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Deforestation in several countries has led to the crumbling and disintegration of forest with high effects of vulnerability on forest habitat, vegetation structures and extinction of wild life. Unfortunately deforestation affects the sustainability of the environment on a global scale with more detrimental effects on developing countries. Consequences of deforestation include global warming, flooding, climate change, water and air pollution. Removal of trees without proper replacement with new ones threatens human live which can lead to poverty. Findings reveal that at least 70% of the developing world lives below poverty line. This paper talks about deforestation on a global scale, how it affects human life, its benefits and how we should join hands with the relevant authorities to stop the damages done to the environment by cutting down trees.
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Elegbeleye Oladipo
Cyprus International University, Lefkosia via Mersin 10, Turkey
Department of Environmental Science
Abstract Deforestation in several countries has led to the crumbling and disintegration of forest with high effects of vulnerability
on forest habitat, vegetation structures and extinction of wild life. Unfortunately deforestation affects the sustainability of the
environment on a global scale with more detrimental effects on developing countries. Consequences of deforestation include global
warming, flooding, climate change, water and air pollution. Removal of trees without proper replacement with new ones threatens
human live which can lead to poverty. Findings reveal that at least 70% of the developing world lives below poverty line. This paper
talks about deforestation on a global scale, how it affects human life, its benefits and how we should join hands with the relevant
authorities to stop the damages done to the environment by cutting down trees.
Index TermsDeforestation, Global Warming, Economic Sustainability, Planting of Trees
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Deforestation can be defined as the process of
general disruption of a forest ecosystem that
occurs when trees are cut on a large scale. It also
refers to any process that alters an original tree
covers, which includes felling of all trees on a
site, thinning a forest and setting bush on fire.
Trees are cut down by people for various
reasons, examples include trees being cut down
and used or sold as fuel in the form of charcoal
and sometimes it can be used as pastures for
livestock , building of houses and settlements etc.
The removal of trees without adequate planting
or reforestation can result to loss of biodiversity,
habitat and aridity. Removal of trees can also be
used in war to rob enemy of cover for its forces
and vital resources
Deforestation is a severe crisis that continually
threatens many of the earth's delicate
ecosystems. Although its effects are well known
and have been documented on various
occasions, deforestation is an environmental
threat that remains although scientists and
researchers around the world have given several
warnings to this effect
The disruption of a forest ecosystem can be
caused by various reasons; one of the major
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reasons is corruption at the government
institutions whereby wealth and power are used
in harvesting of the riches of the forest.
Many government agencies are waging war
against illegal logging to protect the forests.
Never the less, any form of logging legal or
illegal results in deforestation. Forests are
degraded indiscriminately and randomly by
logging companies, to meet the demands of the
wood market. This does not give a chance to the
local wildlife and trees to regenerate and sustain
themselves. Thus, leading to loss of wildlife.
Deforestation can be defined as the process of
general disruption of a forest ecosystem that
occurs when trees are cut on a large scale. It is a
major concern for the developing countries in
the tropics (Myers, 1994) because of the
shrinking region of the tropical forests
(Barraclough and Ghimire, 2000) which results
into loss of biodiversity, habitat and enhances the
greenhouse effect (Angelsen et al., 1999). FAO
considers growing of trees established majorly
for timber making into forest and does not
classify or categorize natural forest conversion to
plantation as deforestation (however it is being
recorded as a loss of natural forests). Never the
less, FAO does not regard tree plantations that
offer non-timber products to be forest although
rubber plantations is being classified as forest.
Forest ruin happens when the ecosystem roles of
the forest are degraded but the area remains
forested (Anon., 2010). 30% of the earth’s land
area or about 3.9 billion hectares is sheltered by
forests. It was assessed that the original forest
shelter was approximately six billion hectares
(Bryant et al., 1997). The Russian Federation,
Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and
China were generally known as the most forest
rich countries bringing them to 53% of the entire
forest region of the world. Another 64 countries
having a joint population of 2billion was said to
have forest on less than 10% of their total land
area and sadly10 of these countries have no
forest at all. Among these countries sixteen have
relatively substantial forest areas of more than 1
million hectares each and 3 of these countries
namely Chad, the Islamic Republic of Iran and
Mongolia each have more than 10million
hectares of forest. The forest area is quite stable
in North and Central America even as its
extended in Europe in the past decade. Asian
continent particularly in India and China due to
their wide scale afforestation programme in the
last decade registered a net gain in forest area.
