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Settlement system of West Tripolye culture in the South Bug and Dnieper interfluve: Formation problems.

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The Tripolye Culture Giant-Settlements in Ukraine:
Formation, Development and Decline
The Tripolye Culture
Giant-Settlements in Ukraine
Formation, Development and Decline
edited by
Francesco Menotti and Aleksey G. Korvin-Piotrovskiy
ISBN 978-1-84217-483-8
© OXBOW BOOKS 2012
www.oxbowbooks.com
List of Contributors .................................................................................................................vii
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................viii
Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1
Francesco Menotti
1. Tripolye culture in Ukraine ................................................................................................ 6
Aleksey G. Korvin-Piotrovskiy
2. Absolute chronology of Ukrainian Tripolian settlements ................................................19
Yuri Rassamakin
3. Giant-settlements of Tripolye culture .............................................................................. 70
Vladimir Kruts
4. Relative chronology of the giant-settlement period BII-CI ............................................. 79
Sergei N. Ryzhov
5. Settlement system of west Tripolye culture in the Southern Bug
and Dnieper interuve: formation problems .................................................................. 116
Aleksandr Diachenko
6. Tripolian pottery of the giant-settlements: characteristics and typology ....................... 139
Sergei N. Ryzhov
7. The int tools of Andreevka, the Tripolian settlement
on the Bolshaya Vys River ............................................................................................ 169
Evgeniy Pichkur
8. Houses of the Tomashovskaya local group .................................................................... 182
Dmitriy Chernovol
9. Tripolian house construction: conceptions and experiments ......................................... 210
Aleksey G. Korvin-Piotrovskiy, Vladislav Chabanyuk and Liudmilla Shatilo
10. The latest stage of development of the Tripolye culture ............................................... 230
Vladimir Kruts
Epilogue ................................................................................................................................ 254
Francesco Menotti
Index...................................................................................................................................... 257
Contents
VladislaV Chabanyuk
Tripolye Culture Museum
Legedzeno, Ukraine
dmitriy ChernoVol
Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences
Kiev, Ukraine
aleksandr diaChenko
Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences and Institute for Eastern European
and Mediterranean Archaeology
State University of New York at Buffalo, United States
aleksey G. korVin-PiotroVskiy
Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences
Kiev, Ukraine
Vladimir kruts
Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences
Kiev, Ukraine
FranCesCo menotti
Institute of Prehistory and Archaeological Science
Basel University, Switzerland
eVGeniy PiChkur
Archaeological Museum of the National Academy of Sciences
Kiev, Ukraine
yuri rassamakin
Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine
and German Archaeological Institute, Germany
serGei n. ryzhoV
Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences,
and T. Shevchenko, National University, Kiev, Ukraine
liudmilla shatilo
National University ‘Kiev Mohyla Academy’
Kiev, Ukraine
Contributors
Chapter 5
Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the
Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve:
Formation Problems
Aleksandr Diachenko
In recent decades, more and more specialists have been turning to the problems of the
formation of major Aeneolithic settlements in southeast Europe. Signi cant sites of West
Tripolye culture (WTC) in the Southern Bug-Dnieper inter uve occupy a special place in this
particular topic. It is precisely here, on the outskirts of the Carpathian-Danube region, that
settlements ranging from 100 to 350 ha in area were established. It is, furthermore, worth
mentioning that it is indeed in this region that East Tripolye cultural settlements (ETC) also
grew the largest. The biggest of them, Veselyi Kut, was 117ha in area.
The acuteness of the long-running discussion related to comprehending the phenomenon
of the giant-settlements (see Chapter 3) is, in our opinion, largely conditioned by the scale
according to which various researchers have interpreted the given phenomenon. These
signi cant sites are often studied in isolation, without consideration of the spatio-temporal
system of coordinates in which they existed – of the system that covered entire groups of
settlements of different categories. Work on problems associated with the formation of
settlement systems that contained large localities is therefore particularly timely.
We will review here the settlement systems of the Vladimirovskaya, Nebelevskaya,
Tomashovskaya (the Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya WTC’s line of development) and
Kosenovskaya local groups, as well as the Kocherzhintsy-Shulgovka-type, located in the forest-
steppe zone between the Southern Bug and Dnieper rivers (entire time span: BII–beginning
of CII).
These sites represent the complete range of sizes of Tripolye settlements, from the smallest
to the largest. The complexity of the study necessitates the following tasks: systematising
sources on the micro and macro levels; analysing the dynamics of the development of
the demographic situation, including migration; determining structural interconnections
between settlements of different categories; and identifying the character of the optimisation
of settlement systems. The acquired results must also be compared with already existing
archaeological evidence and with data from related disciplines.
117
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
Input data
Space
Depending on one or another aspect of the study’s cognitive tasks, Tripolye settlements can
be systematised according to the following interconnected criteria: size, number of structures
and building density. The choice of attributes for the systematisation of material depends on
the extent of knowledge and the potential that exists for formalising it (Gening et al., 1990:
68). Since the geomagnetic survey, that has allowed for determining at least an approximate
number of structures, covered only an insigni cant number of locations (one at Vladimirovskaya,
three at Nebelevskaya, ve at Tomashovskaya, two at Kosenovskaya), and since some lay-outs
demonstrate only particular portions of settlements (Fedorovka, Peschane, Talnoe 2) and the
cultural layers of some completely recorded sites have been destroyed (Talianki, Maidanetske
and Kosenovka), the number of constructions is typically determined as the product of the
relative building coef cient multiplied by the area of the settlement. Correspondingly, the direct
size of the sites is the indicator that forms the basis for their primary sorting.
The settlements of the period under study are laid out in an oval or round pattern that has
more than once been noted by researchers of different areas of Cucuteni-Tripolye expansion
(Passek, 1949; Markevich, 1981; Chernysh, 1982). Comparing the sites’ area indicators, as
used during data compilation for all the currently known studies, with the length and width
parameters of the sites mentioned shows that the sizes of round or elliptical settlements were
calculated by using the formula for the area of a rectangle (the product of two sides) (Fig. 5.1,
a). The area of an oval, however, is derived as a product of π (3.14) and of its semi-axes (Fig.
5.1, b). An example of this equation is the description of the area of a circle (πr2). That de nes
the necessity for more correct estimations of the area indicator.
Figure 5.1: Determining the size of the settlements: (a) using the formula for the area of the
rectangle; (b) using the formula for the area of the oval.
118 Aleksandr Diachenko
The sizes of sites with clearly de ned lengths and widths were recalculated. Average width
indicators were used for settlements shaped as irregular ovals. In cases where geomagnetic or
visual plans were present, they were used to de ne the lengths of the axes.
A number of signi cant sites were destroyed, so information about their lengths and widths
is absent; in those cases, approximate area indicators were considered (Polonistoe, Leshchevka,
Popudnya and Talnoe 1). The sizes of these settlements, determined as products of conditionally
calculated length and width, were brought in line with the same system by calculating the
product of π and of both axes and dividing by four (the product of the axes is converted to the
product of the semi-axes).
Since estimating population size in particular time frames necessitates considering only
localities that are synchronised with them, we analysed only those settlements whose remains
allowed for identifying their positions clearly within the frameworks of the development phases
of the local groups.
In this manner, the sample includes signi cant sites of the Vladimirovskaya (6), Nebelevskaya
(23), Tomashovskaya (23) and Kosenovskaya- and Kocherzhintsy-Shulgovka type (12). It is
worth mentioning, however, that we have deliberately not considered a number of settlements in
the Kanev region, the formation of which was based on settlements of the second phase of the
Nebelevskaya group, given the problem with establishing the Kanev local group. According to
Ukraine’s Tripolye sites register (Encyclopaedia of Tripolye Civilization, v.1, 2004: 567–8, 576–8,
632–5, 664–88), the sites involved in the study account for around 30% of the probable general
number of WTC settlements (including the Kanev group sites) in the region under study.
