Article

Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Several mtDNA lineages from Ceramic Age populations did not persist into the present-day, and Caribbean islanders vary in the extent of autosomal ancestry they can trace to precontact populations. [6][7][8]11,42,43,74 ing on one or more island communities and often seeking to characterize the impact of local sociocultural and historical processes on biocultural diversity, 9,10,[38][39][40]43,45,49,50,60,65,75,77,[81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88] (2) Regional histories surveying broad patterns of genetic diversity across several islands which are usually grouped together due to some unifying geographic, historical or linguistic factor (e.g., the Lesser Antilles, the former French colonies, the Anglophone islands), 11,[46][47][48]74,76,89 (3) [10][11][12] and, more recently, whole sequencing of both historic and present-day human genomes. 5,42 Overall, this large body of work has found that most Caribbean islanders can trace their genetic ancestries to two or more continental populations. ...
... Several mtDNA lineages from Ceramic Age populations did not persist into the present-day, and Caribbean islanders vary in the extent of autosomal ancestry they can trace to precontact populations. [6][7][8]11,42,43,74 ing on one or more island communities and often seeking to characterize the impact of local sociocultural and historical processes on biocultural diversity, 9,10,[38][39][40]43,45,49,50,60,65,75,77,[81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88] (2) Regional histories surveying broad patterns of genetic diversity across several islands which are usually grouped together due to some unifying geographic, historical or linguistic factor (e.g., the Lesser Antilles, the former French colonies, the Anglophone islands), 11,[46][47][48]74,76,89 (3) [10][11][12] and, more recently, whole sequencing of both historic and present-day human genomes. 5,42 Overall, this large body of work has found that most Caribbean islanders can trace their genetic ancestries to two or more continental populations. ...
... However, despite some historical commonalities, differing colonial and postcolonial experiences as well as extensive sexbiased admixture have created heterogenous patterns of genetic structure and ancestry across the archipelago (Figure 3). 11,12,74,80,89,90 Understanding the differential contributions of Indigenous American, European, African, and South and East Asian ancestors to the biocultural diversity of present-day islanders is a major topic of ongoing research in Caribbean population history studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
As the last American region settled by humans, yet the first to experience European colonization, the Caribbean islands have a complex history characterized by continuous migration, admixture, and demographic change. In the last 20 years, genetics research has transformed our understanding of Caribbean population history and revisited major debates in Caribbean anthropology, such as those surrounding the first peopling of the Antilles and the relationship between ancient Indigenous communities and present‐day islanders. Genetics studies have also contributed novel perspectives for understanding pivotal events in Caribbean post‐contact history such as European colonization, the Atlantic Slave Trade, and the Asian Indenture system. Here, I discuss the last 20 years of Caribbean genetics research and emphasize the importance of integrating genetics with interdisciplinary historic, archaeological, and anthropological approaches. Such interdisciplinary research is essential for investigating the dynamic history of the Caribbean and characterizing its impact on the biocultural diversity of present‐day Caribbean peoples.
... Introduction along the maternal lineage and the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) with a paternal inheritance, revealed different patterns reflecting the political organization of the European colonies in the Americas, that were ruled by European men with a dominant social role (Adhikari et al. 2017). In general, the maternal lineages show a high proportion of Native-American (30-60%) or African (20-40%) haplogroups, whereas the European lineages are less frequent ($10%) (Moreno-Estrada et al. 2013;Vilar et al. 2014;Bukhari et al. 2017;Schroeder et al. 2018;Nieves-Col on et al. 2020). On the paternal side, most of the Y haplogroups are of European origin (>70%) or of African origin (20%), whereas the Native-American lineages are very rare or absent (Simms et al. 2012(Simms et al. , 2013Vilar et al. 2014;Benn Torres et al. 2015;Mendisco et al. 2019). ...
... On the genetic side, the two countries of the Hispaniola island show differences in the maternal and paternal genetic composition, possibly due to their different history. Considering the mtDNA diversity, the Dominican Republic shows up to 22% of Native-American lineages, whereas they are virtually absent from Haiti (Bukhari et al. 2017). Considering the Y lineages too, Haiti and the Dominican Republic seem to show a slightly different pattern, but a detailed description of the Y haplogroup composition of the Dominican population is still lacking (Bryc et al. 2010;Simms et al. 2012Simms et al. , 2013Ono et al. 2019); nonetheless, the analysis of the Dominican Y chromosome variability is of crucial importance to fully understand the effect of the European colonization and the trans-Atlantic slave trade on the genetic diversity of the Antilles, considering the important role of Hispaniola in the colonial Caribbeans and its peculiar history. ...
... Interestingly, our results are also in line with data from mtDNA (Bandelt et al. 2001;Salas et al. 2004;Bukhari et al. 2017) and from genome-wide studies, that showed a larger amount of haplotypes of putative central African origin in the Caribbean populations (Moreno-Estrada et al. 2013;Gouveia et al. 2020); these findings suggest that both enslaved women and men in the Caribbean came mainly from the same African regions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Dominican Republic is one of the two countries on the Hispaniola island, which is part of the Antilles. Hispaniola was interested by the European colonisation and massive deportation of African slaves since the XVI century and these events heavily shaped the genetic composition of the present-day population. In order to shed light about the effect of the European rules, we analysed 92 SNPs on the Y chromosome in 182 Dominican individuals from three different locations. The Dominican Y haplogroup composition was characterised by an excess of northern African/European lineages (59%), followed by the African clades (38%), while the Native-American lineages were rare (3%). The comparison with the mtDNA variability, dominated by African clades, revealed a sex-biased admixture pattern, in line with the colonial society dominated by European men. When other Caribbean and non-Caribbean former colonies were also considered, we noted a difference between territories under a Spanish rule (like the Dominican Republic) and British/French rule, with the former characterised by an excess of European Y lineages reflecting the more permissive Iberian legislation about mixed people and slavery. Finally, we analysed the distribution in Africa of the Dominican lineages with a putative African origin, mainly focusing on central and western Africa, which were the main sources of African slaves. We found that most (83%) of the African lineages observed in Santo Domingo have a central African ancestry, suggesting that most of the slaves were deported from regions.
... Taíno mythology incorporates elements of karst as a central theme within creation stories (Pané 1999). The countries of DR and PR share a close ethnohistoric evolution (Bukhari et al. 2017) as well as cultural norms, and both have very similar geology. This historical relationship includes similar use of karst features and landscapes as important locations for ceremonies, and common appearance of karst as a theme for place names, family oral tradition, and artistic expressions (Alvarez Nazario 1972;Dominguez-Cristobal 1989, 2007Pané 1999). ...