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However the South America, Africa and
Oceania had registered the net annual loss of
forest area (Anon., 2010; 2011a).
As stated by the international institute of
Tropical Agriculture (IITA) (2011), Nigeria is
ranked as one of the worst country with the
highest rate of deforestation. Deforestation rate
in Nigeria is set at 3.5% and 400,000 hectares
yearly according to the Federal Ministry of
Environments, meaning at least 400 out of every
1,000 of forestland are deforested yearly and only
26 hectares of these lands are reforested thus
leaving about 374 hectares of land deforested
(Babalola,2012). Throughout the course of the
deforestation, forests and woodlands are
permanently and totally destroyed (Institute for
Environment and Sustainability-Global
deforestation). The situation can be reversed
with the right attitude to nature treatment. Over
90% of Nigeria’s forest has been lost to
deforestation (Peacock 2011). He then added that
the huge demolition of the forest calls for
intervention by the younger generation that is
coming up. In terms of the loss of major forests
which is also known as old- growth forest,
Nigeria still has the highest deforestation rate ion
the globe (FAO, 2005). Nigeria lost 55.7% of her
major forests. According to (FAO), about
6million hectares of the world major forest is still
lost per annum. This is very vital because major
forests are taken as the most biologically diverse
ecosystem on the planet.
It was further stated that major forests are being
replaced by less bio-diverse plantations and
secondary forests. Deforestation is to be expected
when about 90% of a population depends on
wood as fuel for heating and cooking. Poor
agricultural practices such as slashing and
burning also add to deforestation (Terminski
2012). Research shows that about 60% of
Nigerians make use of firewood for cooking
because of the high rise in the cost of kerosene
(Akinbami 2003). At times sadly some persons
ignorantly set fire on forests contributing
primarily to deforestation. According to FAO,
developing countries from the tropics suffer
most from deforestation between 2000 and 2005
which shows us that there’s a link between
poverty and deforestation. We can therefore say
that poverty caused by human activities are the
main causes of deforestation in Nigeria
(Terminski 2012).
Corruption is also another serious issue in
Nigeria which contributes massively to illegal
logging by companies and forest officials (Global
witness 2013). As stated by Goncalves, Panjer,
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Greenberg & Magrath (2012), an area of forest
about the size of a foot ball field is clear-cut by
illegal loggers every two seconds. Illegal trading
in timber and its products lead to great economic
losses and environmental damages
(Transparency international 2011).
In the past 3 decades, the use of land in the
Brazilian Amazon has been branded by severe
abuse of natural resources which has resulted in
habitats altered by human without any actual
enhancement in the quality of life and revenue
distribution for the local populace. About 17
percent of the Amazon forest, or 60 million
hectares an area equivalent to France has
been converted and turned to other land uses in
the past 30 years (INPE, 2008). Most of this area
has been changed into low-productivity
pastures. These changes were the outcome of
former strong governmental incentives for forest
transformation and population movement to the
region, characterizing a growth pattern at that
time where forests were seen as a form of
obstacle for economic development. The trees in
the Amazon forests have about 60 to 80 billion
tonnes of carbon, more than the global emission
caused by humans in a decade. Deforestation in
the Brazilian Amazon alone emits about 200
million tonnes of carbon yearly, accounting for
about 3 percent of global net carbon emissions
and 70% of national discharge (Houghton,
2005). About 1.5 million hectares annually are
harvested for timber (Asner et al., 2005), often
using unsustainable and weak practices that
increase forest ruin which is linked to
biodiversity loss. Almost one-third of the
Amazon forest has been ruined by the use of
unsustainable and weak practices. Furthermore,
the summed end product of deforestation, poor
harvesting and slash-and-burn agricultural
practices which puts millions of hectares of
forests at high risk. In El Niño years, forests are
even more prone to fire because long periods of
dearth and famine make forests drier and ends
up in gathering of dead leaves (fuel)on the
ground (Nepstad et al., 2004).Forest misuse and
conversion have not brought true growth and
employment opportunities including better
revenue distribution for local residents or
benefits to the area. Currently, about 45% of the
population of the Brazilian Amazon has revenue
below the poverty line.
