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Abstract

Spelt flour has become increasingly popular due to its superior nutritional properties. Aim of this work was to conduct a comparative evaluation of the chemical composition of wheat and spelt flour, their dough rheology and breadmaking properties. Flours’ comparison included the determination of their moisture, ash, protein, gluten, gliadin, glutenin, starch and total carbohydrates content. Their rheological properties were also analyzed through farinograph and extensiograph. The protein fractions of the two flours were evaluated by electrophoresis. Finally, each flour was separately used for breadmaking and the characteristics of the resulting bakery products (specific volume, dough swelling, crust and crumb color, hardness and water activity), were evaluated. Although spelt flour has higher protein content, it contains less gluten, while wheat flour provides a stronger and more elastic dough with superior breadmaking properties. Bread from spelt flour exhibits lower specific volume, darker crumb and crust color and increased crust and crumb hardness.

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... The dough prepared from wholegrain spelt flour absorbed even more water (67.1 mL/100 g). Frakolaki et al. [22] attributed this water affinity in farinograms to a higher protein content compared to wheat flour, which is also true for berry pomace. The high dietary fiber content in wholegrain flour is another factor that influences water absorption. ...
... The dough resistance in WS increased continuously up to 65 min of proofing time. The higher gliadin levels in the wholegrain spelt flour retarded a tension drop [22], and firmer doughs were obtained after fermentation. However, WS showed the lowest dough resistance among all formulations. ...
... The highest stickiness was observed for Ref and WS. When handling WS, its stickiness appeared to be much higher than any other dough, which was not reflected by the measurements but can be attributed to the gliadin proteins [22]. Although the pomace dough contained more water than Ref, its water-binding capacity compensated the stickiness, which decreased significantly. ...
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Using blackcurrant pomace, for instance, in bread, prevents wasting this by-product of fruit juice production, thereby also taking advantage of its nutritional benefits. This study investigated the effects of blackcurrant pomace incorporation in wheat dough and the quality of the resulting breads. Two concepts were addressed: (a) adjusting the water level based on the dough consistency and (b) preparing pre-hydrated pomace by applying the determined water content prior to dough preparation and using it for bread making. Samples with wholegrain spelt flour were used for additional comparison. This study revealed that instant pomace incorporation with an adjusted water level diminished the dough stickiness and baking loss, but resulted in stiffer dough with delayed proofing and a decreased bread volume. The kneading resistance pointed to continued swelling after kneading, concomitant with a lower amount of available free water. Counteracting the competition for water of the flour components and pomace fiber by applying pre-hydrated pomace turned out to be successful. The deteriorating effects were reduced to a larger extent by pomace hydrated in hot water. Despite a similar composition, the products of wholegrain spelt flour deviated from the pomace formulations as well as from wheat breads (producing the highest water absorption but smallest loaves). As the water absorption of pomace fiber largely influences the product properties, a pre-hydration of pomace to be included in wheat dough can be highly recommended to enhance processing properties and product quality.
... It was also characterized by higher values of the sedimentation index (by 46.2%) and falling number (by 32.2%). The higher protein content in the grain of spelt wheat than in common wheat grain was also demonstrated in studies conducted by krawczyk et al. (2008) and Frakolaki et al. (2018). In turn, literature data on the content of glutenwhich is the key characteristic of flour quality -are not that explicit. ...
... In our experiment, the quality of spelt wheat grain was improved by the value of the sedimentation index (providing direct information about the quality of gluten proteins), but on the other hand was diminished by the value of the falling number (indicative of the activity of alpha--amylase enzyme), which were higher by ca 50 and 30%, respectively, than in common wheat. Likewise, the lower starch content and the higher value of the falling number in spelt than in wheat were reported by Frakolaki et al. (2018). A significantly higher content of protein was determined in the grain of both cereals grown after pea than after oilseed rape (by 8.6 and 4.9%, respectively) and after common wheat/spelt wheat (by 7.8 and 7.5%). ...
... For instance, Pruska-kedzior (2008), FilipčEv et al. (2013) and soBczyk et al.(2017) demonstrated that both old and novel cultivars of spelt wheat contained more gluten than wheat, but according to krawczyk et al. (2008) they have the same or higher content of gluten. Opposite results were achieved byFrakolaki et al. (2018). However, the baking value of spelt wheat gluten is lower because of the preponderance of gliadin fraction over glutenin fraction(FilipčEv et al. 2013, soBczyk et al. 2017. ...
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Owing to the quality values of its grain, spelt wheat has become an increasingly often cultivated cereal not only in bio-farming but also in other systems of agriculture. The aim of this study was to compare the yield and quality of grain of common wheat and spelt wheat grown on plots after winter oilseed rape, pea, and after wheat/spelt wheat. The research was based on a field experiment carried out in Bałcyny (Poland). Two experimental factors were investigated: 1. Subspecies of winter wheat: common wheat and spelt wheat; 2. Cultivation of these cereals after winter oilseed rape, pea, and after winter wheat/spelt wheat. Results presented in this manuscript originate from years 2013-2015. The following determinations were performed on the grain each year: grain yield, contents of protein, wet gluten and starch, sedimentation index, falling number and contents nutrients. The yield of spelt wheat grain was by over 20% lower than that of common wheat grain. Its grain contained more protein, wet gluten, Ca, Mg and Zn, and less starch K and Fe. Grain yield of both cereals was positively affected by winter oilseed rape and negatively by wheat/spelt used as the forecrop. Their culture after pea significantly increased protein content of their grain, and also wet gluten content in the case of spelt wheat grain. In common wheat grain from a rotation plot in succession (wheat after wheat), values of these parameters were lower than in common wheat grain harvested after pea and oilseed rape. The forecrops had no effect on the other technological parameters of the grain of both cereals and on the P, K, Mg, Ca, and Cu content in the grain. Grain of common wheat grown after oilseed rape contained more Fe, and grain of wheat grown after pea had more Zn than after the other forecrops. Grain of spelt wheat from the plot after pea had a higher content of Mn, and that of spelt wheat from succession plot had less Fe. © 2019, Polish Society Magnesium Research. All rights reserved.
... Regarding the ash content, wheat flour presented similar values, namely T 55 (0.61 g/100 g) and T 65 (0.69 g/100 g) to those reported by Frakolaki, Giannou, Topakas, and Tzia (2018) in Greek samples (0.63 g/100 g). In rye flour samples T 70 (0.85%) and T 85 (0.99%) revealed lower contents than those presented by Drakos et al. (2017) (1.55 g/100 g). ...
... Similar results in wheat flour were reported by Kaminski, da Silva, Nascimento Júnior, and Ferrão (2011) from Santa Maria/RS -Brazil (85.52 g/100 g), but, in the same study, these authors reported lower values for rye samples (59.88 g/100 g). In wheat samples from Greece the authors reported 67.78 g/100 g of carbohydrates (Frakolaki et al., 2018). ...
... According to the same regulation, rye flour does not have minimum gluten values. Similar results were described in wheat flour samples from Greece, 10.90% of dry gluten and 28.24 of wet gluten (Frakolaki et al., 2018). Wheat flour has a medium to high protein content (10-16%); higher contents are useful in industrial baking due to its higher concentration of gluten, which gives it greater elasticity and resistance to mechanical processing and influence the hydration properties present in the flours. ...
Article
Seven types of wheat and rye flours were studied regarding their physical and chemical properties, as well as the presence of mycotoxins and microorganisms. The results revealed that flours presented moisture and ash contents below the recommended maximum limit. They also presented a low lipid content, which helps avoiding changes in the flours’ smell and taste. From the microbiological analysis, comparing the refined rye and wheat flours, the counting in the analysed microorganisms was not significantly different. The whole flours presented high contents in almost all the tested microorganisms, highlighting the molds counting for the whole wheat flour and the aerobic plate counting for the whole rye flour. None of the samples presented Salmonella spp. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A were not detected in any of the flours. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of wheat and rye flours for Portuguese consumers.
... It is an ancient crop native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia (Gosine and McSweeney, 2019), able to grow in harsh ecological conditions without the use of pesticides (Filipcˇev et al., 2017(Filipcˇev et al., , 2013. The protein content of spelt wheat may be higher (Frakolaki et al., 2018), but the resulting gluten network is less consistent and flexible (Bojnˇanska´and Francˇa´kova´, 2002). Spelt flour differs, also, significantly from wheat flour in the content and type of prolamins contained. ...
... In a previous study, the composition of spelt and wheat flour has been extensively examined and their School of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece differences have been confirmed. Spelt dough is less stable and elastic than common wheat dough and presents higher extensibility (Frakolaki et al., 2018). Due to its increased softness and stickiness after kneading, its handling becomes more difficult (Kohajdova´and Karovicova´, 2008). ...
... In this study, two types of flour were utilized: white wheat flour T.70% (as milling yield) and whole-wheat spelt flour T.90%, kindly donated by ''Helios'' pasta company (Metamorphosis, Greece). The chemical composition and properties of the above flours were determined in a previous study (Frakolaki et al., 2018). The remaining ingredients used to prepare dough samples, such as sugar, salt, and instant dry yeast, have been obtained from the local market. ...
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The aim of this work was the evaluation of the breadmaking potential of spelt flour when combined with wheat flour in various proportions, both in freshly baked and frozen form, and determine the optimal ratio for products with satisfactory quality characteristics. Freshly baked samples were prepared using different spelt–wheat flour mixtures ranging from 0 to 100% spelt at 10% intervals, while batches containing 0, 30, 50, 80, and 100% spelt were prepared in the case of frozen dough samples. The characteristics of the final baked products (dough volume expansion, specific volume, crust and crumb color, hardness, and water activity) were evaluated. Results showed that spelt flour proportions up to 20% provide bread with quality and sensory characteristics similar to wheat, while proportions higher than 70% lead to products with inferior properties. Therefore, samples with spelt content between 30 and 60%, although slightly degraded, remained highly acceptable.
