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Status of Air Pollution in Botswana and Significance to Air Quality and Human Health



Background Air pollution is an important issue in developed and industrialized countries. The most common sources of air pollution are anthropogenic activities such as construction dust, vehicular emissions and mining. For low- and middle-income countries, biomass burning and indoor heating are the leading sources of air pollution. As more of the world undergoes development and human populations increase, industrialization is also increasing, along with the potential for air pollution. Objectives This article reviews the status of air pollution to raise awareness of air quality and human health in Botswana. Discussion Since independence, Botswana has experienced one of the highest economic development growth rates in the world. These changes have occurred as a result of economic growth and resource utilization associated with increased industrialization. However, there is growing worldwide concern about the effect and impact of pollution due to industrial growth. Botswana is ranked amongst the most polluted countries with serious air pollution, despite a population of just over 2 million. Conclusions Rapid development and increased urbanization have had a major environmental impact around the world. This increased growth has the potential to lead to air quality degradation. Significant health threats are posed by industrial and vehicular emissions, especially in urban and peri-urban areas where the population is most concentrated. It is important that the linkage between air pollution and health effects is fully examined across all scales of life, especially in developing countries. In addition, programs should be devised to educate the public about the pollution impacts on health.
Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
For many decades, air pollution has
been associated with the export of
pollutants from urban (large cities and
industrial areas) to rural and other
distant areas. e perception has been
that only industrialized or developed
countries are susceptible to air pollution.
However, this is no longer the case as
even less developed and middle-income
countries experience high particle
densities and signicant air pollution.
Air pollution has a signicant eect
on air quality due to its wide-ranging
potential consequences to human
health, ecosystems, visibility, weather
modication, radiative forcing and
changes in tropospheric chemistry.
Pollutants occur in the form of gases
and particulates from biological/natural
and anthropogenic (human-made)
processes released into the atmosphere.
Air pollution is pervasive across Africa;
the continent is quickly urbanizing
and pollution from vehicle exhaust,
wood burning, dusty dirt roads, power
plants and other industrial activities
has reached high levels in many cities.
In some of the most populous cities
and/or national capitals, pollutant
concentrations exceed threshold limits
Background. Air pollution is an important issue in developed and industrialized countries.
e most common sources of air pollution are anthropogenic activities such as construction
dust, vehicular emissions and mining. For low- and middle-income countries, biomass
burning and indoor heating are the leading sources of air pollution. As more of the world
undergoes development and human populations increase, industrialization is also increasing,
along with the potential for air pollution.
Objectives. is article reviews the status of air pollution to raise awareness of air quality and
human health in Botswana.
Discussion. Since independence, Botswana has experienced one of the highest economic
development growth rates in the world. ese changes have occurred as a result of economic
growth and resource utilization associated with increased industrialization. However, there is
growing worldwide concern about the eect and impact of pollution due to industrial growth.
Botswana is ranked amongst the most polluted countries with serious air pollution, despite a
population of just over 2 million.
Conclusions. Rapid development and increased urbanization have had a major
environmental impact around the world. is increased growth has the potential to
lead to air quality degradation. Signicant health threats are posed by industrial and
vehicular emissions, especially in urban and peri-urban areas where the population is most
concentrated. It is important that the linkage between air pollution and health eects is fully
examined across all scales of life, especially in developing countries. In addition, programs
should be devised to educate the public about the pollution impacts on health.
Competing Interests: The authors declare no nancial competing interests.
Keywords. air pollution, air quality, atmosphere, exposure, human health
Received January 25, 2017. Accepted July 18, 2017.
J Health Pollution 15: 8–17 (2017)
Status of Air Pollution in Botswana and Significance to
Air Quality and Human Health
Modise Wiston
Department of Physics, University of
Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana
Corresponding Author:
Modise Wiston
(i.e. levels considered safe by the World
Health Organization)., As a result,
populations in these centers are likely
to be at risk of air pollution problems.
Indoor air pollution caused by cooking
with wood and other sooty fuels such
as charcoal and cow dung is also an
issue of concern. Migration from the
countryside to urban areas increases
emissions and exposure to pollutants.
Although there is no national record of
air quality problems, many potentially
hazardous air pollution conditions
exist, especially in areas most impacted
by frequent biomass burning, and
industrial emissions. For example,
in the southern part of Africa, winter
is normally dry and characterised by
low temperatures, veld res (which
sometimes start accidentally), human-
induced biomass burning, coal burning
and other industrial operations for
energy production, all of which raise
pollution levels. Moreover, biomass
burning is a common activity in
southern Africa and is not controlled or
Air Pollution in Low- and Middle-
Income Countries
Pollution has a signicant eect
Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
Department of Waste
Management and
Pollution Control
Nitrogen oxides
Particulate matter
Southern African
Development Committee
Sulphur dioxide
World Health Organization
on the environment and its proper
management is crucial to mitigate the
eects of its release. Continuous burning
activities (e.g. farming practices, human
settlements and energy sources) add
to the regional pollutant burden as
evidenced by thick smoke, especially
in winter., Traces of anthropogenic
emissions are also visible from urban/
industrial sources. Emissions from
vehicles are predominant in densely
populated cities/towns, and visible in
the morning and aernoon during
peak hours. For example, the transport
sector has expanded rapidly in recent
years, resulting in doubled car eets
over the last few decades in countries
such as Botswana and Zimbabwe.,
Equally visible are smoke emissions
from industrial and indoor heating
from urban areas and other homesteads.
However, the greatest threat of indoor
air pollution occurs in settlements
(both rural and urban), as many people
continue to rely on traditional fuels for
cooking and heating. Studies have also
indicated that high air pollution levels
have substantial eects on human health
and infant mortality rates.,,, As
particulates (e.g. dust, smoke, vehicular
emissions and other small suspensions)
are released into air, they negatively
impact air quality by polluting the air.
