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Abstract

Phytoremediation is the use of plants as an organic factor in order to eliminate pollutants from soil, air, or wastewater in a cost-effective way. It can remove contaminations with five mechanisms including: Rhizosphere Bioremediation, Phytostabilization, Phytotransformation, Phytoextraction and Rhizofiltration. One of the important aspects of phytoremediation systems is using native plants with high biomass and high ability in stress tolerance. Bamboo species cover a major part of China’s forests, with over 500 species at 48 genera in tropical and sub-tropical regions with some special characteristics, including fast growing and high biomass Productions, which can be an appropriate option to use as a phytoremediation system. Different parts of a bamboo, including roots, shoots, rhizomes, leaves, and fibers can aid in environmental cleanup by removing contaminations from wastewater, air, and soil. This can cause the accumulation of pollutants in different bamboo organs, reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission with carbon sequester, and storing carbon in plant parts. The aim of this review work is to first investigate the phytoremediation system mechanisms in plants and then introduce bamboos as a successful plant for phytoremediation by assessing the role of roots, shoots, and fibers of bamboo plants in phytoremediation .
Eco. Env. & Cons. 24 (1) : 2018; pp. (530-539)
Copyright@ EM International
ISSN 0971–765X
Article-79
*Corresponding author’s email : ylding@vip.163.com
Phytoremediation potential of bamboo plant in China
Abolghassem Emamverdian,a,b Yulong Ding,a,c*and Yinfeng Xiea,b
a Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University,
Nanjing, 210037, China
b College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China
c Bamboo Research Institute, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China
(Received 14 September, 2017; accepted 15 November, 2017)
ABSTRACT
Phytoremediation is the use of plants as an organic factor in order to eliminate pollutants from soil, air, or
wastewater in a cost-effective way. It can remove contaminations with five mechanisms including:
Rhizosphere Bioremediation, Phytostabilization, Phytotransformation, Phytoextraction, and Rhizofiltration.
One of the important aspects of phytoremediation systems is using native plants with high biomass and
high ability in stress tolerance. Bamboo species cover a major part of China’s forests, with over 500 species
at 48 genera in tropical and sub-tropical regions with some special characteristics, including fast growing
and high biomass Productions, which can be an appropriate option to use as a phytoremediation system.
Different parts of a bamboo, including roots, shoots, rhizomes, leaves, and fibers can aid in environmental
cleanup by removing contaminations from wastewater, air, and soil. This can cause the accumulation of
pollutants in different bamboo organs, reducing anthropogenic CO2 emission with carbon sequester, and
storing carbon in plant parts. The aim of this review work is to first investigate the phytoremediation
system mechanisms in plants and then introduce bamboos as a successful plant for phytoremediation by
assessing the role of roots, shoots, and fibers of bamboo plants in phytoremediation .
Key word : Phytoremediation, Bamboo, Forest, Contaminations
Introduction
In the present century, heavy metals arising from
anthropogenic activities are some of the fundamen-
tal problems with agricultural soils (Xu et al., 2016;
Mahmoud and Ghoneim 2016), which have covered
approximately 2.0×107 ha of China farmlands
(19.4% of total farmland) (Shen et al., 2016; Yao et al.,
2012; Yan et al., 2015). It is reported that Cd, Cu, Pb,
and Zn have the largest distribution of contamina-
tion in China soil by 7%, 2.1%, 1.5%, and 0.9%,
respectively(Chen et al., 2016). The main sources of
anthropogenic activities in soil contamination in
China farmlands are: industrial activities, sewage
irrigation, sludge application, waste disposal, min-
ing, and agricultural fertilization(Sun et al. 2016,Li et
al. 2014). Basically, metals and metalloids,which are
called heavy metals (because their high densities are
more than 6gcm”3) couldbedivided into essential
(Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co) and non-essential metals (Pb,
Hg, Cr, and Cd)(Khan et al. 2015,Park et al. 2011).
Nonessential metals are significant threats to human
and animal health because of the accumulation char-
acter in edible parts of vegetable and crops (Yan et
al. 2015).Additionally, too much consumption of
them can accumulate non-essential metals in the
body’s organs, causing deleterious effects on human
health, especially in children (Qing et al. 2015,Li et
al. 2015). Using plants for decontamination is one of
the cheapest methods tophytoremediation. it works
EMAMVERDIAN ET AL 531
well in conjunction with the environment for remov-
ing heavy metals and pollution from soil, wastewa-
ter, and air. More precisely, phytoremediation is us-
ing plants as a sink of pollution proceeded to absorb
contaminations especially heavy metals (Wang et al.