... Concerning previous studies evaluating the volume and density of spelt bread, Wilson et al. [22] found that the volume of the five breads produced with spelt wheat was at least 10-15% lower that obtained with a hard red Winter wheat control. And Frakolaki et al. [23], comparing wheat and spelt flour breads, found that spelt bread had lower specific volume. Breads made in both studies [22,23] were baked without adaptation of bread-making protocol for the spelt breads. ...
... And Frakolaki et al. [23], comparing wheat and spelt flour breads, found that spelt bread had lower specific volume. Breads made in both studies [22,23] were baked without adaptation of bread-making protocol for the spelt breads. Filipčev et al. [13] showed that the spelt genotypes tested had low specific volumes (high densities) and large variation in crumb firmness. ...
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In this study, we analysed the bread quality parameters of five bread-making flour from single cultivars, namely two spelt wheats (‘Espelta Álava’ and ‘Espelta Navarra’) and three bread wheats (‘Bonpain’, ‘Craklin’ and ‘Sensas’). The grain from the five cultivars, all grown in an organic system, had been milled using the same procedure. Given that bread-making value of flour is closely linked to the dough rheological properties, the use of flour types other than bread wheat requires us to consider modifying the bread-making process. Therefore, the first step of this study was to optimise the bread-making process seeking to maximise the quality of the five breads. Subsequently, it was found that despite the poorer rheological properties and higher gli/glu ratio, the breads made with the spelt flours had better bread quality parameters: larger loaf volume, higher crumb resilience and lower crumb density and firmness. Principal component analysis separated the two spelt wheats from the other samples. We speculate that the bread-making process itself may be a major factor in the quality found in these breads.
... Spelt flour and bread made with spelt have become increasingly popular in many countries due to the nutritional properties of this grain. Specifically, spelt bread has a higher protein content, a higher lipid content, a more desirable fatty acid profile, and higher percentages of several nutrients compared to common wheat [67]. From an agronomic point of view, compared to other wheats, spelt is more resistant to diseases and various pathogenic fungi, so it requires less fertilization, pesticides, and herbicides and, as the seeds are covered by the husk, no chemicals are needed before sowing [68,69]. ...
... From an agronomic point of view, compared to other wheats, spelt is more resistant to diseases and various pathogenic fungi, so it requires less fertilization, pesticides, and herbicides and, as the seeds are covered by the husk, no chemicals are needed before sowing [68,69]. With the increasing interest in organic farming, these characteristics have led to a higher global interest in the production of this species that may have several impacts on human nutrition, health, and sustainability [67]. On the other hand, general consumption habits are shifting to a gluten-free diet, as people are removing wheat from their diet without any medical advice and, consequently, are not consuming the necessary nutrients of wheat [70]. ...
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Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world as it is used in the production of a diverse range of traditional and modern processed foods. The ancient varieties einkorn, emmer, and spelt not only played an important role as a source of food but became the ancestors of the modern varieties currently grown worldwide. Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) now account for around 95% and 5% of the world production, respectively. The success of this cereal is inextricably associated with the capacity of its grain proteins, the gluten, to form a viscoelastic dough that allows the transformation of wheat flour into a wide variety of staple forms of food in the human diet. This review aims to give a holistic view of the temporal and proteogenomic evolution of wheat from its domestication to the massively produced high-yield crop of our day.
... The demand for ancient grains in the global market has maintained strong growth and this trend is reflected in numerous scientific studies on the food applications of grains and seeds from ancient plant varieties [2,5,8]. Research papers or review articles on the use of the ancient wheat flours including ancient durum wheat genotypes, as well as pseudo-cereal flours as partial or total substitutes for common wheat flour in bakery goods, breakfast cereals, pasta, and even beverages have also been developed [9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Starch is the primary component of cereal and pseudo-cereal flours, thus its functional properties such as gelatinization, pasting, and retrogradation affect processing flour quality and, in a consequence, the final quality of the starchy product. ...
... These results are in line with those presented by Geisslitz et al. [7]. The SW flour was also relatively high in protein (Table 1), and it can be assumed that the protein was mainly composed of gliadin and glutenin fractions [9]. The other ancient wheat flours contained slightly lower protein amounts; however, the protein contents of the SW, einkorn wheat (EkW), and EmW flours were much lower than those determined by Belcar et al. [6]. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate thermal and rheological properties of selected ancient grain flours and to evaluate rheological properties of mixtures thereof represented by pasta dough and dry pasta. Flours from spelt, einkorn, and emmer ancient wheat varieties were combined with quinoa flour. All these flour sources are considered healthy grains of high bioactive component content. Research results were compared to durum wheat flour or spelt wheat flour systems. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a rapid visco analyzer (RVA) were used to investigate the phase transition behavior of the flours and pasting characteristics of the flours and dried pasta. Angular frequency sweep experiments and creep and recovery tests of the pasta dough were performed. The main components modifying the pasta dough structure were starch and water. Moreover, the proportion of the individual flours influenced the rheological properties of the dough. The durum wheat dough was characterized by the lowest values of the K′ and K″ parameters of the power law models (24,861 Pa·sn′ and 10,687 Pa·sn″, respectively) and the highest values of the instantaneous (J0) and retardation (J1) compliances (0.453 × 10−4 Pa and 0.644 × 10−4 Pa, respectively). Replacing the spelt wheat flour with the other ancient wheat flours and quinoa flour increased the proportion of elastic properties and decreased values of the J0 and J1 of the pasta dough. Presence of the quinoa flour increased pasting temperature (from 81.4 up to 83.3 °C) and significantly influenced pasting viscosities of the spelt wheat pasta samples. This study indicates a potential for using mixtures of spelt, einkorn, and emmer wheat flours with quinoa flour in the production of innovative pasta dough and pasta products.
... Spelt-derived products are also gaining popularity as spelt wheat is considered an ancient grain, and these have been attributed with healthier properties (41,42). In relation to the content of fructans and gluten, previous studies have pointed out clear differences for these compounds in spelt varieties (43). Fructan content in the grain is slightly lower in spelt wheat than that of bread and durum wheat, and rye (43,44). ...
... In relation to the content of fructans and gluten, previous studies have pointed out clear differences for these compounds in spelt varieties (43). Fructan content in the grain is slightly lower in spelt wheat than that of bread and durum wheat, and rye (43,44). In addition, gluten content and reactivity of gluten proteins, as determined by moAb R5 and G12, were higher than in bread wheat (45,46). ...
Article
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Background: The consumption of wheat/gluten is associated with adverse reactions for human health. Gluten and fructans are identified as the major compounds triggering and worsening adverse reactions to wheat, which are increasing, and as a consequence, avoidance of gluten/wheat is the common strategy of many individuals of the western population. Although bread is a product of daily consumption, there is a lack of information on the gluten and fructan contents and the influence of artisanal or industrial processes. Objective: The aim of this study is to carry out a comparative characterization between artisan bakeries and hypermarkets in Spain for gluten and fructan contents in daily sold breads. Design: A total of 48 types of bread highly consumed in Spain sold in artisan bakeries (long fermentation) and hypermarkets (short fermentations) were selected for comparing the gluten and fructan contents. Methods such as reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), R5 monoclonal antibody (moAb), and fructans protocols were used for the quantification of these compounds. Results: Great variation for the content of gluten and fructans has been found between all bread categories. Although breads produced using long fermentation (artisan bakeries) contain significantly lower gluten, they have higher fructans than those using short fermentations (hypermarkets). Durum wheat breads had the lowest content of gluten. Moreover, spelt breads from artisan bakeries had the lowest content of fructans but not those from hypermarkets. Discussion: In this study, we report the comparative characterizarion of the breads of the Spanish market. These food products presented variation in the amount of gluten and fructans, ligated in most of the cases to the nature of the providers: artisan bakeries against hypermarkets. Depending on the type of bread, the differences for the daily consumption of gluten and fructan can be 4.5 and 20 times, respectively. Conclusions: We found strong differences for gluten and fructan contents among breads. These information may contribute to designing strategies to improve the management of gluten and fructans in bread.
... Brabender extensograph is a standard method to investigate dough rheological properties such as dough extensibility and elasticity, which provides insights into important processing properties (Frakolaki et al. 2018). In addition to dough properties, shape and volume of the final product, other quality aspects such as storage potential and freshness are also relevant for the product quality (Freund and Kim 2006). ...
... High water absorption promotes a good baking volume, good freshness of the end product and improved storage potential (Puhr and D'Appolonia 1992;Koppel and Ingver 2010). It is also of practical interest because with a high water absorption, less flour is required to reach a certain loaf volume (Koppel and Ingver 2010;Frakolaki et al. 2018). ...
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Key message Heterosis effects for dough quality and baking volume were close to zero. However, hybrids have a higher grain yield at a given level of bread making quality compared to their parental lines. Abstract Bread wheat cultivars have been selected according to numerous quality traits to fulfill the requirements of the bread making industry. These include beside protein content and quality also rheological traits and baking volume. We evaluated 35 male and 73 female lines and 119 of their single-cross hybrids at three different locations for grain yield, protein content, sedimentation value, extensograph traits and baking volume. No significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found in the mean comparisons of males, females and hybrids, except for higher grain yield and lower protein content in the hybrids. Mid-parent and better-parent heterosis values were close to zero and slightly negative, respectively, for baking volume and extensograph traits. However, the majority of heterosis values resulted in the finding that hybrids had higher grain yield than lines for a given level of baking volume, sedimentation value or energy value of extensograph. Due to the high correlation with the mid-parent values ( r > 0.70), an initial prediction of hybrid performance based on line per se performance for protein content, sedimentation value, most traits of the extensograph and baking volume is possible. The low variance due to specific combining ability effects for most quality traits points toward an additive gene action requires quality selection within both heterotic groups. Consequently, hybrid wheat can combine high grain yield with high bread making quality. However, the future use of wheat hybrids strongly depends on the establishment of a cost-efficient and reliable seed production system.