This paper focuses on deforestation as an
increasing threat on a global scale it also
discusses issues on environmental sustainability
global warming health implications as well as
how abuses, exploitations and damages to the
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environment can be controlled or averted
Global warming includes anthropogenically
made climatic and ecological issues which
includes clear climatic temperature shifts and
precipitation management. in some area, this
can be seen in sea level rise, stratospheric ozone
depletion, atmospheric effluence and forest
degradation. Tropical forests are shrinking at an
alarming rate of about 5% per decade as forests
are cleared to provide local, national and world
marketers for wood products, bio-fuels and
agricultural turnouts(Anon., 2007; 2010). One of
the key consequences of deforestation is its
impact on the global atmosphere. Deforestation
adds to global warming which happens from
accumulated atmospheric concentration of
greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting in a raise in
the global mean temperature as the forests are
the main terrestrial sink of carbon. As a result,
deforestation can disrupt the global carbon cycle
raising the concentration of atmospheric carbon
dioxide. Tropical deforestation is said to be
responsible for the discharge of roughly two
billion tonnes of carbon (as CO2) to the
atmosphere annually (Houghton, 2005).
Emission of the carbon dioxide because of
global deforestation is the same as an estimated
25% of discharge from combustion of fossil fuels
(Asdrasko, 1990).
Health issues related with global warming
include famine, floods and storms etc and this
problems are capable of threatening human
survival. Harvard Medical School doctors
credited recent outbreak of malaria and dengue
fever in the West to climate change in connection
with global warming. Incidence of kidney stones
and other health problems are on the high rise
with increased threat to human existence
(Health Effects of Global Warming, 2009). Other
possible health problems linked with global
warming include heat stroke, climate stress on
agriculture, malnutrition, increase in the amount
of malaria-carrying mosquitoes which puts about
65% of the global population on the risk of
having malarial infection (Health Effects of
Global Warming, 2009). High temperatures
which is also linked with global warming raises
the ozone concentration at the lowest level there
by making it a harmful and dangerous substance
capable of deteriorating existing case of asthma
and also cause damage to the lung tissues. It
should be noted, however that ozone layer at its
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normal position in the upper atmosphere protect
the earth from the harmful effects of ultra violet
radiations (Health Effects of Global Warming,
Deforestation have several benefits and one of
the primary and the most obvious of this benefits
The major reason that trees in the forest are
being cut down is to create room for expansion
whereby things like economic stimulating
businesses can be built with improvement in
road systems
Rain forest deforestation occurs mainly because
of farming. Rooms is giving to impoverished
and local farmers to provide for their families.
For every land cleared of trees through
deforestation land becomes available for farming
by planting crops, raising live stocks etc.
Deforestation also allow farmers to practice
commercial and subsistence farming as well
Planting of trees play a very important role in the
absorption of excess ground water. They suck
up the extra moisture up through their roots and
give it back into the atmosphere. This plant life
help to regulate and control the excess water
from rain when the soil become waterlogged.
Planting of trees will play essential role in
flooding of the area, as well as surrounding
Deforestation provides a strong source of income
for governments to stimulate economy especially
in countries that are developing.
The felling of trees for lumber helps in building,
and making use of paper products which have
major impacts on forest life. Forests are
sometimes cleared to contain expanding urban
areas which can result to massive deforestation.
Trees are cut down in order to create land for
grazing cattle in which they require enormous
amount of food to survive. Forests are
sometimes cleared out to make way for this
grazing cattle.
3.2.7 FUEL
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Deforestation occur in developing countries and
they used as firewood or turned into charcoal,
which can be used for heating and cooking
Human beings will not be able to carry out basic
daily tasks without the use wooden amenities
for example every home contains some type of
wooden fixtures be it chairs, tables, fittings in the
kitchen and rooms etc human life depends
mostly on lumber gotten from deforestation
therefore for everyday life wood is needed.
