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Germination Response of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Seeds to Different Vinegar Concentration as Seed Priming Agents

  • Northern Iloilo State University - Barotac Viejo Campus

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Priming materials are important to enhance germination ability of seeds. One of the materials used was vinegar. This study was conducted to determine effect of vinegar on the germination of eggplant seeds and to identify, which vinegar concentration is suitable for seeds germination. A petri dish method was used in this study with six treatments, replicated three times and arranged Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments composed of five vinegar concentration (10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001%) and a control. The parameters includes germination percentage, germination rate and germination index. The result showed that application of 0.001% vinegar concentration showed significant effects in terms of percent germination and germination rate. Application of 10% vinegar concentration has detrimental effect of eggplant seeds. Thus, application of vinegar with 0.001% concentration is effective in germination of eggplant seeds.
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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015 1
ISSN 2250-3153
Germination Response of Eggplant (Solanum melongena
L.) Seeds to Different Vinegar Concentration as Seed
Priming Agents
Leif Marvin R. Gonzales *
*Capiz State University-Pontevedra Campus, Bailan, Pontevedra, Capiz, Philippines
Abstract- Priming materials are important to enhance
germination ability of seeds. One of the materials used was
vinegar. This study was conducted to determine effect of vinegar
on the germination of eggplant seeds and to identify, which
vinegar concentration is suitable for seeds germination. A petri
dish method was used in this study with six treatments, replicated
three times and arranged Completely Randomized Design
(CRD). The treatments composed of five vinegar concentration
(10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001%) and a control. The parameters
includes germination percentage, germination rate and
germination index. The result showed that application of 0.001%
vinegar concentration showed significant effects in terms of
percent germination and germination rate. Application of 10%
vinegar concentration has detrimental effect of eggplant seeds.
Thus, application of vinegar with 0.001% concentration is
effective in germination of eggplant seeds.
Index Terms- germination index, germination percentage,
germination rate, priming agent, Solanum melongena L
ggplant (Solunum melongena L.) is a plant of the family
Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and from genus
Solanum. Eggplant is well regarded among the vegetables
increasingly sought by consumers, whose demand for food with
potential health promoting effects, such as disease prevention, is
escalating (Cardoso et al., 2009). It is said that eggplant fruits
associate good nutritional value (Ribeiro et al., 1998) and
therapeutic properties (Reis et al., 2007).
According to Bajehbaj (2010) that seed priming is an
efficient method for increasing seed vigor and synchronization of
germination, and in addition the growth of seedlings of many
crops under stressful conditions. Heydecker and Coolbear (1977)
stated that one of the long known main merits of priming
treatments is to increase germination and emergence rate.
The advantage of seed priming is reducing the
germination time and improving emergence in field and
laboratory conditions. However, few detailed studies have been
reported on the performance of osmotically treated seeds under
field conditions. Priming of aged seeds of okra resulted in good
germination and establishment in the field trials (Sanjaykumar et
al., 1996). There are a lot of benefits derived from seed priming
particularly in all crops which included; faster emergence, more
and uniform stands, less need to re-sow, more vigorous plants,
drought tolerance, earlier flowering, earlier harvest maturity and
higher seed yield (Chavan et al.,2014; Harris et al.,2001 and
Assefa, 2008.). One of priming material used in seed germination
is vinegar.
Evans and Blazich (1914) stated that vinegar is safer
and can be used for species that do not have an extremely hard
seed coat; the technique is the same as with sulfuric acid.
According to Tóbiás,, (2007), vinegar types seem to be
environmental friendly, cheap, and perspective dressing materials
in ecological seed treatment. Acetic acid, in vinegar, is one of the
most anciently used preservatives. Acetic acid is still examined
in other countries as seed treating material, but it was applied
only against fungi in arable cultures. Other examinations are also
developed new adequate methods for seed treatment in
ecological vegetable production, for example: natural compounds
(Tinivella et al., 2004), plant extracts (Hartman et al., 1995),
essential oils, and natural acids), antagonistic microorganisms,
physical treatments (aerated steam treatment, hot water treatment
(Roberts et al., 2006). Vinegar also changes pH, so the new
environment is not suitable for bacteria. Acetic acid is a natural
substance with low oral toxicity to humans, birds, and others who
have contact with it (Borgen, 2001). Hence, this study was
conducted to determine effect of vinegar as priming agents on
seed germination of eggplant seeds and to identify which vinegar
concentration suitable for eggplant seeds germination.