... This plant, as a primitive subspecies of wheat, is less ennobled and differs from common wheat by a number of features, both morphological and in its chemical composition and environmental requirements. Spelt is more tolerant to cultivation in conditions less favorable for growing wheat (in terms of soil quality and climate); it is more resistant to diseases and its cultivation has a beneficial effect on biodiversity [7][8][9]. This crop is believed to succumb to weed pressure to a lesser extent than common wheat. ...
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Environmentally-friendly solutions are increasingly often applied in crop cultivation technologies. These include, among others, the return of old crops (e.g., spelt wheat) and crop rotation. Ensuring a proper forecrop is essential, especially in the cultivation of winter wheat, which is susceptible to infestation by weeds. However, there is only sparse information on infestation by weeds in the cultivation of winter spelt. In this study, it was assumed that this crop is invaded by weeds to a lesser extent than wheat, especially after unfavorable forecrops. The study was based on a field experiment conducted in the east part of Poland. The aim was to compare the weed infestation of common wheat and spelt wheat grown after peas, oilseed rape, and after itself. Analyses of weed infestation were conducted in 2014–2016. The weed species composition and population size were determined as well as their dry weight. The following indices were calculated: index of species richness, Simpson’s domination index, Shannon–Wiener index of species diversity, and Pielou’s index of evenness. The weed infestation of spelt wheat was higher than that of common wheat during the tillering stage. It was similar in both species during the heading stage. The lowest weed infestation in both cereals was observed on a field where peas had grown. Growing after oilseed rape and after themselves contributed to an increase in weed infestation. Biomass of weeds in a field of spelt was similar after all forecrops, unlike that in wheat, where more biomass was observed after oilseed rape and wheat. A greater share of Apera spica-venti and Viola arvensis was observed in common wheat and spelt grown after oilseed rape and after themselves. Weed communities in spelt were more diverse than in wheat. The forecrops did not differentiate the species diversity in either crop.
... Pasta can be also produced from spelt, which is a particular species of wheat (Triticum spelta). Spelt pasta provides a higher protein and lipid content, bran fiber, and a more desirable fatty acids profile compared to wheat [3,4]. Furthermore, all types of pasta offer great versatility, low cost, and easy preparation [5]. ...
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A by-product from the filleting of sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax) was used to manufacture enriched pasta. The research aimed at achieving an increase of protein and unsaturated fatty acid contents, making innovative and healthy pasta products that are able to step up fish consumption. Two different kind of cereals were used to make fresh pasta, which were subjected to frozen storage with the addition or not of a rosemary antioxidant. The developed pastas were analyzed by physicochemical methods. Proximal analysis demonstrated an improvement of nutritional values on those of a common pasta. Fatty acid profiles, acidity indices, and TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) index confirmed the stability of fat and effective protection against oxidation, especially in pasta with added antioxidant. The cooking time for pasta was set at 90 s, and color parameters were modified due to the incorporation of fish in the pasta-making process. An enrichment in fatty acids ω-3 and ω-6 was also confirmed. The conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in frozen storage was detected, which remained stable during 90 days. Finally, sensory profiles of enriched pasta were found to be adequate and improved following the addition of an antioxidant due to a decrease of negative attributes associated with oxidation.
... To evaluate suitable investment possibilities, an investor-farmer needs to take into account the value of keeping options open, including the impact of sources of uncertainty and risk attitudes. Frakolaki et al. (2017) focused on a comparative evaluation of the chemical composition of wheat and spelt flour, their dough rheology and breadmaking properties. Nowadays, a considerable interest in the consumption of alternative crops and foods delivering high nutritional value has arisen. ...
... The nutritional value of spelt and bread wheat hybrids can be accurately determined in studies of genetically stable lines from single crosses between the two cereal species. According to some authors, spelt grain is more abundant in macronutrients, including protein and ash, than bread wheat [26,41,46]. Also in the present study, protein content was nearly 25% higher in T. spelta than in T. aestivum. ...
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The aim of this two-year study was to determine whether the contents of macronutrients and macro and microelements in wheat grain can be increased by crossbreeding Triticum aestivum and T. spelta. The experimental material comprised the grains of F6 and F7 hybrids and their parental forms. The element content of grain was determined by ICP-SFMS. Hybrid grains had significantly higher ash contents than bread wheat grain (1.90% and 1.93% versus 1.62%). Crude protein content was lowest in bread wheat grain (11.75%) and highest in spelt grain (14.67%). Hybrid grains had significantly higher protein contents (12.97% and13.19%) than bread wheat grain. In both years of the study, the concentrations of P, S, Mg and Ca were highest in spelt grain, whereas their content in hybrids was lower than in spelt grain, but higher than in bread wheat grain. The concentrations of desirable microelements were highest in spelt grain, and the micronutrient profile of hybrid grains was more similar to bread wheat than spelt. Therefore, the hybrids can constitute promising source material for quality breeding in wheat.
... The proximate composition of the main raw materials used for the manufacture of the biscuits is showed in Table 1. The protein and ash contents of SWF (15% and 1.25%, respectively) are close to the results reported by [19], as well as [20] for whole spelt flour, namely ash (1.95%), protein (15.17%), and moisture (15.04%). The lipids content is similar with the amount reported by [21] ranging between 3.24-3.5%. ...
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Spent malt rootlets, a by-product of the brewing industry, are a rich source of protein, essential amino acids, healthy fats, polyphenols and minerals, and could be a new promising type of raw material from the nutritional, economic, sensory, and technical perspectives. However, their specific aroma profile could limit their addition in baked products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of spent malt rootlets addition on volatile derivatives of enriched biscuits in relation to their sensory profile. For this purpose, spent malt rootlets and enriched biscuits (0-25% spent malt rootlets added) were analyzed by GC-MS techniques, in order to obtain their fatty acids methyl esters and volatile compounds profile, while for the sensory analysis a nine-point hedonic score test was used. The results of this study reveal the fatty acids and volatile profile of spent malt rootlets and of the enriched biscuits with spent malt rootlets pointing out the contribution of fatty acids to the generation of aroma compounds. The influence of different aroma compounds on the consumer's preferences was studied and the optimum level addition of spent malt rootlets in multigrain biscuits was found to be 15%.
... Recent decades have witnessed the renewed interest to non-traditional species of wheat, fi rst and foremost, spelt (Triticum spelta L.) [14,15] and emmer (T. dicoccum Schrank ex Schübl.) ...
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Aim. To study the adaptive reactions of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and emmer (T. dicoccum Schrank ex Schübl.) seedlings using the parameters of oxidative homeostasis under polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress and metal (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn) mixture nanoparticles treatment. Methods. Biochemical assays: spectrophotometric measurements of the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT), the content of proline and products of lipid peroxidation; mathematical statistics. Results. The state of oxidative homeostasis of common wheat (cv. Favorytka, cv. Trypilska) and emmer (cv. Holikovska) seedlings under PEG-induced osmotic stress conditions was investigated and analyzed. The development of lipid peroxidation processes under stress conditions was observed only in the cv. Trypilska seedlings. It was established that proline content in common wheat seedlings of both cultivars under stress had signifi cant (10 : 1) predominance in roots, while in roots and shoots of emmer seedlings proline content increased equally. SOD activity in the leaves of the studied cultivars under stress conditions was not changed. At the same time, an increase of SOD activity by 30 % under osmotic stress was shown in the roots of common wheat of cv. Favorytka, while it decreased by 25 % in the roots of cv. Trypilska. It was established that CAT activity in the roots of both cultivars of common wheat decreased by 25 and 38 %, respectively, whereas in emmer of cv. Holikovska this parameter increased by 35 % under osmotic stress. Presowing treatment using a colloidal solution of a mixture of biogenic metal nanoparticles contributed to the induction of SOD activity in the roots of cv. Favorytka, CAT activity in the leaves of cv. Trypilska, and CAT activity in the roots and leaves of cv. Holikovska compared to non-treated plants. It should be noted that the treatment of plants with metal nanoparticles promoted the restoration of CAT activity in the roots under osmotic stress conditions to the level of the control plants in both wheat varieties. Conclusions. It was established that osmotic stress provoked the development of oxidative processes and inhibition of the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in particular, SOD and CAT, in the seedling roots of common wheat cultivars. It was shown that emmer wheat seedlings of cv. Holikovska can maintain redox homeostasis and avoid oxidative damage under osmotic stress conditions. It was found that the seedlings of common wheat and emmer demonstrated different strategies of osmotic regulation under osmotic stress, which is confi rmed, in particular, at the level of proline accumulation. It was shown that the application of colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles induced an antioxidant protection system and reduced the oxidative processes, which are inevitable effects of drought. The obtained results indicate that common wheat cultivars are more susceptible to drought compared to emmer wheat of cv. Holikovska.
... Daug žmonių netoleruoja glitimo, o speltų glitimo struktūra skiriasi nuo įprastinių kviečių, todėl nesu-kelia alerginių reakcijų. Manoma, kad tai gali lemti speltų baltymai, kurie skiriasi nuo paprastųjų kviečių prolaminų kiekiu ir tipu (Frakolaki et al., 2018). Speltų grūduose esantys fenoliai ir fenolinės rūgštys pasižymi stipriu antioksidaciniu poveikiu, mažina riziką sirgti širdies ir kraujagyslių, taip pat onkologinėmis ligomis (Gawlik-Dziki et al., 2012). ...
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The research was performed at Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy since 2019) in 2017–2018. Bread was baked without additives and enriched with 10% of dried carrot and beetroot powders. The research aim was to investigate and compare the influ­ence of these additives on bread quality. Using standard methods, water content, titratable acidity, fiber and ash quantities were established in baked bread. Crumb porosity, firmness and colour were also evaluated, and bread sensory analyses were carried out. The highest moisture (44.64%) and fiber (2.65% DM) contents were established in the bread with carrot powder, and in the bread with beetroot powder the highest ash content (3.98% DM) was found. The lowest acidity was found in the bread with carrot powder. The highest porosity was found in the bread without additives (52.12%). Vegetable additives reduced bread porosity. The bread with carrot and beetroot additives had a brighter colour. The bread with beet­root powder had the darkest and most intense red crumb, while the bread with carrot powder additive had the brightest yellow colour of the bread crumb. The results of the sensory evaluation of the bread showed that the appearance and bread crumb colour with the addition of beetroot powder was the most acceptable to the evaluators. The bread without additives had the highest scores of the aroma, while the bread with carrot powder had the best taste.