Not all of the pollution disposed into
the air is neutralized quickly; some
pollutants can remain for longer
periods before being removed. is
depends upon factors such as the
ux or concentration of pollutants
released, their lifetimes, meteorological
parameters prevailing at the time
(e.g. wind, precipitation) as well as
atmospheric processes (e.g. chemical
reactions and stability). By-products of
chemical reactions are discharged into
the atmosphere, altering its chemical
composition and spreading ne
particulates; some of which, if inhaled,
can attack the lung tissues, and may
cause respiratory problems and/or
death. Acute respiratory infections are
among the leading causes of diseases
worldwide and have been linked with
exposure to pollutants from domestic
biomass fuels in developing countries.
ese infections are also one of the
leading causes of child mortality,
with most fatalities among children
under ve years of age in developing
countries.,   Air pollution is linked
to a number of human health and
environmental impacts (e.g. respiratory
diseases, heavy metal poisoning) and
aects lakes by increasing acidic levels
or nutrients that aect water quality and
aquatic life. Polluted air can also cause
shorter lifespans and pose other health
hazards to human health.
Air quality assessments are carried
out to determine whether threshold
limits for particular pollutants are
being exceeded. A threshold limit
quanties the maximum average
concentration of contaminants to
which people may be exposed to in
a given time without injury to their
health. Air quality guidelines and set
standards are fundamental to eective
pollution management and provide the
link between the source of emissions
(emitter) and the user/target (recipient).
Data is collected from major polluting
sources, and an emission inventory
provides a current and comprehensive
understanding of air pollution emissions
within a specic area over a specied
period of time.
While economic growth is important
to any country’s advancement,
worldwide experience with growth
highlights concern about the side
eects and impacts of pollution into
the atmosphere. Improper disposal
of pollution has become one of the
hindrances to development, especially
due to a lack of understanding of
the consequences and/or lack of
policies and regulations. is is a
common phenomenon in developing
countries in their pre-industrial stage
and for countries on the verge of
industrialization, and has been an
ongoing issue in Botswana (an upper
middle-income country). Waste
management, pollution and poor
urban conditions are some of the major
challenges associated with development
in Africa. e purpose of this paper
is to give an overview of the state of
local pollution and highlight some of
the specics of air pollution issues in
Botswana. Special attention is given
to the concentrations and impacts
of chemical pollutants on air quality.
ere has been relatively little research
on regional air quality and pollution
impacts in Botswana.
Botswana is a landlocked country,
located in the center of southern
Africa (Figure 1), with an population
expected to increase from about
2,024,904 in 2011 to about 2,565,855
Status of Air Pollution in Botswana and Signicance to Air Quality and Human Health
 Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
from industrial air pollutants. ere is
also a signicant amount of pollution
coming from other sources such
as res and other common natural
sources, such as wind-blown dust.
Pollution Policy and Regulation in
Botswana has experienced one of
the highest economic development
growth rates since independence and
is facing a myriad of environmental
problems due to its rapid development.
Examples include increased solid waste
generation, as well as air pollutants
from various sources (e.g. mining, fuel
burning and vehicular emissions).,
Dierent types of pollutants require
specic source point treatments and
disposal methods to reduce negative
impacts on the environment. Ambient
air quality is monitored in accordance
with the Atmospheric Pollution
Prevention Act (APA) that calls for the
‘prevention of atmospheric pollution
by industrial processes in declared
controlled areas. e government of
Botswana has factored environmental
sustainability into the national
agenda, one major milestone being
the establishment of Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) legislation
in 2005, which requires all new
developments to be assessed for their
environmental impacts.
Botswana also created a policy for
the safeguard of air quality—the
main goal being to have a modern air
pollution monitoring and surveillance
system to assist in planning and other
decision-making processes. Some of
the objectives include:
establishing a sound scientic basis
for policy development
assessing population and ecosystem
exposure to pollution
establishing a database for public
information and awareness
in 2026. Most of the urban areas
and modern developments are
located along the eastern part of the
country, and much of the population
is concentrated in the east, where
there is sucient space for agriculture,
better road networks and other
modern facilities. Industrialization
has been highly encouraged since
independence and continues to be an
essential component of developmental
eorts. Industrialization is regarded
as a ‘key engine’ to economic
growth and prosperity, and is the
main driver of economic growth.
ese changes will continue as a
result of economic gain and lead to
increased resource utilization and
consumption. Botswana is reported
to be one the most highly polluted
countries, with high emissions and
serious air pollution, despite its low
population. For example, about 40%
of an estimated 330 child deaths due
to acute lower respiratory infections
are attributable to household air
Botswana relies on dierent sectors
(mining, tourism, agriculture and
manufacturing) for economic
development. Mining has been the
leading contributor to the gross
domestic product (GDP) since
independence., While other sectors
(textile, industry and manufacturing)
also play a role, they are smaller scale
operations and the import rate is
greater than the export rate for most
goods. For example, more than 50%
of the country’s electrical supply
is imported from other countries,
especially neighboring South Africa.
As much as these sectors contribute
substantially to development, they also
have a direct impact on pollution in
the country and the region, although
this problem does not arise solely
Figure 1 — Location of Botswana within southern Africa
Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
Status of Air Pollution in Botswana and Signicance to Air Quality and Human Health
adherence to air quality standards
(Tab le 1 ). Such operations should
be regularly assessed to ensure the
safety of employees, the environment
and industry sustainability. Some
of the acts/regulations under which
polluting processes operate include,
but are not limited to: the APA of
1971; Botswana Strategy for Waste
Management of 1978 (addresses how
waste management is to be carried
out to protect human health and the
identifying pollution sources and
evaluating long-term trends
establishing a basis for abatement
strategy planning.,
For all operations with the potential
to pollute, specic policies, acts/
regulations and recommendations
should be met in order to ensure
environment and ensures prudent use
of natural resources); Factories Act
of 1979 (provides for occupational
health and safety conditions in
factories); and the EIA of 2005.-
 e EIA denes environmental
policies to assess the potential eects
of planned developmental activities,
and determine and provide mitigation
measures to address adverse impacts
on the environment. e EIA
also ensures that monitoring and
Table 1 — WHO and Botswana Air Quality Guidelines for Common Air Pollutants.
