ArticleLiterature Review

State Authenticity as Fit to Environment (SAFE): the implications of social identity for fit, authenticity, and self-segregation

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Abstract

People seek out situations that “fit,” but the concept of fit is not well understood. We introduce State Authenticity as Fit to the Environment (SAFE), a conceptual framework for understanding how social identities motivate the situations that people approach or avoid. Drawing from but expanding the authenticity literature, we first outline three types of person–environment fit: self-concept fit, goal fit, and social fit. Each type of fit, we argue, facilitates cognitive fluency, motivational fluency, and social fluency that promote state authenticity and drive approach or avoidance behaviors. Using this model, we assert that contexts subtly signal social identities in ways that implicate each type of fit, eliciting state authenticity for advantaged groups but state inauthenticity for disadvantaged groups. Given that people strive to be authentic, these processes cascade down to self-segregation among social groups, reinforcing social inequalities. We conclude by mapping out directions for research on relevant mechanisms and boundary conditions.

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... Against this backdrop, the question arises how often people actually experience authenticity or inauthenticity in everyday life (i.e., the feeling of (not) being one's true self; also referred to as state (in)authenticity; Schmader & Sedikides, 2017; subjective (in)authenticity; Fleeson & Wilt, 2010; or experienced (in)authenticity; Cooper et al., 2018). Are people successful in their striving for authenticity and do they experience authenticity more often than inauthenticity? ...
... The prediction of a higher frequency of authenticity than inauthenticity can also be derived from the SAFE model (the state authenticity as fit to environment model) by Schmader and Sedikides (2017). According to this model, the experience of authenticity is caused by a high fit between the individual and its environment. ...
... In summary, two competing hypotheses can be derived regarding the frequency of authenticity and inauthenticity in everyday life: Based on the considerations of people's striving for authentic action and authenticity-inducing environments (Rivera et al., 2019;Schlegel et al., 2013;Schmader & Sedikides, 2017), authenticity may occur more often than inauthenticity. In contrast, as it is believed that authenticity is often thwarted by social constraints (e.g., Bargh et al., 2002;Ryan & Ryan, 2019;Sheldon et al., 2012), inauthenticity may occur more often, or at least as often as authenticity. ...
Article
Researchers have assumed that people generally strive toward authenticity, yet have also argued that authenticity may often be impeded by social constraints. Against this backdrop, it is unclear whether people feel authentic or inauthentic more often in everyday life. To address this question, we examined the retrospective frequency of these feelings. As researchers have conceptualized authenticity and inauthenticity in various ways, we also tested for generalization of the results across different conceptualizations. Our results indicate that authenticity occurs more often than inauthenticity in everyday life. While the results largely generalized across different conceptualizations of authenticity and inauthenticity, there was nonetheless some variation. Future research, therefore, should take different conceptualizations of authenticity and inauthenticity more into account.
... State authenticity refers to the feeling of expressing one's core characteristics (e.g., personal feelings, values, beliefs) in a given context (Fleeson & Wilt, 2010;Sedikides et al., 2017), rather than regardless of the context (trait; Kernis & Goldman, 2006;Sheldon et al., 1997). Schmader and Sedikides (2018) proposed an "identity fit" model to understand triggers and outcomes of state authenticity (State Authenticity as Fit, SAFE). According to this model, situations that are a good fit to a person's self, internally (in terms of identity, goals) or interpersonally, produces state authenticity and tendencies to approach and participate. ...
... For example, state authenticity emerges in contexts that are relatively pleasant and do not challenge the self (Lenton et al., 2013). State inauthenticity emerges when people encounter adversity, personal failure (Lenton et al., 2013), and presumably, identity threat (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). When people feel that valued aspects of their identity are ignored, devalued, or unsupported in their current context (i.e., identity threat), self-distancing behavior arises (Steele & Aronson, 1995;Steele et al., 2002). ...
... African-Americans self-select out of work organizations where they perceive prejudice or discrimination rather than cultural identity validation (Purdie-Vaughns et al., 2008). Under identity threat, people are unlikely to feel authentic (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). ...
Article
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Bicultural individuals navigate and identify with two cultures. Biculturals differ in levels of Bicultural Identity Integration (BII)—how much their two cultural identities are combined and compatible (high BII) versus divided and conflicting (low BII). We hypothesized that during conformity in cultural ingroup contexts, biculturals with low BII feel inauthentic (being untrue to themselves), whereas biculturals with high BII feel authentic (being true to themselves). Across four experiments with Asian-Americans, expressing cultural conformity (vs. non-conformity) in Asian or American contexts produced felt inauthenticity among participants with low BII but not high BII (Studies 1–3). Felt inauthenticity was due to cultural identity threat (perceived identity exclusion) (Study 2). Activating self-kindness counteracted felt inauthenticity for low BII participants during cultural conformity (Study 3) and produced felt authenticity (Study 4). Our findings imply that responding kindly to the self makes biculturals at ease in their cultural homes, at least temporarily.
... For example, in very hostile environments, hiding a concealable identity (e.g., sexual orientation) can be a way to prevent being physically harmed (Pasek et al., 2017). Similarly, to the extent that self-group distancing attains the goal of not being stigmatized it can reduce stress levels (Major & Schmader, 2017;Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). Second, self-group distancing can provide a sense of control in an otherwise uncontrollable stigmatizing context. ...
... In their review of state authenticity, Schmader and Sedikides (2018) argued that an individual's identity elements provide information about the self and one's fit to different contexts, and that this "contextual fit" underlies individuals' experiences of state authenticity. As such, those with non-stigmatized identities garner more opportunities for authentic experiences, while those with stigmatized identities will experience greater levels of state inauthenticity. ...
... Once again, the results of our second study are generally consistent with our hypotheses, with a few unexpected caveats. Most importantly, these findings support various conceptualizations of the stigma-to-authenticity relationship as impaired person-environment fit (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018) and threatened need for self-coherence (Bosson et al., 2012). Notably, however, neither of these perspectives takes into consideration the interplay between different forms of motive fulfillment, nor do they consider multiple forms of stigmatized identities (i.e., personal, social, concealable, and not concealable). ...
Article
Special Issue description: Despite equal rights, minority groups such as ethnic minorities, LGBTQ + people, and people with mental or physical disabilities face discrimination on a day-to-day basis in subtle and hard-to-recognize forms. As discrimination slips beneath the surface, it becomes difficult to fight the stigma using collective social identity coping mechanisms. Instead, individual mobility responses such as distancing the self from the stigmatized identity (“self-group distancing”) become more viable as a way to improve one's individual standing. In this overview of the state of the art, we take a social identity lens to reflect on the current empirical knowledge base on self-group distancing as a coping mechanism and provide a framework on what self-group distancing is; when, where and why self-group distancing likely occurs; and what its consequences are at the individual and the collective level. The contributions in this special issue provide novel insights into how these processes unfold, and serve as a basis to set a future research agenda, for example on what can be done to prevent self-group distancing (i.e., interventions). Together, the insights highlight that while self-group distancing may seem effective to (strategically and temporarily) alleviate discomfort or to improve one's own position, on a broader collective level and over time self-group distancing tends to keep the current unequal social hierarchy in place.
... People experience psychological fit in an environment along three dimensions; self-concept fit, goal fit, and social fit. The State Authenticity as Fit to Environment (SAFE) model measures fit on these three dimensions as well [29]. Self-concept fit refers to the extent to which individuals feel they can be their true selves in an environment. ...