... Sensory characteristics that were considered to be less appealing. Spelt contains a higher protein content and different protein fractions compared to white wheat flour, which may explain some of the differences in bread based on spelt compared to white wheat (Frakolaki et al., 2018). Further, it has been shown that flour from organically grown wheat varieties, spring wheat, winter wheat and spring emmer, have a great variation in sensory characteristics within and between each variety. ...
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Background There is currently renewed interest in foods based on ancient cereals because consumers often consider such foods to be healthy and sustainable. Interest in ancient cereals is also growing among farmers and in the food industry due to increased demands for adaptability and the urgent need to preserve genetic diversity. Scope and approach In this review, we attempt to summarise recent findings regarding the content of nutrients and bioactive compounds in ancient cereals and their potential impact on human health in comparison with modern varieties. A literature review was conducted by collecting, evaluating and analysing data from publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals written in English language. Key findings and conclusions As indicated in several studies, ancient cereal varieties might have beneficial nutritional profile and consumers appreciate the taste and flavour of foods based on ancient cereals. These cereals have the potential to contribute to the improved sustainability and resilience of cropping systems. In addition, the production and consumption of foods based on ancient cereals indirectly encourages biodiversity, which has become a priority in environmental and organic farming circles. In conclusion, due to their unique nutritional value and phytochemical profile as well as their sensory characteristics, there is good potential for ancient cereals and associated products to become a part of a healthy diet.
... The chemical traits of wheat flour (WF) and cricket powder (CP) used for bread-making are reported in Table 2. The data obtained from wheat flour chemical characterization were in accordance with those reported by different authors for commercial white wheat flour (Frakolaki, Giannou, Topakas, & Tzia, 2018;Taccari et al., 2016;Turfani, Narducci, Durazzo, Galli, & Carcea, 2017). Regarding CP, the mean values obtained in the present study for all the assessed parameters were in the range of those reported by Osimani, Garofalo, Milanović, et al. (2017) in the same food matrix. ...
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Recently, the high nutritional value of edible insects attracted the attention of researchers and food industry for their potential use in foods with enhanced nutritional characteristics. In this study cricket (Acheta domesticus) powder was added to wheat flour to obtain bread with enhanced nutritional value. Bread loaves were obtained from doughs produced using different blends of wheat flour and cricket powder added in amounts of 10 or 30% (based on wheat flour) and baker's yeast and/or sourdough. Raw materials, doughs and breads were subjected to technological, microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Overall, a negative linear correlation between the amount of added cricket powder and the dough technological parameters was seen. However, compared to control breads produced with the sole wheat flour, breads containing cricket powder showed a higher nutritional profile in terms of fatty acid composition, high protein content and occurrence of essential amino acids. Finally, bread enriched with 10% cricket powder showed a discrete global liking by untrained panelists. Data overall collected highlighted a good suitability of cricket powder for the production of enriched bread. Of note, the presence of spore-forming bacteria in cricket-based bread loaves, thus highlighting potential safety issues to be deepened. Industrial relevance: The present study demonstrated that edible insects powder can successfully be included in leavened baked goods to enhance their protein content. The present research also responds to the growing awareness of consumers towards innovative and wholesome leavened goods, proving that edible insects can constitute a novel source of innovative ingredients to be used in bread making.
... Plant-based proteins form a major source of dietary protein, and seed storage proteins are of great significance due to their high nutritional quality and numerous functional properties [31]. For instance, the gluten storage protein in wheat is the primary reason why wheat flour is used in the baking process of bread and pasta [32]. The pseudocereal quinoa flour, however, is preferred in the flour industry for gluten-free products [33][34][35]. ...
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Carbohydrates are the major storage reserves in seeds, and they are produced and accumulated in specific tissues during the growth and development of a plant. The storage products are hydrolyzed into a mobile form, and they are then translocated to the developing tissue following seed germination, thereby ensuring new plant formation and seedling vigor. The utilization of seed reserves is an important characteristic of seed quality. This review focuses on the seed storage reserve composition, source–sink relations and partitioning of the major transported carbohydrate form, i.e., sucrose, into different reserves through sucrolytic processes, biosynthetic pathways, interchanging levels during mobilization and crosstalk based on vital biochemical pathways that interlink the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Seed storage reserves are important due to their nutritional value; therefore, novel approaches to augmenting the targeted storage reserve are also discussed.
... Spelt wheat has been attracting renewed interest worldwide due to the growing demand for traditional and organic products and so-called functional food [25,26]. Being richer in nutrients in comparison to other cereals, spelt products with no other cereal admixtures display a pro-health effect [27]. ...
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Climate change, including decreasing amount of rainfalls, makes the cultivation of cereals more difficult. The drought stress not only reduces plant growth, but most of all the yields. On the other hand, consumers' interest in ancient wheat varieties, including spelt, is growing. The aim of this work is to compare the response on drought stress between spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare). Six cultivars of spelt from different European countries and common wheat ‘Bogatka’ as a reference have been chosen for research. The photosynthesis process, chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content and the content of free proline and anthocyanins in well-watered and drought-stressed plants were measured. It was shown that the spelt cultivars 'Franckenkorn' and 'Badengold' were much more resistant to water deficit than other cultivars, and even common wheat. Slight reduction of CO2 assimilation and no reduction of transpiration rate, with simultaneous intensive proline and anthocyanins accumulation along with a slight increase in lipid peroxidation level revealed in 'Franckenkorn' prove that this cultivar has the ability to cope with drought and can be effectively cultivated in areas with limited water abundance.
... Majewska et al. [44] reported a higher content of wet gluten in flours from seven spelt cultivars and a higher total protein content (except for one cultivar-Celario), as compared to common wheat flour. In contrast, Sobczyk et al. [45] reported a lower content of protein and gluten proteins in spelt than in common wheat; in turn, Frakolaki [46] reports that spelt had more protein but less gluten than common wheat. According to Suchowilska et al. [47], the total protein content was higher in emmer than in spelt, which was confirmed in our study. ...
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The best pasta raw material is durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.). Recently, old wheat species have also attracted interest. The aim of the study was to evaluate their usefulness for industrial pasta production. The technological characteristics of grains and the organoleptic characteristics of pasta obtained from hulled emmer (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum) and spelt (T. aestivum ssp. spelta) were determined and compared to durum wheat, as a standard pasta raw material, and common wheat (T. aestivum). All wheats were grown under identical conditions. The hardness of kernels was assessed using the practical size index, wheat hardness index, torque moment, milling work of 50 g of flour, semolina yield, and starch damage. The technological and nutritional values of semolina, i.e., protein and ash content, wet gluten yield and quality, and falling number, were determined. Moreover, the organoleptic characteristics of cooked pasta were analysed in terms of appearance, colour, taste, smell, and consistency. The milling parameters of emmer were comparable to those of durum wheat; moreover, the content of protein, gluten, and ash was higher in emmer. Spelt was found to be similar to common wheat. Hulled wheats, especially emmer, show good quality parameters and can be an alternative raw material for industrial pasta production.
... These are food products, most often based on wholemeal flours produced from these raw materials, which have a high nutritional value and complete composition. This is the main reason for the creation of such food products in increasing volume and assortment composition [8,9,10]. Emmer wholemeal flour is known to be high in protein. ...
Conference Paper
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The chemical, physical and physicochemical characteristics of Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), a representative of diploid wheat and Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum), a representative of tetraploid wheat have been studied. Based on the obtained results, technological characteristics of the milling and baking quality of the studied cereals have been made, with respect to their future application in the production of wholemeal flours for food purposes. The specific features of the studied grains and their technological potential for obtaining wholemeal flours with different product composition and properties are taken into account.
... The incorporation of fish modifies the physico-chemical characteristics of pasta, inducing the formation of complexes between cereal starch and fish lipids, which can decrease the uptake of water, as well as starch gelatinization (Desai et al., 2018). Both types of cereal showed different values of weight gain as would be expected according to the difference between the type of cereal shown in a previous study (Frakolaki, Giannou, Topakas, & Tzia, 2018). ...
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The effect of incorporating a fish (D. labrax) by‐product on pasta quality was evaluated to assess its technological viability in comparison with a common pasta. Two enriched pastas, both dried and fresh and including or not a natural antioxidant (R. officinalis) were analyzed and compared to traditional pasta (durum and spelt). Findings indicated that enriched pasta showed a decrease in their texture properties, except for adhesiveness which was higher compared to traditional pasta. The addition of fish caused slight changes in color. Regarding the technological quality, it was moderately affected by fish inclusion, presenting lower gains in weight respect to control pasta (>15% of difference). Therefore, enriched pasta appears to be a good alternative to offer food with an improved nutritional profile with a low impact on the quality of the product from a technological point of view since the introduction of fish does not extensively affect pasta quality. The enrichment of pasta from fish by‐product is a good alternative to improve its nutritional value. The cooking had a beneficial effect on the bioavailability of nutrients in enriched pasta with fish. Technological properties of enriched pasta with fish after cooking was similar to traditional pasta made with durum wheat.
... Thus, the assortment of products that can be obtained from this ancient cereal is vast and includes foods such as bread, pasta, cookies and muffins. As spelt gluten is more extensible and less elastic than that of common wheat, certain processing techniques are required, such as reducing mixing times and water quantities, as well as extending the rest time of the dough [50]. The baking quality of spelt flour is obtained mainly from the gluten proteins, namely the ratio of gliadins (GLIA) and glutenins (GLUT). ...