A. Seed Materials
Seeds of eggplant were obtained from the Department of
Horticulture, Seed Physiology Laboratory, Visayas State
University, Visca, Baybay City, Leyte. Viable seeds with
uniform size were selected for this experiment.
B. Seed Treatment
All the seeds of eggplant were disinfected with ethanol 70%
for three minutes and rinsed three times with distilled/sterilized
water, before treatments.
C. Experimental Treatment and Design
Vinegar as priming materials was used in this study using
Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with the following
concentration as a treatment:
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015 2
ISSN 2250-3153
T1 = control (distilled water)
T2 = 10% vinegar
T3 = 1% vinegar
T4 = 0.1% vinegar
T5 = 0.01% vinegar
T6 = 0.001% vinegar
D. Vinegar Solution Preparation
Six beakers, cleaned with a 10% bleach solution and
distilled water, was labeled with their corresponding vinegar
concentration. The first beaker was filled with 50 mL of 100%
vinegar. A pipette was next used to transfer 5 mL of the 100%
solution to the second beaker (labeled 10%). Additionally, 45 mL
of distilled water was added to the second beaker, and it was
gently swirled. Likewise, 5 ml of the 10% solution was
transferred to the third beaker (labeled 1%). It was diluted with
45 mL of distilled water and swirled. This dilution process was
repeated for the remaining three solutions (0.1%, 0.01%, and
0.001%). Eggplant seeds were soaked in a 10% bleach solution
for five minutes, rinsed with distilled water, and drained. Three
of the Petri plates were labeled as “control”, while the remaining
Petri plates were labeled with vinegar concentration (3 Petri
plates per concentration). The appropriate vinegar solution was
added to each of the Petri dishes (2 ml per dish), and distilled
water was added to the control dishes. In an even-spaced fashion,
ten soaked eggplant seeds was added to each dish. Finally, the
Petri dishes will be wrapped in bond paper and allowed to sit at
room temperature for five days. After this time, seeds were
examined for germination (Potts, 2008).
E. Distilled Water Application
Seeds were placed into Petri dishes with filter paper moisten
with distilled water. The Petri dishes were covered with bond
paper, and the seeds were incubated at 20°C in the room
temperature, because the seeds germinate favorably under these
conditions. The experiments were directed in triple replication
with 10 seeds per replicate.
F. Measurement of Germination
After priming, seed germination tests were carried out. Ten
seeds each for each treatment were placed in Petri dishes with
filter paper and each experiment was replicated three times.
Seeds were considered germinated when there was a visible
coleoptiles protrusion through the testa.
G. Data Gathered
Germination tests
The germination percentage is an estimate of the viability of
seeds. Germinated seeds were counted daily for 14 days. Seeds
were also considered germinated upon emergence of radicles (≥
2 mm) (Sharma and Sharma, 2010). The following germination
parameters were recorded:
1. Germination percentage (Gp) = (# seeds sprouted/ #total seeds
sprouted) x 100
2. Germination rate (Gr) was calculated using the following
Where, GT is seeds germinated each day and T refers to the day
during the trial (Siti Aishah, et al, 2010).
3. The germination index (GI) was calculated as described in the
Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA, 1983) by
following formula:
No. of germinated seed No. of germinated seed
GI= ------------------------ + - -+ --------------------------------
Days of first count Days of final count
H. Data analysis
The data was by one-way ANOVA for completely
randomized design (CRD). The means were compared using
Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD) tests using the Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) ver. 15 and Statistic 6.
Effect of vinegar on percentage seed germination
The number of seed germinated using vinegar as priming
agent showed significant differences among treatments on the 7th
and 11th day of germination but insignificant effect was observed
on the 9th day after seeding (DAS) (Figure 1). On the 7th day the
treatment 6 (0.001%) showed higher number of seed germinated
compare other treatments but still comparable to control
treatment and treatment 4 (0.1%) while on 11th day, similar
pattern were observed in control, treatment 4 (0.1%), and
treatment 6 (0.001%). This greatly explains that the use of
vinegar as priming agent showed significant effect in
germinating seeds, particularly in increasing the number of
germination in early days such as on 7th day and 11th day. The
result of this study was in agreement with the experiment of
Borgen (2001) on vinegar in relation with concentrations’ effect
and germination ability. Higher concentration have negative
effect on seed germination ability seems to be proportional to the
applied dose. In his study 0.5% of red and white wine vinegar
and 5% of white wine vinegar have simulative effect on
germination ability. In the experiments of Lövinson (1900) it
retarded the germination of peas.