... Goal fit refers to the extent to which individuals feel like their personal goals match the goals they have to pursue within an environment. Social fit refers to the extent to which individuals feel accepted among or similar to the others in an environment [25] [29]. ...
... Each type of fit promotes an internal state of cognitive fluency, motivational fluency, and interpersonal fluency, leading to approach and performance to the goal through true self-awareness. Authenticity is commonly associated with each fit and is also a major factor in the tendency to approach or avoid goal [29]. ...
... There are many unexplored person-situation combinations that could be examined as determinants of validation processes. For example, future research might examine whether individuals will show greater reliance on their thoughts when their personal identities (e.g., high in trait power) match their occupations (e.g., politician; Chen et al., 2009;Schmader & Sedikides, 2018), when the time allowed for decision making matches the person's preference for making fast or slow decisions (as assessed by the need for closure scale, Webster & Kruglanski, 1994), and when the amount of effort required by a task matches the person's preference for thinking (as measured by the NC scale, Cacioppo & Petty, 1982). These potential studies would provide convergent evidence around the idea that any time people are in a situation that accords with their nature, thoughts are more likely to be validated than when they are not. ...
... There are several reasons why people would rely on their thoughts more when there is a match between person and situation rather than a mismatch. For example, when there is a match, people might have greater thought acceptance because their thoughts "feel right" (Cesario et al., 2004) or seem easier to generate or more fluent (e.g., Lee & Aaker, 2004) or because people feel empowered (Briñol, Petty, Valle, et al., 2007) or authentic (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). Feeling right from regulatory fit (Cesario et al., 2004), from ease Tormala, Falces, et al., 2007), from power (Briñol, Petty, Durso, & Rucker, 2017), and from authenticity and self-relevance (Gascó et al., 2018) have been all associated with feelings of confidence that can be misattributed to salient thoughts. ...
Article
Self-validation theory (SVT) is introduced and presented as a series of six postulates. The core notion of SVT is that thoughts become more consequential for judgment and action as the perceived validity of the thoughts is increased. Instead of focusing on the objective accuracy of thoughts, self-validation research focuses on a subjective sense that one's thoughts are valid or appropriate to use. People come to rely on any thought more when they perceive that thought is likely to be true (cognitive validation) or because they feel good about the thought (affective validation). Perceptions of thought validity are influenced by thought-relevant as well as incidental factors (e.g., one's moods, sense of ease), and the impact of these factors can vary with their meaning. Individual and situational factors moderate when people rely on their assessments of validity and what thoughts are salient to validate. In short, SVT is a comprehensive and integrative framework from which to examine the use of thoughts across many seemingly diverse variables, outcomes, and domains in psychology. The theory is also relevant to understanding judgments in numerous applied contexts. By identifying moderators and mediators of thought validation processes and outcomes, SVT is capable of specifying when and why many different variables have an impact on judgments and actions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Environments that inhibit people's self-concept, thwart personal goals, or signal stigma in relation to group membership contribute to a lack of psychological fit. According to Schmader and Sedikides (2018), psychological fit comes in different forms, varying from state-like and motivational (goal fit) to more trait-like and cognitive (self-concept fit). With respect to the first, recent experiments show that motivating female college students to self-present in a masculine way (rather than a more gender-neutral way) to obtain a science laboratory position, undercut their sense of authenticity, and perceived fit to the position (Dormanen et al., 2020). ...
... Different from this work, we focus on cognitive self-concept fit. Lack of self-concept fit occurs when there is incongruence between perceptions about chronically accessible aspects of the self-concept (e.g., who I am as a woman, as professional) relative to an entire work domain or context (e.g., the stereotype of the successful academic; Schmader & Sedikides, 2018;Van Veelen et al., 2016). We expect that the highly agentic occupational stereotype of the successful academic is more incongruent with the selfconcept of women compared to men (cf., Eagly & Karau, 2002), thus resulting in higher cognitive lack of fit among female academics. ...
Article
Gender gaps in academia persist with women being less likely to attain leadership, earning lower salaries, and receiving less research funding and resources compared to their male peers. The current research demonstrates yet another, more intangible gender gap in academia called lack of fit, whereby compared to male academics, female academics perceive higher misfit between their professional self-concept and the agentic 'superhero' stereotype of the successful academic. The entire population of Dutch academics (i.e., assistant, associate, and full professors from 14 universities) was approached to participate in a nationwide survey. Results from this unique dataset (N = 3978) demonstrate that academics perceive agency (e.g., self-confident, self-focused, competitive) as more descriptive of the stereotypical successful academic than communality (e.g., team-oriented, good teacher, collegial). Importantly, early career female academics perceived highest lack of fit with this narrowly-defined agentic occupational stereotype, which was correlated with lower work engagement, professional identification and career efficacy, and higher work exhaustion and exit intentions. Thus, lack of fit seems yet another barrier contributing to pervasive gender gaps in academia. Implications for building more inclusive academic cultures, where not only agentic but also communal academic practice is recognized and rewarded are discussed.
... There is plenty of empirical evidence from clinical psychology, social psychology and sociology that the extent to which people 'feel like themselves' may fluctuate on a daily basis (Nezlek and Plesko 2001;Heppner et al. 2008;Lenton et al. 2013;Schmader and Sedikides 2018). One of the studies by Lenton et al. (2013) (N = 104) showed that 91% over participants did not feel like themselves, or felt less like themselves, every two months (See also Lenton, Slabu, and Sedikides 2016). ...
... attitudes, values, beliefs, personality) and their cognitions or actions in that situation' (Lenton et al. 2013, 277). In this respect, Schmader and Sedikides (2018) have developed the 'State Authenticity as Fit to Environment' (SAFE) model which posits that 'state authenticity is experienced when aspects of the self and identity are a fit to the surrounding environment' (230). There are various interrelated ways in which the environment may 'fit' according to the SAFE model (ibid., 229). ...
... In fields dominated by men, men often serve as the primary arbiters of identity-based information in STEM (27). Thus, women's social ties with men can be salient signals of social fit, the perception of being truly accepted in that setting (28), with stronger effects for women's (vs. men's) workplace outcomes (17). ...
... Based on past theory and research, we hypothesized that experiencing cross-gender social inclusion (for women, being included by men) would uniquely relate to women's (more than to men's) sense of social fit and workplace engagement. Because social fit is a critical component of feeling authentic (28) and flourishing at work, we further hypothesized that it would mediate the relationship between women's reports of social inclusion by male teammates and workplace outcomes. Again, we tested whether effects for socializing were distinct from respect (16). ...
Article
Why are women socially excluded in fields dominated by men? Beyond the barriers associated with any minority group’s mere numerical underrepresentation, we theorized that gender stereotypes exacerbate the social exclusion of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) workplaces, with career consequences. Although widely discussed, clear evidence of these relationships remains elusive. In a sample of 1,247 STEM professionals who work in teams, we tested preregistered hypotheses that acts of gendered social exclusion are systematically associated with both men’s gender stereotypes (Part 1) and negative workplace outcomes for women (Part 2). Combining social network metrics of inclusion and reaction time measures of implicit stereotypes (the tendency to “think STEM, think men”), this study provides unique empirical evidence of the chilly climate women often report experiencing in STEM. Men with stronger implicit gender stereotypes had fewer social ties to female teammates. In turn, women (but not men) with fewer incoming cross-gender social ties reported worse career fit and engagement. Moderated mediation revealed that for women (but not men), cross-gender social exclusion was linked to more negative workplace outcomes via lower social fit. Effects of social exclusion were distinct from respect. We discuss the possible benefits of fostering positive cross-gender social relationships to promote women’s professional success in STEM.