Deforestation provides employment in that trees
that are cut down will be cleared by some people
this also extends to those who process trees into
paper and those who make raw lumber to make
wood by products. Therefore, if deforestation
cease to exist unemployment will become a
major issue
Looking at deforestation closely, it tell us that it
is one means of advancement. However, we
should be able to attain a balance between
reforestation and deforestation. If this can be
attained, we are assured that everything will be
Deforestation is a universal crisis which
threatens environmental sustainability and is
capable of making human life unbearable. It has
been observed by Researchers that the lands
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which go through the process of deforestation
lose their fertility gradually and they are not
capable of carrying on agricultural activities.
The moment the trees gets logged off, the
subjected land loses its arability and efficiency.
Deforestation can cause the dislocation of local
indigenous communities whereby government
neglect local and indigenous society and thus
settle down the civilized and enlightened
societies only. Deforestation can also cause what
we call a domino effect to the global world, and
this includes loss of biodiversity, extinction of the
indigenous people, and global climate change.
The loss of plant and animal life can lead to
poverty and also result to partial human life loss.
Negative aspect of deforestation should be put to
mind so that you might have a good knowledge
and better comprehension of what deforestation
Firstly, to reduce deforestation, there must be an
improvement in the welfare of cultivators at the
forest frontier. There is no general or any
universal approach since these differ with region
and changes with time. However all approach
require co-operation, goodwill and teamwork.
Effective implementation, performance and
execution is vital including stakeholder
contributions, development of management
plans, including monitoring and close
observation. The approach should be one in
which the critical roles of national, state and
municipal governments will be recognized and
at the same time empower the general public
and the private sector to take a positive step in
reducing deforestation.
International organizations including the United
Nations and the World Bank have started to
develop programs to limit and reduce
deforestation primarily through Reducing
Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation (REDD). Most of the time direct and
straight monetary or other incentives are used to
motivate developing countries to reduce
deforestation as much as possible. Considerable
work is underway on tools for use in monitoring
and observing developing country with strict
adherence to their agreed REDDS targets
(Chomitz et al., 2007).
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Reducing population growths in developing
countries will grossly the rate of deforestation.
Consequently, reduced population will give rise
to increase in per capita income which will also
cause increase in revenue and literacy rates. This
however will reduce pressure on the forests for
human settlement and land use.
There are many ways of accomplishing and
increasing the actual value of forests.
Governments can enforce realistic prices on
stumpage and forest rent and can work on
improving or making better the sustainable
productivity and efficiency of the forest. National
and international recipients of the environmental
services of forests have to pay for such services
to increase the value (Chomitz et al., 2007).
Success has been recorded in devising schemes
to collect payments for environmental services
like biodiversity conservation, catchment
protection and ecotourism. This success can
further be realized by joining forces with the
management in these collection schemes to make
sure rights and equity in resource, which in turn
is a benefit for improving the livelihood of the
rural indigenes who actually are the major
stakeholders of conservation and management.
For sustainable forest management, there must
be sustainability socially, ecologically and
economically. Achieving ecological sustainability
signifies that the ecological values of the forest
must not be tarnished and if possible there
should be a significant improvement on the part
of the management. This means that
management should ensure that there is no soil
erosion and soil fertility should not be lost, water
quality on and off site should be maintained and
preserved. Likewise forest health and strength
should be protected. However, management for
environmental services on their own are not
economically and socially sustainable. This is
because developing nations have not attained a
stage of development and affluence that they can
hold the costs of doing so. Alternatively, the
developed nations must be ready to meet all the
costs (Chomitz et al., 2007; Anon., 2010; 2011).
Training and education of stakeholder’s make
people understand and value how to reduce and
avoid unpleasant environmental effects related
with deforestation and forestry activities and
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take appropriate action when necessary.