Article
Limited research interest has been focused on the understanding of culturally framed geology knowledge in comparison with more mature ethnosciences such as ethnobotany or ethnogeography. Ethnogeology is the scientific study of human relationships with and knowledge of the Earth system, generally investigated within the context of a specific culture, through the implementation of field geologic and field ethnographic methods. The purpose of this paper is to present the use of cultural consensus analysis for the exploration of culturally framed knowledge of geological processes. We used rapid assessment methods from the discipline of field ethnography with local cultural consultants, to construct a cultural consensus questionnaire about karst processes and riverine geomorphology in Puerto Rico (PR) and the Dominican Republic (DR). We employed the results from structured interviews and identified common themes that we organized as a cultural consensus model (CCM). Our results indicate a CCM for the knowledge domain of karst processes and riverine geomorphology that is shared by inhabitants of karst regions in DR and PR, which constitutes a reliable system of local ethnogeologic knowledge. Conceptual key elements of the model include use of metaphors and analogies to describe geomorphic processes and speleothem. We discuss the use of rapid assessment and cultural consensus analysis as a method for ethnogeological research, and the implications for place-based geoscience education, participatory research, and geoheritage.
... Compared to other Europeans, Spaniards showed a more permissive approach to the establishment of inter-ethnic families. Most likely, the multiracial history of Spain's autochthonous populations, including Europeans, Arabs, Berbers, and Jews cohabitating in the Iberian Peninsula for centuries, provided a more tolerant view of mixed marriages (Bukhari, Luis, Alfonso-Sanchez, Garcia-Bertrand, & Herrera, 2017;Rouse, 1992). Besides the almost exclusively Amerindian maternal substrate of Jujuy, our findings show a strong sexual asymmetry in terms of the role of gene flow in shaping the current gene pool of this territory. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study aimed to explore the diversity of paternal lineages in Jujuy province (Argentina) by analyzing Y chromosome markers. Furthermore, we examined among‐population genetic variability based both on paternally (NRY haplotypes) and maternally (mtDNA haplogroups) inherited markers. We sought to evaluate the impact of sex‐biased gene flow on genetic background in Jujuy, and contribute data on the microevolutionary forces acting in this zone. Methods DNA from 149 males from five Jujuy regions were analyzed for 12 non‐recombining Y (NRY) markers. Genetic heterogeneity among Jujuy regions was evaluated through population differentiation tests. To identify potential genetic boundaries in Jujuy, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the Monmonier's algorithm implemented in the Barrier v2.2 software were employed. Results A clear divergence between Jujuy highlands and lowlands for NRY haplotypes was found. A marked discrepancy between genetic structuring for paternal lineages and the lack of geographical pattern for mitogenomes was confirmed by all statistical analyses. Conclusions Genetic structuring of paternal lineages is most likely caused by admixture processes that have occurred since colonial times in the Jujuy lowlands. Immigrants were predominantly male that settled in the lower altitude zones, due to the steep orography of the region. Input of allochthonous male lineages because of gene flow toward the lowlands would have increased diversity of NRY markers, thus compensating for drift effects. Likewise, limited input of allochthonous mitogenomes would have promoted genetic drift, a key factor in the shaping of diversity of maternal lineages across Jujuy subpopulations, irrespective of altitude.
Article
Full-text available
This text presents the seven articles that forms the dossier, stressing its common bases and some of its particularities.
Article
Full-text available
We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively. The Eastern provinces of Cuba showed relatively higher African and Native American contributions than the Western provinces. In particular, the highest proportion of African ancestry was observed in the provinces of Guantánamo (40%) and Santiago de Cuba (39%), and the highest proportion of Native American ancestry in Granma (15%), Holguín (12%) and Las Tunas (12%). We found evidence of substantial population stratification in the current Cuban population, emphasizing the need to control for the effects of population stratification in association studies including individuals from Cuba. The results of the analyses of uniparental markers were concordant with those observed in the autosomes. These geographic patterns in admixture proportions are fully consistent with historical and archaeological information. Additionally, we identified a sex-biased pattern in the process of gene flow, with a substantially higher European contribution from the paternal side, and higher Native American and African contributions from the maternal side. This sex-biased contribution was particularly evident for Native American ancestry. Finally, we observed that SNPs located in the genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 are strongly associated with melanin levels in the sample.
Article
Full-text available
The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, by making use of genome-wide SNP array data, we characterize ancestral components of Caribbean populations on a sub-continental level and unveil fine-scale patterns of population structure distinguishing insular from mainland Caribbean populations as well as from other Hispanic/Latino groups. We provide genetic evidence for an inland South American origin of the Native American component in island populations and for extensive pre-Columbian gene flow across the Caribbean basin. The Caribbean-derived European component shows significant differentiation from parental Iberian populations, presumably as a result of founder effects during the colonization of the New World. Based on demographic models, we reconstruct the complex population history of the Caribbean since the onset of continental admixture. We find that insular populations are best modeled as mixtures absorbing two pulses of African migrants, coinciding with early and maximum activity stages of the transatlantic slave trade. These two pulses appear to have originated in different regions within West Africa, imprinting two distinguishable signatures in present day Afro-Caribbean genomes and shedding light on the genetic impact of the dynamics occurring during the slave trade in the Caribbean.
Article
Full-text available
The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented. The genes for the 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome b and eight other predicted protein coding genes have been located. The sequence shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few noncoding bases between them, and in many cases the termination codons are not coded in the DNA but are created post-transcriptionally by polyadenylation of the mRNAs.
Article
Full-text available
Although previous studies have characterized the genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica using classical and autosomal STR polymorphisms, the patrilineal influences that are present in these countries have yet to be explored. To address this lacuna, the current study aims to investigate, for the first time, the potential impact of different ancestral sources, unique colonial histories, and distinct family structures on the paternal profile of both groups. According to previous reports examining populations from the Americas, island-specific demographic histories can greatly impact population structure, including various patterns of sex-biased gene flow. Also, given the contrasting autosomal profiles provided in our earlier study (Simms et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 142 (2010) 49-66), we hypothesize that the degree and directionality of gene flow from Europeans, Africans, Amerindians, and East Asians are dissimilar in the two countries. To test this premise, 177 high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers and 17 Y-STR loci were typed in Haiti (n = 123) and Jamaica (n = 159) and subsequently utilized for phylogenetic comparisons to available reference collections encompassing Africa, Europe, Asia (East and South), and the New World. Our results reveal that both studied populations exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 77.2% and 66.7% of the Haitian and Jamaican paternal gene pools, respectively. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Haiti (20.3%) and Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica.
