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Abstract

Human body has the natural healing force which is the greatest force in maintaining health. The power of thoughts and emotions is used to influence phy'sica1 health. Ayun eda, the ancient system oflmanagement, has the holistic approach in the prevention as well as management ol the disease. ,l.turtetlic c'hikitsa has various types like Daivavyapashraya, Yuktivyapashraya and Safwavajaya chikitsa. used tbr disease. t i,l-l,rir t\1indt. For somatic disorders there ale various types of treatment in different streams of medical sciences. But u'hener er rire mind is attecte d. it becomes a complicated thing of concern. Alurweda has widely described about the different treatment modalitiestomaintainthebodyandmindhealthl,.Becausehealthofbodyandmindareinterrelated.Ayurvedahas providedAshtangYoga which includes eight types of treatment to "train" the mind to focus on the body without distraction and to maintain the soundness of mind and body affecting multiple factors including psychological, emotional, genetic, endocrine, nervous and immune system.
Yoga, the Equilibrium between Mind And Body
Nilima N. Wadnerwar
Assitant Professor Department of Agadtantra, Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College,
Hospital & Research Center Salod (H)(H), Wardha.
E-mail: dr.nilima:wadnerwar@rediffrnail.com
Abstract
Human body has the natural healing force which is the greatest force in maintaining health. The power of thoughts and emotions is used to
influence phy'sica1 health. Ayun eda, the ancient system oflmanagement, has the holistic approach in the prevention as well as management
ol the disease. ,l.turtetlic c'hikitsa has various types like Daivavyapashraya, Yuktivyapashraya and Safwavajaya chikitsa.
used tbr disease. t i,l-l,rir t\1indt. For somatic disorders there ale various types of treatment in different streams of medical sciences. But
u'hener er rire mind is attecte d. it becomes a complicated thing of concern. Alurweda has widely described about the different treatment
modalitiestomaintainthebodyandmindhealthl,.Becausehealthofbodyandmindareinterrelated.Ayurvedahas providedAshtangYoga
which includes eight types of treatment to "train" the mind to focus on the body without distraction and to maintain the soundness of mind
and body affecting multiple factors including psychological, emotional, genetic, endocrine, nervous and immune system.
Key words: Natural healing force, Ayurvedic chikitsa,AshtangYoga.
Introduction:
Human body has the natural healing force which is the greatest
force in getting well from the disease and maintaining health. In
mind-body medicine, the power of thoughts and emotions is used
to influence physical health. Ancient Ayurvedic medicine
emphasizes the links between the mind and the body. It is a fact that
whenever a person becomes diseased, he feels depressed.
Naturally, along with the body, his mind gets involved
unknowingly in the disease process. Hence, it becomes mandatory
to treat the somatic disease along with the mind. That is why,
Acharyas have described some psychological treatments like
Ashwasana (assurance), Harshana (Pleasing), Tarshana
(Satisfaction) in the diseases where patient becomes anxious,
stressful fearful and depressed. In such condition, the patient's
mind has to be trained to focus on the body without distraction. In
this state of "focused concentration," a person may be able to
improve their health. To treat the mind it is necessary to recognize
and change harmful thoughts. In cases of depression, patient
should be taught to counter negative thoughts and feelings with
positive ones.
Many of the times spiritual beliefs, attitudes, and practices affect
health. Those who had faith in God, compassion toward others, a
sense of inner peace, and were religious had a better chance of
surviving for a long time with a complicated disease than those
who did not have such faith or practices. Qualities like faith, hope,
and forgiveness, and using prayer and social support, have a
noticeable effect on health and healing.
Effect of Mental Factors :
\\hen u'e are physically or emotionally stressed, our body releases
srress hormones that can affect all our systems and organs. For
esample. stress related to hostility and anxiety can result in
disruptions in heart and immune function. Similarly, depression
and distress may diminish the body's nafural capacity to heal.
Certain emotions have been associated with disease. For example,
hostile attitudes may increase your risk for coronary heart disease,
obesity (especially around the waist), insulin resistance (which can
lead to diabetes), and abnormal cholesterol (specifically, high
triglycerides and low levels of high density lipoprotein or HDL --
the good kind ofcholesterol).
There is no evidence that negative emotions actually cause disease.
But being stressed and having negative emotions can be unhealthy.
Unconsciously being defensive or stifling feelings may result in
medical consequences, such as high blood pressure. High blood
pressure is also associated with feelings of hopelessness. How a
person deals with emotions may also affect how long they survive
with a chronic illness.
In such conditions, body and mind has to be relaxed and the levels
of stress hormones in the body have to be reduced, so that our
immune system is better able to fight off illness.
Relaxation exercises, meditation, yoga and other techniques can
bring about many beneficial changes including a lower heart rate,
and muscle tension and positive changes in brain waves.