2011; Chen et al. 2016; Li et al. 2015; Chen et al. 2015;
Ali et al., 2013). Biomass obtained from
phytoremediation in phytoextraction cycle can
thenbe used as an energy source (Witters et al.,
2012). Phytoremediation in plant cells with accumu-
lation process, especially in apoplast or symplast,
plays an important role in the sequestration and
degradation of heavy metals from soil (Nagendran
et al., 2006). On the other hand, the use of indigenous
and native plants with the ability of high
bioaccumulation in polluted regions can have a sig-
nificant impact on reducing operating costs
(Chehregani et al., 2009). Meanwhile, bamboo has a
significant importance as itis a fast-growing plant
with the ability to keep pollution in roots, shoots,
and fibers; therefore,itisknown as ‘‘green clean’’ in
public places and energy productionzones among
plants (Ali et al., 2013). Bamboo is known as one of
the most non-timber forest products with several
utilizations which make it very suitable for some
economic and ecological conditions (Huda et al.,
2012; Bai et al., 2016). Bamboos are considered to be
a new industry because of: 1-high growth rate(over
1 m in 24 h) (Ahvenainen et al., 2017), 2-high power
of spread in a short time (because of one unique sys-
tem of root rhizome) (Wang et al., 2016a; Wang et al.,
2016b; Changand Shiu, 2015) 3- large woody body
(more than 30 cm in diameter and 12 m in height)
(Huang et al., 2016b; Huang et al., 2016a), 4-
havingsome characteristics such as strength, light
colour, and high quality of wood, and most impor-
tantly, 5- beingwidely distributed and abundance
inChinasothatitisknown as the second forest re-
sources (Liu 2012). In addition, bamboo plants play
a significant role in bioenergy programs and envi-
ronmental management in comparison with other
typesof trees because of its highcapacity to store car-
bon and its high oxygen emission rates (Bhandawat
et al., 2017). Different species of bamboo can absorb
more than 62 tons of CO2 in hectare every year
(Krausea et al., 2016) and can stock more than 10% of
carbon forest ecosystems in China (Tang et al., 2015).
Bamboo species cover more than 5.38 million ha of
China forest, where more than 70% of them are
moso bamboo. This issue, together with high ability
of biomass production and fast growing rate, caused
moso bamboo to be of great importance in the bam-
boo family in China (Guan et al., 2015). Numerous
studies have been done on different bamboo utiliza-
tions, however there is not sufficient information
about phytoremediation in bamboo, which can play
an important role in wastewater treatment, soil con-
tamination removal, and improvement of local cli-
mate in industrial areas and urban territories. This
review was carried out to introduce the important
role of bamboo in phytoremediation system in south
of China, where bamboo is the dominant plant in the
forests, and to investigate the phytoremediation
mechanisms in plant and bamboo species.
Bamboo distribution in China
Bamboo plants belong to Gramineae (Poaceae fam-
ily) and could be classified as a subfamily of
Bambusoideae, which is a perennial woody and ev-
ergreen plant with cost-effective agricultural and
forestry products (Chehregani et al., 2009; Huang et
al. 2016a; Jin et al., 2016). Bamboo plants have made
a large contribution in China forests (Yan et al., 2015,
Huang et al., 2016a). There are more than 1250 spe-
cies at 75 genera of bamboo on the earth (Yang et al.
2008), which is over 30 million hectares (Dixon et al.
2016); among them, over 500 species at 48 genera
grow in China, which cover tropical, sub-tropical,
and temperate regions (Yang et al., 2008; Huang et
al., 2015) with temperature ranging between 16°C
and 38°C, rainfall between 1200 mm to 4000 mm,
and altitudes between 770 m and 1080 (Yang et al.,
2008), especially in the south of Yangtze river (Wu et
al. 2016).
This Chinese local plant has played a significant
role in bioresources and phytoremediation pro-
grams because of the high growth potential and
short maturation period (3-8 years) (Bhandawat et
al. 2017).
Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation is one of the most organic, low-
cost, and novelty methods to remove contamination,
especially heavy metals, from the environment. It
can be conducted in five ways.