(Data adapted from Mmolawa and Keabetwe34 [obtained from BOS 498: 2012]48 and Schwela)9
 Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
evaluation of environmental impacts
are put in place during operations.
e Air Pollution Control Division
in the Department of Mines aims
to ‘promote and ensure sustainable
industrial development and
improvement of the standard of living
in Botswana by controlling pollution
at sources to protect the environment,
public and health welfare.’ Some of
its objectives include: (i) minimizing
atmospheric pollution by industries
and other anthropogenic activities, (ii)
continuous monitoring of air quality
within the country to determine
exposure levels of air pollution to
the public and environment and
(iii) promoting the concept and
practice of pollution prevention at the
source. e Department of Waste
Management and Pollution Control
(DWMPC) was also established with
the mandate to control air pollution
from primary sources, providing
management of controlled and
hazardous wastes, as well as planning,
facilitating and implementation of
waste management strategy. e
mandate applies to all government
institutions and all activities that deal
with pollution and waste. One of the
goals is to provide for the prevention
and minimization of pollution
(land, water or air), control and
remediation measures. e DWMPC
issues a license to businesses and
rms operating recycling facilities.
Dierent exposure levels are dened
such that concentrations from
dierent pollutants must fall within
set standards, as humans are at high
risk when exposed to increased
levels or with prolonged exposure.
Table 1 highlights some of the air
quality thresholds for a number of
pollutants in Botswana. Regionally,
several agreements have been signed
committing the Southern African
Development Committee (SADC)
member states to improving air
quality standards—including the
Dakar Declaration to phase out leaded
gasoline by 2005 and the Harare
Resolution of 1998 on the initiation of
the SADC Protocol on Regional Air
Quality and Atmospheric Emissions.
Furthermore, all SADC member states
are parties to various multilateral
environmental agreements, including
the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change, the
1999 Basel Convention and the 1994
Bamako Convention (
Sources of Air Pollution in Botswana
Although Botswana is not highly
industrialized, several industries
such as metal processing have
recently been introduced. Sources
of air pollution include industrial
operations, manufacturing, small-
scale plants, smelters, stone/sand
crushers, trac emissions, waste and
household res. Household burning
of fossil fuels (e.g. wood and biomass)
remains one of the major energy
sources used for cooking, heating and
power generation. In addition to these
anthropogenic sources, natural sources
also contribute a signicant amount
of pollution, including the Kalahari
Desert and natural re eruptions. One
other signicant factor is the high
rate at which the number of vehicles
has increased in Botswana in recent
decades. ere is a signicant amount
of vehicle importation, especially
of cheap used Japanese vehicles,
most of which are not properly
maintained aer purchase. ese
vehicles are reconditioned older model
cars discarded from industrialized
countries and there is a continuing
problem of lead additives in
petroleum. ere is also a signicant
number of privately owned vehicles,
leading to increased trac congestion
on the road despite the poor state of
the road network. e rising number
of automobiles leads to high levels of
trac-related pollution.,
A vast amount of mineral dust is also
generated from the Kalahari (covering
much of the western part of the
subcontinent), which has a signicant
impact on regional pollution and
climate. Dust generation results from
rapid soil loss and desertication either
through industrialization or resource
utilization, leading to increased wind-
blown soil erosion, forest res and
deforestation. Fine dust particles can
be lied up to higher altitudes and
transported over long distances away
from their source regions. eir eects
can be felt not only locally, but also in
regions far away from their sources.
As a result, many locations have the
potential to be aected by particles
transported from desert areas. is
eect is attributed to intensied grazing
pressure along with climate change
and the associated reactivation of the
Kalahari dune eld aer a millennia of
inactivity.,, Previous studies have
reported that overgrazing is one of the
major contributors to vegetative loss
over the Kalahari. ey reported
an increase in the grazed area in
the Kgalagadi district in southwest
Botswana from 13,000 to 32,000 km2
between 1950 and the 1990s. Climate
and land use changes in the southern
Kalahari encourage dust emission,
and dust generation involves a balance
between the area becoming susceptible
to dust emission and depleted of its ne
sediment supply., Some of the major
pollutant sources in addition to those
highlighted above include power plants,
mines and industries in the major cities
and towns in Botswana.
e Bamangwato Consolidated Limited
(BCL) copper-nickel mine in Selebi
Phikwe has been a major source of
pollutants. Due to the towns growing
population, the mine and its smelter
plant are now in close proximity
to residential sites. Sources of air
pollution have been compounded by
the release of sulphur dioxide (SO2)
and other toxic gases from mining
activities, resulting in smoke released
Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
into the atmosphere, and respiratory
problems among the town residents.
Very oen, the air around the town and
surrounding areas would be clouded
with thick smoke—sometimes lasting
for more than 24 hours. Prior to its
closure in 2016, emissions occurred
at all stages, including tailing piles,
crushed and waste rocks/sand and
gaseous species from the smelter.
Morupule Power Station, located
about 6 km west of Palapye is another
major potential source of pollution.
is power plant generates electricity
using pulverized coal mined at the
Morupule Colliery (Ltd), just adjacent
to the station. e coal burns and
reacts with oxygen to produce gaseous
pollutants such as carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, SO2 and nitrogen
oxides (NOx [where NOx = nitric oxide
+ nitrogen dioxide]), which are then
released into the atmosphere through
tall chimneys. ere are two plants,
Morupule A and B, in operation next
to each other. Due to the increasing
demand for electricity and the country’s
eort to cut outside electrical supply
costs, the power station has been
upgraded. Electricity has mainly been
imported from Eskom (South Africa)
with a peak demand of 434 MW
satised through internal generation
and imports. e second plant
was constructed to assist with load
shedding that has been a concern in
recent years. Once fully operational,
Morupule B is expected to produce a
total of about 600 MW of electricity
(only about 132 MW is generated
from Morupule A), with an annual
requirement of about 3 million tons
of coal supply. Botswanas energy
demand was estimated at about 3660
GWh in 2008 (peak load of 500 MW),
and is projected to grow at about 6%
per annum, reaching 5300 GWh in
Although Botswana has not established
emissions standards for power stations,
the Air Pollution Prevention Act
of 1971 requires the application of
best practices to control emissions
from the site. e Botswana Power
Corporation aims to undertake an
environmental audit for the operation
as well as annual air quality monitoring
to address the problem. Necessary
measures are to be implemented to
ensure that operations from both plants
do not exceed the air quality standards
for Botswana or the World Bank. In
addition, there is another small coal-
red plant in Makoro manufacturing
face bricks from clay. Production
has now grown over the years and
supplies bricks to almost all parts of the
country. Clay is burnt with charcoal
(about 200 tons monthly) from the
Morupule Colliery mine. However,
there is no monitoring of pollutants at
or around the plant. According to the
plant authorities, all the products are
disposed of through chimneys from the
plant into the atmosphere.