Figure 1. Effect of vinegar on seed germination percentage
Effect of vinegar on germination rate and germination index
Germination rate provides a measure of time course of
seed germination (Saupe, 2009). The result showed that in
treatment 6 (0.001%) of vinegar, obtained higher rate of seed
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015 3
ISSN 2250-3153
germination compared to other treatment but statistically
comparable to control, T3, T4 and T5 (Figure 2). This can be
noted that vinegar had significantly influenced the germination
rate of eggplant seeds. This result is in agreement with the study
of Tobias et al. (2007) on the germination ability test of vinegar
in which the result did not show negative effect on seed
germination ability with the use of vinegar except the vinegar in
5% concentration. On the other hand, the significant positive
effect on was the germination ability. They also noted that the
low concentration (0.5%) of red and white wine vinegar mend
the germination capacity, but this effect is not significant. In the
experiment of Tobias et al. (2007), results showed that the
examined bacterial strains were more sensitive to acidic than
alkaline circumstances and it was noticed on their experiment
that the lowest examined concentration (0.5%) of vinegars had
also bactericide impact. They also stated that in the alkaline
materials it is necessary to use higher concentration of at least pH
13 (1.5% NaOH), but it had not impact in all case. They further
noted that the highest soluble concentration of NaHCO3 was
10% (pH 9). They concluded that all examined vinegar types
could be useful in biological plant protection systems against
bacterial diseases of tomato and pepper. However, Ling et al.
(2009) noted that the germination indexes not on1y contained the
number of germination, but a1so emphasized germination
velocity and it was noticed that the seeds at different time p1ayed
different roles in germination index. Therefore, germination
index were a good indicator of seed vigor. However, the results
of this study showed that a non-significant difference was
observed on the germination index as applied with different
concentration of vinegar (Figure 3).
Figure 2. Effect of vinegar on germination rate
Figure 3. Effect of vinegar on germination index
It can be concluded that the used of vinegar as priming
material is effective in germinating the seeds. Application of
0.001% concentration showed significant effects on percent
germination and germination rate. Thus, application of vinegar
with 0.001% concentration has proved to have best effect on
germination of eggplant seeds and application of 10% vinegar
concentration showing detrimental effect.
I would like to acknowledge the helped of my very special
friends Miss Maita L. Aban from Kanlaon Dormitory, Visayas
State University, Visca, Baybay City, Leyte .
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First Author Leif Marvin R. Gonzales, MS in Horticulture,
Capiz State University Pontevedra Campus, Capiz, Philippines
Email address:
Correspondence Author Leif Marvin R. Gonzales
Contact number: +639358183282
... The collected data was used in calculations methodology. Germination percentage Eq. 1 ) followed Elezz et al. [1] , while germination index and mean germination time ( Eq. 2 , (3) followed Leif Marvin R and Gonzales [2] . The mean germination rate ( Eq. 4 ) was calculated using the formula reported by Al-Ansari & Ksiksi [3] . ...
... No.of germinated seed the count day (2) Where: i = 1 day one, k the last day of observation. ...
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People are recently obsessed with excessive use of cleaning and disinfectants agents, particularly bleach and vinegar, before throwing residue into the drain and then into the groundwater, which is considered an essential source of drinking water and irrigation beside surface waters. A germination test of Vicia faba and Lens culinaris seeds under the effect of bleach and vinegar was conducted for seven days, and the observations were recorded daily. The completely randomized design (CRD) was used to examine the germination with three replicates at the lab conditions. Six germination parameters were measured, including germination percentage (GP), germination index (GI), mean germination time (MGT), mean germination rate (MGR), vigour index (VI), plus the fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of Vicia faba and Lens culinaris seeds. As a legume crop seeds model, the efficacy of four treatment levels from 0.005% to 0.5% of bleach and vinegar on the germination was tested. A chemical analysis was performed using the ion chromatography (IC) to evaluate the effect of chloride and acetate anions uptake on the seedling germination in addition to other essential nutrients. A significant inhibition in seedling growth was observed with increasing the treatment concentration. The maximum inhibition was recorded for both seeds at 0.5%, followed by 0.1% levels, while a positive effect was represented with the lower concentrations. The chemical analysis of the up taking active ingredients was corroborated the germination outputs.