Since the Kosenovskaya group is not genetically tied to the Tomashovskaya group that
preceded it, meaning that its representatives could have had different spatial organisation
traditions, it is justi able to systematise the Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya line sites, the
range of settlement sizes and the numbers of which are larger, and then compare the sizes of
the Kosenovskaya group settlements with the intervals that have been determined.
When sorting data according to settlement size, it is customary to use a distribution polygon
with length and width, clustering, or range parameters marked on the coordinate axes. The
rst method, in its most common form, allows for detecting the variability of forms – from
a circle to an elongated oval, as seen on the plan. The second and third methods involve
singling out groups of settlements based on area measurements. Considering the sampling
sizes, it seems more rational to rank the area indicators (Fig. 5.2). That the sites belonged to
different phases of development of local groups was not taken into account. As the groups
were being categorised, the variation range decreased by the corresponding number of
observations (Fig. 5.2, b–d).
As the result of data systematisation by area, the Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya line’s
settlements were arranged in three groups: small (S): up to 30ha; medium (M): 35–80ha; and large
(L): 100–350ha. Group Small is divided into three subgroups: S-1 (up to 10ha), S-2 (10–20ha),
and S-3 (20–30ha). Group Medium is also subdivided: M-1 (35–40ha), M-2 (50–60ha), and
M-3 (70–80ha). Group Large has two subgroups: L-1 (100–125ha) and L-2 (210–350ha) (Fig.
5.3). The sizes of the Kosenovskaya group sites also correspond to the indicated intervals, but
settlements of the L-2 subgroup are not characteristic for this local group.
Since the relative chronology of many sites was deduced on the basis of excavated material,
and since the larger settlements provide more such material than the smaller ones, we expect
that more eld study and clari cation of the relative chronologies of the known settlements will
Figure 5.2: Ranging the values of area of settlement characteristics.
120 Aleksandr Diachenko
allow for the quantitative lling-in of groups that unite small and medium-sized settlements
(Groups S and M-1).
The average indicators for relative building density in the Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya
line’s settlements and the Kosenovskaya local WTC group were calculated separately with respect
to possible differences in demographic potential and traditions of spatial organisation (Table 5.1).
Data from a decoded geomagnetic plan of the sites formed the basis for calculations. It is worth
mentioning that there was no geomagnetic recording of small settlements in the Kosenovskaya
group. A corresponding coefficient acquired for Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya group
settlements was therefore conditionally applied to them.
We reviewed the systematisation of sources on the macro level in a speci c study (Diachenko,
2009b) and will brie y mention its main points. WTC spatial groups (SG) in the Bug-Dnieper
inter uve were de ned in a conditionally synchronous sample (within one phase of the local
groups’ development) based on the distance between the sites’ centres. In a conditionally diachronic
sample (comparing distances between site centres belonging to chronologically subsequent phases
of development of local groups), the Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya lines were united into two
spatial variants (SV 1 and SV2). This approach is based on the effort minimisation principle (Zipf’s
principle), which has received additional grounding within the framework of spatial archaeology
(Hodder, 1974; Clarke, 1977; Haggett, 1979; Kolesnikov, 2003). De ned within the framework
of a theoretical landscape, expressed exclusively in numerical indicators, spatial variants have
quite an obvious border on the region’s real archaeological map – the Gniloy Tikich river, beyond
which are located only a few sites of the Nebelevskaya group (Fig. 5.4: 1–48 and 49–63).
Figure 5.3: Systematizing sites by size characteristics.
West Tripolian Settlements of
Bug-Dnieper Interfluve
Large
(100-350 ha)
Medium
(35-80 ha)
Small
(up to 30 ha)
121
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
Space-time
In determining the intensity of contacts between inhabitants of the locations analysed we used
the gravity model (Izard, 1966: 439–73, Wilson, 1967; Clarke, 1972, 1977; Hodder, 1972,
1977; Crumley, 1979: 145–50; Haggett, 1979: 466–7). Taking into consideration the results of
studies performed with the use of this method and based on materials from the United States
and Sweden (Abrams, 1943; Marches, 1953; Haggett, 1979: 466ff), the numerical value of the
characteristics obtained was considered a probable indicator of marital migrations. In this context,
there is an assumption about the existence of certain bordering indicators, above which marital
a)
GROUP SUB-GROUP SITE RELATIVE BUILDING DENSITY
(CONSTRUCTIONS PER 1HA)
MEDIUM BUILDING
DENSITY
(CONSTRUCTIONS
PER 1HA)
S
(SMALL)
S-1 Moshurov 1 7
10.1
S-2 Peschane 10.2
Talnoe 2 13.1
S-3 No data ?
M
(MEDIUM)
M-1 Yampol 10.3
10.65
M-2 Yatranovka 1 11
M-3 No data ?
L
(LARGE)
L-1 Glubochek 9.2 10.15
Fedorovka 11.1
L-2 Maidanetske 8.75 7.4
Talianki 6
b)
GROUP SITE RELATIVE BUILDING DENSITY
(CONSTRUCTIONS PER 1HA)
MEDIUM BUILDING
DENSITY (CONSTRUCTIONS
PER 1HA)
S
(SMALL)No data By analogy with the settlements of
Vladimirovsko-Tomashevskaya line
10.1
M
(MEDIUM)Kosenovka 3.6 3.6
L
(LARGE)Olkhovets 1 4.4 4.4
Table 5.1: Density of construction in the settlements. (a) Settlements of Vladimirovskaya-
Tomashovskaya line of development; (b) Settlements of Kosenovskaya group.
122 Aleksandr Diachenko
Figure 5.4: Map of the site locations: 1. Zavadovka; 2. Popudnya; 3. Khristinovka 1; 4. Yurkovka;
5. Tomashovka; 6. Cherpovody 1; 7. Cherpovody 2; 8. Gorodnitsa; 9. Kocherzhintsy-Shulgovka;
10. Kocherzhintsy-Pankovka; 11. Sharin; 12. Dobrovody; 13. Sushkovka; 14. Korzhova Slobodka;
15. Korzhova; 16. Yatranovka 1; 17. Olshana Slobodka; 18. Peregonovka; 19. Romanovka;
20. Moshurov 1; 21. Apolianka; 22. Kosenovka; 23. Talianki; 24. Maidanetske; 25. Ostrovets;
26. Nebelevka; 27. Dubova; 28. Vladimirovka; 29. Polonistoe; 30. Tsyurupy; 31. Leshchevka;
32. Fedorovka; 33. Staraya Buda; 34. Nemorozh; 35. Gordashevka 1; 36. Talnoe 1; 37. Talnoe
3; 38. Talnoe 2; 39. Olkhovets 1; 40. Rassokhovatka; 41. Bondarka 1; 42. Bondarka 2; 43.
Glubochek; 44. Kolodistoe 1; 45. Kolodistoe 2; 46. Krivye Kolena; 47. Peschane; 48. Yampol; 49.
Komarovka; 50. Peremozhintsy; 51. Kvitki 2; 52. Valiava; 53. Nezamozhnik; 54. Olshana 1; 55.