ere are several stone and sand
crushing operations around the
country, crushing stones into dierent
particle sizes, from concrete to ne
sand. Large quantities of crushed soil
are normally piled in open spaces
and easily blown away by winds in all
directions. Most of the sites are not
fenced, other than the surrounding
vegetation that acts as ‘source sinks’ to
the wind-blown dust. e only form
of dust control is suppression from
the crushing machine and conveyor
belts. One example is the Nata-Phikwe
quarry, just adjacent to the copper-
nickel mine in Selebi Phikwe. Dust
generated from these operations poses
a potential health hazard, particularly
respiratory problems from inhaled
pollution. ese respiratory-related
tract problems are linked to eects
of air pollution from the mining and
smelting activities.
Another coal-red power station
(located in Mookane, about 100 km
south east of Mahalapye) is proposed
and is expected to be one of the largest
power plants in the country. Botswana
has considerable coal deposits—one of
the largest potential reserves untapped
in the world at over 212 billion tons.
ere are currently four commercially
signicant coal deposits (Morupule,
Mmamabula, Sese and Mmamantswe),
with an envisaged export industry
of at least 36–90 Mt/a. It is estimated
that as much as two-thirds of Africa’s
coal resources are found in Botswana.
Similarly, several other mining sites
exist around the country (e.g. diamond
explorations), which also generate
pollutants, some very close to townships.
In addition to the sites described above,
some cities and major towns around
the country also make a substantial
contribution to local air pollution.
For example, the largest and national
capital city (both administrative and
industrial) in Botswana is Gaborone,
located to the southeast. Main
pollution sources include fuel used in
various industries (e.g. brewing, soap
manufacturing, textile, cement bagging,
pipe manufacturing) and small-scale
chemical and other industries.
e biggest pollution source is gas-
produced steam from the coal-operated
factories, while non-industrial sources
include government institutions (e.g.
schools, hospitals, restaurants and
mobile food stalls) using coal/gas
energy sources and open burning of
waste and rewood, particularly during
the dry and cold winter. Despite the
technological advancement and growth
rate of the population, raw materials
are still used by large communities
as sources of energy. Residents oen
burn heavy, polluting fuel, including
rewood and cow dung for heat and
energy that can produce thick smoke.
In addition, the increasing trac
congestion in Botswana, particularly
in Gaborone, contributes signicantly
to air pollution. e main market for
imported vehicles is in Mogoditshane
Status of Air Pollution in Botswana and Signicance to Air Quality and Human Health
 Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
level. Ambient monitoring is concerned
with on-site measurements of major
emissions (e.g. particulate matter (PM),
NOx, SO2 and carbon monoxide).
Routine air pollution monitoring in
Botswana began in the mid-1970s,
with monitoring of SO2 gas from
three stations only., e number of
monitoring stations increased in 1995
and expanded to include pollutants
such as NOx and other substances,
and ground level ozone monitoring
began in 1996. e majority of
SO2 emissions have come from the
copper-nickel smelter at Selebi Phikwe,
while major towns with high trac
volume show signicant elevation
of NOx concentrations during peak
hours. Currently, there are several
air pollution monitoring stations
across Botswana, operating under the
DWMPC. Several studies undertaken
on the impacts of smelter emissions
showed serious impacts on both
vegetation and population in Selebi
Phikwe and surrounding villages,
although these studies did not quantify
the extent of the impacts.,,
Measured concentrations of SO2,
nitrogen dioxide and ozone indicated
potential impacts of air pollution
on vegetation and human health,
with the SO2 guideline exceeded
in Selebi Phikwe., Other studies
conducted on particle concentrations
in Gaborone resulting from biomass
burning indicated an increase in
particle concentrations of up to 1700
cm-3 and 1894 cm-3 during the peak
time of winter.,   Another study
conducted on indoor air pollution
from household fuels in Gaborone
from winter to spring (July–September
2007) showed that people from low-
income groups reported more health
eects than those in medium and
high-income groups. Although the
study was conducted in one part of
the city, particle concentrations were
increased due to the burning of raw
materials such as cow dung, wood,
(just adjacent to Gaborone in the west),
where almost all the vehicle imports
are sold or distributed. Consequently,
Gaborone is one of the most polluted
world cities in terms of air quality
rating according to 2000-2005 global
ambient air pollution concentrations
and trends, even though the country is
only averagely developed and is about
80% desert.
e second largest city is Francistown,
located in the northeast and close to
the country’s border with neighboring
Zimbabwe. ere are several industrial
and manufacturing operations in
Francistown, including Botswana
Meat Commission, mining and food
processors. Other sources of pollution
include a sorghum beer brewery
(operated by Botswana Breweries),
and small-scale industries. Coal-red
boilers, open burning and trac
emissions also signicantly contribute
to atmospheric pollution. Adjacent to
the city is the Tati copper-nickel mine
which employs many local people,
and the city is surrounded by other
villages. Located further south of
Gaborone is Lobatse, one of the fastest
growing industrial towns with several
industries and factories. Major sources
of pollution include the Botswana
Meat Commission (the largest meat
processing industry in Botswana)
and the Lobatse Clay works. Small-
scale sources include rewood from
cooking, open burning of refuse and
trac, which contribute to atmospheric
pollution in and around the town.