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In recent years, the attention of farmers, bakers and consumers towards ancient wheat species has been increasing. Low demands of pedo-climatic growth factors, the suitability for organic cultivation along with their high nutritional quality and their content in pro-health compounds make them extremely attractive for bakers and modern consumers, equally. On the other hand, in recent years, sourdough has gained attention due to its ability to produce new functionally active molecules with higher bioaccessibility and thus to produce bread with enhanced nutritional quality. This paper highlights the relevant nutritional profile of einkorn, spelt, emmer and Khorasan which could lead to bread with improved textural, sensorial, microbial and nutritional characteristics through sourdough fermentation. The ancient wheat species could be used as promising substitutes for common wheat flour for the design of innovative types of bread, even for special needs.
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Nowadays there has been a revival of interest in ancient crops, such as spelt wheat, which differs from modern varieties of wheat with more balanced chemical content. The effect full replacement of modern wheat flour with whole grain spelt flour on the cracker`s quality was studied. Addition of the spelt flour leads to a high sensory characteristics formation of the product. Ancient wheat flour based samples characterized with more rich color and more intense taste and aroma. The usage of spelt flour increased the product`s ability to water absorption (145 %), acidity (2.0 degree), which are in the accordance with standard requirements. The results have shown the positive effect on the nutritional value of the final product. The highest protein content (16.44 g/100 g) was obtained for the enriched samples, there were also an increase in micronutrients content – Fe (by 27.8 %), K (by 22.9 %), B5 (by 83.6 %). In vivo studies have proven that consumption of the products based on whole grain spelt flour effectively prevented the development of inflammation and dysbiosis processes. Obtained results indicate the effectiveness of full replacement modern wheat
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Spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta L.) is an underexploited hexaploid wheat species that has become an increasingly fashionable raw material of bakery products in the last decades, partly because of its ability to grow under organic agricultural conditions and partly because of the growing number of people following the trend of having a healthy diet. However, due to its difficult threshing, most research on spelt seed is based on a very limited number of genotypes. Therefore, we determined the physical, compositional, and breadmaking quality traits of 90 spelt genotypes in order to highlight the variation of these properties and to identify possible genetic resources for spelt improvement. The thousand kernel weight of the spelt genotypes ranged between 23.2 and 49.7 g, the protein content between 12.1% and 22.2%, the gluten index between 0.7 and 98.8, the dough stability between 0.0 and 19.6 min, and the starch damage between 6.3 and 19.4 UCD value. The average values showed that spelt has higher protein and gluten contents but weaker dough strength and stability than common bread wheat. The starch pasting temperature was also higher in spelt, but the starch damage was lower, resulting in lower water absorption. Some genebank accessions (MVGB142, 145, 353, and 525) and internationally available cultivars (Bohemia, Bodensonne, Black-Bearded, and White-Beardless) were identified as good genetic resources for improving the breadmaking-quality traits of spelt.
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The effects of Tartary buckwheat flour (TBF) / wheat flour ratio on the physical properties, and starch digestion, of noodles were investigated. Incorporation of TBF significantly changed the physical characters of noodles. As TBF levels increased in noodles, the colour of dough sheet became darker and noodle texture was affected deleteriously. Starch gelatinization temperature increased with TBF inclusion, and the relaxation time by low‐field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF‐NMR) system (including T21, T22 and T23) decreased due to the close combination of water with macromolecule such as protein and starch. Near‐infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) results of all cooked noodles showed that both energy, and protein contents, decreased significantly. Compared with noodles without substitution, TBF noodles reduced the production of reducing sugar released during an in vitro starch digestion. These findings suggest that incorporation of TBF in noodles could improve noodle nutrition but care is required to ensure appropriate textural characteristics are maintained.
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BACKGROUND In concomitance with shifts in climate conditions in recent years, an increasingly frequent emergence of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in cereals has been observed. In this study the effects of temperature (15°, 23°, 30° and 37 °C) and water activity (0.85, 0.90, 0.95 and 0.99) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by A. flavus isolate inoculated on hull‐less and hulled spelt grains were investigated. RESULTS The optimal conditions for AFB1 biosynthesis were reached at 30 °C and aw value of 0.99 in the all tested samples (hull‐less grain, dehulled spelt grains and hulls). The AFB1 accumulation was significantly higher in hull‐less than in dehulled grains, that implicated the protective effect of spelt hulls. The levels of AFB1 were about 10‐170 times higher in hulls than in grains. In order to determine the possibility of predicting the occurrence of AFB1 under different storage conditions, the mathematical models (Second Order Polynomial ‐ SOP and Artificial Neural Network ‐ ANN) were applied. CONCLUSION The achievement of such estimation facilitates further decisions on continuous monitoring of the potential hazard related to AFB1 contamination of stored spelt‐based food. The knowledge of the storage temperature and aw effects on the AFB1 content in spelt during the post‐harvest phase is of great practical importance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Background and objectives The experiment involved 35 lines of T. polonicum, 3 common wheat cultivars and one durum wheat cultivar. Findings Triticum polonicum lines were characterized by significantly higher protein (17.33%) and ash (2.30%) content than T. aestivum (11.65 and 1.90%, respectively). Despite the high gluten content of T. polonicum (37.1%), its gluten index (11%) and falling number (182 s) were lower in comparison with T. aestivum (82% and 397 s, respectively). The dough and bread made from T. polonicum flour were characterized by high yield and high crumb moisture. The loaves of bread baked from T. polonicum flour were generally less risen, and in some cases, they were flatter in shape and had less fluffy crumb with somewhat larger and thicker‐walled pores than the breads made from common wheat and durum wheat flour. Conclusions However, T. polonicum bread had more desirable sensory properties than the products made with the flour of common wheat and durum wheat. The flour from T. polonicum grain can be an interesting alternative for bread production. Significance and novelty So far, there is no information on the technological quality of the grain of T. polonicum. This species could be a valuable initial material for new wheat cultivars breeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The aim of the study was to propose formulas with addition of bamboo and hemp fibre and grape seed flour in an amount of 3, 6 and 9% and then assess the effect of added fibre on the quality of biscuits. A total of 20 samples were baked, in half of the samples the basic ingredient was wheat flour, and in the rest of samples spelt flour was used. During a baking experiment, it was found that the best effect on the product volume and the weight after baking had bamboo fibre. Minor baking losses occurred in biscuits with wheat flour. The best sensory results were attained with the sample having 3% of grape seed flour with a spelt flour base. The crispiest was the sample made from spelt flour with 3% of hemp fibre and the wheat samples with bamboo fibre were of the lightest colour. Control samples had the highest nutritional values and biscuits with added bamboo fibre contained the lowest energy in both formulas.
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This study aims to describe the native microbiota of fermented spelt, taking into consideration both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, for which little data are available. Five samples of commercial spelt flour were subjected to spontaneous fermentation to obtain a type I sourdough. A total of 186 LAB and 174 yeast isolates were selected at different refreshment steps and subjected to further analyses. Within LAB, coccal isolates constituted 78.5% of the total LAB, with the dominance of Pediococcus pentosaceus. Although documented before as a component, this is the first report of a spelt sourdough fermentation dominated by this homofermentative LAB, characterized by a high acidification rate, ability to utilize a wide range of carbon sources and to grow in high osmolarity conditions. Yeast communities resulted in four dominant species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Pichia fermentans and Clavispora lusitaniae. This study highlights for the first time the biodiversity and dynamics of yeast communities involved in sourdough fermentation of spelt. Compared to commercial baker's yeast, autochthonous W. anomalus, P. fermentans and S. cerevisiae isolates show a good performance, and their use could be an advantage for their acquired adaptation to the environment, providing stability to the fermentation process.
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The quality of wheat products has been a new challenge next to wheat production which was achieved substantially during green revolution. The end-use quality of wheat is an essential factor for its commercial demand. The quality of wheat is largely based on the wheat storage proteins which extensively influences the dough properties. High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMWGS), low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMWGS) and gliadins significantly influence the end-use quality. Genomics and proteomics study of these gluten proteins of bread and durum wheat have explored new avenues for precise identification of the alleles and their role in end-use quality improvement. Secalin protein of Secale cereale encoded by Sec-1 loci and is associated with 1RS.1BL translocation has been known for deterioration of end-use quality. Chromosomal manipulations using various approaches have led to the development of new recombinant lines of wheat without secalin. Advanced techniques associated with assessment of end-use quality have integrated the knowledge of useful or deteriorating HMWGS/LMWGS alleles and their potential role in end-use quality. This review gives a comprehensive insight of different aspects of the end-use quality perspective for bread making in wheat along with some information on the immunological interference of gluten in celiac disease.
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The sorghum crop (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has a varied range of utilization either for human consumpition or as feed‐stock for animals.The physical and chemical characteristics of flours have a bearing on their quality and the products produced from them. In this study,;the utilization of a Zimbabwean sorghum hybrid and high‐gluten wheat flour on composite bread‐making volume was evaluated. The composite proportion for all the analysis in this study was from 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 wheat‐sorghum flours respectively and 100% wheat as the control. Flours were characterized for total protein, starch, moisture and fat‐content by using standard methods. Dough rheological properties of every composite flour were through the use of the Viscograph‐E, Farinograph and the Extensograph.A similar trend was observed throughout the study that; an increase in sorghum addition resulted in a significant decrease compared to the control. Bread‐making was conducted using the sponge and dough method characterised by a 4‐hour fermentation of the sponge prior to mixing with the dough before baking. The specific volume of the control wheat flour (4.26 cm3/g) was not significantly different (P<0.05) from 10% sorghum flour (4.16 cm3/g) substitution. However, 20% and 30% degrees of substitution were essentially different (P<0.05). The overall sensory acceptability of the bread was not siginificantly different up to 10% sorghum addition compared to the wheat control and decreseased with an increase in sorghum addition up to 30%. Substitution of sorghum to less than 20% could be ideal in producing bread that is identical to that of wheat.