(1) Rhizosphere Bioremediation: this process uses
the activation of root exudates and enzymes in
Rhizosphere, accumulates the organic carbon
in soil, transfers the contamination from soil
and water to areal organs, and volatilizes the
pollutants by Phytovolatilization.
(2) Phytostabilization: this process cannot reduce
532 Eco. Env. & Cons. 24 (1) : 2018
pollution from the waste site, but it can stabi-
lize the waste site with erosion control and de-
crease the mobility and phytoavailibility of con-
taminants for plants.
(3) Phytotransformation: this process is one of the
plant defense mechanisms for using plant ca-
pacity to tolerate toxicity.
(4) Phytoextraction: this process uptakes and ab-
sorbs contamination by plant biomass, transfers
contamination from soil and water to plant bio-
mass, and stores them to show the plant resis-
tance.
(5) Rhizofiltration: this process mostly uses the fil-
tration of wastewater and pollution by absorb-
ing them into roots (Zhang et al., 2010; Rahman
and Hasegawa, 2011).
These five mechanisms occur in most plants
along with phytoremediation. Additionally, plants
as organic ‘pumps’ are able to pull in large amount
of contaminated water from soil and wastewater
and do the transpiration process. This shows the
considerable and important role of plants in pre-
venting the contamination of groundwater (Susarla
et al., 2002). Also, Phytoremediation can reduce soil
contamination with some mechanisms, including
abiotic losses (such as volatilization,
photodegradation, leachate, and irreversible sorp-
tion), alternation in roots exudate and root tissues
with enhancing biodegradation and dissipation, and
microbial degradation (Wang et al., 2011). Microbial
in roots and rhizosphere can directly increase the
phytoremediation by improving the metal transloca-
tion in phytoextraction process, reducing metal mo-
bility in rhizosphere area through the
phytostabilation process, and indirectly by enhanc-
ing the plant metal Torrance and improving the pro-
ducing of high biomass (Rahkumar et al., 2012).
Phytoremediation potential of bamboo species
Having high biomass production and a fast growing
rate are the dominant characteristics of some types
of plants, such as bamboos, that facilitate
phytoremediation (Rahkumar et al., 2012). More-
over, other characteristics, such as a wide root sys-
tem, quick harvest, and plant tolerance to abiotic
stresses, which are remarkable in choosing
phytoremediation plants(Yang et al., 2005), make
bamboos an appropriate option for
phytoremediation. Furthermore, considerable con-
tribution of China forests, high pores in micro sizes,
and the ability to absorb carbon on a large scale have
introduced bamboo as a phytoremediation plant
and caused it to be a considerable topic for research-
ers in the field of pollution control (Zhu et al., 2010).
In one study in 2007, the data obtained by the re-
search indicated that damage of bamboo forest
caused by winter storms increased the soil organic
carbon (SOC); this issue revealed the important role
of bamboo plants in the accumulation and fixation
of carbon in environment (Liu et al., 2016). Bamboo
as a woody plant with a large body, high biomass
production, and fast maturation period can play an
important role in carbon storage in global carbon
cycles (Yen, 2015). Bamboo plants can be considered
as cheap tools to remove pollution in air, soil, and
water in comparison to other available methods.
Bamboo charcoal has the high capacity to absorb
and remove heavy metals, nitrate –nitrogen, gases,
and foams from the environment (Ma et al., 2010).
Bamboo leaves have also been identified as an effec-
tive tool to remove dye pollution in wastewaters
(Zhu et al., 2016).
The role of bamboo roots, shoots and fibers in
phytoremediation
Plants with high production of root biomass, such as
bamboo, can be an appropriate option for
phytoremediation(Gerhardt et al., 2009). The
rhizofiltration process in bamboo leads to the wide-
spread growth of plant roots in wastewater and con-
taminated area. Then, the roots absorb the contami-
nation existing in wastewater, take up the pollu-
tions, transfer them to plants organs, and accumu-
late and remove them by mechanisms such as
Phytosorption, Phytovolatilization, and Hydraulic
pumping systems in plants(Nagendran et al. 2006;
Pulford and Watson, 2003). Roots, in plants such as
bamboo species, play an important role in removing
heavy metals by releasing protein in hypo accumu-
lation. Then, by acidification of soil, they create good
conditions for the mobilized metal ions in soil and
the enhancement of metal bioavailability(Wu et al.