Article
Full-text available
West Africa is characterized by a migration history spanning more than 150,000 years. Climate changes but also political circumstances were responsible for several early but also recent population movements that shaped the West African mitochondrial landscape. The aim of the study was to establish a Ghanaian mtDNA dataset for forensic purposes and to investigate the diversity of the Ghanaian population sample with respect to surrounding populations. We sequenced full mitochondrial control regions of 193 Akan people from Ghana and excluded two apparently close maternally related individuals due to preceding kinship testing. The remaining dataset comprising 191 sequences was applied as etalon for quasi-median network analysis and was subsequently combined with 99 additional control region sequences from surrounding West African countries. All sequences were incorporated into the EMPOP database enriching the severely underrepresented African mtDNA pool. For phylogeographic considerations, the Ghanaian haplotypes were compared to those of 19 neighboring populations comprising a total number of 6198 HVS1 haplotypes. We found extensive genetic admixture between the Ghanaian lineages and those from adjacent populations diminishing with geographical distance. The extent of genetic admixture reflects the long but also recent history of migration waves within West Africa mainly caused by changing environmental conditions. Also, evidence for potential socio-economical influences such as trade routes is provided by the occurrence of U6b and U6d sequences found in Dubai but also in Tunisia leading to the African West Coast via Mauritania and Senegal but also via Niger, Nigeria to Cameroon.
Article
Full-text available
Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times.
Article
Full-text available
Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.
Article
Full-text available
Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries) is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY) coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR) were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8). Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin). Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal), female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola). The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.
Article
Full-text available
Southern Arabia and the Horn of Africa are important geographic centers for the study of human population history because a great deal of migration has characterized these regions since the first emergence of humans out of Africa. Analysis of Jewish groups provides a unique opportunity to investigate more recent population histories in this area. Mitochondrial DNA is used to investigate the maternal evolutionary history and can be combined with historical and linguistic data to test various population histories. In this study, we assay mitochondrial control region DNA sequence and diagnostic coding variants in Yemenite (n = 45) and Ethiopian (n = 41) Jewish populations, as well as in neighboring non-Jewish Yemeni (n = 50) and Ethiopian (previously published Semitic speakers) populations. We investigate their population histories through a comparison of haplogroup distributions and phylogenetic networks. A high frequency of sub-Saharan African L haplogroups was found in both Jewish populations, indicating a significant African maternal contribution unlike other Jewish Diaspora populations. However, no identical haplotypes were shared between the Yemenite and Ethiopian Jewish populations, suggesting very little gene flow between the populations and potentially distinct maternal population histories. These new data are also used to investigate alternate population histories in the context of historical and linguistic data. Specifically, Yemenite Jewish mitochondrial diversity reflects potential descent from ancient Israeli exiles and shared African and Middle Eastern ancestry with little evidence for large-scale conversion of local Yemeni. In contrast, the Ethiopian Jewish population appears to be a subset of the larger Ethiopian population suggesting descent primarily through conversion of local women.
Article
Full-text available
As the highest plateau surrounded by towering mountain ranges, the Tibetan Plateau was once considered to be one of the last populated areas of modern humans. However, this view has been tremendously changed by archeological, linguistic, and genetic findings in the past 60 years. Nevertheless, the timing and routes of entry of modern humans into the Tibetan Plateau is still unclear. To make these problems clear, we carried out high-resolution mitochondrial-DNA (mtDNA) analyses on 562 Tibeto-Burman inhabitants from nine different regions across the plateau. By examining the mtDNA haplogroup distributions and their principal components, we demonstrated that maternal diversity on the plateau reflects mostly a northern East Asian ancestry. Furthermore, phylogeographic analysis of plateau-specific sublineages based on 31 complete mtDNA sequences revealed two primary components: pre-last glacial maximum (LGM) inhabitants and post-LGM immigrants. Also, the analysis of one major pre-LGM sublineage A10 showed a strong signal of post-LGM population expansion (about 15,000 years ago) and greater diversity in the southern part of the Tibetan Plateau, indicating the southern plateau as a refuge place when climate dramatically changed during LGM.
Article
Full-text available
The Tuareg presently live in the Sahara and the Sahel. Their ancestors are commonly believed to be the Garamantes of the Libyan Fezzan, ever since it was suggested by authors of antiquity. Biological evidence, based on classical genetic markers, however, indicates kinship with the Beja of Eastern Sudan. Our study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and Y chromosome SNPs of three different southern Tuareg groups from Mali, Burkina Faso and the Republic of Niger reveals a West Eurasian-North African composition of their gene pool. The data show that certain genetic lineages could not have been introduced into this population earlier than approximately 9000 years ago whereas local expansions establish a minimal date at around 3000 years ago. Some of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Tuareg population were involved in the post-Last Glacial Maximum human expansion from Iberian refugia towards both Europe and North Africa. Interestingly, no Near Eastern mtDNA lineages connected with the Neolithic expansion have been observed in our population sample. On the other hand, the Y chromosome SNPs data show that the paternal lineages can very probably be traced to the Near Eastern Neolithic demic expansion towards North Africa, a period that is otherwise concordant with the above-mentioned mtDNA expansion. The time frame for the migration of the Tuareg towards the African Sahel belt overlaps that of early Holocene climatic changes across the Sahara (from the optimal greening approximately 10 000 YBP to the extant aridity beginning at approximately 6000 YBP) and the migrations of other African nomadic peoples in the area.
Article
Full-text available
Due to its numerous environmental extremes, the Tibetan Plateau--the world's highest plateau--is one of the most challenging areas of modern human settlement. Archaeological evidence dates the earliest settlement on the plateau to the Late Paleolithic, while previous genetic studies have traced the colonization event(s) to no earlier than the Neolithic. To explore whether the genetic continuity on the plateau has an exclusively Neolithic time depth, we studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome variation within 6 regional Tibetan populations sampled from Tibet and neighboring areas. Our results confirm that the vast majority of Tibetan matrilineal components can trace their ancestry to Epipaleolithic and Neolithic immigrants from northern China during the mid-Holocene. Significantly, we also identified an infrequent novel haplogroup, M16, that branched off directly from the Eurasian M founder type. Its nearly exclusive distribution in Tibetan populations and ancient age (>21 kya) suggest that M16 may represent the genetic relics of the Late Paleolithic inhabitants on the plateau. This partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and the contemporary Tibetan populations bridges the results and inferences from archaeology, history, and genetics.