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Sorghum crop is a food-security cereal crop of enormous importance in numerous parts across the whole world. To assess the effect of Zimbabwean Macia sorghum on fine dried noodles characteristics, composite flours comprising 10%, 20%, and 30% sorghum were investigated for their physicochemical composition, dough rheological parameters, and sensory analysis of the final dried noodles. Sorghum addition (10%-30%) resulted in a significant decrease in the protein and moisture content while it increased fat and ash content. With the increase of sorghum content, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, final viscosity demonstrated an upward trend. Starch pasting properties and the gluten network are key in the determination of the hardness of noodles. Hardness (r=0.860) and Chewiness (r=0.862) were positively correlated with protein content. Chewiness had a negative correlation with fat (r=-0.893) and ash (r=-0.899). As the amount of sorghum added increases, the color of the fine dried noodles becomes grayer. The existence of polyphenol oxidase enzymes and a higher amount of ash may be related to noodle discoloration. In the sensory evaluation, the total score of fine dried noodles added with 10% sorghum was not significantly different from that of the control group. Increasing the sorghum proportion had adverse effects although noodles produced were still acceptable.
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A comparative evaluation of the rheological properties of ancient wheat flours (emmer, spelt and khorasan), cultivated under the same conditions, was conducted. They were evaluated for chemical composition, wet gluten quantity, quality, aggregation and disruption kinetics (GlutoPeak), dough proofing (Rheofermentometer), as well as mixing and thermal behavior (Mixolab). High wet gluten content of spelt flour led to formation of strong gluten network with the highest water absorption and maximum dough height during proofing in comparison to other varieties. Khorasan flour, although having very low wet gluten content, exhibited the highest dough stability both during mixing and fermentation due to high gluten index. Despite being characterized with high wet gluten, very low gluten index of emmer flour affected dough development process, resulting in the lowest dough height and pronounced loss in dough height during fermentation as well as the lowest percentage of gas retained in the dough compared to other species.
Chapter
The dietary intake of fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) can promote gut health, but also trigger gastrointestinal disorders. Wheat as a staple food is considered a major source of FODMAPs in the daily diet. The most abundant FODMAPs in the wheat grain are fructans, which accumulate during plant development in vegetative tissues and are remobilized during grain filling and synthesized in the developing grain. Abiotic stress can foster the accumulation of fructans. Quantification of fructans and/or other FODMAPs is usually carried out by commercial enzymatic assays or by chromatographic methods. There is evidence for genetic variation in fructan accumulation, remobilization efficiency and concentration in the grain. Heritabilities were shown to be moderate to high. Therefore, breeding for low fructan and/or FODMAPs levels in the grain is feasible and was already successfully demonstrated. A significant reduction in FODMAPs of wheat products, however, can be realised by processing. Therefore, long proofing times, especially sour dough fermentation, are most efficient.
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Complexation of cassava flour with additives provides promising bakery functionality. In this study, cassava flour was complexed with guar gum (GG) and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) using dry-heat-moisture treatment (250 g/kg, 90 °C and 45 min) and steam-heat-moisture treatment (150 g/kg, 120 °C/2 × 10⁵ Pa and 10 min), respectively, and blended with wheat flour at 300 g/kg substitution level. Effect of heat-moisture treated cassava flour-GG/SSL complexes on dough rheological characteristics (farinograph, extensograph and viscoelasticity), bread characteristics (physical, crumb structure and texture) and bread staling kinetics of wheat-cassava composite flour were studied. Notably, wheat flour-dry-heat-moisture treated cassava flour-SSL complex ensued higher dough stability, loaf specific volume (26%) and bread crumb porosity and lower crumb hardness (19%) and loaf density (20%) relative to wheat-native cassava flour. Wheat flour-dry-heat-moisture treated cassava flour-GG complex revealed higher dough viscoelasticity and crumb adhesiveness (83%) relative to wheat-native cassava flour. Higher dough resistance to extension/extensibility ratio and lower amylopectin retrogradation kinetics was shown by wheat flour-steam-heat-moisture treated cassava flour-SSL complex when compared with wheat flour-native cassava flour. Wheat flour-steam-heat-moisture treated cassava flour-GG complex had higher crumb cohesiveness (33%), springiness (11%) and chewiness (30%) than wheat flour-native cassava flour. Noteworthy relationships between dough and bread characteristics were revealed.
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The goal of this work was to investigate the use of selected starter cultures to obtain a spelt-based sourdough bread with improved technological, sensory and shelf-life characteristics. Two consortia were set up, containing a yeast strain (either a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain or a maltose-negative Kazachstania unispora strain) and two strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), belonging to Weissella cibaria and Pediococcus pentosaceus species. The ability to grow in co-culture was investigated, and no inhibitions were recorded between the LAB and yeasts, that grew in proportions deemed desirable for sourdoughs. The performance of the two consortia was assessed in a spelt-based sourdough bread, and the leavening behavior, bread volume and crumb softness, shelf life and consumer preference were assessed. The product obtained with the consortium containing S. cerevisiae had superior crumb texture that was maintained through 5 d of storage, and was well accepted by the consumers. Furthermore, both consortia improved the mold free shelf-life when challenged with common cereal contaminants. The data showed that selected starter cultures have a good potential in improving the quality of bakery products obtained with flours that have a poor technological performance, such as spelt, but interesting nutritional properties and sustainable cultivation.
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High-amylose wheat starch (HAWS) and flour (HAWF) have the potential to deliver food products with enhanced nutritional functionality, but structure/function relationships are not well understood. We report the structural bases for differences in water absorption and pasting properties for HAWS and HAWF (amylose contents 71-84%) compared with wild-type (WTWS/WTWF). With higher amylose content, the proportion of longer amylopectin chains with DP > 25 increased. Both the degree of branching and the branch lengths of amylose were lower for HAWS than WTWS. Compared with WTWF, HAWF contained less total starch, more protein, had lower peak viscosity by high-temperature RVA, lower dough development time and stability time and higher water absorption by Farinograph. Water absorption by HAWS was ∼1.5 times greater than for WTWS, suggesting loose packing of polymers within HAWS granules. Consistent with this, crystallinity and birefringence of starch granules were lower in HAWS.
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Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) is a valuable source of new gene resources for wheat genetic improvement. In the present study, two novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) 1Ax2.1* at Glu-A1 and 1By19* at Glu-B1 from German spelt wheat were identified. The encoding genes of both subunits were amplified and cloned by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), and the complete sequences of open reading frames (ORF) were obtained. 1Ax2.1* with 2478 bp and 1By19* with 2163 bp encoded 824 and 720 amino acid residues, respectively. Molecular characterization showed that both subunits had a longer repetitive region, and high percentage of α-helices at the N- and C-termini, which are beneficial for forming superior gluten macropolymers. Protein modelling by AlphaFold2 revealed similar three-diamensional (3D) structure features of 1Ax2.1* with two x-type superior quality subunits (1Ax1 and 1Ax2*) and 1By19* with four y-type superior quality subunits (1By16, 1By9, 1By8 and 1By18). Four cysteine residues in the three x-type subunits (1Ax2.1*, 1Ax1 and 1Ax2*) and the cysteine in intermediate repeat region of y-type subunits were not expected to participate in intramolecular disulfide bond formation, but these cysteines might form intermolecular disulfide bonds with other glutenins and gliadins to enhance gluten macropolymer formation. The SNP-based molecular markers for 1Ax2.1* and 1By19* genes were developed, which were verified in different F2 populations and recombination inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing between spelt wheat and bread wheat cultivars. This study provides data on new glutenin genes and molecular markers for wheat quality improvement.
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Considerable interest in the consumption of bread from ancient spelt wheat with superior nutritional properties, easy digestibility and pleasant taste and aroma, has arisen recently. Yeast extract (YE) is nowadays frequently used as natural flavor enhancer for improving organoleptic properties such as meaty, cheesy and savory attributes of different food products. YE is a natural product from baker?s yeast industry with high nutritional richness containing amino acids, peptides, nucleotides, vitamins and minerals. In this work the effect of YE, table salt and white sugar content on fermentative activity of yeast and technological properties of spelt bread was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) aiming to define the optimal conditions for obtaining a new functional product. The addition of YE, salt and white sugar slightly decreased yeast fermentative activity, while CO2 retention in dough was found to depend more on its chemical composition. YE addition (up to 5%) was found to increase volume and decrease firmness of bread prepared from dough with sugar content up to 5%, while the opposite effect was established in bread with higher sugar content. Maximal bread elasticity was obtained for YE content of 1.57%, table salt content of 2.01% and sugar content of 7.15%.
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This paper provides an overview of the related scientific literature, with some of our own targeted research, to investigate the possible causes of the recently increased prevalence of various forms of dietary cereal sensitivities. Detailed scientific investigations do not support the controversial idea that human practices, particularly modern wheat breeding, may have contributed to the increase in celiac disease (CD) prevalence during the latter half of the twentieth century. Each of the primitive wheat relatives and each historic or modern bread and durum wheat variety contains more or less amounts of toxic/allergenic epitopes. In the last 120 years, health-related quality attributes have not been considered in pre-breeding or breeding, but the yield- and functional quality-oriented selection procedures have resulted in unintended spinoff effects on the amounts of harmful compounds in new lines. Because of the trend of decreases in overall protein content, as well as the alteration of the glutenin-to-gliadin content to improve dough strength, older varieties are higher in gliadin content with consequent higher CD antigenicity. Meanwhile practices, introduced during the last 50 years in utilizing wheat in the food industry, have significantly increased the consumption of untreated prolamin proteins, including gluten proteins. Other factors for consideration are the incorporation of vital gluten as a cheap protein supplement in some food products and the reduction of fermentation time during bread making. Beyond the obvious effects of improved and more widely used diagnostic tests in medical practice, the increased incorporation of untreated gluten proteins and residual FODMAPs might be major reasons for the increasing prevalence of wheat sensitivity.
Chapter
Emmer (T. turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum Schubler or T. dicoccon Schrank) is an ancient wheat whose cultivation and utilization in human diet dates back to Neolithic age. It has been rediscovered in recent years for its good nutritional and technological properties and for the important health benefits compared to the modern wheat species. Emmer has good technological quality and can represent an alternative raw material for the industrial production of baked goods and pasta. This chapter illustrates the emmer compositional, technological, and nutritional characteristics. Finally, the quality related to environmental sustainability of emmer production will be described.