Khlystunovka; 56. Buda Orlovetskaya; 57. Ksaverovo; 58. Zelenaya Dibrova; 59. Novo-Ukrainka;
60. Chichirkozovka; 61. Vasilkov; 62. Lebedin; 63. Andreevka. Key: I – Vladimirovskaya group
settlements; II – Nebelevskaya group settlements; III – Tomashovskaya group settlements; IV
– Kosenovskaya group settlements and the settlements of Kocherzhnitsa-Shulgovka type.
connections between inhabitants of different locations are not possible. Additional analysis of
abnormally high gures of ‘intensity of population contacts’ indicated their correspondence with
chronologically subsequent sites of the same phase of development of local groups (Fedorovka
and Vladimirovka, Glubochek and Nemorozh, Talianki and Maidanetske), as pointed out by
123
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
Sergei Ryzhov (Ryzhov, 1999). Abnormally high gures obtained for small- and medium-sized
or large settlements that were analysed in pairs led to the interpretion of such small settlements
as branched-off settlements. These data helped somewhat to de ne Ryzhov’s scheme for the
relative chronology of the sites more exactly. One of the three alternative variants of the
relative chronology of the Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya line of WTC has been proven
(Diachenko, 2008). Later, Vladimirovskaya group settlements were synchronised with earlier
Nebelevskaya group settlements, and later Nebelevskaya group settlements were synchronised
with early Tomashovskaya group ones. In addition, we de ned additional stages within the
development phases of the local groups: there were three stages for the Vladimirovskaya
group, three for the second phase of the Nebelevskaya group, and two for the third phase of
the Tomashovskaya group (Diachenko and Menotti: in press). We must note that the proposed
system for the relative chronology of the settlements does not contradict Dergachev’s method
for the analysis of mega-complex sites (Dergachev, 1980: 19–23), which Ryzhov took as a basis,
but only underlines the exibility and heuristic potential of Ryzhov’s scheme. The hypothesis
concerning the immanently inherent gravity model of the possibility of acquiring both horologic
and chronologic information was previously articulated by Kolesnikov (Crumley, 1979: 150;
Kolesnikov, 2003: 128).
Time
One of the most actively disputed aspects of the problem of large Tripolye settlements is the
question of the synchronism of the structures within their boundaries (Zbenovich, 1990: 10;
Kruts, 1990: 43–4; Ryzhov, 1990: 87; Videyko, 2004b: 489–90; Gershkovich, 2003: 30ff).
Simulation of the construction process in Maidanetske, based on N. Shmagliy and M.
Videyko’s observations about site stratigraphy and planigraphy (Shmagliy and Videyko,
2001–2002: 121–2), has allowed for the proposal that there are two possible ways of explaining
the chronology of building construction and for reviewing the possibility of the contemporary
use of 100% or 78.4% of the buildings (Diachenko, 2008: 14–6). The second variant received
con rmation via the modelling of average family make-up (Diachenko, 2010a: 10). Korvin-
Piotrovskiy and Tkachuk obtained a similar parameter based on materials from the excavation
of Bernashevka II, the Petrenskaya group settlement on the Dniester (Kolesnikov and Tkachuk,
1993). The temporal diversity of the structures in Talianki (Tomashovskaya group, rst stage of
the third phase) is indicated by the ceramic complex of building No 2 and, possibly, building
No 3, which is similar to the ceramic complexes of the Tomashovskaya group’s second phase
(Ryzhov, 1990: 87). The contemporaneity of 100% of buildings is characteristic of exclusively
small settlements that branched off from medium-sized or large settlements.
It is, in this way, possible to propose the following scheme for the distribution of sites in
time. The period of functioning of large and probably medium-sized settlements exceeded the
length of the local group’s development phase. A small settlement’s functioning cycle apparently
corresponded to the development phase. Finally, branched-off settlements that appeared during
stages of substantial growth of large settlements functioned during relatively short periods of
time (Fig. 5.5) – presumably 30–35 years.
124 Aleksandr Diachenko
Structure of the settlement spatial groups
Let us look at the distribution of settlement groups, sorted on the basis of area, within the
obtained spatio-temporal system of coordinates.
In all the SGs of WTC’s Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya group’s SV-1, there was not more
than one settlement belonging to the M-3, L-1, or L-2 (70–350 ha) subgroups in existance at the
same time. Such settlements can be combined with the one medium-sized site (Glubochek and
Yampol – rst stage of the Nebelevskaya group’s second phase; Dobrovody and Yatranovka 1
– second phase; Maidanetske and Romanovka – second stage of the Tomashovskaya group’s third
phase) and with several small settlements. In two cases, there is a combination of settlements
from the M-2 and M-1 subgroups (Vladimirovka and Peregonovka – second stage of the
Vladimirovskaya group; Rassohovatka and Nemorozh – second stage of the Nebelevskaya
group’s second phase) and of small settlements.
The de ning characteristic of the SG of the Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya group’s
SV-2 is the absence of L-1 and L-2 Vladimirovskaya and Nebelevskaya group settlements.
Unlike the SV-1 sitea, which were found in forest steppe environments with major open areas
(Kremenetski, 1991: 110–3; Pashkevich, 2004: 118–20), Nebelevskaya and Vladimirovskaya
group settlements of SV-2 gravitate towards mixed-forest landscapes (Kremenetski, 1991:
111; Romanchuk, 1998: 62). Only Valiava, an early Nebelevskaya group site, located slightly
further south, reaches 80ha in area. SV-2’s Tomashovskaya group settlements of the L-2
(Chichirkozovka) and L-1 (Vasilkov) subgroups in the Bolshaya Vys’ river basin collocate
with small settlements.
In this manner, it is possible to create the following chains of medium-sized and large
settlements that belong to WTC’s Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya line.
Figure 5.5: Length of the settlement occupation: (a) – the length of the period of development;
(b) – the length of the period of functioning of the large settlements; (c) – the length of the period
of functioning of branched-off settlements.
125
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
SV-1: Fedorovka (Vladimirovskaya group, stage 1) – Vladimirovka and Peregonovka (stage
2) – Nebelevka, Krivye Kolena (Nebelevskaya group, phase 1) – Glubochek, Yampol,
Khristinovka 1 (Nebelevskaya group, phase 2, stage 1) – Rassohovatka, Nemorozh, Sushkovka
(Nebelevskaya group, phase 2, stage 2 – Tomashovskaya group, phase 1), Dobrovody,
Yatranovka 1 (Tomashovskaya group, phase 2) – Talianki (phase 3, stage 1) – Maidanetske,
Romanovka (phase 3, stage 2) – Tomashovka, Rakhny Sobovye (phase 4).
SV-2: Valiava (Nebelevskaya group, phase 1) – Olshana 1 (phase 2, stage 1) – Peremozhintsy
(phase 2, stage 2) – Chichirkozovka (Tomashovskaya group, phase 2) – Vasilkov (phase
3).
It is characteristic of the rst phase of the Kosenovskaya group to have a combination of L-1
(Apolianka) and M-2 (Kosenovka) settlements with small sites. In the second phase, the large
settlement Olkhovets 1 (L-1 subgroup) collocates with small settlements. Kocherzhintsy-
Shulgovka type settlements are represented only by small settlements.
Demographic component
Based on the recording of ceramic imports and imitations, researchers (e.g. Tsvek, Movsha,
Kruts, Popova, Ryzhov, Shmagliy and Videyko) have repeatedly mentioned the participation of
West Tripolye tribes from the Dniester region and of the East Tripolye population in establishing
the material culture of the West Tripolye tribes from the Bug-Dnieper inter uve. The results
of ceramics analysis allowed Ryzhov to detect ve major migration waves towards the Bug-
Dnieper inter uve, not excluding the in ow of migrants to the region in between those waves
(Ryzhov, 2007b: 445–53, 469). In this context, the problem of the dynamics of the uctuations
of the WTC population in the Southern Bug–Dnieper inter uve is particularly interesting. One
of this problem’s key aspects is analysing population size uctuation on the basis of medium-
and large-sized settlements.