... Importantly, not all reasons can be easily identified by self-report measures. Subtle factors can also affect the sense of fit to a specific environment (Schmader and Sedikides 2018), eventually affecting residential decisions. In the present research we focused on assessment scores as a factor that might contribute to the gender segregation in medicine. ...
... Moreover, even small signals of lack of fit could affect the motivation of young people from underprivileged groups (e.g. women, ethnic minorities) from further pursuing careers in which they feel that their group is socially devalued (Schmader and Sedikides 2018). ...
Article
Introduction: The field of medicine is characterized by within-field gender segregation: Gender ratios vary systematically by subdisciplines. This segregation might be, in part, due to gender bias in the assessment of women and men medical doctors. Methods: We examined whether the assessments, i.e. overall score, department scores and skills scores, interns receive by their superiors during their internship year, vary as a function of their gender and the representation of women in the field. We analyzed an archival data set from a large hospital in Israel which included 3326 assessments that were given to all interns who completed their internship year between 2015 and 2019. Results: Women received lower department scores and skills scores in fields with a low (versus high) representation of women. Men received higher scores in fields with a high (versus low) representation of men, yet there was no difference in their skills scores. Conclusions: Women are evaluated more negatively in fields with a low representation of women doctors. Similarly, men are evaluated more negatively in fields with a low representation of men, yet this cannot be explained by their skills. This pattern of results might point to a gender bias in assessments. A better understanding of these differences is important as assessments affect interns' career choices and options.
... Social identity theory insists on the shaping effect of identity on behavior (Fujita et al., 2018). In other words, social identity plays an important role in the research of sustainable development (Schmader and Sedikides, 2018). Many studies encourage to regard consumer identity as an important factor affecting stable consumption (Schmader and Sedikides, 2018). ...
... In other words, social identity plays an important role in the research of sustainable development (Schmader and Sedikides, 2018). Many studies encourage to regard consumer identity as an important factor affecting stable consumption (Schmader and Sedikides, 2018). The sense of integration brought by social identity can promote consumers to further change their behavior and desire to obtain respect and support through their behavior (Wang, 2017). ...
Article
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The prosperous development of online education in the digital age harvested countless consumers. Education for sustainable development is an important proposition for both academic community and practitioner, however, current little studies have shed light on Sustainable Consumption Behavior in online education industry (SCBOEI). The Consumer Value Theory and Social Identity Theory as theoretical basis linked with the field of Sustainable Consumption Behavior. This study is to further investigate the role of consumer value and social identity in the relation to Sustainable Consumption Behavior. Putting forward suggestions from this study to online education providers toward sustainable development. Method Data on the impact of personal value on SCBOEI through a survey method with 552 valid students as respondents are collected from higher education institutions in China. A structural equation modeling approach is employed in this study for data analysis. Results The result shows at the level of excellent model fit as indicated by all indicators: X ² /DF = 1.053 (<3), RMSEA = 0.010 (<0.08), CFI = 0.991, GFI = 0.971, TLI = 0.989, AGF = 0.961 (>0.9). The results showed that, through social identity, functional value (indirect effect = 0086, P < 0.001), emotional value (indirect effect = 0061, P < 0.001), and social value (indirect effect = 0.073, P < 0.001) influence the variance of SCBOEI. The finding reveals that both theories can explain the SCBOEI of higher education students by showing that functional, social, and emotional values as well as social identity are powerful predictors of the Sustainable Consumption Behavior. The proposed model highlights the mediating role of social identity between SCBOEI and the three values. The functional, emotional, and social values influence SCBOEI directly and through social identity. Implications The study significantly contributes to market promotion, college students, education planning, and teaching. Online education market personnel and college students can better understand the significance of sustainable development aspect of online education. Teaching and learning activities help lead students to SCBOEI by shaping their values and identities while paying more attention to quality education, knowledge sharing, and social equality.
... On the theoretical side, affective judgment in spatial context is part of an emerging line of inquiry in social psychology about how locations, places or the larger spatial context influence both judgment and behavior (see the "Psychology of places" EASP symposium, 2021; Blaison, 2021). Fellow researchers study how space-focused stereotypes develop (Bonam et al., 2017), how stable contexts like cities or nations shape individual implicit prejudice (Payne et al., 2017), how regional disparities in racial bias influence discrimination (Hehman et al., 2017;Riddle & Sinclair, 2019), how features of places shape expectations about inhabitants (Wnuk et al., 2021), or how the fit between one's social identity and the environment shapes approach and avoidance behavior (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018), etc. ...
Article
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This article reviews our experimental work about affective judgment in spatial context. This type of judgment serves to regulate one's distance toward people and things in physical space. The main idea is that orienting within physical space requires not only knowing where places are but also how places feel. This, in turn, depends on the influence of people and things contained in space on one's affective appraisal of the surroundings. Based on fundamental principles of social cognition, affective judgment in spatial context combines people's beliefs about how influence unfolds into the surroundings with comparison, categorization and information integration processes. Out comes a subjective affective representation of physical space that is cognitively coherent within a given spatial frame of reference. I review our work according to main topics and discuss four possible directions for future research.
... We assume that applicants are likely to expect recruiting entrepreneurs to show leadership behaviors that fit such an 'entrepreneurial leadership' style (Dean & Ford, 2017;Newman, Neesham et al., 2018;Renko et al., 2015), which is specifically appropriate for the new venture context. Due to the relation between stereotype congruence and authenticity perceptions, as explained above, entrepreneurs are likely to be perceived more authentic when they fit the expectation of showing entrepreneurial leadership behaviors (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). Being perceived to be an authentic leader is important for entrepreneurs for several reasons. ...
Article
Given the challenges of new ventures to attract applicants, this paper focuses on the influence of applicants’ perceptions of entrepreneurs for new venture recruitment. Based on role congruity theory, we propose that organizational attractiveness increases when entrepreneurs show entrepreneurial leadership, which fits the new venture context, and that this effect is mediated by perceived authenticity. Moreover, we propose this effect is particularly pertinent when entrepreneurs are young and male and thus fit the prevailing demographic stereotype of entrepreneurs. In our experiment (n = 503), we found the positive effect of showing entrepreneurial leadership on organizational attractiveness via authenticity perceptions, and this effect was stronger if the entrepreneur was young – the entrepreneur’s gender did not moderate the relationship. We discuss the implications of our study for research and practice in recruitment and entrepreneurship.
... Such monitoring would serve as an important self-regulatory mechanism to attain higher fit which would, in turn, entail higher intra-and inter-personal adjustment and social integration (Rauthmann, 2021). Moreover, as P-E fitting depends on the opportunities and limitations in macro-contexts, such as geographical regions, societies, cultures, countries, or nations, the striving for P-E fit can also have implications for social and national identity (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018) and international mobility (Oishi, 2017). An individual who does not see opportunities for individual development, identity formation, and social integration may intend to move. ...