Aimofthetopic:
To illustrate how Yoga is beneficial to train the mind to focus on the
body without distraction.
Need of the topic :
On the juncture of modem atomic age, there is only a growth of
mechanistic materialism, flat empiricism, superficial positivism
and vulgar utilitariarism bound up the growth of modern culture.
Entire world is suffering from virus of unhappiness and
X Journal of Indian System of Medicine January,2013 Vol.I :.1;W to !
and is restlessly searching for apath ofremedy ofit.
Defnition ofYoga:
[hgu is t'ithdrawal ofthe fluctuations ofconsciousness.
hf,m is endowed with mind (Manas), intellect (Buddhi) and ego
ffiNwnnkara), collectively known as consciousness which is the
uullrce ofthinking, understanding and acting.
The nithdrawal of fluctuations of consciousness can be done by
.d;duh'as and Vair a gy a.
*eaeatation ofthoughtless and actionless state ofconsciousness is
J'/dr'asa.
Sffidrawal of consciousness of from the wordly subjects and
mremplation in higher goalis Vairagya.
S'w the practice of Abhyasa atd Vairag,,a there are eight stages of
fugq Ashtang Yoga i.e. Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama,
Fro4, ahara D har ana, D hy ana and Samadhi.
AimofYoga:
The review of history reveals, aim of Yoga is changing from
mcient to this modern era of science, as summerised-
Early Upanaishad -Apath of rcalizalion of self & ultimate.
Bhagavad Gita - The way of life without wordly bondage.
Patanj ala Yoga Withdrawal of mental fl uctuations.
HathaYoga -Apath for Rajyoga by physical processes.
Shri Aurobindo, Mahatma Gandhi, Swami Vivekanand - For
social reform and development.
ln modern era - For positive health.
Yama:
It is a name of five universal morals or ethical rules for social
reformance.
l. Ahimsa(Nonviolence)
2. Satya(Truth)
3. Asteya(Nonstealing)
4. Brahmacharya(Celibacy)
5. ParigrahaQ{ot desiring for other's things).
\iyama:
It is a name of five universal morals for the purification of body
and mind of individual. Five Principles for social well being.
1 Shoucha(Cleanliness)
2. Santosha(Contenment)
3. Tapas(Penance)
4. Swadhyaya(Selfstudy)
5. EshwarPranidhana(Dedicatingtogod).
Asana:
Third part ofyoga which includes different yogic postures. Stable
& comfortable posture in which a person can remain for a long
time is called Asasnc. It is the first step of Hathayoga which
produces lightness in the body, enhances strength & health.
Prunayuma:
Prana means breath, respiration, life, vitaliry u'ind energy or
strength. Ayama means lengthen, expand, stretch or restraint.
Conholling inspiration & expiration is known as Pranayanta. lt
purifies the channels ofthe body leading to longevity oflife.
Physiology of Pranayama:
During pranayama, the mechanism of respiration is someu'hat
different from normal breathing.
Pur uk a phase (Inspiration) :
Air is inhaled slowly and deeply, so that lungs are expanded
considerably. In normal involuntary inspiration when inhaled air is
more than one litre, stretch receptors of the lungs are stimulated to
stop the process of inspiration but during Pranayama the normal
stretch reflex is inhibited under strong voluntary control of
cerebral cortex. The stretch receptors are thus trained to withstand
more stretching and air can be held for a longer time with ease.
The practice ofprolonged inspiration increases the cardiac output
due to increased venous refurn, so the regular practice ofslow and
deep inhalation is cardioprotective in nature.
Kum b h aka phase (Breath retension) :
Retension ofair is done undervoluntary control ofcerebral cortex
by inhibiting stretch reflex mechanism. The duration of
Kumbhaka is gradually increased over a long practice of
pranayama due to adaptation of respiratory center to higher
concentration of CO2 in blood, which produces tranquilizilg
effectonmind.
Rechaka phase (Expiration) :
During expiaration intrapulmonary pressure reduces slowly, but
concentration of CO2 in blood is still increasing. The
chemoreceptors are trying to inhibit exhalation and to start
inhalation by stimulating the respiratory center. But this reflex is
voluntarily controlled by cerebral cortex. By the regular practice,
chemoreceptors are adapted to higher concentration of CO2 in
blood.
Effects ofPranuyamai
Impurities are destroyed and aspirant gets the ability to
concentrate the mind.
By the practice of Prattcl atrtct. Pt tra r.r.r rr is retained in the bodv.
Mindbecomes still (thoughtless t end si.rl,i\.
During this practice of Protttt.t ruit./. Ihere are lots of physical and
mental changes with follo* rng benet-rcial effects-
Alveolar ventilation is hcreased in the lower areas of lungs and
blood circulation is increased at the apex, so the ventilation
perfusion ratio (VA/Q) is optirnized and vital capacity is increased.