To avoid inaccuracies associated with the use of an actively disputed indicator for the average
number of inhabitants in one house, the average number of structures in a settlement is used to
analyse the dynamics of the demographic development. The latter is determined as a product
of site area and of the relative housing coef cient. Let us analyse the tendencies related to
changing the number of houses in SV-1 Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya line settlements. The
average number of buildings in medium- and large-sized settlements, shown on the graph (Fig.
5.6, a), was summed up for every stage of development of local WTC groups. A second graph
(Fig. 5.6, b) re ects changes in the number of synchronic settlements in the M and L groups,
sorted according to the area attribute.
Abnormally high growth in number of buildings, associated with a decrease in the number of
settlements themselves, is recorded as an attribute of the Nebelevskaya group’s rst phase and
of the second stage of the Tomashovskaya group’s third phase. The sharp increase in the number
of buildings in the Tomashovskaya group second phase settlements, as re ected on the graph,
is possibly related to the absence from the sample of an as-yet unknown (to us) early medium-
sized settlement belonging to the Tomashovskaya group. Each abrupt change in the number
of houses is accompanied by a subsequent decrease of large settlements and a corresponding
increase in the number of small settlements. We observe a decrease in the number of buildings
126 Aleksandr Diachenko
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Vladimirovskaya
group, stage 1
Nebelevskaya
group, phase 1
Nebelevskaya
group, phase 2,
stage 2,
Tomashovskaya
group, phase 1
Tomashovskaya
group, phase 3,
stage 1
Tomashovskaya
group, phase 4
Quantity of constructions
0
1
2
3
4
Vladimirovskaya
group, stage 1
Vladimirovskaya
group, stage 2
Nebelevskaya
group, phase 1
Nebelevskaya
group, phase 2,
stage 1
Nebelevskaya
group, phase 2,
stage 2,
Tomashovskaya
group, phase 2
Tomashovskaya
group, phase 3,
stage 1
Tomashovskaya
group, phase 3,
stage 2
Tomashovskaya
group, phase 4
Number of settlements
Figure 5.6: Tendencies of demographic development for the WTC Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya
line: (a) Quantity of constructions at the settlements of SV 1 of Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya
line of WTC; (b) Number of the analyzed settlements.
127
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
along with an increase in the number of settlements (Fig. 5.6) and expansion of reclaimed
territory towards the north and northwest (Vladimirovka, Khristinovka 1, Rassohovatka and
Nemorozh) (Fig. 5.4).
Similar tendencies are also evident in the case of the SV-2 settlements of the Vladimirovskaya-
Tomashovskaya line (Valiava – Olshana 1, Chichirkozovka – Vasilkov). As for the Kosenovskaya
group, it is possible to retrace a decrease in the number of buildings in medium-sized and large
settlements, accompanied by a decrease in the number of settlements themselves (Apolianka,
Kosenovka – Olkhovets 1).
The hypothesis that abnormally high growth in number of buildings and, correspondingly,
abnormally high population growth is related to the in ow of migrants from other local
formations of the Cucuteni-Tripolye community is supported by the ceramics complex of the
sites. According to Ryzhov’s observations, the period of the Vladimirovskaya group’s existence,
of the Nebelevskaya group’s rst phase, and of the Tomashovskaya group’s rst and third phases,
was a period of active in uence by people of WTC (for the Vladimirovskaya group) and by the
population of the Dniester and Bug regions on the establishment of material culture among the
tribes of WTC’s Vladimirovskaya-Tomashovskaya line (Ryzhov, 1993: 110–2, 2000: 469–71,
2007a, 2007b: 136–7, 139). It is important to note that migrants from the Dniester-Bug region
completely integrated into the populations of medium- and large-sized settlements, and did not
leave distinct Dniester or Bug-like complexes.
The appearance of large Vladimirovskaya, Nebelevskaya, and Kosenovskaya group
settlements signi es the beginning of the reclamation of territories on both the macro-regional
level (Fedorovka, Apolianka, Kosenovka) and the micro-regional level (Valiava, Khristinovka
1, Rassohovatka). The migration theory for the formation of Tripolye settlements is also
supported by the distinctly noticeable tendency for their numbers to increase in the forest-
steppe zone, from west to east (as the Cucuteni-Tripolye community’s area expanded). The
largest settlements in the north of the Republic of Moldova (Markevich, 1981: 14–54) and
in the Northwestern Black Sea region (after recalculating their areas and applying the oval
area formula) reach 30–40ha. In the Bug region, the largest WTC settlements are 40–60ha
in area (Kryshtopovka, Yaltushkov 1, Chechelnik). The largest WTC sites, as noted earlier,
are located in the Southern Bug–Dnieper inter uve. Finally, WTC settlements located in
mixed-forest landscapes do not exceed 80ha in size. The tendencies towards increased size
are absolutely identical for ETC sites. The latter, however, do not reach the sizes of the West
Tripolye settlements (Tsvek, 2006: 13–56).
In this manner, proceeding from Neustupný’s typology, the WTC population’s mobility can be
attributed to the ‘bd’ type (colonisation – reclaiming territory that was unpopulated earlier) and
the ‘bb’ type (internal colonisation – the population’s migration over relatively short distances)
(Neustupný, 1984: 113–4).
According to V. Kruts’ calculations, during the entire existence of Cucuteni-Tripolye sites
in the Prut-Dniester inter uve, there was an arti cially maintained ‘reserve’ of unused territory
due to the out ow of the ‘excess’ population’s to adjoining regions (Kruts 1993: 32). From
the demographic point of view, this ‘excess’ could not have been the result of uncontrolled
reproduction of the population resulting from very high rates of natural increase (Hassan,
1978: 67–9; Neustupný, 1984: 112–3). The out ow should rather be seen as a result of
decreased resource potential in the settled territory. It would be quite logical to see this fact
as a reason for migration which, in turn, served as a way to relieve the demographic pressure
128 Aleksandr Diachenko
on the region. Therefore, diminishing resource potential was apparently pre-conditioned by
climate factors.
According to voluminous palaeo-climatic data collected by Anthony, the period 4200–4100
BC was characterised by rapid climate change. The rst cold years, between 4120 and 4040 BC,
‘were the portent of an acutely cold period of 140 years in length, lasting from 3960 till 3821
BC, when temperatures were colder than ever before in the previous two thousand years.’ In the
4200–3900 BC interval, according to the research, over 600 tells of the Gumelniţa, Karanovo
VI, and Varna cultures were burnt down. The regeneration of forest in Germany ceased, leading
to the expansion of open spaces. A mild climate re-established itself after 3760 BC (Anthony,
2007: 227; Bicbaev, 2010: 222). There are identical climate data for the at territory of Western
Ukraine. The period characterised by a signi cant fall in temperature is known to be 5180±80
BP (4230 [7%] 4180–4170 [88.4%] 3790 BC) (Bezusko and Kotova, 1997: 142). On the
regional level, these climate uctuations are marked by eustatic uctuations of the level of the
Black Sea. The rst regression phase of the mid-calamitic period, according to V. Karpov’s
chart (Bruyako and Sapozhnikov, 2009: 306; Diachenko, 2010b: 43–5), corresponds with the
aridisation of the climate noted earlier.
During the existence of Tomashovskaya group settlements, an ‘improvement’ of climate
conditions occurred in the interval between the rst and second phases of mid-calamitic
regression (Diachenko, 2010b: 43–4). The functioning of two large settlements in two SVs of
the Tomashovskaya group without distinct tendencies towards decreasing numbers could, on
the one hand, have been caused by a favourable environmental in uence on agriculture, and
on the other hand, by two tribes competing for control over the territory.