Article
Full-text available
The West Indies represent an amalgamation of African, European and in some cases, East Asian sources, but the contributions from each ethnic group remain relatively unexplored from a genetic perspective. In the present study, we report, for the first time, allelic frequency data across the complete set of 15 autosomal STR loci for general collections from Haiti and Jamaica, which were subsequently used to examine the genetic diversity present in each island population. Our results indicate that although both Haiti and Jamaica display genetic affinities with the continental African collections, a stronger African signal is detected in Haiti than in Jamaica. Although only minimal contributions from non-African sources were observed in Haiti, Jamaica displays genetic input from both European and East Asian sources, an admixture profile similar to other New World collections of African descent analyzed in this report. The divergent genetic signatures present in these populations allude to the different migratory events of Africans, Europeans, and East Asians into the New World.
Article
Full-text available
The study presents South American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data from selected north (N = 98), central (N = 193) and south (N = 47) Argentinean populations. Sequence analysis of the complete mtDNA control region (CR, 16024-576) resulted in 288 unique haplotypes ignoring C-insertions around positions 16193, 309, and 573; the additional analysis of coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms enabled a fine classification of the described lineages. The Amerindian haplogroups were most frequent in the north and south representing more than 60% of the sequences. A slightly different situation was observed in central Argentina where the Amerindian haplogroups represented less than 50%, and the European contribution was more relevant. Particular clades of the Amerindian subhaplogroups turned out to be nearly region-specific. A minor contribution of African lineages was observed throughout the country. This comprehensive admixture of worldwide mtDNA lineages and the regional specificity of certain clades in the Argentinean population underscore the necessity of carefully selecting regional samples in order to develop a nationwide mtDNA database for forensic and anthropological purposes. The mtDNA sequencing and analysis were performed under EMPOP guidelines in order to attain high quality for the mtDNA database.
Article
Full-text available
Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent represent an area considered as a source and a reservoir for human genetic diversity, with many markers taking root here, most of which are the ancestral state of eastern and western haplogroups, while others are local. Between these two regions, Terai (Nepal) is a pivotal passageway allowing, in different times, multiple population interactions, although because of its highly malarial environment, it was scarcely inhabited until a few decades ago, when malaria was eradicated. One of the oldest and the largest indigenous people of Terai is represented by the malaria resistant Tharus, whose gene pool could still retain traces of ancient complex interactions. Until now, however, investigations on their genetic structure have been scarce mainly identifying East Asian signatures. High-resolution analyses of mitochondrial-DNA (including 34 complete sequences) and Y-chromosome (67 SNPs and 12 STRs) variations carried out in 173 Tharus (two groups from Central and one from Eastern Terai), and 104 Indians (Hindus from Terai and New Delhi and tribals from Andhra Pradesh) allowed the identification of three principal components: East Asian, West Eurasian and Indian, the last including both local and inter-regional sub-components, at least for the Y chromosome. Although remarkable quantitative and qualitative differences appear among the various population groups and also between sexes within the same group, many mitochondrial-DNA and Y-chromosome lineages are shared or derived from ancient Indian haplogroups, thus revealing a deep shared ancestry between Tharus and Indians. Interestingly, the local Y-chromosome Indian component observed in the Andhra-Pradesh tribals is present in all Tharu groups, whereas the inter-regional component strongly prevails in the two Hindu samples and other Nepalese populations.The complete sequencing of mtDNAs from unresolved haplogroups also provided informative markers that greatly improved the mtDNA phylogeny and allowed the identification of ancient relationships between Tharus and Malaysia, the Andaman Islands and Japan as well as between India and North and East Africa. Overall, this study gives a paradigmatic example of the importance of genetic isolates in revealing variants not easily detectable in the general population.
Article
Full-text available
Current information about the expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples is hampered by the scarcity of genetic data from well identified populations from southern Africa. Here, we fill an important gap in the analysis of the western edge of the Bantu migrations by studying for the first time the patterns of Y-chromosome, mtDNA and lactase persistence genetic variation in four representative groups living around the Namib Desert in southwestern Angola (Ovimbundu, Ganguela, Nyaneka-Nkumbi and Kuvale). We assessed the differentiation between these populations and their levels of admixture with Khoe-San groups, and examined their relationship with other sub-Saharan populations. We further combined our dataset with previously published data on Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation to explore a general isolation with migration model and infer the demographic parameters underlying current genetic diversity in Bantu populations. Correspondence analysis, lineage sharing patterns and admixture estimates indicate that the gene pool from southwestern Angola is predominantly derived from West-Central Africa. The pastoralist Herero-speaking Kuvale people were additionally characterized by relatively high frequencies of Y-chromosome (12%) and mtDNA (22%) Khoe-San lineages, as well as by the presence of the -14010C lactase persistence mutation (6%), which likely originated in non-Bantu pastoralists from East Africa. Inferred demographic parameters show that both male and female populations underwent significant size growth after the split between the western and eastern branches of Bantu expansions occurring 4000 years ago. However, males had lower population sizes and migration rates than females throughout the Bantu dispersals. Genetic variation in southwestern Angola essentially results from the encounter of an offshoot of West-Central Africa with autochthonous Khoisan-speaking peoples from the south. Interactions between the Bantus and the Khoe-San likely involved cattle herders from the two groups sharing common aspects of their social organization. The presence of the -14010C mutation in southwestern Angola provides a link between the East and Southwest African pastoral scenes that might have been established indirectly, through migrations of Khoe herders across southern Africa. Differences in patterns of mtDNA and Y-chromosome intrapopulation diversity and interpopulation differentiation may be explained by contrasting demographic histories underlying the current female and male genetic variation.
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed the European genetic contribution to 10 populations of African descent in the United States (Maywood, Illinois; Detroit; New York; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Baltimore; Charleston, South Carolina; New Orleans; and Houston) and in Jamaica, using nine autosomal DNA markers. These markers either are population-specific or show frequency differences >45% between the parental populations and are thus especially informative for admixture. European genetic ancestry ranged from 6.8% (Jamaica) to 22.5% (New Orleans). The unique utility of these markers is reflected in the low variance associated with these admixture estimates (SEM 1.3%-2.7%). We also estimated the male and female European contribution to African Americans, on the basis of informative mtDNA (haplogroups H and L) and Y Alu polymorphic markers. Results indicate a sex-biased gene flow from Europeans, the male contribution being substantially greater than the female contribution. mtDNA haplogroups analysis shows no evidence of a significant maternal Amerindian contribution to any of the 10 populations. We detected significant nonrandom association between two markers located 22 cM apart (FY-null and AT3), most likely due to admixture linkage disequilibrium created in the interbreeding of the two parental populations. The strength of this association and the substantial genetic distance between FY and AT3 emphasize the importance of admixed populations as a useful resource for mapping traits with different prevalence in two parental populations.