Air Quality Monitoring in Botswana
Air quality management is an
important tool for assessing the status
of air pollution in order to design and
implement standards for the control
and measurement of air pollution,
and to meet air quality objectives. Air
pollution mitigation strategies are
designed to identify pollution problems
and provide solutions at the town,
regional, national and international
plastic and Chibuku (local beer)
cartons for cooking and heating of
Mean PM concentration indexes
estimated for populations around
the world reported a PM2.5 air
pollution population exposure level
(% of total) of 45.44 in Botswana in
2013, exceeding the annual average
World Health Organization (WHO)
guideline.,, is index expresses
the percentage population exposed
to ambient PM2.5 concentrations
exceeding the WHO guideline value,
given as the portion of a country’s
population living in places where the
mean annual concentration of PM2.5 is
greater than 10 μg m-3. Overall, these
ambient concentrations could mask an
individual’s true exposure, which may
vary with an individual’s proximity to
the polluting sources during periods
when in use/operation or at work.
Table 1 shows threshold limits for some
common air pollutants in Botswana and
globally (WHO guidelines). Data are
shown for some of the major regulated
pollutant species that are regularly
monitored to assess pollution levels.
Challenges and Limitations to Air
Quality Monitoring in Botswana
As highlighted above, there are a
number of challenges with regard to air
quality monitoring, data collection and
information dissemination in Botswana,
as in most developing countries. Some
of these challenges include lack of
regular site visitation and monitoring
programs. ere remains a lack of
transparency in various aspects of air
pollution control, poor environmental
regulations or weak institutional
mechanisms to enforce regulation
ranging from euent disposal through
control and monitoring strategies.
In addition, regulatory operators
do not always adhere to existing air
quality rules and regulations. While
the DWMPC is the main body to
oversee, facilitate and implement
Journal of Health & Pollution Vol. 7, No. 15 — September 2017
of pollution due to rapid growth in its
urban population, industrialization
and rising demands for energy and
motor vehicles. e combined eect
of population dynamics and economic
development has a noticeable eect on
the environment in terms of increased
waste generation and poor waste
Major issues that need to be addressed
include the extent and impact of air
pollution, development of future
problems, and required responses.
For example, under the Kyoto
protocol framework agreement,
industrialized countries are obliged to
cut their greenhouse gas emissions.
In addition, air pollution is not
adequately considered in the planning
and placement of pollution sources
and residential sites; there is a lack
of mitigation measures and/or
non-operational emission controls.
Occupational safety and health policies
should be put in place and/or enforced
to educate the general public about
the impacts of pollution on health.
Workers should limit close contact
with pollutants where risky exposure
to contaminants is high, receive
regular medical checkups, and eective
occupational exposure programs
and environmental control measures
should be implemented. e linkage
between air pollution and health
eects needs to be fully developed,
especially in developing countries.
Strong legislation would go a long way
towards improving the safety of the
workforce and communities. Policy
makers (government and other stake
holders) need to advocate for pollution
impact education and implement
measures to mitigate the many adverse
eects of air pollution.
e author greatly acknowledges the
assistance oered by Mrs. Sephatla
(Morupule Power Station) in providing
information and a tour of the
the management and control of air
pollution, assessment must depend
on industries (polluting sources) and/
or individuals for data without regular
visitation and site assessments. is
can negatively aect the monitoring
of pollutants, especially where the
programs/instruments are inadequate,
posing a risk to the workforce.
If pollution in Botswana is not
regulated to specied levels, it can
lead to harmful eects. For example,
pollution may have long lasting eects
on general health and well-being; early
exposure in childhood may harm
lung development later in life. e
workforce and communities near
polluting sources may not be adequately
educated about pollution impacts or
the use of hazardous materials (e.g.
cooking/heating fuels). Similarly, most
air quality monitoring systems do not
fully address population exposure to
toxic pollutants and monitoring is
needed to determine if companies meet
their operational requirements. In
addition to these challenges, further
studies are needed on air quality and
pollutant concentrations, especially
around potentially polluted places and
regular check-up of monitoring stations.
ere are also a few limitations to the
present study. No measurement data
was collected or obtained from the
monitoring stations in the present study
which could be compared with real
world measurements. is highlights a
major concern in Botswana as data is
not readily available to researchers or
the public.
e combination of increasing
migration, motorization and
uncontrolled urban growth contributes
to the intensication of air pollution,
and has led to a concerning increase
in pollutant gases and particles. Like
many developing nations, Botswana
has experienced a signicant amount
Morupule power station premises.
Copyright Policy
is is an Open Access article
distributed in accordance with
Creative Commons Attribution
License (
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Status of Air Pollution in Botswana and Signicance to Air Quality and Human Health
... The area surrounding Palapye consists of arid shrubland with sandy soils. Blowing and suspended dust from arid soils is an important source of coarse-mode particulate matter in this region [20], though traditionally dust is not a major source of PM 2.5 . Livestock is a major part of Botswana's economy [20], and this land is frequently used for cattle grazing as well. ...
... Blowing and suspended dust from arid soils is an important source of coarse-mode particulate matter in this region [20], though traditionally dust is not a major source of PM 2.5 . Livestock is a major part of Botswana's economy [20], and this land is frequently used for cattle grazing as well. Cattle and other livestock can be a source of ammonia, which is a precursor for PM 2.5 [21][22][23]. ...
... While the rest of Botswana also uses solid-fuel combustion for energy [25], no measurement studies have been performed outside of Gaborone. In addition to domestic biomass burning, Botswana has some industrial sources, such as metal processing and coal combustion [20]. A notable example near Palapye is the Morupule Power Station, a coal power plant with an adjacent coal mine to provide fuel for the power station. ...
Full-text available
Exposure to particulate air pollution is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In developing countries, the combustion of solid fuels is widely used as a source of energy, and this process can produce exposure to harmful levels of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). However, as countries develop, solid fuel may be replaced by centralized coal combustion, and vehicles burning diesel and gasoline may become common, changing the concentration and composition of PM2.5, which ultimately changes the population health effects. Therefore, there is a continuous need for in-situ monitoring of air pollution in developing nations, both to estimate human exposure and to monitor changes in air quality. In this study, we present measurements from a 5-week field experiment in Palapye, Botswana. We used a low-cost, highly portable instrument package to measure surface-based aerosol optical depth (AOD), real-time surface PM2.5 concentrations using a third-party optical sensor, and time-integrated PM2.5 concentration and composition by collecting PM2.5 onto Teflon filters. Furthermore, we employed other low-cost measurements of real-time black carbon and time-integrated ammonia to help interpret the observed PM2.5 composition and concentration information during the field experiment. We found that the average PM2.5 concentration (9.5 µg∙m−3) was below the World Health Organization (WHO) annual limit, and this concentration closely agrees with estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report estimates for this region. Sulfate aerosol and carbonaceous aerosol, likely from coal combustion and biomass burning, respectively, were the main contributors to PM2.5 by mass (33% and 27% of total PM2.5 mass, respectively). While these observed concentrations were on average below WHO guidelines, we found that the measurement site experienced higher concentrations of aerosol during first half our measurement period (14.5 µg∙m−3), which is classified as “moderately unhealthy” according to the WHO standard.