Research helps in understanding the problem, its
cause and mitigation better. However, this area
is falling behind for lack of funds and
investment. Unfortunately, knowledge and
information on forests and forestry is lacking
among the civil and local indigenes. Forest
managers and those developing forest policies
should to be educated and see the need to value
the complexity of the interacting ecological,
political, economical, cultural and social factor
involved. Several policy statements, regulatory
and legislative measures have been created to
protect and keep forests but they are not
effectively enforced. New modifications are
needed on site for specific conditions. Laws,
policy and legislation should be such that they
motivate local indigenes and institutional
participation in forestry management and
conservation. Protecting indigenous people’s
traditional rights should also be put into
consideration. Various formal and informal
enforcement methods are used to prevent
deforestation and environmental problems from
forestry activities. These approaches include
negotiation, warnings, fines, court action, arrests
and notices of violation.
Economic globalization coupled with the
impending universal land scarcity increases the
difficulty of impending pathways of land use.
Although human beings cannot survive or live
outside his immediate environment, his actions
are rapidly speeding up the damage of the
environment. In a more organized world,
agricultural growth causes more cropland
expansion and development where by trade-offs
amongst forest and agriculture can be reduced
through spatial management and the use of low
competition of lands (Lambin and Meyfroidt,
2011). Community based forest management can
be further addressed by building on political
benevolence and strong community
establishments. Challenges from climate change
needs urgent and quick action to explore,
discover and keep the significance of forests for
livelihood and survival. This is actually true in
the light of emerging events assumed as part of
REDD+ activities where forest governance are
aligned and taken care of.
I sincerely wish to thank Dr. Adebowale and
Ebenezer Olaniyi for their help and efforts in
proof reading my work God will bless them.
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Elegbeleye Oladipo Ayodamope ,is currently a
PHD student of Evironmental Science in Cyprus
International University, Lefkosa, via Mersin 10,
Turkey. His research interests is Advance
oxidation processing.
... [14] highlighted that deforestation itself has several meanings. Deforestation can be characterised as a process of general forest ecosystem disruption that takes place when trees are destroyed on a massive scale [15]. Meanwhile, [16], defined deforestation as forests changing in the form of permanent loss of protection against intact, separated, and scattered coverings and transitions. ...
... The demand for infrastructure such as railways, airports and highways due to population growth in Malaysia [12], [18], [30] Housing With the increase in population, the demand for houses also increases thus the forest needs to be cleared to fulfil the demand. [15], [17] Agriculture Planting and harvesting crops such as palm oil, rubber and rice where forests are often cleared to make way for new fields and plantations. [17], [14], [32], [33] Greenhouse gases Emissions of abundant gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorine, in the atmosphere from the use of fertilizers and fuel combustion. ...
... For that reason, it does not matter that non-spatial parameters cannot be included, and multi-criteria overlay analysis stands as a promising technique moving forward. Another land cover related limitation highlighted by Oladipo (2015) was that forest conversion form natural tropical forest to forestry plantations may not be detected by the satellites. Ground truthing in areas where uncertainty has arisen would be beneficial but not within the realms of possibility of a study of this calibre. ...
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The Guiana Shield is an understudied region within the north-east of the Amazon basin, hosting high levels of biodiversity and endemics. Its potentially high and intact forest cover plays a crucial role in regional and global climate processes. Due to the mostly impenetrable nature of tropical rainforests, satellite data is more advantageous over insitu data collection. Land cover calculations reveal that deforestation rates are rising and have escalated dramatically since 2012, with a 139.2% increase between 2001 and 2019; leaving previous statements about the intact nature of this region to be considered outdated. Deforestation is not spatially homogenous across the Guiana Shield. Fire occurrence within the Guiana Shield does not follow a linear pattern, with major variation across the study period. 40.7% of all fires in the study period took place within the ‘dense forest’ land cover classification, which was unexpected. There appears to be no large-scale regional relationship between fire and deforestation, leading to the conclusion that deforestation is predominantly driven by other factors. Whilst intact forests may still be classified as pristine, this is becoming increasingly under threat, and if further action is not taken, we may push these tropical forests beyond their limits, resulting in catastrophic impacts.
... The impact of economic globalization has driven the economic development of countries or regions lagging and impacts the ecological environment of the country or region, such as forest degradation (Wang et al., 2019). Debate on the positive and negative effects of globalization continues today (Hecht & Saatchi, 2007;Lawrence et al., 1996;National Academy of Engineering, 1994;Oladipo, 2015;Osland et al., 2002;Socolow et al., 1994). Trade openness can positively impact the economy because it removes market distortions that are reflected in commodity prices (Kustanto, 2020). ...