2010). In root cells, most of heavy metals bind to
peptide and anionic groups and are stored in the
vacuole. This mechanism can prevent heavy metal
transfer to areal organs and protect plant photosyn-
thesis and metabolism. This matter indicates the vi-
tal role of plants roots in heavy metal accumulation
(Rascio and Navari-lzzo 2011). However, a small
amount of contamination is mineralized to carbon
dioxide and water (Alkorta and Garbisu, 2001). The
result has shown that there is a large amount of Car-
EMAMVERDIAN ET AL 533
bon in the underground root system of a bamboo
plant (Wang et al., 2016) that expresses the signifi-
cant role of roots in carbon fixation in the environ-
ment. Phytoremediation in shoots occurs by
phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated
soil and accumulating them in areal organs, espe-
cially in shoot plants; this process works well in
plants with high biomass product such as bamboo
(Nagendran et al., 2006). In bamboo plants, the har-
vest of root biomass is not virtually conceivable (Ali
et al., 2013). Bamboo shoots can also have an impor-
tant usage in biochar to remove contaminations like
heavy metals from soil and reduce global concerns
by sequestering C in the atmosphere into soil (Lu et
al., 2017). Numerous studies have shown the role of
bamboo shoot biochar in the elimination of
perrhenate from aqueous solution (Hu et al., 2016)
and the reduction of bioavailability heavy metals in
soil (Lu et al., 2014). Therefore, bamboo shoots can
also play a major role in phytoremediation. Fiber
structure of bamboo is known as one of the largest
sinks of C among different types of plants. Bamboo
species can absorb CO2 in atmosphere, sink C in root
and shoot fiber structure, convert it to O, and finally
return it to the environment. This is the benefit point
for bamboo utilization after harvest and use in in-
dustry (Sijimol et al., 2016) that can help us to reduce
harmful greenhouse gases (Arfi et al., 2009).
Phytoremediation potential of bamboo charcoal
Charcoals, according to carbon activities, is able to
remove contamination, especially heavy metals
from water and air. Thermal decomposition of char-
coal is basically conducted according to this formula
(Lalhruaitluanga et al., 2010):
C6H12O6500–700 %C 6C + 6H2O
Bamboo charcoal, obtained from burning old
bamboo in ovens at high temperature, can be used
in water purification, protection against detrimental
rays and waves, and insulation for humidity and
odor control (Zhu et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2010).
Bamboo charcoal is important because of the extent
of the pores area compared with charcoals obtained
from other plants. The pores can aid greatly in the
water purification process by absorbing heavy met-
als in water (Lalhruaitluanga et al., 2010). A com-
parison between bamboo charcoal and woods char-
coals indicated one Significant increase in Number
of holes, Mineral constituent, Absorption efficiency
and Inner surface in bamboo charcoal (Lou et al.
2007). Efficiency of bamboo charcoal in the absorp-
tion and removal of pollution has been revealed in
several studies, including the absorbance of nitrate
–nitrogen by bamboo charcoal (Mizuta et al., 2004),
studies regarding heavy metals, and the absorbance
of microbes by providing rich nutriment because of
large space surface of bamboo charcoal (Lou et al.
2007).
Phytoremediation potential of Moso bamboo
Moso bamboo (phyllostachys pubescens,
phyllostachys edulis), as one of the highest hypera
accumulator species, has accounted for more than
70% of the bamboo family in China forests (Li et al.
2015; Guan et al. 2017; Tang et al., 2016; Zhou et al.