... Besides long-range air mass deposition, local emissions also contribute to the NO 2 atmospheric load. Over Gaborone ( Wiston, 2017 ) identified Morupule power station, biomass burning and coal dependency by industries as local emission sources of nitrogen oxides. Over the city of Harare (Mujuru et al., 2012) established that NO 2 peak in September recording a maximum of 72.7 μg/m 3 at one site. ...
Full-text available
Nitrogen dioxide is one of the atmospheric trace pollutants that is a product of anthropogenic activities and has been found to have negative environmental-human health outcomes. Within urban settings, the NO2 column levels are a good proxy indicator to show the quality of ambient air. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column levels during the year 2020 over four megacities in Southern Africa Region (Gaborone, Harare, Johannesburg and Maputo). Data were derived from AURA OMI complemented by the HYSPLIT Model-NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and GEOS-5 Model-MERRA 2. Findings were that the city of Johannesburg recorded the highest NO2 column levels during 2020 at 14.07 × 10¹⁵ molecules per cm² recorded in the winter season while the city of Harare recorded the lowest NO2 column levels at 0.36 × 10¹⁵ molecules per cm² which were recorded in spring. This present study also confirmed that 90 % of the year the cities were under the influence of long-range air masses originating from both the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean however the city of Harare tropospheric NO2 seemed more regionally determined than those of Johannesburg, Gaborone and Maputo. On the other hand, the city of Gaborone NO2 column levels was seemingly under the influence of the South African Highveld. Besides, besides its local emissions the city also received long-range transport air masses from the Indian Ocean thus getting influenced. The study highlighted the phenomenon of transboundary air pollution over Southern Africa cities and brought to foe the need to adopt a uniform Southern Africa policy and guidelines on air quality management.
... Masons have a very high risk of being exposed to air pollution [3,4]. According to research data in 2010, more than 50% of masons are regularly exposed to air pollution such as steam, gas, dust, or smoke in the workplace [5]. ...
Full-text available
Masons are regularly exposed to air pollution in the workplace The pollution exposure received by them is a risk factor for respiratory problems. Most of the masons had insufficient knowledge that is very important for the management of a person's illness. The purpose of this study was to determine relationship of knowledge on respiratory disorders with lung function in masons in east surabaya. This research was an observational study with a cross-sectional design with a purposive method.The research was conducted from April to July 2019 in the East Surabaya area. The variables that will be observed in this study are the level of knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and treatment and therapy regarding respiratory disorders. In this study, there were 158 respondents consisting of 79 groups with impaired lung function and 79 groups without lung function disorders. Most of the level of knowledge of both groups was good in risk factors and treatment of respiratory disease, but instead on the symptoms regarding respiratory disease. The research showed that there was a relationship between the level of knowledge about risk factors for respiratory disease (p(0.223)<0.05) and lung function, but there was no difference in knowledge about symptoms (p(0.745)<0.05) and treatment (p(0.741)<0.05) respiratory disease with pulmonary function. Therefore, it was necessary to plan further educational programs in increasing masons' knowledge of respiratory symptoms so that they could catch respiratory diseases earlier.
... The health impact is one of the most studied subjects due to its direct effect on human-lives (Lave and Seskin 1970;Bernstein et al. 2004;Kampa and Castanas 2008;Olmo et al. 2011;Anderson, Thundiyil, and Stolbach 2012;Harrison, Masiol, and Vardoulakis 2015;McCarron 2018). Air pollution emanates from various sources, such as agricultural activities (Aneja, Schlesinger, and Erisman 2009;Phairuang, Hata, and Furuuchi 2017), industrial activities (Rhind 2009;Bao et al. 2016;Wiston 2017), mining operations (Pandey, Agrawal, and Singh 2014;Ghose 2010) and burning of fossil fuels (Ofosu et al. 2013;Zhao et al. 2017) among others. The burning of fossil fuels is usually one of the main sources of air pollution as the exercise involves natural and anthropogenic activities or a combination thereof. ...
Strong winds and dry conditions make it difficult to contain wild fires worldwide. Such fires could cause devastating effects on landscape structures around many urban/peri-urban areas. The greater impact of such fires is commonly felt when landscape elements such as forest vegetation biomass fuel increase the wild fire risk to people and their properties. In order to mitigate the impact of a wild fire at local level, it is imperative to understand its spatial distribution and fuel load dynamics surrounding it. This study aimed at exploring the possibility of integrating various satellites and model data to characterise the aerosols emissions from wild fires which occurred at Knysna (South Africa). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Sentinel-2 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Intergrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2) model were employed to characterise the Knysna fires, and the resultant atmospheric conditions that prevailed at altitudes lower than 10 km. Large flames and high amounts of smoke were observed at the Knysna forests by the Sentinel-2 optical data. Our findings showed that there was an apparent reduction in the green vegetation biomass coverage of up to 20.2% following the wildfires as observed by Sentinel-2 data analysis. Biomass burning (BB) aerosols and smoke were observed to reach high altitudes of 2–4 km by CALIPSO. Pyrocumulus clouds were also observed at altitudes of 7.2 km. These clouds were a result of the mixing of the smoke and clouds in the mid-troposphere. The HYSPLIT model and MERRA-2 model showed that the emitted BB aerosols and smoke did not travel inland but rather dispersed in an eastward and south-eastward direction into the Indian Ocean from the source. A multi-satellite data approach proved to be a valuable resource to study the extent of wild fires and to determine their atmospheric impact and thus contributing to climate change. The transport models data was resourceful in determining the destination of the wild fires emissions.
