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Abstract

Zusammenfassung Das Thema Digitalisierung ist in Bezug auf Genossenschaften eine noch fast unerforschte, neue Problemstellung in der Genossenschaftswissenschaft, ist aber von hoher Relevanz für die Zukunft der Genossenschaften. Dieser Artikel führt in die Problematik ein, strukturiert sie und liefert dazu erste empirische Ergebnisse zum Stand der Digitalisierung bei Genossenschaften in der Schweiz. Methodisch wurde neben einer kurzen Literaturrecherche eine empirische Untersuchung bei den zwanzig größten Aktiengesellschaften und Genossenschaften in der Schweiz durchgeführt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass der Einsatz von ausgewählten Digitalisierungstechnologien bei Genossenschaften gegenüber Aktiengesellschaften noch ausbaufähig ist. Der wissenschaftliche Beitrag dieses Artikels liegt einerseits in der Strukturierung der Problematik, die sich spezifisch für Genossenschaften im Rahmen der Digitalisierung stellen, andererseits in ersten Befunden zur empirischen Realität des Einsatzes von Digitalisierungstechnologien sowie weitere Forschungsfragen zum Thema.

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... Es gilt, den zunehmenden Anforderungen der Supply Chain Koordination gerecht zu werden, um die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit weiterhin zu sichern. Dennoch stellen die spezifischen Merkmale der Genossenschaft, wie der risikoaverse Unternehmenszweck, die notwendige Überwindung multipler Stakeholderinteressen (Mitglieder, LieferantInnen, KundInnen usw.) und die lokale Verankerung, Hemmnisse für das Vorantreiben der Digitalisierung dar (Peter und Jungmeister, 2017). Frey (2016) bezeichnet Genossenschaften in Bezug auf die Adoption neuer Technologien als ,,late adopter" und empfiehlt, dies branchenspezifisch zu untersuchen und empirisch nachzuvollziehen. ...
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Zusammenfassung Der Einsatz digitaler Informationssysteme wird als notwendig angesehen, um dem verpflichtenden Doku-mentationsaufwand entlang der Wertschöpfungskette (WSK) Fleisch gerecht zu werden. Besonders die ge-nossenschaftlich geprägte WSK der Rotfleischwirtschaft steht vor einer digitalen Transformation des Ge-schäftsmodells. Aufgrund dessen werden in diesem Beitrag nutzenbestimmende Faktoren bezüglich der Akzeptanz internetbasierter Informationssysteme anhand einer Befragung von Zulieferern eines genossen-schaftlich organisierten Viehvermarktungsunternehmens in Deutschland analysiert. Als Ergebnis wurden drei übergreifende nutzenbestimmende Faktoren identifiziert, die ein internetbasiertes Informationssystem liefert (Betriebsinterne Dokumentations-und Verwaltungsaufgaben (B2A), Überbetrieblicher Austausch der Daten (B2B), Integration von externen Daten). Auf dem Weg zur eigentlichen Implementierung dieser Systeme bietet sich seitens genossenschaftlich geprägter Viehvermarktungsunternehmen an, die LandwirtInnen bei der Einführung zu unterstützen und ihnen beratend zur Seite zu stehen. Summary The use of digital information systems is considered necessary in order to meet the obligatory documentation requirements along the meat value chain. Especially the cooperative value chain of the red meat industry is facing a digital transformation of its business model. Therefore, this paper analyses benefit-determining factors regarding the acceptance of internet-based information systems by means of a survey of suppliers of a cooperative-based livestock marketing company in Germany. As a result, three overarching benefit-determining factors were identified that an internet-based information system provides (internal documentation and administration tasks (B2A), inter-company data exchange (B2B), integration of external data). On the way to the actual implementation of these systems, cooperative-based livestock marketing companies can offer their support and advise to farmers during the introduction.
