supplier, and loyalty) were examined. The results point to the fact that differences in the form do exist. Moreover, the results show that differences exist between the differences, in the sense that different patterns emerge for each behavioural variable.
Article
Although the same culture and language pertains in Taiwan and the Chinese mainland, perceptions of service quality vary. Here notions of air service quality is examined in terms of passengers’ backgrounds, and especially of those from cross-strait areas based on the perception data of Taiwan travelers and Mainland China travelers. Significant differences are found between cross-strait airlines and Taiwan and Mainland China travelers regarding service attributes.