Article
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Based on a perspective on personality coherence as the extent to which personality-relevant characteristics are differentiated and integrated within a person in his or her environment, we propose a synthesis that builds on and harmonizes existing and partly conflicting theories, methodological approaches, and empirical findings. This understanding of personality coherence needs clear definitions of person and environment characteristics. We define traits as characteristics of the person, adaptations as characteristics of the person-in-contexts, and states as characteristics of the person-in-situations. Thus, our synthesis involves concepts of environments and person-environment units. Next, we provide testable criteria to differentiate characteristics of persons from characteristics of person-environment units and to identify dispositional traits for a narrow-sense perspective on personality coherence. We raise awareness of the importance of fit between (profiles of) person and environment characteristics for an understanding of the integrated uniqueness of persons in their environments. We outline implications of this broader perspective on personality coherence for personality development, self-regulation, social integration, well-being, and psychological interventions. Lastly, we conclude that the analysis of an individual’s uniqueness and personality differences requires information about how well-defined, well-differentiated, well-integrated, and well-operationalized person(ality) variables are actually expressed in, or interact and transact with, the individual environment.
... Such monitoring would serve as an important self-regulatory mechanism to attain higher fit which would, in turn, entail higher intra-and inter-personal adjustment and social integration (Rauthmann, 2021). Moreover, as P-E fitting depends on the opportunities and limitations in macro-contexts, such as geographical regions, societies, cultures, countries, or nations, the striving for P-E fit can also have implications for social and national identity (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018) and international mobility (Oishi, 2017). An individual who does not see opportunities for individual development, identity formation, and social integration may intend to move. ...
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Based on a perspective on personality coherence as the extent to which personality-relevant characteristics are differentiated and integrated within a person in his or her environment, we propose a synthesis that builds on and harmonizes existing and partly conflicting theories, methodological approaches, and empirical findings. This understanding of personality coherence needs clear definitions of person and environment characteristics. We define traits as characteristics of the person, adaptations as characteristics of the person-in-contexts, and states as characteristics of the person-in-situations. Thus, our synthesis involves concepts of environments and person-environment units. Next, we provide testable criteria to differentiate characteristics of persons from characteristics of person-environment units and to identify dispositional traits for a narrow-sense perspective on personality coherence. We raise awareness of the importance of fit between (profiles of) person and environment characteristics for an understanding of the integrated uniqueness of persons in their environments. We outline implications of this broader perspective on personality coherence for personality development, self-regulation, social integration, well-being, and psychological interventions. Lastly, we conclude that the analysis of an individual’s uniqueness and personality differences requires information about how well-defined, well-differentiated, well-integrated, and well-operationalized person(ality) variables are actually expressed in, or interact and transact with, the individual environment.
... Perhaps unsurprisingly, students from negatively stereotyped groups tend to report lower levels of confidence and sense of belonging in science, compared to their non-stereotyped counterparts (Walton & Cohen 2007, Rainey et al. 2018, Gopalan & Brady 2020. Negative affective experiences can have an adverse impact on participation, performance, and persistence (Cohen & Garcia 2008, Schmader & Sedikides 2018. In particular, a low sense of belonging can affect how students interpret and respond to adversity (Wheeler & Petty 2001, Cohen & Garcia 2008. ...
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Doubts about belonging in the classroom are often shouldered disproportionately by students from historically marginalized groups, which can lead to underperformance. Ecological-belonging interventions use a classroom-based activity to instill norms that adversity is normal, temporary and surmountable. Building on prior studies, we sought to identify the conditions under which such interventions are effective. In a chemistry course (Study 1), students from underrepresented ethnic backgrounds underperformed relative to their peers in the absence of the intervention. This performance gap was eliminated by the intervention. In an introductory biology course (Study 2), there were no large performance gaps in the absence of the intervention, and the intervention had no effect. Study 2 also explored the role of the instructor that delivers the intervention. The intervention boosted scores in classrooms of instructors with a fixed (versus growth-oriented) intelligence mindset. Our results suggest that ecological-belonging interventions are more effective in more threatening classroom contexts.
... The stigma and shame with which participants had to contend stand in opposition to the authenticity they sought. Authenticity -the subjective sense of being one's true self (Lenton et al., 2013) -is an important psychological state and trait; it is associated with greater wellbeing, physical health, and meaning in one's life (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). Clinical practitioners have noted the ways that stressful and stigmatizing experiences like contending with sexist forms of ageism sometimes function as a kind of crucible that produces satisfying subjective feelings of achieved authenticity in later life (Pipher, 2019). ...
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Aging women frequently use hair dye to disguise their age in order to avoid being stigmatized as “old”. Recently, however, some have chosen naturally gray hair. Informed by Goffman’s theory of stigma, we investigated why they would do so in the face of age-discrimination, and their experiences of the process. We identified two major, oppositional themes, competence and authenticity. Despite wanting to avoid perceptions of old-thus-incompetent, women risked gray hair in order to feel authentic. However, they employed other beauty practices to mitigate the effects of gray hair, indicating conflict between a (subjectively) authentic appearance and societal perceptions of competence.
... Developing such scales is useful, however, such quantifiable means of attempting to standardise common factors within authenticity omit the rich nuanced associations and emotions that vary inter-personally and even intra-personally dependant on context and situations one finds themselves in. Schmader and Sedikides (2018) argue that we need to move away from assessing authenticity's list of deemed set behaviours, importance and benefits (the 'what'), which has been the primary focus of empirical studies to date, and move towards looking at this phenomenon from a more dynamic experiential angle (the 'how'), progressing our knowledge of the same. One challenge with studying a complex phenomenon such as authenticity from a lived experience perspective, however, is that researchers need to rely on participants' ability to articulate their internal states associated with the construct into verbal form. ...
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This qualitative study aims to explore practising coaches’ perceptions and lived experiences of authenticity – deemed by participants as instrumental and non-negotiable - in their coaching practice. The data came from three coaches working in Europe (UK, Ireland and Switzerland) within a breadth of coaching specialisms, via semi-structured interviews employing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) as the key methodology. Findings developed into three main themes: the acknowledgement of freedom needed (and processes associated with this) to be whole true selves with their coachees in every interaction; the meaning they assign to professional growth and self-discovery during times of challenging, but still authentic moments; and the recognition of the coaching practice itself (the two-way relationship with their clients) as the platform for coaches to feel authentic. The research develops new insights into authenticity as a psychological construct from a qualitative perspective, contributing to our existing understanding of this topic but more specifically within the coaching field – a gap that is apparent in current literature. Limitations of the study are acknowledged and suggestions for further research are proposed.
... We therefore advance thinking surrounding the relationship between authenticity and environmental perceptions, evaluating moderating effects above beyond typically-explored direct environmental effects (e.g. Fletcher & Marvell, 2022;Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). ...
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Although workplace authenticity has gained interest by researchers and the popular press, the construct's conceptualization as enacting only positive effects as informed by self‐verification theory may not represent the experiences of workers of marginalized identities. Acknowledging that individuals deciding to disclose a stigmatized identity at work face potential prejudice, we investigated whether the benefits of authentic expression on employees' organizational commitment and job involvement depend on psychological safety. Via a time‐lagged survey of sexual‐minority employees, we found evidence for a model explicating the conditional indirect effects of identity disclosure and authenticity on outcomes, as moderated by perceived workgroup psychological safety. Such findings theoretically challenge the literature's present assumption of authenticity's uniform benefits via exploration of important contextual boundary conditions. Practically, this research underscores the need for psychologically safe work environments, encouraging employers to maximize psychological safety where possible to see the full benefit of employees' workplace authenticity.
... First, this research indicates that the less favorable evaluations of men's childcare competence likely disadvantage men interested in childcare work. As nurseries are often set-up with the understanding that the workers are women, they create a work environment for women to thrive in-to the exclusion of men (Aday & Schmader, 2019;Peeters, 2007;Schmader & Sedikides, 2017). The strong association of "maternal instincts" with good childcare circumvents men's inclusion, neglecting the fact that professional childcare not only requires female-typed communal qualities (e.g., concern for others, integrity) but also male-typed agentic qualities (e.g., independence, showing initiative; National ...