This effect is very useful for the patients of chronic obstructive
lung diseases and bronchial asthma, where V;VQ is disturbed.
Optimal ventilation-perfusion ratio at the apex of lungs is
preventive for pulmonary tuberculosis, which is most sensitive
site.
During Nadi Shodhan and Pranayama the respiratory channels are
cleansed and process ofrespiration becomes easy.
ffi! lrrro ul of Indiun System of Medicine January, 2013 Vot.I l$il tz I
The rhlthmic contraction and relaxation of diaphragm and
sfdeminal muscles stimulate the circulation and optimize lhe
intestinal movements, which regulate the intestinal function ie
digestion, absorption and evacuation. This proper functioning is
preventive for many disorders like indigestion, constipation, peptic
ulcer, flatulence etc.
Optimizes the blood circulation of the whole body, which tones the
neryes, brain, liver, kidneys, heart, endocrine glands and all other
organs and maintains their effi cacy.
Perspiration produced during Pranayama acts as an accessory
kidney and helps in excretion oftoxins.
Practice of Pranavama reduces the s1'mpathetic over activity in the
bodr'. ri hich rs benet-rcial lbr hearr diseases.
Pracrrce rrlPrana) anta lnduces tranquilitr olnind. so it is ellective
in ma:.. :renr:- 3:li.i P>) chlrsrrmalia disorder: eu- an-.iet1.
ilsomnis- hlpenension. ischemic hean disease. peptic ulcer-
irritable boq-el ryndrome. diabetes mellitus etc.
Regular practice of Pranayama balances the sympathetic and
parasympathetic actirities and harmonises all over functions ofthe
bod,v and enhances the immuniry so Pranayama promotes the
health and prevents or cures the diseases.
Pratyahara:
It is the act of self control & the bridge between Antaranga &
Bahiranga Yoga.It is a step to attain ultimate goal, the salvation.
Mind wavers due to union with sense objects like sound etc.
Thinking about self or disconnection ofthe senses with outer world
and internalisation ofsenses is called as Pratvahara.
Dharans:
Process of withdrawal of mind from the sense & its blending with
solu.l is Dharana. After remembering the goal, concenffating over
it & blending with soul is Dharana. It is a process of concentration
over a singlepoint inside or outside the body.
Dhyana:
Deep concentration in apartioular thought or region like heart in
which mind in state of complete concentration(ekagra) called
dhyana (meditation).
Twotypes:
1 . Saguna dhyana: Meditation by concentrating over idol or
symbol.
2. Nirguna dhyana'. Meditation by concentrating over
soul(Atma).
Sumadhi:
Deep state of meditation where in yogi forgets about everything
including himself, unaware of surroundings. The aspirant loses
consciousness ofhis body, breath, mind, intellect & ego andrealize
the ultimate goal.
Effects of^Samadhiz
a Jiva breaks away the bonds from the body & comes one
with the universe.
o All the good deeds of yogi gets destroyed at the time of
liberation(Mrvana).
Aids for Yoga:
o With proper diet & life style, propil sleep and proper
working, yoga destroys all sor:rows.
o If a yogi has faith in yoga, he gets power, memory higher
state of meditation (Samadhi) and finally the realization
of tmth, so he should adopt them one by one for the
perfection ofnext.
o Enthusiasm, perseverance, discrimination, unshakable
faith, courage, avoiding the company of common people
are the six aidswhichbring success inYoga.
Technique of relaxation :
S h av us an a : Sh av a means dead body, Corp se pose or Mrit a s an a or
dead man's pose. It relaxes the body from tiredness. It enables the
mind to calm. It is beneficial in hypertension, anxiety, insomnia
and psychosomatic disorders.
Yoga is a way of life which balances, harmonizes or disciplines
every aspect oflife; either physical, mental, social or spiritual.
References:
1. Swasthawitta Samucchaya - Pt. Rajeshwardutta Shastri
2. Swasthawittam - BramhanandTripathi
3. SwasthyaVigyan- Dr.Mukund SwaroopVerma
4. SwasthyaVigyan-Dr. BhaskarGhanekar
5 . Swasthavritta Vigyan - Dr.Ram Harsh Singh.
6. Hathayoga Pradipika- SwastmaramYogendra.
]' Jooroal of Indian System of Medicine Januury,2013 Vol.l €Wil ts I
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Rajeshwardutta Shastri 2. Swasthawittam-BramhanandTripathi 3. SwasthyaVigyan-Dr
  • Swasthawitta Samucchaya-Pt
Swasthawitta Samucchaya-Pt. Rajeshwardutta Shastri 2. Swasthawittam-BramhanandTripathi 3. SwasthyaVigyan-Dr.Mukund SwaroopVerma 4. SwasthyaVigyan-Dr. BhaskarGhanekar