Aridisation of the climate during the second phase of regression of the mid-calamitic period
is associated with the out ow of the Tomashovskaya group’s population from the region and,
after some chronological lacuna (Kruts, 1989: 130–1; Ryzhov, 2007b: 469; Diachenko, 2009a:
291–8), the appearance of the Kosenovskaya group population.
It is important to mention that the period of Cucuteni B–Tripolye BII and CI was characterised
by a stabilisation of the military and political situation that was re ected in the almost complete
absence of forti ed localities in the Cucuteni–Tripolye community (Dergachev, 2007: 36–41).
This allows us to view migration as having been driven by internal factors (overpopulation
caused by climate conditions), and not external ones (military expansion).
We have, therefore, substantial grounds for associating the medium- and large-sized
Vladimirovskaya, Nebelevskaya and Kosenovskaya local group settlements of WTC with the
migration behaviour of the population. The formation of the settlements in question was the
result of the arrival of a new population, with subsequent compact habitation (Fedorovka,
Apolianka, Kosenovka), or of migrants owing into the population that already existed in the
region of the settlements (e.g. Nebelevka and Maidanetske). A slight derease in number of
the large Tomashovskaya group settlements, accompanied by the establishment of the small
settlements ( rst phase– rst stage of the third phase for SV-1, rst–second phase for SV-2) can
be associated with competition between the two tribes with nearby material culture complexes
that were in control of the territory.
129
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
From settlements’ spatial groups to settlement systems
Unlike spatial groups de ned by the formal characteristics of territorial proximity, settlement
systems are characterised by the presence of hierarchal structural interconnections between
particular localities. The problems of differentiating between the functioning of settlements and
of the character of the optimisation of the settlement system deserve particular attention.
Work on these problems was performed by applying spatial analysis methods. One of the main
methodological postulates on which those methods are based is the hypothesis that economic
and socio-political functions of settlements are re ected in their sizes.
Distribution of localities according to the range-size rule
To analyse the functional differentiation of the settlements, we processed their distribution
data according to the range-size rule. According to observations of Auerbach, de ned in the
early twentieth century, the population of n-city comprises 1/n of the largest of cities. This
reverse dependency is called the range-size rule, or the Auerbach rule (Haggett, 1979: 410). It
is expressed as an equation as follows:
1
0
=nPPn
where
n
P
= population size of a city of a corresponding range,
0
P
= population size in the
largest city, n = range of the given city in the sequence of the cities. In graphic expression, the
‘classic’ dependency between the sizes and ranges is observed as an interval drawn at a 45°
angle to a horizontal line (Haggett, 1979: 410–1).
We should emphasise that the results obtained by using this method allow for determining
not the exact functions of the settlements, but the differences in their assortment and volume.
Calculations were performed separately for each of the localities’ SGs. SGs containing only
one site were not taken into account.
According to the Auerbach rule, there are three types of distribution of inhabited points
recorded. The primary distribution type (with the largest settlement in the dominating position)
is characteristic of SGs of Tomashovskaya group settlements with centres in Sushkovka,
Dobrovody, Maidanetske, Tomashovka and Chichirkozovka, and also for SGs of Nebelevskaya
group settlements with Nebelevka, Valiava and Glubochek as centres.
The binary distribution type (in which two large localities dominate) is attributed to SGs
of settlements with centres in Vladimirovka and Peregonovka (Vladimirovskaya group),
Rassohovatka and Nemorozh (Nebelevskaya group), Apolianka and Kosenovka (Kosenovskaya
group), and Sharin and Cherpovody 1 (Kocherzhintsy-Shulgovka type). It is interesting that
with the exception of the aforementioned SG of the Kosenovskaya group of settlements, the
appearance of the SGs of this distribution type corresponds to the decrease in number of earlier
large settlements. The only case of the tertiary type, SG of settlements with centres in Olshana
1, Buda Orlovetskaya, and Ksaverovo (the rst stage of the second phase of the Nebelevskaya
group) also correlates with the decline of the earlier settlement, Valiava.
In this manner, the formation of SGs of settlements with binary and tertiary (with three
dominant settlements – not described here) distribution types should clearly be associated with
a region’s reclamation processes.
130 Aleksandr Diachenko
The nature of optimisation of settlement systems
Analysis of structural connections between settlements of different ranges was possible with
the application of central place theory (CPC). This theory, in its various modi cations, is the
most common model for geographic and archaeological studies, describing the particularities
of communities’ economic activity on the level of groups of localities (Smith, 1974: 168–73;
Clarke, 1977: 17–28; Hodder, 1977; Crumley, 1976: 59–66, 1979: 151–7; Haggett, 1979: 415–23;
Kolesnikov, 2003: 39–42; Minc, 2006: 82–91). Determining the character of optimisation of
settlement systems offers the opportunity to reconstruct the most common characteristics of a
population’s economic and, therefore, social and political organisation.
We used the CPC symbolic expression of Beckmann. The researcher’s works rest on a
hypothesis about the existence of particular proportions between the size of a city and the size
of its population, with a corresponding ‘urbanisation coef cient.’ The dependency between the
number of inhabitants in a settlement, its size, and its rank in a system’s spatial hierarchy with
a constant K – value, is rendered as follows:
r
r
rL
LCk
P)1(
1
=
where
r
P
= number of inhabitants in a locality on the r hierarchy level, L = share of the serving
population, С = number of inhabitants in the smallest serviced locality, and k = proportion index
(Beckmann, 1958: 243–4).
The proportion index k is determined as the number of dependent places that are serviced
from one central place (Beckmann, 1958: 244). Since the model exclusively describes hierarchal
spatial systems, r – the indicator of range in the localities’ hierarchy – cannot be equal to 1 (in
this case, L-value will be equal to 1 and the dependency denominator will be equal to zero). The
population of the central place, however, should satisfy not only the demand of its dependent
places, but also its own internal demand, which, in compliance with the formula, allows for
correlating the value of the К- indicator equal to 1 to the isolated state model of Von Thunen
(for more details, see Haggett 1979: 438–44; Kolesnikov, 2003: 26–30). In this way, following
Haggett, we can point at the compliance of proportion index k in Beckmann’s symbol model
with K-indexes in CPC by Kristaller and Lesh.
By disposing data about three or four parameters, it is possible to reconstruct yet another
two or three unknown parameters, thus opening up the model’s enormous heuristic potential.
It is necessary to note that the symbolic expression of the model, unlike the initial Lesh CPC
modi cation, does not have such strictly limited localisation of settlements in space.
In calculations, we used the number of structures in the ‘servicing’ and ‘serviced’
localities. The SGs of settlements with centres in Glubochek and Maidanetske were used
for analysis.
The number of structures in the servicing and in the smallest of serviced places (Р, С) belonged
to the known values of variables in this connection. In considering Tripolye settlements that
are unknown or that were not included in the sample, we used possible values of the variable
describing the number of levels in the spatial hierarchy (r), ranging from two to eight. The
lower limit of this interval corresponds to the minimal number of levels in hierarchal spatial
131
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
systems and the upper limit to the total number of settlement subgroups identi ed for WTC
sites in the region. The k-proportion coef cient value is a desired index.
Since the value of the variable corresponding to the proportion of buildings in the servicing
place (L) is unknown, possible numerical values for the ratio of the proportions of the populations
of the ‘servicing’ to the ‘serviced’ locations were calculated (Table 5.2). The results obtained
show the impossibility of the functioning of spatial systems that include the 7–8 hierarchy
levels with ‘servicing’ localities where the population proportion is over 60%. Spatial structures
containing 5–6 levels of hierarchy cannot function if the proportion of the ‘servicing’ population
exceeds 70%, and so on (Table 5.2).