... Germination percentage was calculated according to Elezz et al. (2019), while germination index and mean germination time according to Marvin and Gonzales (2015). ...
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... This may be because acid breaks down the seed's outer coating. In a study done on the effect of vinegar on germination, it was found that vinegar expedites the sprouting process in eggplant seeds by breaking down the outer layer of seeds [9]. This may have occurred in this experiment, with the acetic acid in the acidic soil breaking down the outer layer of seeds planted in Groups 1 and 2, allowing seedlings to absorb nutrients faster, resulting in faster germination overall. ...
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... To date, there are reports describing the benefits and drawbacks of this technology applied to eggplant (Demir et al., 1994;Gomes et al., 2012;Gonzales, 2015;Neto et al., 2017;Ali et al., 2019) and its CWRs, S. torvum Swartz 1788 (turkey berry) (Ranil et al., 2015;Cutti and Kulckzynski, 2016;Ozden and Demit, 2016;Sarathkumar et al., 2017), S. macrocarpon, S. aethiopicum, and S. incanum (Gisbert et al., 2011). However, much more studies are still necessary to cover the huge biodiversity of this horticultural crop and its wild relatives. ...
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Seed priming can circumvent poor germination rate and uniformity, frequently reported in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its crop wild relatives (CWRs). However, there is still a gap of knowledge on how these treatments impact the pre-germinative metabolism in a genotype-and/or species-dependent manner. The CWR Solanum villosum Miller (hairy nightshade) investigated in this study showed a quite unique profile of fast germination. Although this accelerated germination profile would not apparently require further improvement, we wanted to test whether priming would still be able to impact the pre-germinative metabolism, eventually disclosing the predominant contribution of specific antioxidant components. Hydropriming followed by dry-back resulted in synchronized germination, as revealed by the lowest MGR (Mean Germination Rate) and U (Uncertainty) values, compared to unprimed seeds. No significant changes in ROS (reactive oxygen species) were observed throughout the treatment. Increased tocopherols levels were detected at 2 h of hydropriming whereas, overall, a low lipid peroxidation was evidenced by the malondialdehyde (MDA) assay. Hydropriming resulted in enhanced accumulation of the naturally occurring antioxidant phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid and iso-orientin, found in the dry seeds and ex novo accumulation of rutin. The dynamic changes of the pre-germinative metabolism induced by hydropriming are discussed in view of future applications that might boost the use of eggplant CWRs for breeding, upon upgrade mediated by seed technology.
... In this context, seed priming is used to enhance germination and provide faster emergence, uniform stands, and stress tolerant plants 4 . Several reports are currently available, describing the effects of different priming protocols on eggplant seed germination and seedling emergence [30][31][32][33][34][35] , however the molecular characterization of the seed response to priming is still lacking. In the present work, we investigated these issues using the S. melongena inbred line '67/3', for which both the reference genome and transcriptome are available 36 . ...
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Seed priming, a pre-sowing technique that enhances the antioxidant/DNA repair activities during the pre-germinative metabolism, still retains empirical features. We explore for the first time the molecular dynamics of pre-germinative metabolism in primed eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seeds in order to identify hallmarks (expression patterns of antioxidant/DNA repair genes combined with free radical profiles) useful to discriminate between high-and low-quality lots. The hydropriming protocol hereby developed anticipated (or even rescued) germination, when applied to lots with variable quality. ROS (reactive oxygen species) raised during hydropriming and dropped after dry-back. Upregulation of antioxidant/DNA repair genes was observed during hydropriming and the subsequent imbibition. Upregulation of SmOGG1 (8-oxoguanine glycosylase/lyase) gene detected in primed seeds at 2 h of imbibition appeared as a promising hallmark. On the basis of these results, the investigation was restricted within the first 2 h of imbibition, to verify whether the molecular landscape was reproducible in different lots. A complex pattern of antioxidant/DNA repair gene expression emerged, reflecting the preponderance of seed lot-specific profiles. Only the low-quality eggplant seeds subjected to hydropriming showed enhanced ROS levels, both in the dry and imbibed state, and this might be a useful signature to discriminate among lots. The plasticity of eggplant pre-germinative metabolism stimulated by priming imposes a plethora of heterogeneous molecular responses that might delay the search for quality hallmarks. However, the information hereby gained could be translated to eggplant wild relatives to speed-up their use in breeding programs or other agronomical applications.