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Der genossenschaftliche Landhandel sieht sich einem Verdrängungswettbewerb ausgesetzt, was insgesamt eine zunehmende Marktkonzentration begünstigt und zu größeren Unternehmensstrukturen führt. Während Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien sowie E-Business in vielen Branchen zu einem Wandel führten und den Unternehmen Wettbewerbsvorteile erbrachten, war dies im Agrar- und Ernährungssektor nicht der Fall. Aufgrund dessen wird in diesem Beitrag anhand einer erstmalig durchgeführten empirischen Befragung von GeschäftsführerInnen von Warengenossenschaften der aktuelle Status quo der Adoption digitaler Technologien erfasst und analysiert. Dabei konnten anhand einer Clusteranalyse die Genossenschaften dem Cluster der „Basic Adopters“ (n=48) und der „Advanced service-orientated Adopters“ (n=18) zugeordnet werden. Die „Basic Adopters“ setzten dabei überwiegend äußerst grundlegende digitale Technologien zur Unterstützung der Geschäftsprozesse (z.B. Elektronisches Warenwirtschaftssystem, Dokumentation und Auswertung der Kundenaktivitäten) ein, wobei die „Advanced service-orientated Adopters“ schon einige komplexere digitale Technologien zur Unterstützung eines ganzheitlichen Kundenbeziehungsmanagements (z.B. CRM-Software, Social Media) und zur Effizienzsteigerung der Logistik (z.B. Rechnergestützte Tourenplanungssysteme, Dispositionssoftware) nutzen. Faktoren, die zu einer höheren Adoption digitaler Technologien führen, konnten anhand der Ergebnisse dieser Studie vor allem auf die Größe der Genossenschaften, die räumlichen Entfernung zu deren Stakeholdern und auf ein hohes Level an Kooperationsbereitschaft zurückgeführt werden. Insgesamt deuten die Untersuchungsergebnisse darauf hin, dass die überwiegende Anzahl der Genossenschaften (28%) digitale Technologien nur auf einem unterentwickelten Niveau nutzen. Vor dem Hintergrund des anhaltenden Verdrängungswettbewerbs wird den Warengenossenschaften empfohlen, den Weg einer „digitalen“ Differenzierungsstrategie in Betracht zu ziehen und konkrete digitale Kompetenzen aufzubauen, um ihr Geschäftsmodell bzw. die Geschäftsprozesse an die aktuellen Branchenentwicklungen anzupassen.
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Zusammenfassung Der Einsatz digitaler Technologien wird als notwendig eingeordnet, um sich der verschärften Wettbewerbssituation, die sich entlang der gesamten agro-food Wertschöpfungskette vollzieht, zu stellen. Auch der genossenschaftliche Agrarhandel muss sich dementsprechend auf eine digitale Transformation des Geschäftsmodells einstellen. Aufgrund dessen wird in diesem Beitrag anhand einer empirischen Befragung von Geschäftsführerinnen von Warengenossenschaften analysiert, inwieweit zwischen digitalen Technologien bezüglich der erwarteten Werte der Nutzung und zwischen verschiedenen tatsächlichen Werten der Einstellung gegenüber der Akzeptanz digitaler Technologien unterschieden werden kann. Insgesamt konnte eine sogenannte Einstellungsakzeptanz gegenüber der Implementierung digitaler Technologien bei den Warengenossenschaften nachgewiesen werden. Als größte Herausforderung auf dem Weg zur Implementierung digitaler Technologien konnten personelle und finanzielle sowie strategische und operationeile Faktoren identifiziert werden. Chancen, die sich durch den genossenschaftlichen Verbund ergeben, müssen daher gezielt genutzt werden, um Herausforderungen zu stemmen und Risiken gemeinsam abzufedern.
Thesis
Aufgrund von anhaltenden Wandlungsprozessen verändern sich die Rahmenbedingungen für ländliche Genossenschaften (e.G.) und ihre Mitglieder ständig. Wandlungsprozesse sind von Interesse, weil sie u.a. Bedürfnisse von Menschen und dementsprechend Geschäftsfelder beeinflussen. Im Zuge der Wandlungsprozesse nimmt die Komplexität der landwirtschaftlichen Produktion zu und daraus folgt, dass Landwirte ein gesteigertes Bedürfnis nach Wissen und Informationen haben, um ihren Betrieb weiter zu entwickeln. Eine Organisationsform, welche ihre Mitglieder z.B. in Form von Beratung fördert, sind e.G. Zusätzlich nimmt der Wettbewerbsdruck auf ländliche e.G. zu. Um sich den Veränderungen in der Agrarwirtschaft