Beckmann’s formula is as follows:
r
r
r
P
kC
L
L1
1
)1(
=
,
We obtain a set of polyvariant mathematical models, each providing for the presence or absence
of a particular number of ‘servicing’ places in the selection. Comparing this data with the real
archaeological map of the region, which also includes settlements that were not included in the
selection, allows for verifying the acquired models.
SHARE OF THE POPULATION
OF THESERVING
SETTLEMENTS
CORRELATION OF THE SHARE OFSERVINGPOPULATION ANDSERVICED
SETTLEMENTS ON THE DIFFERENT LEVELS (R) OF SPATIAL HIERARCHY
r = 2 r = 3 r = 4 r = 5 r = 6 r = 7 r = 8
L = 0.1 8.1 7.29 6.56 5.9 5.31 4.78 4.3
L = 0.2 3.2 2.56 2.05 1.64 1.31 1.05 0.84
L = 0.3 1.63 1.14 0.8 0.56 0.39 0.27 0.19
L = 0.4 0.9 0.54 0.32 0.19 0.12 0.07 0.04
L = 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.13 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.01
L = 0.6 0.27 0.11 0.04 0.02 0.01 0 0
L = 0.7 0.13 0.04 0.02 0 0 0 0
L = 0.8 0.05 0.01 0 0 0 0 0
L = 0.9 0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 5.2: Possible variants of correlation between the shares of the ‘serving’ and ‘serviced’
population.
132 Aleksandr Diachenko
The closest to the existing empirical results were the variants that describe the character
of optimisation of the settlement systems with K-value, with K=2. The sample does not have
one or two small settlements of the S-1 subgroup in the three-level settlement system that has
Maidanetske as its centre. The four-level settlement system with Glubochek as its centre is
completely represented in the selection.
We emphasise that the number of levels in the spatial hierarchy obtained by applying
Beckmann’s symbol model absolutely corresponds with the number of settlement groups within
the SG, when sorted by the area attribute.
Taking into account the data that complement our idea about the number of settlements in
the analysed settlement systems, the latter can be attributed to a dendral type of settlement. This
type of settlement system is characterised by natural direct exchange with minimum volumes,
weak distribution of labour and an ill-de ned social-spatial hierarchy. Production and exchange
are undeveloped and primarily concentrated in places inhabited by elites (Smith, 1974: 177–9;
Minc, 2006: 86). This interpretation is not contradicted by the results obtained by applying the
CPC’s symbolic expression. There is an obvious mildly distinct administrative (social–spatial)
population hierarchy; the optimal gures do not reach the level attributed to market (well-
developed exchange) system optimisation. The gravitation of the central settlements towards
southern or western peripheral territories, as undertaken by separate population groups, is
quite indicative. This particularity of spatial organisation can be characteristic of a tree-like
settlement disposition, in which all the settlements at different hierarchal stages depend on the
centre. The centre, actually located on the periphery, performs its ‘external affairs’ functions
among the population (Smith, 1974: 178–9). This particularity of the macrostructure of the
settlements, however, is characteristic of better-developed economic systems, typically described
with a K-value of K=3, or K=4. The optimisation of the transportation system is determined
by the need to export raw materials or ready products (mainly agricultural ones) that the
populations of dependent places produce to the central point. The optimisation of the market
system is associated with providing the population with products that come from the outside via
export–import centre for those products. Examples of such spatial systems with K-value equal
to 3 are Aztec empire settlements and European Bosporus settlements (Minc, 2006: 96–111;
Kolesnikov, 2003: 125–6).
Referencing Barry and Johnson, Smith points out that the dominating transport expenses in
structures with the optimisation type described as K-value equal to 2, leave agricultural zones
non-serviceable by market centres. The researcher nds that the reasons for the establishment
of such settlement zones in the Mid-west of the contemporary United States are the surplus
of land, widely spread-out population, high transportation expenses, and, in general, spatial
structures, described as K-value equal to 2, correlating with the agricultural and raw material
appendages of better-developed economic systems (Smith, 1974: 175–6). Just like that region,
the Bug-Dnieper inter uve of the Tripolye period was characterised by an abundance of land
and a sparsely scattered population. Weak transportation network development is analogous
to high transport expenses. Meanwhile, one should not ignore the colossal difference in the
development of agricultural productivity, which hardly allows us to identify the economics of
WTC people in the analysed region with the agricultural appendage of the economy in any
other local formation of the Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural-historical region (CHR). This allows
us to identify, with a high level of probability, the spatial structures described with K-value as
K=2 with the settling of new regions (or with the remnants of these processes).
133
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
The reconstructed weak development of exchange relations and of transportation channels
requires additional comment addressing the hypothesis about the necessity of imports for WTC’s
Bug-Dnieper inter uve int users (Videyko, 2004a: 270). Considering the newly explored
int mines in the Bolshaya Vys’ river basin, which are comparable in quality to Volyn’ int
(Zalizniak et al., 2007; Zalizniak et al., 2008), the actual raw material import volumes from
Dniester and Volyn’ remain questionable. We should note that Tsvek and Movchan (Tsvek
and Movchan, 1997, 2005; Tsvek, 2005) have studied the Bolshaya Vys’ river basin int mine
shafts and the workshops where the int was processed. As Nikolova and Pashkevich have
noted, the harvesting with sickles of glumiferous wheat cultivated by the Tripolye population
was unproductive. Another specialised wooden tool, called the shamkvy/shankvy/shnakvy,
was better suited for that task (Nikolova and Pashkevich, 2003: 94). The use of such tools
surely did not require massive imports of raw int or of ready-made products. The absence of
such an institution as the market, in itself, does not necessarily mean the absence of external
exchange operations, which are inherent to humankind at all stages of development (Polanyi,
2002: 72–81). Apparently, imported products made of int, just like copper items (located at
Bug-Dnieper inter uve WTC and ETC sites, and mainly represented by jewellery) were, for the
most part, prestige items rather than products with solely utilitarian functions. Such products
most likely circulated as presents – a characteristic of the institution of the prestige economy
(Sherratt, 1972: 508–10; Pavlenko, 1989: 82–4; Semenov, 1993: 57; Chapman, 2010: 85–6) In
general, there are grounds for thinking that the economy of West Tripolye culture groups was
based on three main principles (according to Polanyi): reciprocity (mutual aid), redistribution
(of surplus), and home economics (production for the satisfaction of personal needs).
The consistent patterns de ned in the character of optimisation of settlement systems allow
us to discuss the extremely extensive character of the exploration of natural resources of the
WTC groups in the Bug-Dnieper inter uve. This hypothesis corresponds completely with Kruts’
opinion about the necessity of a population’s transition to a new place due to the development of
the adjoining territory’s resources (Kruts, 1989: 124–9). It is worth mentioning Saiko’s important
observation that the development of the region’s Tripolye population was conditioned by almost
unlimited possibilities for spatial expansion, and, in particular, by the possibility of removing
demographic pressure (Saiko, 1990: 20).
Conclusions about the weakly expressed administrative function of large settlements are
supported by the absence of monumental administrative buildings and cult constructions, public
grain storages, tall monumental architecture, and a writing system; the population was characterised
by weak property differentiation.
Proceeding from the three- and four-level spatial hierarchy of WTC settlements in the Bug-
Dnieper inter uve, and given the two-level spatial-political hierarchy, the social structure of the
settlements can be considered to be a complex chiefdom, or a ‘village variation of proto-politarch
society,’ according to Yuri Semenov (Earle, 1997: 3). Sometimes, the entire proto-politarchy can be
as big as one village, but in this case the latter is inevitably divided into ‘blocks.’ The community
role in this case is played not by the village as a whole, but by each of the blocks (Semenov, 1993:
61–2). The last hypothesis is consonant with Kruts’ and Videyko’s ideas about the compliance of
small villages with the construction structures of larger settlements (Kruts, 1989: 128; Videyko,
2002: 76–7). If ongoing eld studies do not prove the presence of dependent localities that include
medium-sized settlements in SG with Fedorovka, Khristinovka 1, and Talianki as centres, then
the localities in question are examples of the congruence of proto-politarchy and villages.