The Journal of Health and Pollution (JH&P) was conceived in 2010, publishing the first issue in February 2011. Our original impetus to create JH&P was to increase understanding of the health effects of environmental contamination in low and middleincome countries (LMIC).
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The impact of BCL Cu–Ni mines on the surrounding environment has indicated high levels of heavy metal contamination in soil and some plant species. A comprehensive assessment of heavy metal concentration in plants, heavy metal concentration and availability in soils, and the estimates of risk associated with grazing animals in the area are presented. Exhaustive quantification of heavy metal contents in 82 plant samples revealed that some plants such as Boscia albitrunca and Boscia foetida are suitable for multi-metal phytoextraction, and others can accumulate one or two of the metals in soils or tolerate high levels of contamination. Current levels of soil contamination were manifested by acidification and high electrical conductivity, high contamination factor, and a pollution index between 8.31 and 10.79. The amount of exchangeable fractions of metals was higher than ordinary soils which is attributed to the high solubility of deposited materials on the soil surfaces. Daily intake estimates showed a possible risk associated with Pb and Cu contamination among grazing animals in the study area. Overall, the information has identified potential plants or combination of plants that could be utilized for the rehabilitation of the study area through phytoremediation. In addition, the estimates of the daily intake of the minerals due to consumption of plants in the vicinity of the BCL mines warrant for evaluation of the actual levels of heavy metals in grazing animals near the study area and in other mining areas in Botswana.
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Air pollution is a global issue for many years. However, in developing countries, this is a major concern which is affecting the health of the people. Industrialization, less awareness among people, increased number of vehicles and no major actions taken so far drastically increased the pollution levels in the air. Increase in pollution, in turn, increases the number of airborne diseases. The existing filtration mechanism is complex and costly. This hinders their application in industries. The present work addresses this issue by designing a low cost multi-layered filter system. The critical parameters considered are selection of materials, number of layers and the arrangement of layers of different materials. Selected materials are High-Efficiency Penetration Air (HEPA) fabric, Cotton, fibreglass, nylon, polypropylene and non-woven polyester fabric. The best combination of the arrangement order found is HEPA, Cotton, Fibreglass, Nylon, non-woven polyester and poly-propylene respectively. Experiments are conducted with single layer and combination of the materials with 6, 12 and 18 layers using a specially designed test chamber. The exhaust gas of a two-stroke engine is taken as an input source of pollution. As a single filter, of all the selected materials, fibre glass material shows the highest reduction in CO, HC, CO2 and increase in O2. As the pollution is reduced the O2 percentage is more in the exit gases after filter. Polypropylene shows highest % reduction of Nox. Filter with 6/12layers shows unsteady filtration. Filter with 18 layers shows maximum and steady filtration of the pollutants CO, CO2, HC, NOx; 74.5%, 70.6%, 76.66%, 72.66% respectively.
This article explores why Botswana's environmental protection regulatory framework is failing to stem environmental deterioration. Based on the observation that such deterioration persists despite the fact that there is a framework in place, the discussion draws from experience with successful environmental protection regulatory frameworks around the world. The discussion establishes that successful environmental protection regulatory frameworks incorporate numerical quality and ecological standards, a command and control approach (with context-sensitive alternatives to account for the approach's limitations), and credible enforcement mechanisms. This article measures the extent to which Botswana's environmental protection regulatory framework incorporates these elements; it identifies that the reason why the framework has failed to stem environmental deterioration is that it does not adequately incorporate these qualities and proposes how this could be addressed going forward.
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Aeolian sediment transport processes are sensitive to dryland ecosystem change and can contribute to the transition of savanna grasslands to shrub-invaded and shrub-dominated states (Okin et al., 2006; Ravi et al., 2010). In the southern Kalahari savanna, bush encroachment by Senegalia mellifera is a pervasive ecosystem change that creates mosaic landscapes of varying density grasses and bushes that can affect patterns of aeolian sediment transport (Thomas and Shaw, 1991). Herbaceous species losses and bush encroachment in the Kalahari have been associated with increased dune mobility (Wiggs et al., 1995), degraded air quality (Witson, 2017), and potential reactivation of the region as a persistent dust source (Bhattachan et al., 2012). While accelerated wind erosion can be both driver and consequence of ecosystem change in the Kalahari (Bullard et al., 1997; Thomas and Leason, 2005; Mayaud et al., 2017), the role of aeolian processes and its regional impacts have not been fully established. Here, we examine preliminary data on the influence of southern Kalahari ecosystem changes on surface aerodynamic roughness and aeolian sediment transport as a basis for understanding their interactions.
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In an effort to improve our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate, we implement a desert dust module within a regional climate model (RegCM). The dust module includes emission, transport, gravitational settling, wet and dry removal and calculations of dust optical properties. The coupled RegCM-dust model is used to simulate two dust episodes observed over the Sahara region ( a northeastern Africa dust outbreak, and a west Africa-Atlantic dust outbreak observed during the SHADE "Saharan Dust Experiment"), as well as a three month simulation over an extended domain covering the Africa-Europe sector. Comparisons with satellite and local aerosol optical depth measurements shows that the model captures the main spatial ( both horizontal and vertical) and temporal features of the dust distribution. The main model deficiency occurs in the representation of certain dynamical patterns observed during the SHADE case which is associated with an active easterly wave that contributed to the generation of the dust outbreak. The model appears suitable to conduct long term simulations of the effects of Saharan dust on African and European climate.
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The fully coupled WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry) model is used to simulate air quality over coastal areas of the Sea of Japan. The anthropogenic surface emissions database used as input for this model was based primarily on global hourly emissions data (dust, sea salt, and biomass burning), RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition), GEIA (Global Emissions Inventory Activity), and POET (Precursors of Ozone and their Effects in the Troposphere). Climatologic concentrations of particulate matter derived from the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2), chemical mechanism, and the Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM) with aqueous reactions were used to deduce the corresponding aerosol fluxes for input to the WRF/Chem model. The model was first integrated continuously over 48 hours, starting from 00:00 UTC on 14 March 2008, to evaluate ozone concentrations and other precursor pollutants. WPS meteorological data were used for the WRF/Chem model simulation in this study. Despite the low resolution of global emissions and the weak density of the local point emissions, it was found that the WRF/Chem model simulates the diurnal variation of the chemical species concentrations over the coastal areas of the Sea of Japan quite well. The Air Quality Management Division of the Ministry of the Environment in Japan selected the maximum level of the air quality standard for ozone, which is 60 ppb. In this study, the atmospheric concentrations of ozone over the coastal area of the Sea of Japan were calculated to be 30–55 ppb during the simulation period, which was lower than the Japanese air quality standard for ozone.