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Flours from five spelt cultivars grown over three years were evaluated as to their breadbaking quality and isolated starch properties. The starch properties included amylose contents, gelatinization temperatures (differential scanning calorimetry), granule size distributions, and pasting properties. Milled flour showed highly variable protein content and was higher than hard winter wheat, with short dough-mix times indicating weak gluten. High protein cultivars gave good crumb scores, some of which surpassed the HRW baking control. Loaf volume was correlated to protein and all spelt cultivars were at least 9-51% lower than the HRW control. Isolated starch properties revealed an increase in amylose in the spelt starches of 2-21% over the hard red winter wheat (HRW) control. Negative correlations were observed for the large A-type granules to bread crumb score, amylose level, and final pasting viscosity for cultivars grown in year 1999 and to pasting temperature in 1998 samples. Positive correlations were found for the small B- and C-type granules relative to crumb score, loaf volume, amylose, and RVA final pasting viscosity for cultivars grown in 1999, and to RVA pasting temperature for samples grown in 1998. The environmental impact on spelt properties seemed to have a greater effect than genetic control.
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In this study the milling and baking characteristics of ten strains of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) originated from Polish breeding were shown. Evaluation of the grain included test weight, vitreousness and hardness. White spelt flour with extraction rate of 65–70% was characterized through the analyses of ash, protein, wet gluten and starch contents as well as Farinograph test, Amylograph test and falling number. Most of spelt wheat varieties investigated demonstrated good milling properties and high baking quality. The spelt breads were analyzed for their potential beneficial components, including total phenolic compounds (TPC) and flavonoids (TF), tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3), inositol phosphates (IP) and reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, and then compared to commercial wheat roll based on wheat flour with extraction rate of approximately 70%. The comparison of the bioactive compounds content between spelt breads and wheat showed a similar level of TPC, TF and GSH. The tocopherols and tocotrienols content in spelt bread was about twice lower when compared to wheat roll. Moreover, spelt wheat bread formulated from flour originated from STH 915 strain showed higher content of inositol phosphates when compared to wheat roll and to those breads from flour of STH 975 and STH 974 strains.
Article
Four protein fractions: 1 - albumins and globulins, 2 - gliadins, 3 - glutenins (extracted in NaOH), 4 - glutenins (extracted in SDS) separated by SDS-PAGE were used as biochemical markers for evaluation of polymorphism level in three spelt wheat cultivars - Hercule, Altgold and Rouquin, three new-breeders' spelt lines - H92.27, H92.28 and M92.20 (originated from hybridisation between spelt and common wheat) and reference common wheat cultivar Brea. Electrophoretic phenotypes and zymograms were evaluated by means of digital image analysis and Nei and Li coefficient of similarity was used to evaluate the relation of analysed genotypes. Entire evaluation of all four-marker systems showed differences between common wheat cultivar Brea and spelt cultivars and spelt breeders' lines. Also significant differences between old spelt cultivars (Hercule, Altgold and Rouquin) and new spelt breeders' lines were found. The reality of the mutual passing of protein fractions (gliadins and glutenins), based on Osborne extraction was confirmed. In this sense it is necessary to see both fractions as dynamic overlapping structures.
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Foods have an infinite variety of appearance characteristics. Their surfaces may be diffuse, glossy, irregular, porous or flat. They may be transparent, hazy, translucent or opaque and their colours may be uniform, patchy or multilayered. The interactive role of pigment absorption with light scatter from food structure can have massive effects on colour and visual appearance. This is demonstrated in studies on coffee, orange juice and fresh meat. Colour was measured by CIELAB, a visually uniform colour space, and the relative effects of pigmentation to scatter determined by the Kubelka Munk analysis. The relationship of various food colours, in colour space, from their spectra is shown.
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Bread-making quality of six winter spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L.) and seven old winter wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L.) varieties planted at the Experimental Station in Osiny, Poland, were studied. Most of the old wheat varieties are currently grown in the countries of Western Europe, especially in the ecological system. It could be useful to implement the old wheat varieties to the conditions of this system in Europe. The present study aims at determining the effect of cultivar on several bread-making quality traits. Results indicate that there are great differences among the quality of wheat varieties. On the basis of cluster analysis, three groups of wheat varieties were identified. Analysis of the technological characteristics of the tested cultivars showed that varieties 'Schwabenkorn', 'Kujawianka', 'Ostka Kazimierska' and 'Banatka Kresowa' are characterized by the satisfactory bread-making quality and can be used for bread production.
Article
Wholemeal flours from 62 spelt and 13 wheat cultivars were studied. The quantitative protein compositions of the Osborne fractions determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, showed that the chromatograms of the reduced gliadin fractions were most suitable for the distinction of spelt from wheat and for the classification of spelt. The patterns of the reduced spelt gliadins showed one to three markers that were not present in wheat. Based on these markers, spelt cultivars were classified into three groups ranging from ‘typical spelt’ to ‘similar to common wheat’. Marker 1 was identified as ω1,2-gliadin and markers 2, 3a and 3b were identified as γ-gliadins by means of N-terminal sequence analysis and determination of the relative molecular mass by mass spectrometry. As glutenin-bound ω-gliadins were present in wheat and absent in spelt, this protein type may be used to detect and quantitate small amounts of wheat in spelt products.
Article
A large number of spelt wheat genotypes (ranging from 373 to 772) were evaluated for grain concentrations of protein and mineral nutrients under 6 different environments. There was a substantial genotypic variation for the concentration of mineral nutrients in grain and also for the total amount of nutrients per grain (e.g., content). Zinc (Zn) showed the largest genotypic variation both in concentration (ranging from 19 to 145mgkg−1) and content (ranging from 0.4 to 4.1μg per grain). The environment effect was the most important source of variation for grain protein concentration (GPC) and for many mineral nutrients, explaining between 37 and 69% of the total sums of squares. Genotype by environment (G×E) interaction accounted for between 17 and 58% of the total variation across the minerals. GPC and sulfur correlated very significantly with iron (Fe) and Zn. Various spelt genotypes have been identified containing very high grain concentrations of Zn (up to 70mgkg−1), Fe (up to 60mgkg−1) and protein (up to 30%) and showing high stability across various environments. The results indicated that spelt is a highly promising source of genetic diversity for grain protein and mineral nutrients, particularly for Zn and Fe.
Article
One accession of einkorn (Triticum monococcum) and five spring spelt accessions (T. aestivumsubsp.spelta) were selected and grown at five locations in 1992 and 1993 for evaluation of kernel, milling and baking properties. The high protein einkorn accession (TM23) was similar to common hard red spring (HRS) wheat in kernel size but the soft grain gave low flour yields. Einkorn flour had low sedimentation values, weak Mixograph curves and low loaf volumes with no bromate response. The two large-seeded spelt accessions, SK0021 and PGR8801, were comparable to common HRS wheat in kernel hardness, flour yield and protein content, but were very inferior in falling number, sedimentation value, Mixograph characteristics, loaf volume, crumb texture and colour. The spelt accessions, SK0505, SK0263 and RL5407, also exhibited large kernels but were soft in texture and gave high flour yields, intermediate sedimentation values, weak Mixograph characteristics, but satisfactory loaf volumes and bromate responses relative to HRS wheat. With addition of only 15 ppm bromate, the latter spelt accessions gave breads with loaf volumes similar to those of HRS wheat breads. In sensory tests, these spelt breads were intermediate in preference as compared to HRS wheat breads.
Article
Consumers of organic spelt food products claim health benefits or sense of well-being from their consumption as opposed to consumption of common wheat products. This study was designed to help clarify the validity of such claims through the evaluation of nutritional properties of starch in a variety of organic spelt products, including breads, biscuits, cookies and muffins, in comparison with their respective common wheat products. Three fermented bread products, namely, yeast leavened, sour and yeast/sour dough were evaluated. Rate and extent of starch digestion were based on the measurement of starch digestion index (SDI) and rapidly available glucose (RAG). The commercial spelt variety used contained approximately eight to ten fold the amount of resistant starch (RS) as compared to common wheat, averaging 3.7% versus 0.4%, and exhibited lower SDI and RAG values. This is the first report to demonstrate high content of RS in spelt. After mixing and fermentation, RS, SDI and RAG reduced, but were still higher in spelt doughs and batters than in those of common wheat. After baking, slight differences were observed in rate and extent of starch digestion between spelt and common wheat baked products. The study showed that differences among baked products were more pronounced than those between spelt and common wheat products.