134 Aleksandr Diachenko
Note that the term ‘complex chiefdom’ was rst used in Videyko’s works (at the beginning
of the 1990s) to describe the social structure of the Tripolye population in the Bug-Dnieper
inter uve. Videyko’s Tripolye ‘complex chiefdom,’ however, according to its characteristics,
rather corresponds to the concepts of the ‘strati ed society’ or the ‘centralized archaic state’
(Kristiansen, 1997). Our understanding of the social-political organisation of the WTC population
and its phased development level is most closely allied with Masson’s reconstructions (Masson,
1990: 8–9).
Discussion and conclusions
The cold and dry climate period characteristic of Tripolye BI/II–BII and the transition from
Tripolye CI to CII was the reason for the decreased resource potential of the occupied territory.
One of the results of climate change was population expansion from the Prut-Dniester inter uve
to the neighbouring regions.
There are two forms of migration towards the Southern Bug-Dnieper inter uve that can be
traced. The newly arrived population either settled separately or integrated into the populations
of the settlements that already existed in the region. The formation of medium (Valiava,
Khristinovka 1, Kosenovka) or large-sized settlements (Fedorovka, Apolianka) is characteristic
of the rst form of migration. The second form is de ned by an abnormally high increase in
the number of buildings in large settlements (Nebelevka, Maidanetske). Later on, processes
of decline took place in the Vladimirovskaya, Nebelevskaya and Kosenovskaya local group
settlements and were accompanied by the appearance of the small to middle size settlements.
The weak expression of the segmentation process among the largest settlements of the rst–third
development phase of the Tomashovskaya group requires additional analysis. The reason for
this was possibly a competition between two tribes for territorial control.
The consistent patterns we have determined allow us to connect the establishment of the
largest Cucuteni-Tripolye community settlements with the action of migration mechanisms;
the tendency among the largest settlements of the community to increase in area from west to
east testi es in favour of this pattern.
Conditioned by the descreasng numbers of medium- and large-sized settlements, the formation
of settlement systems with a binary and tertiary distribution type apparently promoted the
more effective use of land resources. The character of optimisation of settlement systems with
primary distribution type, described with K-value as K=2, also correlates with the development
of new territories.
A character of optimisation of settlement systems that exclusively re ects the extensive
development of natural resources is noted for the entire period of WTC’s existence in this
region (500–600 years). This allows us to join a number of other researchers (Kruts, 1989,
2003; Zbenovich, 1990; Masson, 1990; Saiko, 1990; Korvin-Piotrovskiy, 2003; Monah, 2003;
Otroshchenko, 2003, 2009; Tolochko, 2005, 2007; Klein, 2009) who consider the interpretation of
large Tripolye settlements as proto-cities or early cities with scepticism (this idea was supported
by Shmagliy (†) and still continues to be endorsed by Videyko).
In this way, the Southern Bug-Dnieper inter uve during the Tripolye period was noted for
its abundance of free lands and sparsely scattered population settlements. WTC settlement
systems in the region are characterised by direct natural exchange in minimal volumes, weak
135
5. Settlement System of West Tripolye Culture in the Southern Bug and Dnieper Inter uve
transportation channels, and weakly developed administrative functions on the part of central
localities. Formation of such settlement systems and of the large settlements that were a part
of those systems was solely pre-conditioned by the colonisation of a peripheral region. The
quite highly developed social organisation of the population, a type of organisation that could
be compared to a complex chiefdom or proto-politarchy, does not contradict this.
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... The longer duration of large settlements finds its confirmation in empirical data (e.g. Diachenko, 2012). ...
... In this paper, we consider the possible development of transportation (Müller, 2016) and changing climate conditions. These innovations and developments became more suitable for agricultural activities in the time range corresponding to the growth stabilization (Diachenko, 2012;Harper, 2019). Thus, one expects a lower Carrying Capacity for Vladimirovka and Peregonovka, and assumes that both sites could reach 6000 people. ...
... The latter outcome of our model explains the most general principle of Tripolye population movement, represented by approximately 50 year time spans of settlement duration. This is somewhat exceeded by the medium-sized and large settlements, whose duration values reach 75-100 years (Diachenko, 2012;cf. Chapman, 2017;Müller et al., 2016;Nebbia et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
The problem of migration is one of the most important demographic issues today. It underlies many development crises as well as the politics of inclusion and exclusion. Today terrorism, warfare, and refugee catastrophes are determinants and consequences of migration. Yet migration always has been a significant part of the human condition. As one of the most successful adaptive radiations of all time, our hominid ancestors, natural migrators and adaptors, moved out of Africa and around the entire globe. Every human individual is either a migrant or a descendant of one.
... Our paper contributes to further development of a third approach, which combines highly targeted AMS 14 C dating with the traditional relative chronology to create a chronological synthesis. This approach supports the idea that giant-settlements existed more or less sequentially with each being inhabited for around 80 to 100 years (Diachenko 2012;Harper 2016). ...
... According to the CTCC taxonomy, they belong to the Western Tripolye culture (WTC). Studies of the archaeological materials and population dynamics of these settlements indicate that they were formed as the result of populations migrating along the forest-steppe corridor, which extends across Central Ukraine from the Dniester to the Dnieper River valleys (Diachenko 2012;Diachenko, Menotti 2017;Harper 2016;Harper et al. 2019;Ryzhov 1993;2003;2015). Similar hierarchies in settlement size have also been noted in other regions and among other cultures within the CTCC, but these settlements did not reach such extreme dimensions as those in Central Ukraine. ...
... In order to understand the space-time development of WTC local groups, we analysed a dataset of 158 settlement sites with well-defined chronological assignments and site size data (Supplementary Data, Table S5) in QGIS software. The chronology of the sites was determined according to our past projects in regional analysis (e.g., Diachenko 2012;2016b;Harper 2016;Harper et al. 2019) and updated according to the new 14 C dates presented in this study. ...
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Scholarship regarding the Eneolithic Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex of Romania,Moldova and Ukraine has recently focused on ‘megasites’ of the Western Tripolye culture (WTC) inCentral Ukraine. However, in order to properly contextualize such unusual phenomena, we mustexplore the broader typo-chronology of the WTC, which is suggestive of a high degree of mobility andtechnological transfer between regions. We report 28 new AMS 14C dates from sites representingdiagnostic types and propose a high-resolution chronological sequence for the WTC’s development.Our results support the relative chronology and offer an opportunity to propose a new chronologi-cal synthesis for the WTC
... Our paper contributes to further development of a third approach, which combines highly targeted AMS 14 C dating with the traditional relative chronology to create a chronological synthesis. This approach supports the idea that giant-settlements existed more or less sequentially with each being inhabited for around 80 to 100 years (Diachenko 2012;Harper 2016). ...
... According to the CTCC taxonomy, they belong to the Western Tripolye culture (WTC). Studies of the archaeological materials and population dynamics of these settlements indicate that they were formed as the result of populations migrating along the forest-steppe corridor, which extends across Central Ukraine from the Dniester to the Dnieper River valleys (Diachenko 2012;Diachenko, Menotti 2017;Harper 2016;Harper et al. 2019;Ryzhov 1993;2003;2015). Similar hierarchies in settlement size have also been noted in other regions and among other cultures within the CTCC, but these settlements did not reach such extreme dimensions as those in Central Ukraine. ...