Article
Full-text available
To estimate the maternal contribution of Native Americans to the human gene pool of Puerto Ricans--a population of mixed African, European, and Amerindian ancestry--the mtDNAs of two sample sets were screened for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) defining the four major Native American haplogroups. The sample set collected from people who claimed to have a maternal ancestor with Native American physiognomic traits had a statistically significant higher frequency of Native American mtDNAs (69.6%) than did the unbiased sample set (52.6%). This higher frequency suggests that, despite the fact that the native Taíno culture has been extinct for centuries, the Taíno contribution to the current population is considerable and some of the Taíno physiognomic traits are still present. Native American haplogroup frequency analysis shows a highly structured distribution, suggesting that the contribution of Native Americans foreign to Puerto Rico is minimal. Haplogroups A and C cover 56.0% and 35.6% of the Native American mtDNAs, respectively. No haplogroup D mtDNAs were found. Most of the linguistic, biological, and cultural evidence suggests that the Ceramic culture of the Taínos originated in or close to the Yanomama territory in the Amazon. However, the absence of haplogroup A in the Yanomami suggests that the Yanomami are not the only Taíno ancestors.
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge about the world phylogeny of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential not only for evaluating the pathogenic role of specific mtDNA mutations but also for performing reliable association studies between mtDNA haplogroups and complex disorders. In the past few years, the main features of the East Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny have been determined on the basis of complete sequencing efforts, but representatives of several basal lineages were still lacking. Moreover, some recently published complete mtDNA sequences did apparently not fit into the known phylogenetic tree and conflicted with the established nomenclature. To refine the East Asian mtDNA tree and resolve data conflicts, we first completely sequenced 20 carefully selected mtDNAs--likely representatives of novel sub-haplogroups--and then, in order to distinguish diagnostic mutations of novel haplogroups from private variants, we applied a 'motif-search' procedure to a large sample collection. The novel information was incorporated into an updated East Asian mtDNA tree encompassing more than 1000 (near-) complete mtDNA sequences. A reassessment of the mtDNA data from a series of disease studies testified to the usefulness of such a refined mtDNA tree in evaluating the pathogenicity of mtDNA mutations. In particular, the claimed pathogenic role of mutations G3316A, T3394C, A4833G and G15497A appears to be most questionable as those initial claims were derived from anecdotal findings rather than e.g. appropriate association studies. Following a guideline based on the phylogenetic knowledge as proposed here could help avoiding similar problems in the future.
Article
Full-text available
More than a third of the European pool of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is fragmented into a number of subclades of haplogroup (hg) H, the most frequent hg throughout western Eurasia. Although there has been considerable recent progress in studying mitochondrial genome variation in Europe at the complete sequence resolution, little data of comparable resolution is so far available for regions like the Caucasus and the Near and Middle East-areas where most of European genetic lineages, including hg H, have likely emerged. This gap in our knowledge causes a serious hindrance for progress in understanding the demographic prehistory of Europe and western Eurasia in general. Here we describe the phylogeography of hg H in the populations of the Near East and the Caucasus. We have analyzed 545 samples of hg H at high resolution, including 15 novel complete mtDNA sequences. As in Europe, most of the present-day Near Eastern-Caucasus area variants of hg H started to expand after the last glacial maximum (LGM) and presumably before the Holocene. Yet importantly, several hg H subclades in Near East and Southern Caucasus region coalesce to the pre-LGM period. Furthermore, irrespective of their common origin, significant differences between the distribution of hg H sub-hgs in Europe and in the Near East and South Caucasus imply limited post-LGM maternal gene flow between these regions. In a contrast, the North Caucasus mitochondrial gene pool has received an influx of hg H variants, arriving from the Ponto-Caspian/East European area.
Article
Findings: overall, the Mayan populations as a group are highly homogeneous, basically made up of only two autochthonous haplogroups, Q1a2a1a1*-M3 and Q1a2a1*-L54. Although the Y-STR data illustrates diversity, this diversity, for the most part, is uniformly distributed among geographically distant Mayan populations. Similar haplotypes among populations, abundance of singletons and absence of population partitioning within networks among Mayan populations suggest recent population expansion and substantial gene flow within the Mayan dominion, possibly due to the development of agriculture, the establishment of interacting City-State systems and commerce.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 9 March 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.18.
Book
Since 1999, intensive research efforts have vastly increased what is known about the history of coerced migration of transatlantic slaves. A huge database of slave trade voyages from Columbus' era to the mid-nineteenth century is now available on an open-access Web site, incorporating newly discovered information from archives around the Atlantic world. The groundbreaking essays in this book draw on these new data to explore fundamental questions about the trade in African slaves. The research findings - that the size of the slave trade was 14 percent greater than had been estimated, that trade above and below the equator was largely separate, that ports sending out the most slave voyages were not in Europe but in Brazil, and more - challenge accepted understandings of transatlantic slavery and suggest a variety of new directions for important further research.
Article
This innovative anthology focuses on the enslavement, middle passage, American experience, and return to Africa of a single cultural group, the Yoruba. Moving beyond descriptions of generic African experiences, this anthology will allow students to trace the experiences of one cultural group throughout the cycle of the slave experience in the Americas. The 19 essays, employing a variety of disciplinary perspectives, provide a detailed study of how the Yoruba were integrated into the Atlantic world through the slave trade and slavery, the transformations of Yoruba identities and culture, and the strategies for resistance employed by the Yoruba in the New World. The contributors are Augustine H. Agwuele, Christine Ayorinde, Matt D. Childs, Gibril R. Cole, David Eltis, Toyin Falola, C. Magbaily Fyle, Rosalyn Howard, Robin Law, Babatunde Lawal, Russell Lohse, Paul E. Lovejoy, Beatriz G. Mamigonian, Robin Moore, Ann O'Hear, Luis Nicolau Parés, Michele Reid, Jo.
