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Successful schooling for pupils with intellectual disabilities: the demand for a new paradigm

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Abstract

A comprehensive review of educational interventions for pupils with intellectual disabilities showed that most studies report positive results for a variety of interventions. The aim of this article is to explore how these results can be understood. We draw on similar earlier findings concerning intervention effects in psychotherapy and social work, discussing the so-called Dodo bird conjecture, indicating that established methods for identification of evidence-based practices can provide false, positive results influenced by so-called common factors present in most interventions. In conclusion, we argue for a new paradigm of research on educational interventions for pupils with intellectual disabilities, replacing the present ambition to find evidence-based support for specific interventions in favour of a line of research exploring alternative explanations in terms of, for instance, common positive factors.

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... Hoci je celkovo štúdií mentálneho postihnutia a súcitu málo, veľká väčšina z nich sa venovala vplyvu intervencie všímavosti na úroveň súcitu (Chapman et al., 2013). Z podrobného prehľadu intervencií pre žiakov s mentálnym postihnutím vyplynulo, že väčšina štúdií uvádzala pozitívne výsledky pre rôzne intervencie (Gustavsson, Kittelsaa, & Tøssebro, 2017). Podobne Currie et al. (2019) zistili, že mentálne postihnutie a ani nie úplné porozumenie intervencii a jej cieľom nie je na prekážku participantom s mentálnym postihnutím, aby mali z intervencie benefit a dokonca v dôsledku nej sa cítili viac súcitní k sebe i druhým a viac sebavedomí. ...
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Reviews the literature which examined the effects of exposing organisms to aversive events which they cannot control. Motivational, cognitive, and emotional effects of uncontrollability are examined. It is hypothesized that when events are uncontrollable the organism learns that its behavior and outcomes are independent, and this learning produces the motivational, cognitive, and emotional effects of uncontrollability. Research which supports this learned helplessness hypothesis is described along with alternative hypotheses which have been offered as explanations of the learned helplessness effect. The application of this hypothesis to rats and man is examined. (114 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1975 and 2007 on the application of time delay as an instructional procedure to teach word and picture recognition to students with severe developmental disabilities in an effort to evaluate time delay as an evidence-based practice. A total of 30 experiments were analyzed using quality indicators for single-subject design research. In general, we found that time delay was an evidence-based practice for teaching picture and sight word recognition supported by standards for evidence-based practice proposed by Horner et al. (2005). We discuss lessons learned in summarizing a body of literature to define an evidence-based practice and suggestions for better defining the practice.
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This article is a republication of a classic paper in which Rosenzweig introduced the concept of common factors in psychotherapy. This seminal idea-which refers to the finding that all forms of psychotherapy seem to share, to some degree, a small number of effective change ingredients-remains highly influential in psychotherapy integration today. Rosenzweig reviewed the data presented by then current forms of psychotherapy and argued that the theories that describe the change principles in each psychotherapy are inadequate to capture those deeper common factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Education is currently in an evidence-based era, demanding as well as assuming all educational practices are evidencebased. In the case of afunctional curriculum for secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities, despite existing professional wisdom, the state of empirical evidence is unclear. This study represents a systematic review of the literature regarding the evidence-base of afunctional curriculum to educate secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities. Seven research-based articles were found in the literature exploring use of a functional curriculum for this population of students, suggesting a lack of research on functional curriculum for secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities in recent years, especially when considering posischool outcomes and adult experiences. The authors concluded a functional curriculum for secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities is not an evidence-based practice at the current time.
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Phonological awareness (PA) is the ability to hear and manipulate the smallest units of sound in our language. It is key to learning to read for typically developing children. Some have suggested that this is not true for children with Down syndrome (DS). The purpose of this review was to provide a better understanding of the role PA plays for children with DS as they learn to read and to provide guidance on whether phonics-based reading instruction is likely to benefit these students. Results from a review of 20 studies indicate that children with DS rely on PA skills in learning to read and suggest that phonics-based reading instruction may be beneficial for at least some of these children.
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To develop a model of change during and following professional treatment for drinking problems, grounded in clients' accounts. Subsets of consecutively selected clients of the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT), followed-up at 3 months (n = 211) and 12 months (n = 198) after randomization. Location Five statutory and non-statutory alcohol problems treatment agencies in three areas of England and Wales. Data Open-ended interviews conducted according to a brief interview guide, leading to 400-800-word post-interview reports used for analysis (tape-recordings used for auditing purposes). Reports analysed by a team according to grounded theory principles, involving an iterative process with successive refinement of interviewing and analysis with each successive batch of data. A model of change from the clients' perspective was developed. Treatment was seen by clients as facilitating various changes in ways of thinking and/or increased support of various kinds from family and friends, along with new ways of acting in relation to drinking or more generally. For many those changes had led to an appreciation of the benefits accruing to them. Treatment was seen as part of a broader treatment system which included pretreatment assessment, forms of help additional to the trial treatment, plus an element of self-directed change during and following treatment. Taken with awareness of worsening alcohol-related harms, triggering events and external influence to seek treatment (the catalyst system), to which clients continued to refer following treatment, the change process is depicted as a complex, ongoing set of systems in which a trial treatment is embedded. Models of change should be broadened so that treatment is seen as a complex system of parts, facilitating a nexus of cognitive, social and behavioural changes, embedded within a broader system of events and processes catalysing change. Such a model helps explain the relative absence of between-treatments outcome differences in UKATT and in the alcohol problems treatment and more general psychotherapy research literatures.
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