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Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.
This paper examines air pollution situation and the history of air quality management in Botswana. The current air quality management in Botswana is still largely underpinned by the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act of 1971, supplemented by the more recently enacted legislations such as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 2010 and the Ambient Air Quality - Limits for Common Pollutants of 2012 published by the Botswana Bureau of Standards. Though commendable efforts have been made toward legislating against air and other forms of pollution, these have not yielded expected results in view of the prevailing levels of air pollutants like sulphur dioxide and fine particulate matters in the country's atmospheric environment. Legislation as a sole measure may not be effective in tackling this challenge. Rather, government should also address some root-causes of the problem by making policies and programmes that will reduce unemployment and increase the earning capacity of citizenry. This will, among other things, effectively check poverty-induced biomass burning in the country. The paper looks at some other challenges of air pollution management and suggestions are made to tackle the identified problems.
Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is Likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality, These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution.
In this review the scale of UK urban air pollution is assessed and the sources and health effects of the main urban pollutants are identified. Methods of monitoring, used to determine compliance with UK air quality standards, are reviewed, and important sampling criteria are determined. Measurements of spatial and temporal variations in pollutant concentrations are described using both single-site continuous analysers and time-integrated multi-site samplers. The declines in concentration of the "traditional' pollutants, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and smoke, as well as in airborne lead, are compared to the increasing emissions of traffic-related pollutants, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and fine particulates. For each of these pollutants appropriate monitoring methods are described. A case study of Cambridge air quality data illustrates the changing nature of urban air pollution. Finally, long-term air quality monitoring programmes are seen to have an important role in determining the effectiveness of future vehicle emission controls and traffic management schemes for urban centres. -Author
Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for global disease. Assessment of the impacts of air pollution on population health and the evaluation of trends relative to other major risk factors requires regularly updated, accurate, spatially resolved exposure estimates. We combined satellite-based estimates, chemical transport model simulations and ground measurements from 79 different countries to produce new global estimates of annual average fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for five-year intervals from 1990-2010 and the year 2013. These estimates were then applied to assess population-weighted mean concentrations for 1990 – 2013 for each of 188 countries. In 2013, 87% of the world’s population lived in areas exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 (annual average). Between 1990 and 2013, decreases in population-weighted mean concentrations of PM2.5 were evident in most high income countries, in contrast to increases estimated in South Asia, throughout much of Southeast Asia, and in China. Population-weighted mean concentrations of ozone increased in most countries from 1990 - 2013, with modest decreases in North America, parts of Europe, and several countries in Southeast Asia.
A comprehensive study to monitor the concentration of atmospheric aerosol produced as a result of biomass burning has been conducted during 1999-2000 (Jayaratne and Verma, 2001). For the purpose of this paper the study was extended for the years 2002-2003 and 2003-2004 where the authors found the mean variation of aerosol concentration for each month of the year. The mean monthly concentration of aerosols larger than 0.1 μm was compared for the years 1999-2000, 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The most noticeable observation seen was that the aerosol concentration was found to be the highest in the dry winter season. During these periods, it has been documented that there is increased biomass burning taking place in the Southern African region.
Hazardous and toxic waste is a complex waste category because of its inherent chemical and physical characteristics. It demands for environmentally sound technologies and know-how as well as clean technologies that simultaneously manage and dispose it in an environmentally friendly way. Nevertheless, Botswana lacks a system covering all the critical steps from importation to final disposal or processing of hazardous and toxic waste owing to limited follow-up of the sources and types of hazardous and toxic waste, lack of modern and specialised treatment/disposal facilities, technical know-how, technically skilled manpower, funds and capabilities of local institutions to take lead in waste management. Therefore, because of a lack of an integrated system, there are challenges such as lack of cooperation among all the stakeholders about the safe management of hazardous and toxic waste. Furthermore, Botswana does not have a systematic regulatory framework regarding monitoring and hazardous and toxic waste management. In addition to the absence of a systematic regulatory framework, inadequate public awareness and dissemination of information about hazardous and toxic waste management, slower progress to phase-out persistent and bio-accumulative waste, and lack of reliable and accurate information on hazardous and toxic waste generation, sources and composition have caused critical challenges to effective hazardous and toxic waste management. It is, therefore, important to examine the status of hazardous and toxic waste as a waste stream in Botswana. By default; this mini-review article presents an overview of the current status of hazardous and toxic waste management and introduces the main challenges in hazardous and toxic waste management. Moreover, the article proposes the best applicable strategies to achieve effective hazardous and toxic waste management in the future. © The Author(s) 2014.
The Southern Hemisphere shows relatively low levels of atmospheric dust concentrations. Dust concentrations could, however, increase as a result of losses of vegetation cover in the southern Kalahari. There is some evidence of an ongoing remobilization of stabilized dunefields in the southern Kalahari where dune crests with sparse vegetation cover are reactivated during dry and windy periods, a phenomenon that is predicted to intensify with increased land degradation, overgrazing, and droughts. Despite the potentially important climatic and biogeochemical implications of dust emissions from the Kalahari, it is still unclear whether the predicted remobilization of the Kalahari dunes could be associated with increased dust emissions from this region. The dependence of sediment fluxes and dust emissions on vegetation cover in the Kalahari dunelands remains poorly understood, which prevents a quantitative assessment of possible changes in aeolian activity in this region under different land use and land cover scenarios. In this study, we report the results of an aeolian sediment sampling campaign over a variety of land covers in the southern Kalahari. We use these results to quantify the potential rate of dust emissions and its dependence on vegetation cover and to make an estimate of dust fluxes from a portion of the southern Kalahari. The results show that the loss of vegetation could lead to substantial increases in dust emission and nutrient loss.