Article
Puerto Rico and the surrounding islands rest on the eastern fringe of the Caribbean's Greater Antilles, located less than 100 miles northwest of the Lesser Antilles. Puerto Ricans are genetic descendants of pre-Columbian peoples, as well as peoples of European and African descent through 500 years of migration to the island. To infer these patterns of pre-Columbian and historic peopling of the Caribbean, we characterized genetic diversity in 326 individuals from the southeastern region of Puerto Rico and the island municipality of Vieques. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of all of the samples and the complete mitogenomes of 12 of them to infer their putative place of origin. In addition, we genotyped 121 male samples for 25 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism and 17 STR loci. Approximately 60% of the participants had indigenous mtDNA haplotypes (mostly from haplogroups A2 and C1), while 25% had African and 15% European haplotypes. Three A2 sublineages were unique to the Greater Antilles, one of which was similar to Mesoamerican types, while C1b haplogroups showed links to South America, suggesting that people reached the island from the two distinct continental source areas. However, none of the male participants had indigenous Y-chromosomes, with 85% of them instead being European/Mediterranean and 15% sub-Saharan African in origin. West Eurasian Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotypes were quite diverse and showed similarities to those observed in southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. These results attest to the distinct, yet equally complex, pasts for the male and female ancestors of modern day Puerto Ricans. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The problem of estimation when both variables are subject to error in a linear regression model has been discussed in the literature and it has wide applications in econometrics and other social sciences. In this paper we consider the relaxation of the assumption of homoscedasticity and introduce the covariance structure of errors of measurements in the analysis to obtain a Modified Best Maximum Likelihood (MBML) estimator of the regression coefficient. We also provide an application of the above modification to estimate the extent of genetic contribution of a parental population in an admixed population. With data on frequencies of “unique” African and Caucasian alleles in US Blacks, it is shown that US Blacks have 30.9·2.2 percent genes that are of Caucasian origin.
Book
This book challenges conventional wisdom regarding the political and economic motivations behind the final decision to abolish the British slave trade in 1807. Recent historians believe that this first blow against slavery was the result of social changes inside Britain and pay little attention to the important developments that took place inside the West Indian slave economy. David Beck Ryden’s research illustrates that a faltering sugar economy after 1799 tipped the scales in favor of the abolitionist argument and helped secure the passage of abolition. Ryden examines the economic arguments against slavery and the slave trade that were employed in the writings of Britain's most important abolitionists. Using a wide range of economic and business data, this study deconstructs the assertions made by both abolitionists and antiabolitionists regarding slave management, the imperial economy, and abolition.
Article
The arrival of Europeans in Colonial and post-Colonial times coupled with the forced introduction of sub-Saharan Africans have dramatically changed the genetic background of Venezuela. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate, through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation, the extent of admixture and the characterization of the most likely continental ancestral sources of present-day urban Venezuelans. We analyzed two admixed populations that have experienced different demographic histories, namely, Caracas (n = 131) and Pueblo Llano (n = 219). The native American component of admixed Venezuelans accounted for 80% (46% haplogroup [hg] A2, 7% hg B2, 21% hg C1, and 6% hg D1) of all mtDNAs; while the sub-Saharan and European contributions made up ∼10% each, indicating that Trans-Atlantic immigrants have only partially erased the native American nature of Venezuelans. A Bayesian-based model allowed the different contributions of European countries to admixed Venezuelans to be disentangled (Spain: ∼38.4%, Portugal: ∼35.5%, Italy: ∼27.0%), in good agreement with the documented history. Seventeen entire mtDNA genomes were sequenced, which allowed five new native American branches to be discovered. B2j and B2k, are supported by two different haplotypes and control region data, and their coalescence ages are 3.9 k.y. (95% C.I. 0-7.8) and 2.6 k.y. (95% C.I. 0.1-5.2), respectively. The other clades were exclusively observed in Pueblo Llano and they show the fingerprint of strong recent genetic drift coupled with severe historical consanguinity episodes that might explain the high prevalence of certain Mendelian and complex multi-factorial diseases in this region.
Article
We analyzed sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) from 201 Black individuals from two Brazilian cities (Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre), and compared these data with published information from 21 African populations. A subset of 187 males of the sample was also characterized for 30 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms, and the data were compared with those from 48 African populations. The mtDNA data indicated that respectively 69% and 82% of the matrilineages found in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre originated from West-Central/Southeast Africa. These estimates are in close agreement with historical records which indicated that most of the Brazilian slaves who arrived in Rio de Janeiro were from West-Central Africa. In contrast to mtDNA, Y-chromosome haplogroup analysis did not allow discrimination between places of origin in West or West-Central Africa. Thus, when comparing these two major African regions, there seems to be higher genetic structure with mtDNA than with Y-chromosome data.
Article
The Basques have a well-documented history of migration and settlement in the Americas, and they often retain cultural identity across generations. Numerous genetic studies have been carried out on European Basques; thus, immigrant Basques are an ideal population for investigating the genetic consequences of a recent human migration event. We have sampled 53 unrelated individuals with Basque ancestry in Boise, Idaho and determined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation of the first and second hypervariable regions. Thirty-six mtDNA haplotypes were detected in our sample. We found evidence of genetic changes consistent with founder effects, which is compatible with the known history of migration. Compared with the European Basque population, the immigrant Basques are significantly different in terms of haplogroup frequency distribution and diversity. They have a lower measure of weighted intralineage mean pairwise diversity (WIMP) and greater genetic distance from other European populations. These data indicate that this immigrant Basque population has experienced a reduction in genetic diversity compared with the putative source population. However, this loss of diversity is not detectable using indices of demographic history such as Tajima's D and Fu's F. This study represents the first description of mtDNA diversity in an immigrant Basque population, and our findings indicate that founder effects accompanying this relatively recent migration event have shaped the genetic diversity of this population.
Article
Human population movements in North Africa have been mostly restricted to an east-west direction due to the geographical barriers imposed by the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Sea. Although these barriers have not completely impeded human migrations, genetic studies have shown that an east-west genetic gradient exists. However, the lack of genetic information of certain geographical areas and the focus of some studies in parts of the North African landscape have limited the global view of the genetic pool of North African populations. To provide a global view of the North African genetic landscape and population structure, we have analyzed ∼2,300 North African mitochondrial DNA lineages (including 269 new sequences from Libya, in the first mtDNA study of the general Libyan population). Our results show a clinal distribution of certain haplogroups, some of them more frequent in Western (H, HV0, L1b, L3b, U6) or Eastern populations (L0a, R0a, N1b, I, J) that might be the result of human migrations from the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe. Despite this clinal pattern, a genetic discontinuity is found in the Libyan/Egyptian border, suggesting a differential gene flow in the Nile River Valley. Finally, frequency of the post-LGM subclades H1 and H3 is predominant in Libya within the H sequences, highlighting the magnitude of the LGM expansion in North Africa.