anzupassen, nehmen ländliche e.G. strukturelle Veränderungen vor. Im Zuge des Konsolidierungsprozesses im Genossenschaftssektor steigt zum einen bspw. die Heterogenität von Mitarbeitern und Mitgliedern an und zum anderen kann es zwischen Organbetrieb und Genossenschaftsmitglied zu einem Verlust von Vertrauen kommen. Folglich kann Selbstverpflichtung und Loyalität des Mitgliedes in Bezug auf seine e.G. abnehmen. Vor dem Hintergrund beschriebener Transformationen – Anpassungs- und Innovationsdruck von deutschen Landwirten und des Konsolidierungsprozesses im Genossenschaftssektor – und deren strategischer Bedeutung für die Agrar- und Ernährungsbrache sowie der Ansicht, dass die Genossenschaftsforschung eine anwendungsorientierte Wissenschaft ist, verfolgt die vorliegende Dissertation das Ziel, ländlichen e.G. praxisrelevante Fragestellungen im Rahmen ihres Mitgliedermanagements zu beantworten. Dadurch kann ein Erkenntnistransfer von der Forschung in die Praxis ermöglicht sowie eine nachhaltige Entwicklung von ländlichen e.G. begünstigt werden. Demzufolge wurden auf Grundlage der Neuen Institutionenökonomie, verhaltensökonomischer Ansätze und mit Hilfe analytischer Tests, wie des U-Tests nach Mann und Whitney, sowie Regressionsanalysen, folgende Forschungsfragen (FF) behandelt: FFi: Was verstehen Mitglieder ländlicher Genossenschaften unter der von ihrer Genossenschaft ausgeführten Servicequalität? FFii: Wodurch lassen sich Vertrauensbeziehungen zwischen Mitgliedern und Mitarbeitern in ländlichen Genossenschaften erfolgversprechend gestalten? FFiii: Welche Förderleistungen können Genossenschaften zur Entwicklung ländlicher Regionen übernehmen? Die in dieser kumulativen Dissertation aufgeführten Studien beruhen vermehrt auf Datensätzen, welche im Bundesland Baden-Württemberg mittels quantitativer Erhebungsinstrumente wie schriftlichen Fragebögen, im Zeitraum 2016 bis 2017, erhoben wurden. U.a. findet das MemberValue Modell Anwendung. Hierbei wird die Wirksamkeit des spezifischen Förderauftrages der jeweiligen e.G. anwendend analysiert. Die unterschiedlichen Stichproben der dieser Dissertation beiliegenden Studien setzen sich aus Befragungen von Mitarbeitern, Mitgliedern und leitenden Mitgliedern von gemeinwesenorientierten und einer ländlichen e.G. zusammen. Mitarbeiter stellen einen notwendigen Faktor zur Erfüllung der Mitgliederzufriedenheit und – loyalität dar. Nach derzeitigem Wissen des Autors wurde daher erstmalig die Mitglieder– Mitarbeiter–Beziehung in letztgenannter ländlicher e.G. näher beleuchtet. Diese kumulative Dissertation liefert neue Erkenntnisse für das innerorganisationale Verständnis von e.G. im deutschsprachigen Raum – insbesondere in Bezug auf weiche Faktoren wie Partizipation, Vertrauen und Zufriedenheit.
Thesis
Vor dem Hintergrund des gesellschaftlichen, (infra-)strukturellen, landwirtschaftlichen und demografischen Wandels entstehen für die ländlichen Räume neue Herausforderungen. Besonders kleinere Gemeinden, ohne leistungsfähige Infrastruktur, sind vom demografischen Wandel betroffen (IREUS 2011, S. 64 f.). Eine zentrale Herausforderung, die sämtliche (Lebens-)Bereiche betrifft stellt dabei die flächendeckende Daseinsvorsorge dar. Ausgehend von den Herausforderungen der flächendeckenden Daseinsvorsorge wurde ein bereits stellenweise praktizierter Lösungsansatz analysiert und weiterentwickelt. Aus dem vergangenen Jahrzehnt liegen Beobachtungen, Hinweise und statistische Aufzeichnungen vor, die davon zeugen, dass die vielfältigen Aufgaben der Daseinsvorsorge partiell von Genossenschaften übernommen werden (vgl. BLOME-DREES et al. 2015; DOLUSCHITZ et al. 2013a; GOESCHEL 2012, S. 51; KLEMISCH und BODDENBERG 2012, S. 570; KLUTH 2017; MARTENS 2012, S. 145; MÜNKNER 2012, S. 332; STAPPEL 2016, S. 66), mit dem Ziel, spezifische lokale Probleme zu lösen (HAUNSTEIN und THÜRLING 2017, S. 2). Aufgrund mangelnder Grundlage spezifisch notwendiger Sekundärdaten wurde ein umfassender Datensatz deutschlandweit erhoben, mithilfe dessen die Spezifika sowie die Hintergründe der Entstehung der neu gegründeten Genossenschaften der Daseinsvorsorge analysiert werden konnten. Die gewonnenen Ergebnisse bekräftigen die