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Forests are unique resources and environments because, in general, they provide many benefits. Changing the function of forest areas to other functions is inseparable from economic development. As a developing country, Indonesia's economy is still dependent on natural resources to support its development. Economic integration through trade openness plays a vital role in economic growth. Policies that enhance the country's ability to trade will help the economy to develop. The more open the trade regime will make the country specialize in semi-finished input products, its competitive advantage. However, economic integration also creates negative externalities in the form of increased deforestation. This study explores the effect of trade openness on deforestation using a panel data method in 20 provinces in Indonesia from 2008-2018. Not many studies have focused on trade openness, large plantations, and social interactions as the driving forces behind deforestation in Indonesia. From the estimation results of the model, it is known that trade openness, economic growth, and activities of logging and forest conversion each contribute to changes in forest cover. If the commodity price rises, it will impact decreasing forest cover. Also, increasing population and density have decreased forest cover because land outside the forest area is limited.
... Industrialization and rapid growth in the economic sector has threatened the sustainability of the environment. Humans have continued to harness resources in their environment for their survival without making adequate provisions which will enable the environment to regenerate and serve the need of the future generation 1 . The author went further to state that this heavy exploitation of the environment could be reduced significantly if individuals such as timber merchants who regularly Timber merchants refer to those who engage in timber processing for the purpose of making profits. ...
... The implications of deforestation are far-reaching as they transcend national boundaries (Mohammed, 2014). Generally, the consequences include global warming, flooding, climate change, water and air pollution, and biodiversity loss (Oladipo, 2015;IEG, 2013;Adeoye et al., 2012). Due to deforestation, Tanzania has lost at least one-third of important eco-systems (URT, 2014) in the past few decades. ...
This paper examines the role of radio surveillance in the fight against deforestation in Rufiji, Tanzania. It presents the findings of a study that was guided by three research questions: (i) What techniques are used by radio programme producers in alerting people on the dangers of deforestation in Tanzania? (ii) How useful and helpful is forest information communicated through the radio to Rufiji community members? (iii) To what extent does the radio influence forest conservation behaviour among community members in Rufiji? Data were collected from a series of Urithi Wetu programme on TBC Taifa, and its content was analysed qualitatively to yield input that depicts the perceived role of radio surveillance. Complementary data were collected using questionnaires and focus group discussions. The findings reveal that the radio has largely failed to use instrumental surveillance function of the environment to empower community members find alternative sources of income generation and refrain from actions that are detrimental to forest conservation efforts. In fact, the findings expose the relative limitation of the success of the radio in both scope and intensity in using several techniques to make its audiences aware of impending and prevailing threats associated with TBC-Taifa tree-felling. Thus, remedial measures would include a shift in focus to solution-based programmes and integration of the views of the community members in radio programmes to optimise the impact on the target audiences.
According to the economy-environment trade-off, good economic conditions raise citizens' concerns about the environment, while economic recessions reduce the interest. This paper explores this hypothesis in print media and considers the quantitative media coverage of deforestation in three English-language newspapers between 1995 and 2015. The empirical findings reject the economy-environment trade-off and show that print media coverage of deforestation exhibits a modest but significant increase during economic downturns and slows down in case of good economic conditions. The mass media can reflect public opinion on major environmental issues but at the same time, tend to influence public opinion selecting and framing newsworthy issues. A stable media attention on deforestation issues, even during economic recessions, can contribute to create public support and legitimization for ambitious environmental policies aimed at governing forest conservation.
An integrated strategy for IJSER © 2015 http
  • J Akinbami
  • M P Goncalves
  • M Panjer
  • T S Greenberg
  • W B Magrath
Akinbami, J. 2003. "An integrated strategy for IJSER © 2015 /benefits.html [16] Goncalves, M.P; Panjer. M; Greenberg, T.S. and Magrath, W.B. 2012. Justice for Forests: Improving Criminal justice efforts to combat illegal logging.