Article
The aim of the present work was to study the origin of paternal and maternal lineages in Guinea-Bissau population, inferred by phylogeographic analyses of mtDNA and Y chromosome defined haplogroups. To determine the male lineages present in Guinea-Bissau, 33 unrelated males were typed using a PCR-SNaPshot multiplex based method including 24 Y-SNPs, which characterize the main haplogroups in sub-Saharan Africa and Western Europe. In the same samples, 17 Y-STRs (included in the YFiler kit, Applied Biosystems) were additionally typed. The most frequent lineages observed were E1b1a (xE1b1a4,7)-M2 (68%) and E1a-M33 (15%). The European haplogroup R1b1-P25 was represented with a frequency of 12%. The two hypervariable mtDNA regions were sequenced in 79 unrelated individuals from Guinea-Bissau, and haplogroups were classified based on control region motifs using mtDNA manager. A high diversity of haplogroups was determined in our sample being the most frequent haplogroups characteristic of populations from sub-Saharan Africa, namely L2a1 (15%), L3d (13%), L2c (9%), L3e4 (9%), L0a1 (8%), L1b (6%) and L1c1 (6%). None of the typical European haplogroups (H, J and T) were found in the present sample of Guinea-Bissau. From our results, it is possible to confirm that Guinea-Bissau presents a typically West African profile, marked by a high frequency of the Y chromosome haplogroup E1b1a(xE1b1a4,7)-M2 and a high proportion of mtDNA lineages belonging to the sub-Saharan specific sub-clusters L1 to L3 (89%). A small European influx has been also detected, although restricted to the male lineages.
Article
Before the arrival of the Spaniards in Nicaragua, diverse Native American groups inhabited the territory. In colonial times, Native Nicaraguan populations interacted with Europeans and slaves from Africa. To ascertain the extent of this genetic admixture and provide genetic evidence about the origin of the Nicaraguan ancestors, we analyzed the mitochondrial control region (HVSI and HVSII), 17 Y chromosome STRs, and 15 autosomal STRs in 165 Mestizo individuals from Nicaragua. To carry out interpopulation comparisons, HVSI sequences from 29 American populations were compiled from the literature. The results reveal a close relationship between Oto-manguean, Uto-Aztecan, Mayan groups from Mexico, and a Chibchan group to Nicaraguan lineages. The Native American contribution to present-day Nicaraguan Mestizos accounts for most of the maternal lineages, whereas the majority of Nicaraguan Y chromosome haplogroups can be traced back to a West Eurasian origin. Pairwise Fst distances based on Y-STRs between Nicaragua and European, African and Native American populations show that Nicaragua is much closer to Europeans than the other populations. Additionally, admixture proportions based on autosomal STRs indicate a predominantly Spanish contribution. Our study reveals that the Nicaraguan Mestizo population harbors a high proportion of European male and Native American female substrate. Finally, the amount of African ancestry is also interesting, probably because of the contribution of Spanish conquerors with North African genetic traces or that of West African slaves.
Article
Current forensic mitochondrial (mt)DNA databases are limited in representative population data of African origin. We investigated HVS-I/HVS-II sequences of 120 Tunisian and Moroccan healthy male donors applying stringent quality criteria to assure high quality of the data and phylogenetic alignment and notation of the sequences. Among 64 Tunisians, 56 different haplotypes were observed and the most common haplotype (16187T 16189C 16223T 16264T 16270T 16278T 16293G 16311C 73G 152C 182T 185T 195C 247A 263G 309.1C 315.1C; haplogroup (hg) L1b) was shared by four individuals. 56 Moroccans could be assigned to 52 different haplotypes where the most common haplotype was of West Eurasian origin with the hg H sequence motif 263G 315.1C and variations in the HVS-II polyC-stretch (309.1C 309.2C) shared by six samples. The majority of the observed haplotypes belong to the west Eurasian phylogeny (50% in Tunisians and 62.5% in Moroccans). Our data are consistent with the current phylogeographic knowledge displaying the occurrence of sub-Saharan haplogroup L sequences, found in 48.4% of Tunisians and 25% of Moroccans as well as the presence of the two re-migrated haplogroups U6 (7.8% and 1.8% in Tunisians and Moroccans, respectively) and M1 (1.6% in Tunisians and 8.9% in Moroccans).
Article
Human mitochondrial DNA is widely used as tool in many fields including evolutionary anthropology and population history, medical genetics, genetic genealogy, and forensic science. Many applications require detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationship of mtDNA variants. Although the phylogenetic resolution of global human mtDNA diversity has greatly improved as a result of increasing sequencing efforts of complete mtDNA genomes, an updated overall mtDNA tree is currently not available. In order to facilitate a better use of known mtDNA variation, we have constructed an updated comprehensive phylogeny of global human mtDNA variation, based on both coding- and control region mutations. This complete mtDNA tree includes previously published as well as newly identified haplogroups, is easily navigable, will be continuously and regularly updated in the future, and is online available at http://www.phylotree.org. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The proposal that all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) types in contemporary humans stem from a common ancestor present in an African population some 200,000 years ago has attracted much attention. To study this proposal further, two hypervariable segments of mtDNA were sequenced from 189 people of diverse geographic origin, including 121 native Africans. Geographic specificity was observed in that identical mtDNA types are shared within but not between populations. A tree relating these mtDNA sequences to one another and to a chimpanzee sequence has many deep branches leading exclusively to African mtDNAs. An African origin for human mtDNA is supported by two statistical tests. With the use of the chimpanzee and human sequences to calibrate the rate of mtDNA evolution, the age of the common human mtDNA ancestor is placed between 166,000 and 249,000 years. These results thus support and extend the African origin hypothesis of human mtDNA evolution.
Article
A method for detecting sequence variation of hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region was developed. The technique uses hybridization of sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes to DNA sequences that have been amplified by PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region from 52 individuals were determined; these sequences were then used to define nine regions suitable for SSO typing. A total of 23 SSO probes were used to detect sequence variants at these nine regions in 525 individuals from five ethnic groups (African, Asian, Caucasian, Japanese, and Mexican). The SSO typing revealed an enormous amount of variability, with 274 mtDNA types observed among these 525 individuals and with diversity values, for each population, exceeding .95. For each of the nine mtDNA regions significant differences in the frequencies of sequence variants were observed between these five populations. The mtDNA SSO-typing system was successfully applied to a case involving individual identification of skeletal remains; the probability of a random match was approximately 0.7%. The potential useful applications of this mtDNA SSO-typing system thus include the analysis of individual identity as well as population genetic studies.