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The aim of the studies was to evaluate the effects of acetic acid treatments on the quality of stored onion seeds. Seeds of two samples were soaked for 30 min in 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% acetic acid solutions. Controls included untreated seeds, seeds soaked in distilled water and seeds treated with fungicide Zaprawa Nasienna T 75 WS/DS (a.i. 75% thiram). Germination, vigour and health of untreated and treated seeds were evaluated before and after 2, 6 and 12 months of storage at 4 and 20 °C. Treating onion seeds with acetic acid solutions, especially at the concentrations of 1 and 2%, reduced their infestation with Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp. and Stemphylium botryosum after storage at both temperatures. Seeds stored at 20 °C showed lower infestation with fungi than seeds stored at 4 °C. The acetic acid treatments did not have any adverse effect on germination and vigour of stored onion seeds. In some cases, the increase in germination at the first and final counts and the improvement in mean germination time were observed.
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Hibiscus macrophyllus , an important tropical tree, has high economic potential, however there are the problems in seedling procurement, i.e. seed dormancy and seed-borne pathogen. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the effect of sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid on fungal colonization, seed germination, and seedling growth of H. macrophyllus . A completely randomized design was used to test the six treatments: untreated seed, soaking seeds in boiling water and left 24 hours, soaking in boiling water and left 24 hours followed by soaking in acetic acid 1% (15 minutes), soaking in boiling water and left 24 hours followed by soaking in sodium bicarbonate 5% (15 minutes), soaking in acetic acid 1% (15 minutes) followed by soaking in boiling water and left 24 hours, soaking in sodium bicarbonate 5% (15 minutes) followed by soaking in boiling water and left 24 hours. Soaking in sodium bicarbonate 5% (15 minutes) followed by soaking in boiling water and left 24 hours could significantly decrease the fungal colonization. Sodium bicarbonate 5% and acetic acid 1% treatments could not improve seed germination. The sodium bicarbonate treatment followed by soaking in boiling water increased the seedling diameter, leaf length, leaf wide, root length, and leaf number.
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In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.
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In field trials, seed treatment with acetic acid reduced common bunt (Tilletia tritici) by 92-96% in winter wheat, and by 83% in spring wheat, without negative effects on germination vigour ofthe seeds. Leafstripe (Pyrenophora graminea) in spring barley was reduced by 93%. Acetic acid is a cheap and environmental friendly fungicide with a potentially wide scope of application especially in organic agriculture, where conventional pesticides are prohibited
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Plant growth is influenced by nutrient availability. The objective of this research was to study, under greenhouse conditions, eggplant growth as affected by rates of bovine manure and magnesium thermophosphate (g kg-1 and mg kg-1, respectively), according to a "Box central composite" matrix: 4.15-259; 4.15-1509; 24.15-259; 24.15-1509; 0.0-884; 28.3-884; 14.15-0,0; 14.15-1768; 14.15-884. Potassium sulfate (170 mg kg -1) and 200 mL per pot of cow urine solution were applied four times, but the concentration of the last two applications (200 mL/H2O L) was twice of that of the first two. Additional treatments: magnesium thermophosphate without cow urine and triple superphosphate with urea, both with nutrient levels equivalent to the bovine manure, P2O5 and potassium sulfate to the combination 14.15-884. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. Leaf area (LA) and LA ratio increased as quadratic functions with manure rates, with negative interaction for thermophosphate. Leaf dry matter mass (DMM) had an increasing quadratic function with rates for both fertilizers. The higher combined rates of both fertilizers resulted in the smallest specific leaf area, but also the highest values of shoot and root DMM, total DMM and, with positive interaction in relation to root shoot dry matter ratio. The relative growth rate in stem height, and also in diameter, increased with manure, according to quadratic and linear functions, respectively. The cow urine effect was, in general, lower than that of urea. The plant's overall growth was more influenced by manure. Root DMM and shoot DMM were greater with high K and P.