Article
Grain images of three common wheat varieties, five spelt breeding lines and 24 single hybrids between wheat and spelt were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The values of shape descriptors (Area, Perimeter (Perim.), Feret's Diameter (FD), Minimal Feret's Diameter (MFD), Circularity (Circ.), Aspect Ratio (AR), Roundness (Round.), Solidity (Solid.)) and color descriptors (H S I and L a b, calculated based on average and modal values of R G B for every kernel image) were analyzed. The results indicate significant differences between the group of 24 hybrids and their parental forms. In the majority of cases, the average values of variables describing hybrid grain were within the range of values reported for wheat and spelt. The geometric features of hybrid grain, excluding Area and MFD, were marked by greater variation than wheat cultivars and spelt lines. The highest variation of color components was reported in respect of common wheat. Parental partner configuration (Triticum aestivum x Triticum spelta vs. T. spelta x T. aestivum) had no effect on color variation in hybrid grain images. Grain images characterized by higher values of H (shift from red to yellow) or L had also higher Circ. values, while grain images characterized by lower values of this shape descriptor were closer to red in hue and darker in color. PCA supported strong discrimination of the studied forms as regards their shape and color descriptors. In the PCA investigating shape descriptors only, the percentage of variation explained by the first two PCs reached a high 98.98%, whereas it was determined at 90.27% for color descriptors. The PCA of variables describing the shape and color of grain images supports reliable discrimination of hybrids and their parental forms. The applied method may facilitate the identification of hybrids between common wheat and other Triticum species, and the selection process in creative breeding. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Gliadin compositions of 95 spring spelts, 5 winter spelts, and Neepawa Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheat were evaluated by acid−polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE). Five spring spelts grown in three environments over 2 years were compared to the HRS cultivar Katepwa using A-PAGE and sodium dodecyl sulfate−polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). On the basis of the scoring of 13 bands, the spring and winter spelts diverged widely from Neepawa HRS wheat. None of the spring spelts evaluated had a gliadin protein profile identical to that of commercially available winter spelt. Spring and winter spelts were differentiated from Katepwa HRS wheat based on ω-gliadin composition, in which common wheat was characterized by the presence of a slow-moving ω-gliadin and a strong-staining fast-moving ω-gliadin. Common wheat and spring spelt accessions SK0505, SK0263, and RL5407 (black-hulled spelts) had a distinct strong band in the γ-gliadin region with MW of about 64K which was absent in winter spelts and the spring spelts SK0021 and PGR8801 (white-hulled spelts). The molecular weights of gliadin proteins were in the range of 34K−75K. Keywords: Spelt; wheat; gliadin; electrophoresis; A-PAGE; SDS-PAGE, NTSYS-PC
Article
Sensory properties and consumer acceptance of an unfamiliar cereal, Grünkern — Spelt that has been harvested while the grain is still green, and dried with smoke — were examined. A laboratory panel ratedGrünkern the most similar with boiled wheat and the least similar with white rice. Consumer acceptance was tested young (mean age 25 y) Finnish subjects (n=41). The samples were presented as cooked grains (‘starches’) and as a soup (Grünkern Suppe), and they were compared with similar foods that were familiar to the subjects (dark rice and leek-potato soup, respectively). The subjects rated the pleasantness of appearance, texture and flavour of the samples. Half of the subjects were given information about the samples before evaluation while the others rated the samples uninformed. The subjects' degree of food neophobia (FNS) was determined. Overall, information and FNS did not affect the ratings of pleasantness of starches while both variables affected ratings of both soups, either by increasing them (information) or by decreasing pleasantness ratings of texture and flavour (neophobia). Furthermore, neophilic subjects considered the texture and flavour of unfamiliar soups more pleasant than neophobic subjects. The data suggest that the form in which a new product is served has a major impact on responses to an unfamiliar food.
Article
Bread-making quality in wheat and spelt reflects the combination of several, mostly quantitatively inherited parameters. The aim was to find molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) for quality parameters. Zeleny sedimentation values (Zel), protein (Prot), kernel hardness (KH) and 1000-kernel weight (TKW) of 226 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between wheat and spelt were assessed in different environments. The dough properties of 204 RILs were assessed with an alveograph. Based on a genetic map of 187 loci, nine QTL were found for Zel and Prot, explaining 47% and 51% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of the variance was explained by 10 QTL for KH and eight for TKW. For the alveograph parameters 10 QTL were found for baking strength, nine for tenacity, seven for configuration ratio, and four for elasticity index and extensibility. The phenotypic variance explained ranged from 25% to 48%. The population mean of the dough parameters was shifted towards the spelt parent. It is concluded that non-additive effects are crucial in the expression of high bread-making quality of wheat. The consequences for wheat and spelt breeding programmes are discussed.
Article
Rheological properties of gluten from spelt and common wheat were studied. The mechanical spectra of gluten samples were registered over a frequency range of 0.001–200 rad/s. Retardation tests were performed to keep all measurements within a linear regime. The mechanical spectra were fitted with Cole–Cole functions to calculate the viscoelastic plateau modulus G N 0, the central frequency of the upper dissipative loss peak ω 0, and the spread parameter n. Steady state compliance J e 0 and Newtonian viscosity η 0 were determined from the retardation tests results. Recovery data were converted from time to frequency domain using the Kaschta method and combined with dynamic data; this enabled the extension of the gluten mechanical spectra down to 10−6 rad/s, revealing the lower dissipative peak loss. The width of the viscoelastic plateau τ m 0/τ 0 was calculated, and substantial qualitative and quantitative differences were found in spelt and common wheat gluten. All differences in gluten rheological properties were related to spelt and common wheat flour baking quality and protein composition.
Article
The fibre composition of four spelt genotypes and of three wheat genotypes was studied on three grindings: bran, whole bare grains flour for all genotypes, and whole hulled grains flour for spelt only. Insoluble fibre and soluble fibre contents were measured after removal of proteins, starch and ashes from the sample (Lee, Prosky, & De Vries, 1992). Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents were measured according to the same principles with different chemical degradations of the sample (Van Soest & Wine, 1967). Spelt and wheat bran and whole grain flour displayed significant statistical differences for hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Variability amongst the spelt genotypes was much higher than amongst the wheat genotypes. The study also highlighted the special profile of the true baking variety Ressac and the richness in fibres of the landrace 140. Finally, various methods of measurement were compared and a combination of these methods was proposed for cereal grains dietary fibre analysis.
Article
Spelt wheat cultivars (cv.) Hercule, Rouquin and Ostro, grown in the Alpine region of Italy, were compared to the common wheat cv. Manital and durum wheat Grazia for protein, ash and dietary fibre contents. The spelt wheat cultivars studied had higher contents of soluble dietary fibre and protein than the standard wheat or the durum wheat. In the bread of spelt wheat (cv. Hercule), there was more rapidly digested starch (RDS) and a higher starch digestion index (SDI) in comparison to wheat bread. The bread made of whole spelt wheat flour (cv. Hercule) had less total starch, more resistant starch and less rapidly digested proteins in comparison to bread made of white spelt wheat flour and white wheat flour (cv. Manital). In pasta and extruded products of whole spelt flours, more protein, ash and dietary fibre was found in comparison to the same products made of white spelt wheat flour.
Article
The aim of this study was to understand the chemistry of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) gluten in relation to its quality, to classify European spelt cultivars based on gluten quality, and to compare their protein compositions with those of modern wheats. Gluten quality of two sets of 25 spelt cultivars was studied using dynamic oscillatory and creep tests, an SDS sedimentation test, moisture content of the wet gluten and wet gluten content. These data were compared with the results of size-exclusion HPLC analyses of the spelt proteins. Significant correlations indicated that insoluble polymeric proteins (IPP) contributed resistance to deformation in creep tests, elasticity in oscillatory and creep tests, and swelling capacity of the gluten. Gliadins had the opposite effects, whereas the contribution of soluble polymeric proteins (SPP) depended on the type of test. In creep tests (strain 0.3–1.5) SPP behaved similarly to gliadins, in oscillation (strain 0.001) they tended to increase elasticity. In comparison to hard red winter wheats, spelt was characterized by lower IPP, but higher gliadins and SPP, resulting in softer and less elastic glutens. A wide variation in gluten quality was found among the spelts. Three groups could be identified by cluster analysis (one closer to modern wheat, a second typical spelt group and a third a poor quality group).
Article
Wholegrain grains and cereals contain a wide range of potentially protective factors that are relevant to gastrointestinal health. The prebiotics best studied are fructans [fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin] and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). These and other short-chain carbohydrates can also be poorly absorbed in the small intestine (named fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols; FODMAPs) and may have important implications for the health of the gut. In the present study, FODMAPs, including fructose in excess of glucose, FOS (nystose, kestose), GOS (raffinose, stachyose) and sugar polyols (sorbitol, mannitol), were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light scattering detector. Total fructan was quantified using an enzymic hydrolysis method. Fifty-five commonly consumed grains, breakfast cereals, breads, pulses and biscuits were analysed. Total fructan were the most common short-chain carbohydrate present in cereal grain products and ranged (g per portion as eaten) from 1.12 g in couscous to 0 g in rice; 0.6 g in dark rye bread to 0.07 g in spelt bread; 0.96 g in wheat-free muesli to 0.11 g in oats; and 0.81 g in muesli fruit bar to 0.05 g in potato chips. Raffinose and stachyose were most common in pulses.   Composition tables including FODMAPs and prebiotics (FOS and GOS) that are naturally present in food will greatly assist research aimed at understanding their physiological role in the gut.
Article
Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds) of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities).
Article
A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
Article
Using an improved method of gel electrophoresis, many hitherto unknown proteins have been found in bacteriophage T4 and some of these have been identified with specific gene products. Four major components of the head are cleaved during the process of assembly, apparently after the precursor proteins have assembled into some large intermediate structure.
Article
In order to identify and characterize the wheat grain allergens involved in bakers' asthma, proteins were sequentially extracted from whole-meal flour. The polypeptide composition of the individual solubility fractions (albumin/globulin, gliadin and glutenin) was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient 4-9 in the first dimension (IPG-Dalt). The resolved polypeptides were transferred onto an immobilizing polyvinylidene difluoride membrane and incubated with a pooled serum from four asthmatic bakers. Bound IgE was demonstrated by autoradiography using 125I-labeled anti-human IgE. Our study demonstrated that the serum of the bakers allergic to flour contained IgE antibodies which bound to numerous polypeptides of all three solubility fractions. The highest percentage of IgE binding was observed with certain albumin and/or globulin polypeptides, whereas the gliadins and glutenins exhibited considerably less allergenicity. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein which bound the highest percentage of IgE from the sera of the allergic bakers is a 27 kDa albumin. More detailed investigations using IPG-Dalt demonstrated that this allergen is not a single polypeptide but consists of several polypeptide spots that differ in their isoelectric points. Quantitative studies using computer-assisted laser densitometry revealed that the amount of patients' IgE bound by these particular polypeptides differed considerably between the seven wheat cultivars examined, ranging from 13% to 53% of the total radioactive uptake.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists)
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, fifteenth ed. AOAC, Washington, DC.
Glutenin. A simple method for its preparation and direct quantitative determination
  • M J Blish
  • R M Sandstedt
Blish, M.J., Sandstedt, R.M., 1925. Glutenin. A simple method for its preparation and direct quantitative determination. Cereal Chem. 2, 57e67.
The Use of HPLC for Quality Prediction of South African Wheat Cultivars
  • G D Meintj Es
Meintj es, G.D., 2004. The Use of HPLC for Quality Prediction of South African Wheat Cultivars. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Plant Sciences at the University of the Free State.