in der Literatur genannten Hintergründe der Gründungen wie der Wunsch nach einer angemessenen Infrastruktur, regionale Defizite (BLOME-DREES et al. 2015, S. 134), Bedrohung der Infrastruktur, gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen (vgl. WIEG 2016, S. 78) und spezifische lokale bzw. regionale Probleme (HAUNSTEIN und THÜRLING, 2017, S. 2). Die Analyse der Intentionen, welche hinter den Gründungen von Genossenschaften stehen und zu diesen geführt haben, liefert darüber hinaus jedoch ergänzende und neue Befunde. Weitere Intentionen sind zum einen karitative Gründe wie zum Beispiel die Schaffung von sozialen Anknüpfungspunkten und zum anderen die Gründung aufgrund des Wunsches/der Initiative von Gleichgesinnten zur Organisation von z. B. Fortbildungen. Rund zwei Drittel der antwortenden Genossenschaften der Daseinsvorsorge, speziell in den ländlichen Räumen, schaffen ein neues Angebot für ihre Mitglieder sowie für Nicht-Mitglieder. Rund ein Drittel der analysierten Genossenschaften soll bestehende Einrichtungen und Leistungen erhalten oder wieder aktivieren, die aufgrund unterschiedlicher Herausforderungen wegzubrechen drohen oder bereits weggebrochen sind. Ausgehend von der unzureichenden Versorgungssituation in den ländlichen Räumen sowie den Herausforderungen bestehender Genossenschaften der Daseinsvorsorge wurde ein Modell entwickelt, welches die Kooperation mehrerer Primärorganisationen unterschiedlicher Sparten beinhaltet. Das Modell ist als eine genossenschaftliche ,Second-Level‘-Kooperation, ähnlich einer Holdingstruktur zu verstehen. Da im Kern mehrere Primärorganisationen unter einem gemeinsamen Dach zusammenarbeiten, wird das Modell ,Geno-Haus‘ genannt. Das gemeinsame Dach des Geno-Hauses kann sinnbildlich aber auch ausdrücklich z. B. in Form eines gemeinschaftlich genutzten Gebäudes oder Räumlichkeiten verstanden werden. Ein zweiter mit der Daseinsvorsorge verbundener Aspekt dieser Dissertation liegt auf der Digitalisierung des Agrar- und Ernährungssektors. Insgesamt zeichnet sich hinsichtlich der Digitalisierung entlang der Wertschöpfungskette ein heterogenes Bild ab. Im Ergebnis gliedern sich die analysierten Unternehmen in Pioniere, Einsteiger und Folger. Im Zuge einer Befragung von praktizierenden Landwirten hinsichtlich der Nutzung von E-Commerce Strukturen beim Bezug von landwirtschaftlichen Betriebsmitteln wurden Nutzerstrukturen analysiert. Diese erwiesen sich als alters-, betriebsgrößen-, ortsunabhängig und losgelöst von der Betriebsausrichtung. Als Hauptmotiv für die Beschaffung von Betriebsmitteln über E-Commerce-Kanäle wurden auf Basis der Befragungen Zeitvorteile ermittelt, was im Widerspruch zu den in der Literatur genannten Kostenvorteilen steht (vgl. CLASEN 2005, S. 54 f.).
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True supply chain excellence will only come from making a digital business transformation. It's a transformation that exploits all that technology has to offer, facilitates supply chain collaboration, and leads to new levels of operational excellence. More than a one-time project, the transformation is a journey—and the time to start that journey is now. The model for creating business value has changed. Companies today participate in extended supply chains, where real operational efficiency and revenue enhancement come from greater visibility, integration, and synchronization among connected partners. In short, collaboration among the partners in the extended supply chain—collaboration beyond the physical walls of the enterprise—is the new arena for value creation. Collaboration occurs when companies work together for mutual benefit. It happens when supply chain partners leverage each other's operational capabilities so that in combination they perform better than they could possibly do alone. Collaboration can occur at all points along the supply chain—from design through procurement to final distribution. When done effectively, it enables companies to share information that can dramatically shorten processing time, eliminate value-depleting activities, and improve quality, accuracy, and asset productivity—all of which are fundamental to long-term success.