2016b), and 80% of bamboo forest regions over the
world (Song et al., 2017; Song et al., 2016). It is more
than three million hectares of China forest (Zhou et
al. 2016a; Huang et al. 2016; Wang et al. 2016a; Yuan
et al. 2015) in subtropical regions (Li et al., 2016; Song
et al. 2016). Moso bamboo can grow in an altitude
between 10 to 1700 meters above the sea level; how-
ever, in China, they are usually found in the eleva-
tions less than 800 m in mountain and hills (Zhang
et al., 2015). Moso bamboo is known as fastest grow-
ing plant in the world. It can grow up to 100 cm
daily and 15-24m high in period of 40 to 60 days (Bai
et al., 2016; Li et al., 2016; Sun et al. 2016). Moso bam-
boos are distributed in bamboo forest areas along
12-13 provinces in southern China including
Jiangsu-Shanghai-Hubei-Chongqing-Sichuan-
Yunnan-Guangxi-Hainan-Guizhou (between 14×104
ha) 2-Anhui- Guangdong (between 104×304 ha) 3-
Hunan (between 304×504 ha) and 4- Zhejiang-Fujian-
Jiangxi (more than 504)(Bai et al., 2016; Fu et al.,
2014). Because of high biomass in shoot and timber,
they are known as an important eco-friendly species
(Zhou et al., 2016a; Wu et al., 2015). Underground
biomass concentration in moso bamboo is about 85.5
to 94.0 ton ha–1, which shows their high biomass
product compared with other forest plants, and the
share of carbon in below-ground biomasses is about
34% of gross product (Fang et al., 2016). The average
of biomass accumulation in moso bamboo is about
96 g 1, which is a considerable amount compared to
other hyperaccumulator species (Li et al., 2015).
Moso bamboo is known to be one of the main re-
source sinks of carbon with the ability of carbon se-
questration in environment (Mao et al., 2015; Xiaolu
et al., 2016). It has been shown that the carbon se-
questration capacity of moso bamboo is higher than
534 Eco. Env. & Cons. 24 (1) : 2018
other common plants in southern China, such as the
Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia Lanceolata (Lamb.)
Hook), loblolly pine (Pinus Taeda L.), and oak
(Quercus variabilis Bl.) (Zhang et al. 2014). Climate
factors play an important role in carbon storage by
moso bamboo. A study on the effects of drought on
carbon storage in moso bamboo forest indicated that
carbon storage and net co2 sequestration were
14.35% and 125.07% lower than the control plots,
respectively, which revealed the role of climate
change in the carbon cycle in moso bamboo (Li et al.
2003). Moso bamboo with fast growing character
has the highest demand for carbon compared with
other plants, especially in its “explosive growth”
period (35 to 40 days after shoot emergence) (Song et
al., 2016). Another study showed thatthis kind of
bamboo species has kept and stored about
611.15±142.31 Tg of C in moso bamboo forests in
China, of which 75% of Carbon was accumulated in
plant soil and 25% was accumulated in plant organs
(Li et al., 2015). The amount of carbon storage is dif-
ferent depending on the moso bamboo coverage
area. For example, in one study it was shown that
the amount in Jian-ou city in China is about 145.3
Mg ha-1( Zhuang et al., 2015). Features such as a fast
growing rate, high biomass production (82 t hm–2 of
dry weight), ability to deal with different environ-
mental conditions (tropical and subtropical zones),
and also adaptation to survive in some polluted ar-
eas such as mines made the moso bamboo to be a
considerable species among others bamboo species
in phytoremediation ( Chen et al., 2015; Chen et al.,
2015). The high accumulation rate in moso bamboo
roots is more than shoots, stems, and leaves (Liu et
al., 2015). This means that an increase in heavy met-
als leads to a change in the roots and increases the
capacity of accumulation. In leaves, however, heavy
metal accumulation conducted with the reduction of
stomatal opening (Liu et al., 2015). Additionally,
moso bamboo root with 19.2% of plant biomass and
19.8% of carbon storage in the plant has an impor-
tant role in carbon fixation and redistribution into
the soil (Song et al., 2017). However, Dan Liu et al.
indicated that moso bamboo shoots also have high
ability in Zn accumulation. Therefore, this high ca-
pacity of heavy metal accumulation in shoot and
roots compared with other plants makes moso bam-
boo a suitable plant for phytoremediation (Liu et al.
2014). In cellular studies, it was specified that moso
bamboo is also able to accumulate heavy metals in
cytoplasm and vacuoles. It was shown that cyto-
plasm is the main zone of Cd accumulation in moso
bamboo (Li et al., 2016), while Chen et al., concluded
that vacuoles are the main zone of Cu accumulation
in moso bamboo (Chen et al., 2015). Bin Zhong et al.
in one experiment indicated that most of lead (Pb)
accumulation was found in the cytoplasm and the
rest was found in the cell wall and vacuole; this is-
sue reveals the ability of Moso bamboo to accumu-
late the heavy metals in plant cells (Bin Zhong et al.
2016). Thus, it can be concluded that Moso bamboo
is an effective species in detoxification and
phytoremediation because of its high metal toler-
ance, high accumulation of heavy metals, and great
amount of biomass (Liu et al. 2015).