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Men are widely underrepresented in early childhood education and care worldwide. Professional childcare is often believed to require communal qualities typically associated with the female gender role, like being sensitive to others' needs. Men's underrepresentation in childcare work likely occurs as a result of the perceived incongruity between communal qualities required for childcare work and agentic qualities associated with men and the male gender role. Using a between-subjects design, this research examined how personality traits (communal vs. agentic) of people interested in early childcare and their gender (woman vs. man) affect evaluations of their suitability for childcare work. This online experiment further investigated the potential underlying mechanisms—ascribed childcare competence and perceived risk of perpetrating child abuse—and tested whether these explanations contribute to men's less favorable evaluations. Results showed that participants (N = 242) evaluated the communal candidate as more suitable for childcare work than the agentic candidate, and the male candidate as less suitable than the female candidate. Structural equation modeling showed that lower ascribed childcare competence, but not greater perceived risk of perpetrating sexual or physical child abuse, contributed to men's lower perceived suitability. This research provides support for the reasoning that persisting gender stereotypes can hinder men's entry into childcare work, as people discount men's competence and ability to care for children. Moreover, this research suggests that incongruity theories are also valid in the context of men pursuing traditionally female-dominated communal roles. Practical implications are discussed in relation to strategies for increasing gender diversity in childcare work.
... The present investigation explored the relationships among autobiographical recall, authenticity, and self-esteem, as self-esteem has been shown to be an important factor in healthy psychological adjustment (Kernis, 2005). Schmader and Sedikides (2018) suggest that authenticity may be conceptualized as a measure of the fit between one's identity and environment. As such, when people feel that important aspects of the self are valued within a given situation, perceptions of authenticity should increase. ...
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The current investigation examined how experiencing a shared reality during the social reconstruction of the past might relate to communicators’ perceived authenticity and self-esteem. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to describe an autobiographical memory to an audience who had either a positive or negative attitude toward the memory topic. Participants then reported perceptions of shared reality, authenticity, and self-esteem. Across both experiments, experiencing a shared reality with an audience who held a positive attitude was associated with greater self-perceived authenticity and self-esteem, whereas experiencing a shared reality with an audience who held a negative attitude was associated with lower ratings of authenticity and lower self-esteem. The effect of shared reality on self-esteem was mediated by perceptions of authenticity.
... Identical to subsequent studies 2 and 3, we added gender, age, weekly working hours, and leadership position as controls (i.e., as covariates of predictors and as predictors of AAW and OSA). Authenticity and self-actualization are about our self and therefore about our (social) identity (Cha et al., 2019;Schmader & Sedikides, 2018;Wessel et al., 2020). We included gender (0 = male, 1 = female) and age (continuous) as controls because they are essential aspects of our identity and because some prior studies found it correlated to authenticity (e.g., Simpson & Stroh, 2004; and self-actualization (e.g., Schwepker et al., 2021;Zeng et al., 2021). ...
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Authenticity at work (AAW) is an important work-related state. Little is known about how other work-related resources can promote AAW and the link between AAW and organizational self-actualization (OSA). In three studies, we drew on conservation of resource theory to determine whether AAW serves as a mediator between three distinct work-related resources (i.e., social support at work, job autonomy, authentic leadership) and OSA. Studies 1 and 2 used a cross-sectional design (Ns = 209; 597), and study 3 used a two-wave longitudinal design (N = 143) to evaluate data from employees. While studies 1 and 2 supported a positive, indirect relation between job autonomy, social support at work, and OSA via AAW, study 3 and additional post hoc findings challenged these results. Alternatively, a reciprocal, cross-lagged effect of OSA on AAW is plausible. Lagged effects from work-related resources to AAW or OSA were not supported in study 3. Authentic leadership (AL) was not related to OSA via AAW. Instead, post hoc analysis suggested two serially mediated links between AL and OSA. All three studies confirmed the proposed factor structures of AAW and OSA. The findings extend both our knowledge regarding the concepts of AAW and OSA and the promotion of AAW and its relation to OSA. We discuss the dynamics of work-related resources, AAW, and OSA and conclude with implications for future research, organizations, leaders, and employees.
... Die daraus resultierende Erfahrung von Authentizität oder auch das Leiden am Ausbleiben dieser Erfahrung sollten nicht als «Fehldeutung» (Hastedt K ((11))) und damit als Selbstmissverständnis disqualifiziert werden. Den «faktischen Menschen» (Kaufmann W ((11))) und ihrem Bemühen um ein gelingendes Leben würde dies jedenfalls nicht gerecht (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). ...
... In the present data, we could use the Big Five, Block's ego concepts (i.e., ego-resiliency, ego-control), narcissism, and well-being (including different facets of psychological well-being, subjective happiness, and depression). Several frameworks and theories posit beneficial effects of person-environment fit (e.g., Edwards & Shipp, 2007: Fulmer et al., 2010Rentfrow et al., 2008;Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). Further, empirically there is reason to believe that fitting to one's environment may be related to higher well-being (Götz et al., 2018;Roberts & Robins, 2004; for evidence regarding variable-oriented fit concerning only specific variables, see, e.g., Bleidorn et al., 2016;Jokela et al., 2015). ...
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Person-situation fit can be operationalized as within-person associations between profiles of personality traits and situation characteristics (trait-situation fit) as well as personality states and situation characteristics (state-situation fit). We provide an initial examination of basic properties (magnitudes, individual differences, reliabilities, intercorrelations), short-term stability (across weeks), and nomological correlates of overall and distinctive profile-level person-situation fits. In a real-life, multi-method multi-occasion design (N = 204-209), we obtained data on participants’ traits (self- and informant-reported) as well as, at four time-points from their everyday lives, on situation characteristics (self- and coder-reported) and states (self-reported). Profile scores (q-correlations) were computed across 35 cognate items between the CAQ (traits), RSQ (situations), and RBQ (states). Our descriptive and exploratory findings indicated that trait-situation and state-situation fits were sizable (overall more so than distinctive forms), and that there were substantial individual differences, which were only modestly stable during a short period and had some plausible nomological correlates (i.e., lower depression and neuroticism, but higher psychological well-being and happiness) that were driven mainly by normativity. Most findings replicated across measurement sources (self- vs. other-reports). Person-situation fit concepts, once further corroborated, could further personality-psychological research.
... Acculturation. Immigrants (but also sojourners and international students) are faced with challenges both at the social structural level (e.g., immigration policy) and the social interaction level (e.g., attitudes, behaviors; Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). They are largely perceived as a threat to host societies (Stephan & Stephan, 2000), with the threat being either symbolic (i.e., altering or diluting the national identity) or material (e.g., causing economic disadvantage; Esses et al., 2001). ...