Article
The Human Genome Project, from one perspective, began in 1981 with the publication1 of the complete sequence of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The Cambridge reference sequence (CRS), as it is now designated, continues to be indispensable for studies of human evolution, population genetics and mitochondrial diseases. It has been recognized for some time, however, that the CRS differs at several sites from the mtDNA sequences obtained by other investigators2, 3. These discrepancies may reflect either true errors in the original sequencing analysis or rare polymorphisms in the CRS mtDNA. A further complication is that the original mtDNA sequence was principally derived from a single individual of European descent, although it also contained some sequences from both HeLa and bovine mtDNA (1). To resolve these uncertainties, we have completely resequenced the original placental mtDNA sample.
Article
Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a-L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups.
Article
A sample of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the southeastern African population of Mozambique has been shown to have affinities with populations both to its north and south. From the north came sequences that may have been involved in the Bantu expansion (from western, through eastern, to southern Africa), such as members of haplogroups L3b, L3e1a and a subset of L1a. The dating of the major component of Mozambican mtDNAs, the subset L2a of haplogroup L2, displayed an age range compatible with the Bantu expansion. The southern influence was traced by the presence of sequence types from haplogroup L1d, a probable relict of Khoisan-speaking populations that inhabited the region prior to their displacement by the Bantu-speaking incomers. Within historical times, the forced displacement of Mozambicans as part of the slave trade, mainly documented as being to the Americas, generated a differential input of eastern African sequences into the mtDNA pools of the Americas and of Europe, as testified to by the greater number of sequence matches between Mozambique and the Americas, compared to those between Mozambique and Europe.
Article
Despite the large size of the contemporary nomadic Fulani population (roughly 13 million people), the genetic diversity and degree of differentiation of Fulanis compared to other sub-Saharan populations remain unknown. We sampled four Fulani nomad populations (n = 186) in three countries of sub-Saharan Africa (Chad, Cameroon, and Burkina Faso) and analyzed sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial DNA. Most of the haplotypes belong to haplogroups of West African origin, such as L1b, L3b, L3d, L2b, L2c, and L2d (79.6% in total), which are all well represented in each of the four geographically separated samples. The haplogroups of Western Eurasian origin, such as J1b, U5, H, and V, were also detected but in rather low frequencies (8.1% in total). As in African hunter-gatherers (Pygmies and Khoisan) and some populations from central Tunisia (Kesra and Zriba), three of the Fulani nomad samples do not reveal significant negative values of Fu's selective neutrality test. The multidimensional scaling of FST genetic distances of related sub-Saharan populations and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) show clear and close relationships between all pairs of the four Fulani nomad samples, irrespective of their geographic origin. The only group of nomadic Fulani that manifests some similarities with geographically related agricultural populations (from Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria) comes from Tcheboua in northern Cameroon.
Article
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was analyzed in Mauritania and Mali, and compared to other West African samples covering the considerable geographic, ethnic and linguistic diversity of this region. The Mauritanian mtDNA profile shows that 55% of their lineages have a west Eurasian provenance, with the U6 cluster (17%) being the best represented. Only 6% of the sub-Saharan sequences belong to the L3A haplogroup a frequency similar to other Berber speaking groups but significantly different to the Arabic speaking North Africans. The historic Arab slave trade may be the main cause of this difference. Only one HV west Eurasian lineage has been detected in Mali but 40% of the sub-Saharan sequences belong to cluster L3A. The presence of L0a representatives demonstrates gene flow from eastern regions. Although both groups speak related dialects of the Mande branch, significant genetic differences exist between the Bambara and Malinke groups. The West African genetic variation is well structured by geography and language, but more detailed ethnolinguistic clustering suggest that geography is the main factor responsible for this differentiation.
Article
Population data on the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome are used to convey the relative rarity of mtDNA profiles obtained from evidence samples and of profiles used to identify missing persons. In this study, mtDNA profiles of Spanish individuals (n=312) were analyzed to describe haplogroup distributions and to determine relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of those haplogroups. All nine common European haplogroups were observed in the sample, and these were divided into subgroups when possible. Haplogroup H was the most common haplogroup. The haplogroups U, J, T, and V were the next most frequent groups, each occurring at a frequency of 6.4% or greater. In addition, African and Asian sequences were present though rare in the samples. The data were compared with and found to be similar to other published data sets. There were 109 SNPs observed in the data set, including 10 positions not previously reported. The most variable sites are consistent with other studies.
Article
The Chad Basin lies in the middle of the Sudanic African belt between the Sahara and the tropical rain forests. Its present-day settlement is a result of Holocene climatic changes and human immigrations from different parts of Africa. This study presents a statistical analysis of the relationships of physical features (stature and five main craniofacial measurements) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplogroup classifications in a sample of 282 adult individuals belonging to seven populations of different ethno-linguistic groups living in the Chad Basin. Drawing on the analysis of variance, we identified a female-specific DNA association between mtDNA haplogroup assignment and facial height. More specifically, the mtDNA haplogroups of East-African origin occur more frequently in females with relatively longer faces and, conversely, the mtDNA of West-African origin are found more frequently in females with lower faces. Interestingly, this kind of association is not found in the males of the same populations. Our interpretation refers mainly to population history; we suggest that facial height and mtDNA haplogroup co-variance in Chad Basin females reflects a long-term east-west population distribution in the past that made the facial differentiation possible.
MtDNA diversity of Ghana: a forensic and phylogeographic view Forensic
  • L Fendt
  • A Rock
  • B Zimmermann
  • M Bodner
  • Thorsten
  • T Thye
  • F Tschentscher
  • E Owusu-Dabo
  • Tmk Go
  • Pm Schneider
  • W Parson
Fendt, L., Rock, A., Zimmermann, B., Bodner, M., Thorsten, Thye T., Tschentscher, F., Owusu-Dabo, E., Go, TMK., Schneider, PM., Parson, W. 2012. MtDNA diversity of Ghana: a forensic and phylogeographic view Forensic. Forensic Science International: Genetics 6, 244–249.
Papa Doc, Baby Doc: Haiti and the Duvaliers
  • J Ferguson
Ferguson, J., 1988. Papa Doc, Baby Doc: Haiti and the Duvaliers. John Wiley and Sons Limited, London.
The History of Puerto Rico
  • P Flores-Pierce
Flores-Pierce, P. 2010. The History of Puerto Rico. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.