“BAMBOU-ASSAINISSEMENT” technology
This could be an innovative technology to use bam-
boo species from two main types: monopodial and
sympodial for the phytoremediation of polluted ar-
eas and wastewaters. This categorization is accord-
ing to the native environment: sympodial is adapted
to tropical climates, and monopodial is adapted to
temperate climates (Arfi et al., 2009; Collin et al
2014). An extensive system of rhizomes, roots, and
new calms have an important role in the purification
of wastewater with absorbing properties of contami-
nation and reduction of air pollution with sink car-
bon. Additionally, high product of bamboo biomass
has added value to this system, because of the fast
growing nature of bamboo species (Arfi et al., 2009).
The result obtained from an experiment showed that
sympodial bamboo is one of the most important spe-
cies in the reduction and adjustment of contamina-
tion from the environment, which has most carbon
storage and carbon sequestration rates covering
80×104 ha of lands in China (Teng et al., 2016).
Conclusion
Undoubtedly, technological progress accelerates the
emergence of environmental phenomena including
contamination of soil, air, and water, especially in
industrialized countries such as China. Several
methods have been introduced to reduce environ-
mental pollution. However, the essential point is
using economical methods with minimal damage to
the environment. Phytoremediation is one of the
most cost-effective ways to remove pollutants and
contamination from the environment.
Phytoremediation with five actions, including
Rhizosphere Bioremediation, Phytostabilization,
EMAMVERDIAN ET AL 535
Phytotransformation, Phytoextraction, and
Rhizofiltration, can remove pollutions from the en-
vironment using some processes such as absorption,
transfer, accumulation, and evaporation in plants.
One of the main successful characteristics of
phytoremediation is using native plants with the
highest biomass products. Bamboo plants can be
considered as a suitable option for
phytoremediation systems because they are the fast-
est-growing plants over the world and have high
versatility in China’s climatic conditions. Bamboo
species have a high ability to accumulate pollution
in roots, shoots, rhizomes, and leaves, and also have
high carbon sequestration that could be stored in fi-
bers, rhizomes, and leaves. They can play an impor-
tant role in reducing environmental pollution, filtra-
tion wastewater, soil improvement, conserving
natural ecosystems, and improving local climate;
that is why it is called ‘‘green clean’’ in public places.
Moso bamboo, as one of the greatest and most im-
portant species of bamboo in China, can play a sig-
nificant role in the contribution of bamboo species in
phytoremediation system. The purpose of writing
this article was to show the importance of bamboo
as an environmentally friendly plant with high
adaptability, which demonstrates the high capacity
of phytoremediation with this plant. We hope that
by considering the phytoremediation role of bam-
boo a better view of the other aspects of this useful
plant is revealed, which may help us to understand
why the propagation and planting of bamboo in ur-
ban environments is needed.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by National key Technol-
ogy R&D program of China (No.2015BADO4B0305),
and a project funded by the Priority Academic Pro-
gram Development of Jiangsu Higher Education In-
stitutions.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of inter-
ests regarding the publication of this paper.
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Modern agricultural practices, rapid industrialization, power plants, and other anthropogenic activities add a considerable amount of toxic heavy metals into the environment. In contrast to organic compounds, metals cannot be degraded, and their clean up requires removal. The effects of toxic metals are observed on all forms of living organisms and their biological activities, as well as soil and water properties. Phytoremediation is an eco‐friendly, aesthetically pleasing approach and a convincing tool for the elimination of heavy metals among existing strategies. Many other conventional remediation methods might be expensive and deteriorate the quality of water, ultimately harming the ecosystem. Certain bamboo species, rhizobacterial inoculation, seagrass, water hyacinth, etc. are some of the phytoremediation models for metal removal studied extensively by researchers. The documented plants commonly used in the phytoremediation of water systems, such as Miscanthus sp., Scenedesmus abundans (common green algae), water lettuce, duckweed, Hydrilla verticillata, and Salvinia minima, and their capability to reduce metal pollution are discussed. Heavy metal uptake mechanisms in phytoremediation and the factors affecting those mechanisms will also be discussed. The chapter concludes by discussing the phytoremediation potential of various types of plants that eliminate heavy metals from contaminated aquatic systems to show there is a better, greener alternative in the field of water treatment.
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