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, has been garnering keen empirical attention in the psychological literature over the last two decades. After providing a historical overview, we place the emotion in cross-cultural context. Laypeople in many cultures conceptualize nostalgia similarly: as a past-oriented, social, self-relevant, and bittersweet emotion, but more sweet (positively toned) than bitter (negatively toned). That is, the nostalgizer reflects on a fond and personally important event—often their childhood or valued relationships—relives the event through rose-colored glasses, yearns for that time or relationship, and may even wish to return briefly to the past. Also, triggers of nostalgia (e.g., adverts, food, cold temperatures, loneliness) are similar across cultures. Moreover, across cultures nostalgia serves three key functions: it elevates social connectedness (a sense of belongingness or acceptance), meaning in life (a sense that one's life is significant, purposeful, and coherent), and self-continuity (a sense of connection between one's past and present self). Further, nostalgia acts as a buffer against discomforting psychological states (e.g., loneliness) similarly in varied cultural contexts. For example, (1) loneliness is positively related to, or intensifies, nostalgia; (2) loneliness is related to, or intensifies, adverse outcomes such as unhappiness or perceived lack of social support; and (3) nostalgia suppresses the relation between loneliness and adverse outcomes. Additionally, nostalgia facilitates one's acculturation to a host culture. Specifically, (1) nostalgia (vs. control) elicits a positive acculturation orientation toward a host culture; (2) nostalgia (vs. control) amplifies bicultural identity integration; and (3) positive acculturation orientation mediates the effect of host-culture nostalgia on bicultural identity integration. We conclude by identifying lacunae in the literature and calling for follow-up research.
... Most commonly authenticity has been related to being true to the core self (Kernis, 2003), Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org the true self (Kernis and Goldman, 2006;Schmader and Sedikides, 2018) or the real self (Hewlin et al., 2020;Sutton, 2020). Perspectives of being true to a whole self (Glavas, 2016), the spiritual self (Kiesling et al., 2006), ideal self (Vainio and Daukantaitė, 2016) or being true to one's best-self (Roberts et al., 2005;Cable et al., 2013;Goodwin, 2019) have also been used to define authenticity. ...
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Law enforcement poses a difficult work environment. Employees’ wellbeing is uniquely taxed in coping with daily violent, aggressive and hostile encounters. These challenges are compounded for women, because law enforcement remains to be a male-dominated occupational context. Yet, many women in law enforcement display resilience and succeed in maintaining a satisfying career. This study explores the experience of being authentic from a best-self perspective, for women with successful careers in the South African police and traffic law enforcement services. Authenticity research substantiates a clear link between feeling authentic and experiencing psychological wellbeing. The theoretical assumption on which the study is based holds that being authentic relates to a sense of best-self and enables constructive coping and adjustment in a challenging work environment. A qualitative study was conducted on a purposive sample of 12 women, comprising 6 police officers and 6 traffic officers from the Western Cape province in South Africa. Data were gathered through narrative interviews focussing on experiences of best-self and were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. During the interviews, participants predominantly described feeling authentic in response to work-related events of a conflictual and challenging nature. Four themes were constructed from the data to describe authenticity from a best-self perspective for women in the study. These themes denote that the participating women in law enforcement, express feeling authentic when they present with a mature sense of self, feel spiritually congruent and grounded, experience self-actualisation in the work–role and realign to a positive way of being. Women should be empowered towards authenticity in their world of work, by helping them to acquire the best-self characteristics needed for developing authenticity.
... Die daraus resultierende Erfahrung von Authentizität oder auch das Leiden am Ausbleiben dieser Erfahrung sollten nicht als «Fehldeutung» (Hastedt K ((11))) und damit als Selbstmissverständnis disqualifiziert werden. Den «faktischen Menschen» (Kaufmann W ((11))) und ihrem Bemühen um ein gelingendes Leben würde dies jedenfalls nicht gerecht (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). ...
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Kommentar zum Beitrag von Heiner Hastedts "Bildung begünstigt Toleranz und Toleranz erleichtert Bildung". In: itdb inter- und transdisziplinäre Bildung / inter- and transdisciplinary education / éducation inter- et transdisciplinaire
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The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of cyberostracism on state authenticity. For this purpose, I conducted two experimental studies using the Cyberball paradigm. The research revealed that ostracism activated using the Cyberball procedure decreased both in-game and post-game authenticity, though in the latter case the effect was clearly weaker and associated mainly with the affective aspects of authenticity. Moreover, Study 1 (N = 87, 65.5% women, Mage = 21.37 years, SDage = 1.55) showed that basic need satisfaction mediated the effect of cyberostracism on state authenticity, while Study 2 (N = 184, 66.8% women, Mage = 21.53 years, SDage = 1.54) revealed that rejection anxiety moderated the effects of cyberostracism on most measures of post-game authenticity. These findings are consistent both with the results of previous studies showing the detrimental impact of social rejection on different aspects of the self and with the recent conceptualizations of authenticity highlighting its interpersonal sources.
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Is “be yourself” always the best advice? We suggest that interpersonal consequences of behaving authentically depend on the extent to which individuals identify with the social environment where they behave authentically. Bridging the research on authenticity, social identity, and conflict, we propose that for high identifiers, authentic behavior reveals how similar they are to others, thereby reducing dyadic relationship conflict. When social identification is low, behaving authentically increases the salience of how different the individual is from others, increasing relationship conflict. In a multi-source time-lag sample of professional work teams (Study 1), we found that authentic behavior indeed reduced relationship conflict and enhanced task performance for high identifiers, but had an inverse, detrimental effect for low identifiers. In a sample of student teams (Study 2), we only found an attenuating effect of authentic behavior on relationship conflict for high identifiers, and no effect for low identifiers. These results suggest that the advice “to be yourself” applies in educational contexts involving younger adults, but has to be prescribed with care in professional work contexts. Our findings emphasize the importance of social context for the consequences of authentic behavior and call for more research on the contextual effects of authenticity.
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Authenticity predicts greater presence of meaning in life, in general (between-persons) and in the moment (within-persons). However, little is known about whether authenticity predicts negative aspects of life meaning, such as struggles with ultimate meaning. Across three studies (total N = 719), two of which used daily diaries (daily reports = 1,980), correlations, confirmatory factor analyses, and multilevel path models together showed that higher levels of authenticity related positively to presence of meaning and negatively to struggle with ultimate meaning at the between- and within-person levels. These findings are consistent with humanistic, existential, and positive psychology theories of authenticity and meaning and raise the possibility that increasing authenticity states over time may predict sustained improvement in multiple aspects of meaning.
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This research examined the association between awareness of societal emphasis on physical appearance and people’s career aspiration and the process that linked the two. Specifically, we proposed that perceived societal emphasis on physical attractiveness would decrease women’s career aspiration through decreased authenticity and perceived opportunity. A total of 349 college students (227 females) participated in the study. The results revealed that awareness of societal emphasis on physical attractiveness negatively predicted women’s authenticity, and authenticity positively predicted perception of opportunity, which in turn predicted their career aspiration. However, this serial mediational model was not found in men. These findings suggest that socially prioritization of attractiveness can undermine women’s strive for occupational prospects and add to a better understanding of women’s growth and development.
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Research demonstrates that people utilize both reasoning and feeling in decision making and that both strategies can be advantageous. However, little is known about how people perceive their decision making relative to others. Despite research findings and popular appeals supporting the use of affective decision processes, across a series of studies, we find that individuals believe they rely more on reasoning, and less on feelings, than others. These effects are driven by the motivation to self‐enhance where, in most contexts, individuals believe the use of reasoning is superior, and self‐enhancing, compared to the use of feelings. Consistent with this mechanism, beliefs that one’s decisions are more rational than others’ are: (a) stronger for those who exhibit greater beliefs in the superiority of reasoning (vs. feeling), (b) attenuated when the decision context precludes motivational thinking about the self or the self is affirmed, and (c) reversed when the use of feelings is perceived as more self‐enhancing. We demonstrate downstream consequences (e.g., decision delegation), rule out alternative explanations, and discuss practical implications of these lay beliefs.