... In order to understand the space-time development of WTC local groups, we analysed a dataset of 158 settlement sites with well-defined chronological assignments and site size data (Supplementary Data, Table S5) in QGIS software. The chronology of the sites was determined according to our past projects in regional analysis (e.g., Diachenko 2012;2016b;Harper 2016;Harper et al. 2019) and updated according to the new 14 C dates presented in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Scholarship regarding the Eneolithic Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex of Romania, Moldova and Ukraine has recently focused on ‘megasites’ of the Western Tripolye culture (WTC) in Central Ukraine. However, in order to properly contextualize such unusual phenomena, we must explore the broader typo-chronology of the WTC, which is suggestive of a high degree of mobility and technological transfer between regions. We report 28 new AMS 14C dates from sites representing diagnostic types and propose a high-resolution chronological sequence for the WTC’s development. Our results support the relative chronology and offer an opportunity to propose a new chronological synthesis for the WTC.
... This event, referenced by several authors as a response to contemporaneous climatic deterioration (e.g. Anthony, 2007;Diachenko, 2012;Harper, 2019;Weninger & Harper, 2015), illustrates the variegated nature of regional population growth and declineunprecedented population growth in Central Ukraine is accompanied by the nearcomplete abandonment of settlement systems in the Danube Valley that had existed for centuries. While pollen-based climate reconstructions are not indicative of adverse growing conditions in the Danube valley at this time, evidence of alpine deglaciation and large-scale sedimentation in the Danube delta suggest that flooding may have disrupted Gumelnița agricultural systems (Harper, 2019). ...
Chapter
Archaeological site data, depending on the robustness of the sample and the state of chronological understanding, can offer an excellent means for comparing regional trends in human population, settlement patterns, and mobility. The estimation of ancient populations based on the chronology, size, and housing density of sites has long been a component of local-scale settlement archaeology. However, population reconstructions on broader spatial and temporal scales, when they are addressed at all, are often based on extrapolation from localized proxy and settlement records. Such methods fail to account for a great amount of variability in environmental suitability and population density between sub-regions. This paper presents a large-scale implementation of the SARP model (introduced by Ammerman et al. 1976), with modern computational improvements. Using settlement data representing over a century of archaeological research at more than 8,000 sites, a reconstruction of demographic trends in Neo-Eneolithic Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine (ca. 6000–3000 BC) is summarized as a case study, with special focus on the Eneolithic Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex. Results are contrasted with 14C-based estimation methods, which fail to corroborate observations from settlement data and yield a highly biased and dubious record. This research showcases the continued relevance of traditional settlement-based analysis and the necessity for considering numerous classes of data to generate accurate population estimates.
... Consequently, we consider an individual or a cluster of neighboring domestic sites as a "polity". In this sense, the term was already used for mega-sites [16,17] . Accordingly, the term "polity" is used in the sense of autonomous communities, as already developed by Colin Renfrew in his definition of peer-polity interaction for his discussion of Greek polities [18] . ...
Article
In the East European region between Prut and Dnieper, proto-urban mega-sites developed ca. 4100−3600 BCE with population agglomerations of around 10000 inhabitants per site. An outline of complexity categories, based on P. Turchin et al. (2018), illustrates that “computational abilities” are first developed to make the shift from dispersed to agglomerated settlement patterns. The development of an internal decision-making system for a polity that organizes communication via public buildings on different levels, together with a site-specific track system, may be responsible for this shift (or made it possible). However, after generations, this communication pattern was not developed into further collective communication abilities (e.g., into a writing system), while at the same time a tendency toward centralizing decision processes probably destroyed the communication flow. This ultimately led to the collapse of Tripolye mega-sites.
... In general, however, the authors of the excavations at Stolniceni tend to extend the site duration to the 38 th century BC (Ţerna et al. 2019). We should make the reader aware of the fact that the duration of large WTC sites, such as Petreni and Stolniceni, slightly exceed the duration of the relative phases of development (Diachenko 2012). ...
... Population estimates for Trypillia 'mega-sites' have a long tradition even before the beginning of the second research phase on the phenomenon in the 1970s. While first estimates were calculated for single significant sites such as Maidanets'ke (summary in Shamgliy and Videiko 2004), regional approaches were conducted by Kruts (1989;1994) and later by Diachenko and colleagues (Diachenko 2012;Diachenko and Menotti 2012;Diachenko 2016;Diachenko and Zubrow 2015). ...
Chapter
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This paper presents the population development of the Trypillia ‘mega-site’ near Maidanets’ke. For the first time it is possible to calculate the number of contemporaneous inhabitants of such settlements. According to radiocarbon dating around 52% of 3,000 dwellings were coevally inhabited during the peak occupation between 3800–3700 cal BCE. Taking average stem family sizes per dwelling into account, the peak population can be narrowed down to 5,940–7,160 residents. The population density for the second up to the final occupation phase at Maidanets’ke ranges on average between 14.7 to 36.4 inhabitants per hectare. Thus, in contrast to British interpretations, it is argued here that Trypillia ‘mega-sites’ do not qualify as low-density urban sites. Further, the question was addressed whether ‘mega-sites’ developed via internal population growth or represent an aggregation by regional mobility. According to exponential and logistic modelling it is concluded that residential mobility most probably played a crucial role in the development of Trypillia ‘mega-sites’.
... The core area of the Mereshovskiy type, already in the early phase of its development, became the base of the formation of the Petrenskaya local group (Ryzhov 2007). The migratory hypothesis find its confirmation in population and environmental proxies (Diachenko 2012;Diachenko and Menotti 2017;Harper 2017;Harper et al. 2019;Weninger and Harper 2015). According to T. Tkachuk and S. Ryzhov, populations of the Mereshovskaya group extended their territory from the Middle Dniester region to the Middle Dniester and Prut interfluve and the southern part of the Bug region. ...
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This paper presents two pottery kilns of an archaic construction, which were excavated at the Tripolye BII settlement of Kamenets-Podolskiy, Tatarysky, in 2019. The site, dated to the beginning of the 4th mil. BC, is attributed to the Mereshovskaya group of the Western Tripolye culture. Analysis of the construction details of our kilns compared to similar structures, which are known from other Tripolye sites and outside the Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex, made possible the typological specification of Cucuteni-Tripolye pottery kilns and a contribution to the issue of major trends in their evolution.
Chapter
Mobility is a fundamental part of Mesolithic settlement systems, and it is essential to understand contacts, exchanges, and interactions between Mesolithic groups. Mobility is also a general term, and can be used at different levels and scales (Lovis et al., 2006). In this paper, we will focus on seasonal mobility and the annual time frames that can be reconstructed from features that are often present at Dutch Mesolithic sites.
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This paper is a review of the most recent investigations of the giant-settlements of the Tripolye culture which was developing in the south of East Europe in the 5th–4th millennium BC. Results of magnetometric surveys and their interpretations are considered, as well as the hypothetic reconstructions of the sequence of formation of these sites. Critical analysis was conducted on the proposed concepts, including the hypothesis about the giant-settlements as “places of pilgrimage”; particular characteristic features of the art of this period of Tripolye are presented
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This chapter focuses on the demographic archaeology. There has been a definite shift for two decades within archaeology from an obsession with material remains to a healthier concern with past peoples and their behavior. Demographic methods in archaeology are not restricted to those undertaken in the course of archaeological surveys or excavations. The sources of demographic information in archaeology are varied, consisting of human skeletal remains, settlements, artifacts, food remains, the ecological potentials of human habitat, and historical and ethnohistoric records. A more sophisticated approach utilizes the life table, which represents the mortality history from birth to death of a cohort. Palaeodemographic data on human populations at various stages of cultural evolution have significant implications for understanding the changes in the mortality and fertility patterns of past human groups as related to changing life conditions and human biology.