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Kalajira ( Bunium persicum ) is an economically and medicinally important threatened plant species of cold desert region of trans-Himalaya that needs appropriate conservation interventions. The seeds exhibit very deep dormancy which is a major restriction for its cultivation/expansion. Therefore, we have analysed the seed physiological aspects of a B. persicum population from Lahaul (Himachal Pradesh, India) with an aim to alleviate seed dormancy and/or improve germination. The freshly harvested seeds exhibited high viability (93%) as determined by tetrazolium test. The seeds, however, were completely dormant. Seed storage under ambient conditions for 42 months did not alter the dormancy/germination status. But, the viability declined gradually 18 months onward leading to about one-third loss after 42 months. Of the various dormancy breaking treatments tested (H<SUB>2</SUB>SO<SUB>4</SUB>-scarification, stratification at 4°C, leaching, KNO<SUB>3</SUB>, SNP, NaN<SUB>3</SUB> and GA<SUB>3</SUB>), only the moist-stratification at 4°C (continuous) effectively released the dormancy in freshly harvested as well as differentially stored seeds. Remarkably, the seeds germinated only at low temperature (4°C); germination ceased upon shifting the seeds from 4 to 25°C. Further, the response of seeds to this treatment declined consistently with the progression of storage period. The activity of catalase, an important antioxidative enzyme in the seeds, also declined with the progression of seed storage suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in storage-dependent changes in seed viability and responsiveness to low temperature. Involvement of phenolics in observed changes might be excluded. The findings are of potential significance for seed-based propagation of B. persicum .
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Participatory rural appraisal techniques were used to identify poor crop establishment as a major constraint on rainfed crop production by farmers in India and Zimbabwe. Some farmers in both countries reported experience of soaking seeds in water before sowing in an attempt to improve establishment but the practice was neither widespread nor regularly followed. Armed with knowledge of safe limits for soaking, almost 1250 on-farm trials were implemented by farmers in India for maize, upland rice and chickpea between 1995 and 1998 and 91 trials for maize and sorghum in Zimbabwe in 1997–1998. In each trial, farmers were asked to soak seed overnight, surface-dry it then sow it in the normal way in a plot next to a plot with dry seed. The farmers in each village evaluated the trials during farm walks and group discussions. These group methods allowed farmers to assess the effect of seed priming over a wide range of soils and levels of management. Direct benefits in all crops included: faster emergence; better, more uniform stands; less need to re-sow; more vigorous plants; better drought tolerance; earlier flowering; earlier harvest; and higher grain yield. In India, where a post-rainy season crop is often grown on residual soil moisture or using supplementary irrigation, indirect benefits reported were: earlier sowing of following crops; earlier harvesting of those crops, which allowed earlier seasonal migration from the area in search of work for cash; increased willingness to use fertilisers because of reduced risk of crop failure; and use of time saved to grow a third crop (mung bean) instead of migrating. Subsequent uptake of on-farm seed priming by participants in the trials has been almost universal and spread from farmer to farmer exhibits characteristics similar to those of the spread of seed of desirable new varieties. On-farm seed priming is a ‘key’ technology — low cost with low risk to produce an immediate benefit, unlocking the farming system and giving the farmer reasonable access to further benefits.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl priming with KNO3 on the germination traits and seedling growth of four Helianthus annuus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of four spring sunflower (Armawireski, Airfloure, Alestar and Ismailli) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 M Pa) for 24 h in continuous 30°C. Primed (P) and un-primed (NP) seeds were cultured in medium grade perlite and placed in greenhouse for 40 days. Experiments were conducted using various osmotic pressures induced by NaCl (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 dS m-1) in salinity experiment. Results showed that germination percentage of primed seeds was greater than that of un-primed seeds. Radicle length, seedling height and dry weight and leaf number of plants derived from primed seeds were higher compared with un-primed seeds. Na content of plants derived from primed seeds was higher than that of un-primed ones. In contrast, K content of priming resulted plantlets was comparatively higher compared with un-primed counterparts. It seems that salinity tolerance in priming resulted plantlets was due to higher potential of these plants for osmosis regulation. Decreasing osmotic potential progressively decreased both root and shoot length.