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Individuals may engage in immoral behavior to achieve the ends they desire. Two studies (total N = 1257) investigated whether the impact of such goal-directed immoral behavior on self-perceived authenticity would vary according to different goal states. Study 1 employed an experimental task whereas Study 2 surveyed participants on their personal goal pursuit. In both studies, we found that the association between immoral behavior and self-perceived authenticity was stronger after than prior to goal completion. Our findings corroborate the goal competition perspective on authenticity, and suggest avenues for future research on state authenticity and the dynamic consequences of immoral behavior.
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There is a critical disconnect between scientific knowledge about the nature of bias and how this knowledge gets translated into organizational debiasing efforts. Conceptual confusion around what implicit bias is contributes to misunderstanding. Bridging these gaps is the key to understanding when and why antibias interventions will succeed or fail. Notably, there are multiple distinct pathways to biased behavior, each of which requires different types of interventions. To bridge the gap between public understanding and psychological research, we introduce a visual typology of bias that summarizes the process by which group-relevant cognitions are expressed as biased behavior. Our typology spotlights cognitive, motivational, and situational variables that affect the expression and inhibition of biases while aiming to reduce the ambiguity of what constitutes implicit bias. We also address how norms modulate how biases unfold and are perceived by targets. Using this typology as a framework, we identify theoretically distinct entry points for antibias interventions. A key insight is that changing associations, increasing motivation, raising awareness, and changing norms are distinct goals that require different types of interventions targeting individual, interpersonal, and institutional structures. We close with recommendations for antibias training grounded in the science of prejudice and stereotyping.
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By definition, authentic people presumably do not fall prey to the self‐evaluation biases which pervade human social cognition yet a close look at the existing literature suggests this presumption is ill‐founded. For example, only a few studies have examined whether people feel more authentic when they make decisions which express their true selves in the face of social pressure. In contrast to theories of authenticity, studies find that feelings of authenticity are either unrelated or unexpectedly decreased in relation to decisions which draw on the true self. Furthermore, behavioral and neural research do not consistently find that feelings of authenticity arise in the absence of self‐serving biases. We propose that we know a lot less about the thoughts of an authentic person than is widely believed and some of the core assumptions may be wrong. We posit specific methodological considerations and research questions which need to be addressed before it will be possible to conclude whether core assumptions about social cognition and authenticity have robust empirical support (or need to be revised). A research program which illuminates the relation between social cognition and authenticity will be helpful for understanding the manner in which a person's thoughts contribute to the experience of authenticity and its benefits.
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In male-dominated STEM fields, workplace culture is often cited as a factor for women’s attrition. In the present research, we used longitudinal field data to examine how changes in the perceived normative support for gender-inclusive policies and practices over 6 months relate to changes in women’s and men’s experiences of fit and commitment to their organization. Longitudinal analyses of survey data from a sample of 181 engineers revealed that increased perceptions of support for gender-inclusive policies and practices predicted increased organizational commitment only among women, an effect that was mediated by an increase in organizational value fit. Additional analyses suggest that perceptions of change in normative attitudes toward inclusive policies were more predictive of women’s organizational commitment than the awareness that the policies were in place or that one has personally benefitted from them. The implications of an inclusive workplace culture for supporting women’s retention in STEM are discussed.
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Objective Although past research has shown the negative consequences of state inauthenticity (i.e., the experience of inauthenticity), what triggers state inauthenticity remains to be better understood. We focus on leader Machiavellianism (Mach), defined as the extent to which leaders engage in unethical and manipulative behaviors to attain their goals, as a predictor of follower state inauthenticity. Drawing on the social misfit argument, we examined a model in which leader Mach, jointly with perceived collectivistic work climate, determines follower state inauthenticity and subsequent work withdrawal. Method We used a vignette-based lab study (303 participants from the United States) and a daily diary field study (476 daily response from 69 participants recruited from China). Results Across two studies, we found that follower state inauthenticity mediated the relationship between leader Mach and follower work withdrawal. The positive relationship between leader Mach and follower state inauthenticity was strengthened by perceived collectivistic work climate. Conclusions The present research underlines the importance of the social environment in influencing follower state inauthenticity at work and shifts research attention from the consequences of state inauthenticity to its predictors.
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Introduction Women continue to be underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and research suggests that academic-gender stereotypes can be a contributing factor. In the present research, we examined whether adolescent daughters' and their parents' gender stereotypes about math and liberal arts would predict the academic orientation of daughters at a critical time of career related decision-making. Methods: Participants included girls in late adolescence (N = 185, Mage = 17) and at least one parent (N = 230, Mage = 49), resulting in 147 mother-daughter dyads and 83 father-daughter dyads. Implicit academic-gender stereotypes were measured using an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit stereotypes, academic attitudes, academic ability, and daughters' intentions to pursue a degree in STEM were measured using self-reports. Results: Neither mothers' nor fathers' implicit or explicit academic-gender stereotypes predicted adolescent daughters' implicit stereotypes; however, fathers' explicit stereotypes predicted daughters' explicit stereotypes. In addition, daughters' academic orientation, a latent variable composed of adolescent girls' academic attitudes, academic ability, and intentions to pursue a degree in STEM, was predicted by daughters' own implicit and explicit stereotypes. This was the case for relative orientation toward math versus liberal arts, as well as math (but not liberal arts) orientation. Conclusions: These findings suggest the importance of challenging academic-gender stereotypes during adolescence and suggest that at this stage in development, mothers' and fathers' academic stereotypes might have limited relation to daughters’ own implicit associations with academic domains.
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The political theory focus of this paper is the relevance of corporatism to meet the nationalist backlash against the increasing global interdependence that elites encouraged through neoliberal strategies. The paper analyzes the Trump administration's resistance to international cooperation to counteract the negative externalities creating vulnerability to global crises. It thereby explicates the political assumptions and prescriptions underlying national strategic models of development. Great power competition for power and influence intensifies in an international political system in which the sources of power and influence increasingly depend upon sustainable development. It explores how reactionary populism emerges from perceived threat to core cultural group traditional supremacy within the national polity. This group heretofore set the institutionalized, stereotyped norm standards of individual and constituency behavior and relations. It highlights the foundational path dependency of the American state being reflected in contemporary American white populist status grievances. They utilize the language of conservative evangelical Christian identity to mobilize their social movement political resources. American foundational colonial ideologies in early modern capitalist plantation-based slavery and legacies of de facto casteism are a symbol set. Postwar emerging transnational normative authority centers reflected in international law progressively challenge the utilitarian relevance of these traditional, stereotyped norms and ethics.
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Der vorliegende Beitrag fokussiert das Zugehörigkeitserleben in der Lehrer*innenbildung. Anhand einer Stichprobe von 181 weiblichen und 40 männlichen Studierenden des Lehr-amts Sonderpädagogik untersuchen wir, inwiefern die wahrgenommene Exklusion durch Kommiliton*innen und kompetenzbezogene Selbsteinschätzungen die erlebte Zugehörig-keit zum Studiengang vorhersagen. Da männliche Studierende im Fach Sonderpädagogik mit 16.1 % eine numerische Minderheit in Deutschland darstellen (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2019), prüfen wir zudem explorativ, ob die Prädiktoren für Männer und Frauen von unterschied-lichem Einfluss sind. Unsere Analysen zeigen, dass die erlebte Zugehörigkeit zum Studien-fach Sonderpädagogik von weiblichen Studierenden sinkt, je mehr sie sich bei fachbezogenem und privatem Austausch durch Mitstudierende ausgeschlossen fühlen und je niedriger ihre fachbezogene Selbstwirksamkeit ausgeprägt ist. Für männliche Studierende zeigte sich in Bezug auf die fachbezogene Selbstwirksamkeit als Prädiktor des Zugehörigkeitserlebens hin-gegen, dass sie sich mit steigender Selbstwirksamkeit tendenziell weniger zugehörig fühlten. Während das selbsteingeschätzte fachliche Potential im Vergleich zu Mitstudierenden nicht im Zusammenhang mit der erlebten Zugehörigkeit der weiblichen Studierenden stand, zeigte sich für männliche Studierende, dass sie sich umso weniger zu ihrem Studiengang zugehörig fühlten, je größer sie ihr eigenes Potential im Vergleich zu Mitstudierenden einschätzten.