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Purpose – While information communication technologies (ICTs) are essential for social and economic development in today's emerging digital society, the problem of the digital divide persists. To close this gap, the European Union has proposed eInclusive policies. However, a general belief has emerged that this issue must be dealt with at the local level. The purpose of this paper is to report on such an effort, the Digital Local Agenda (DLA). It aims to show the DLA development in Europe and provide an example of its utilization in practice through a European initiative. Design/methodology/approach – The paper explains the rationale for the DLA, and examines implementation of the DLA in pilot sites in five European countries to support civil servants in small municipalities, and empower them to develop and utilize their capacities to use ICTs and reach people most in danger of eExclusion. Findings – Preliminary findings indicate that the DLA should be considered when looking for solutions to the persistent problem of digital exclusion in Europe. Implementing the DLA may improve public service provision and reduce the digital divide faced by disempowered groups. Originality/value – Given the flexible and adaptable instruments provided for in the DLA, the paper argues that the DLA is an effective and strategic approach to translate policy frameworks into solutions that practitioners can deploy to overcome the barriers of accessing eGovernment, reduce the digital divide among marginalized groups in Europe and include all stakeholders in decision making processes.
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Today's information technologies accelerate the speed at which enterprises make decisions, process information, and collaborate to solve problems, but do they provide a competitive advantage? Only if the organization transforms how it does business--using the same old approaches with new software aren't sufficient.
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Online innovation communities are often seen as a rich source of innovation that offers added value to its members. However, innovation in collaboration with communities may also create frustration and evoke angry reactions. This article with two combined studies investigates triggers of both positive and negative behavior of members of the ‘SPAR Bag Design Contest’ and helps to explain the bright and dark side of co-creation. It shows that dis-/satisfaction with the outcome, perceived fairness, and sense of community are beside co-creation experience major determinants for negative as well as positive reactions of innovation community members. The findings unfold that perceived unfairness and dis-/satisfaction with the outcome can cause negative reactions of participants like negative word-of-mouth. Perceived fairness and sense of community on the other hand are suggested as prerequisite for positive actions of members of co-creation communities. Thus, the results challenge the direct influence of co-creation experience on members' actions as e.g. sense of community fully mediates its influence on willingness to pay for and willingness to positively talk about the co-created outcome. The article further shows that dealing with such critical situations and managing conflicts in co-creation communities means an open dialog in the public sphere which requires co-negotiation and co-moderation.
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This paper presents a case study of how, over the last six years a large, a traditional corporation simultaneously created new service markets and established a dominant position in the competitive information and communication technology field in Japan. The corporation accepted a new organizational body that has an entrepreneurial spirit and consists of different types of personnel, then the company continuously promoted entrepreneurial strategies based on time pacing. At the same time, in an attempt to implement strategic innovation, the company integrated the above strategies with deliberate strategies based on event-based pacing practiced by the existing line organizational body. Through a case study, this paper discusses the factors for success and the problems encountered in the course of achieving strategic innovation in the communications field, i.e. the creation of a new market, through intentionally and strategically having, and furthermore integrating, paradoxical organizations and strategies under a single corporate umbrella.
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The authors thank Dr W. Rapp and the Leir Foundation, which provided support leading to the analysis of global communities and the case study of Pfizer's Infectious Diseases Institute. The authors' sincere appreciation also goes to the ICF leadership, in particular, Louis Zacharilla, who supplied information about the intelligent community award and offered access to the award finalists, including Toomas Sepp, one of the key architects of the success of the City of Tallinn, who was interviewed by the authors.
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Prinzipien sollen seit jeher die charakteristischen Z�ge und das Wirken der "modernen" Genossenschaften festlegen sowie deren Eigenart in die Zukunft tragen. Auf l�ngere Sicht kann eine ver�nderte Anwendung selbst der Kernelemente eines genossenschaftlichen Wertesystems erforderlich werden. Geschieht dies typgem��, so wird ein diffuses Selbstverst�ndnis infolge sukzessiven Identit�tsabbaus vermieden. Weniger um der Tradition willen als viel mehr im Interesse der Sicherung von Zukunftsf�higkeit und Erzielung von Wettbewerbs-, Gesch�ftsergebnis- und F�rdervorteilen gelingt dadurch eine klare Unterscheidung von anderen Unternehmensformen. --
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In this article, the author states that interest in the use of computers for improving a democracy widely considered decayed seems to be increasing with the growing use of the Internet. Search for "electronic democracy" on AltaVista yielded well over 5,000 pages; much of the material discusses projects trying to make an impact on democratic practices. Electronic democracy, sometimes teledemocracy or digital democracy, are terms often used synonymously to refer to the use of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to connect politicians and citizens by means of information, voting, polling, or discussion. The argument is that the role of the electronic medium in the democratic system extends far beyond electronic town hall meetings and polling. The use of ICT permeates most activities related to societal planning, governance, and political organization, including organization in the civil society; which means using ICT also has implications for working democracy in representative systems. Therefore, to understand the role of ICT in the working process of the democratic system, e-democracy research should be framed in a context encompassing all aspects of the system.