The ability of polysaccharide-based (starch, carrageenan and chitosan) coatings to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) were studied, mainly for industrial applications. The coatings and strawberries were characterized in terms of their physical properties (superficial properties, wettability, oxygen permeability) in order to optimize coating composition. The optimized coatings were then applied to the fruit both in the laboratory and in the field and their effects on relevant quality parameters assessed. The superficial tension of the strawberry was 28.94 mN/m, and its polar and dispersive components were 5.95 and 22.99 mN/m, respectively. The critical superficial tension of the strawberry, obtained from a Zisman plot, was 18.84 mN/m. For each polysaccharide-based coating the best wettability was obtained for compositions: 2% starch and 2% sorbitol; 0.3% carrageenan, 0.75% glycerol and 0.02% Tween 80; 1% chitosan and 0.1% Tween 80. The oxygen permeability of carrageenan films was approximately 40% of that obtained with starch films. The addition of calcium to the starch film-forming solution produced an increase in the film thickness; nevertheless no significant differences in oxygen permeability were obtained between films with and without calcium. The effects of application of these coatings to fresh strawberries were assessed by determining color change, firmness, weight loss, soluble solids and microbiological growth over 6 days. No significant colour differences were found, and the minimum firmness loss was obtained in strawberries coated with carrageenan and calcium chloride. The minimum loss of mass was obtained for fruit with chitosan and carrageenan coatings both with calcium chloride. The addition of 1% di-hydrated calcium chloride to the coatings reduced the microbial growth rate on the fruit. The minimum rate of microbial growth was obtained for strawberries coated with chitosan and calcium chloride. The industrial application of calcium-enriched carrageenan coating on fresh strawberries resulted in a decrease in firmness loss when compared to non-coated fruit.
To investigate the effects of osmotic stress on forage sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) varieties at critical stage of seed germination, i.e., at which salinization is initiated. A study was conducted at the Seed Technology Laboratory at University of Putra Malaysia (UPM- lab.) from October to November 2007. Two forage sorghum varieties (Speedfeed and KFS4) were evaluated in the salinity levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 dS m<SUP>-1</SUP>. The experimental design was Completely Random Design (CRD), which was based on factorial with 3 replications. In the experiment, seeds were germinated in covered, sterilized, disposable Petri dishes. Three parameters, namely germination percentage, germination rate, germination index and coefficient velocity of germination were estimated. The results of this study showed that different levels of salinity had significantly affected the germination percentage, germination rate germination index. In addition, a significant difference (1%) was also found in the germination percentage between the two varieties. Meanwhile, the mean comparison of the treatments showed that the germination percentage in distilled water (S1) was the highest (92.5%) and salinity dS m<SUP>-1</SUP> (S4) had the lowest germination percentage. The maximum germination rate (35.58) and germination index (391.67) were retrieved from EC 0 and with the increasing salinity, these parameters were decreased. The evaluation of the two varieties showed that KFS4 (V1) had a higher germination percentage (82.91%) than the speed feed (72.5%). Consequently, the seed germination of KFS4 was better than the speed feed (in salty water and non-stress conditions). In other words, salt stress had been found to delay germination of both varieties.
Salinity reduces substrate water potential, thereby restricting water and nutrient uptake by plants; salinity may also cause ionic imbalance and toxicity. Because substrate salinity fluctuates through the growing season, a plant may be exposed to different salinity levels, at various stages of development, with potentially significant consequences on population dynamics. Here, we present the results of a study of the effect of substrate salinity on seed germination, seedling emergence, and growth of Aster laurentianus, an annual marsh plant, endemic to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and potentially threatened. Seed germination was reduced in low salt concentration (10 g sea salt/L) and completely inhibited by salinity levels >/=20 g sea salt/L. However, this inhibiting effect was reversible: seeds from the salt treatments germinated readily after being washed in distilled water. Though seedling emergence was diminished at low salinity levels, postemergence survival was little affected. Plant growth was reduced, but net carbon assimilation rate was not affected by high salinity levels. Increased root respiration and respiratory costs associated with salt tolerance might have contributed to lower C accumulation at higher salinity levels. All developmental processes considered are thus negatively affected by substrate salinity, with potentially significant consequences on population abundance and distribution in salt marshes. Yet, the tolerance of this species to high salinity levels after seedling emergence is remarkable. Seed germination represents a major bottleneck in the species life cycle, potentially controlling local distribution and abundance in the natural habitat.