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Environments that are hostile to one or more marginalized groups are known to have a negative effect on the mental health and well-being of both targets and observers. Anti-fat attitudes have been well documented in medical education, including the use of derogatory humor and discriminatory treatment toward higher-weight patients. However, to date, it is not known what effect observing weight stigma and discrimination during medical school has on medical students’ psychological health and wellbeing, sense of belonging, and medical school burnout. The present study surveyed a total of 3994 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools at the start of their first year and at the end of their fourth year. Participants reported the frequency with which they had observed stigmatizing and discriminatory behaviors targeted at both higher-weight patients and higher-weight students during their four years of medical school. Observed weight stigma was prevalent, and was associated with worse psychological and general health, reduced medical school belonging and increased medical school burnout. The indirect effects of observed weight stigma on medical school burnout, via belonging, psychological health, and general health, were statistically significant in the sample as a whole, but were more pronounced in higher-weight students. This effect may be explained, in part, by the relationship between observed stigma and medical school belonging. Higher levels of observed stigma were associated with reduced feelings of belonging in higher-weight but not normative-weight students. Top-down institutional culture change is needed to rectify this situation, which is detrimental to both students and patients.
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Research suggests that trait introverts feel more authentic when acting extraverted. We explored boundaries of this idea by assessing trait and identities as introvert or extravert and asking participants to debate extraversion’s value. Students (Study 1: N = 310, Study 2 direct replication: N = 407) were randomly assigned to pro or con sides in the debate and then reported their state authenticity and affect. Results suggested interactions between individual differences (trait, identity) and debate condition on authenticity. Counter-dispositional and counter-identity debating decreased authenticity, though with variation in strength across studies. Affect did not follow this pattern. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the importance of trait-related identities and suggest limits to the benefits of embracing counter-dispositional extraversion.
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Research suggests that trait introverts feel more authentic when acting extraverted. We explored boundaries of this idea by assessing trait and identities as introvert or extravert and asking participants to debate extraversion’s value. Students (Study 1: N = 310, Study 2 direct replication: N = 407) were randomly assigned to pro or con sides in the debate and then reported their state authenticity and affect. Results suggested interactions between individual differences (trait, identity) and debate condition on authenticity. Counter-dispositional and counter-identity debating decreased authenticity, though with variation in strength across studies. Affect did not follow this pattern. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the importance of trait-related identities and suggest limits to the benefits of embracing counter-dispositional extraversion.
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Students’ understandings of their socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds have important implications for their motivation, achievement, and the emergence of SES-based educational disparities. Educators’ beliefs about students’ backgrounds likely play a meaningful role in shaping these understandings and, thus, may represent an important opportunity to support students from lower-SES backgrounds. We first experimentally demonstrate that educators can be encouraged to adopt background-specific strengths beliefs—which view students’ lower-SES backgrounds as potential sources of unique and beneficial strengths ( N Study 1 = 125). Subsequently, we find that exposure to educators who communicate background-specific strengths beliefs positively influences the motivation and academic persistence of students, particularly those from lower-SES backgrounds ( N Study 2 = 256; N Study 3 = 276). Furthermore, lower-SES students’ own beliefs about their backgrounds mediated these effects. Altogether, our work contributes to social-psychological theory and practice regarding how key societal contexts can promote equity through identity-based processes.
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Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for one's past, predicts or augments psychological wellbeing (PWB). We hypothesized that it does so—at least in part—via authenticity, a sense of alignment with one's true self. We obtained support for this hypothesis in four studies. Using a measurement-of-mediation design, across a Western (United States) and East-Asian (China) culture, we found that nostalgia is associated with both authenticity and PWB, and that the nostalgia-PWB link is mediated by authenticity (Study 1, N = 611). Using an experimental-causal-chain design, we showed that nostalgia increases authenticity across U.S. and Chinese samples (Study 2, N = 777). We then demonstrated that authenticity increases PWB on a domain-general measure (Study 3, N = 596, U.S. sample). Finally, we clarified that the benefits authenticity confers on PWB are domain general rather than domain specific (Study 4, N = 414, U.K. sample). This research represents the first attempt to address systematically the path from nostalgia to PWB via authenticity. We discuss implications for the broader literature.
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The authors examined how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance. Men outperformed women when the negotiation was perceived as diagnostic of ability (Experiment 1) or the negotiation was linked to gender-specific traits (Experiment 2), suggesting the threat of negative stereotype confirmation hurt women's performance relative to men. The authors hypothesized that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly, but when stereotypes are explicitly activated, people exhibit stereotype reactance, or the tendency to behave in a manner inconsistent with a stereotype. Experiment 3 confirmed this hypothesis. In Experiment 4, the authors examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).
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A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and identify features that distinguish people's understanding of the true self from their understanding of the self more generally. In particular, we consider recent findings that the true self is perceived as positive and moral and that this tendency is actor-observer invariant and cross-culturally stable. We then explore possible explanations for these findings and discuss their implications for a variety of issues in psychology.
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Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students (n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women's belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college-the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women's success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time.
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IN PRESS: State authenticity is the sense that one is currently in alignment with one’s true or real self. We discuss state authenticity as seen by independent raters, describe its phenomenology, outline its triggers, consider its well-being and behavioral implications, and sketch out a cross-disciplinary research agenda.
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Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record
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We provide a novel approach to understanding the political ambition gap between men and women by examining perceptions of the role of politician. Across three studies, we find that political careers are viewed as fulfilling power-related goals, such as self-promotion and competition. We connect these goals to a tolerance for interpersonal conflict and both of these factors to political ambition. Women's lack of interest in conflict and power-related activities mediates the relationship between gender and political ambition. In an experiment, we show that framing a political career as fulfilling communal goals—and not power-related goals—reduces the ambition gap.
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Social identity threat has been proposed as a key contributor to the underrepresentation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM), but little research has sought to pinpoint naturally occurring contextual predictors of identity threat for women already training or working in STEM. The focus of the present research was to examine how cues to an identity-safe culture predict more or less positive interactions between men and women in STEM in ways that may trigger or minimize women’s daily experience of social identity threat. Specifically, we examined the role of inclusive organizational policies and/or greater female representation as 2 identity safety cues. In 2 daily diary studies of working engineers’ experiences, and in an experiment with undergraduate engineering students, we tested a model whereby cues to identity safety predict lower social identity threat for women in STEM, as mediated by having (or expecting to have) more positive interactions with male (but not female) colleagues. Results across each study and an internal meta-analysis of overall effects revealed that female engineers’ actual and anticipated daily experience of social identity threat was lower in organizations perceived to have more gender-inclusive policies (but was not consistently predicted by gender representation). The link between gender-inclusive policies and lower social identity threat was mediated by women having (or expecting to have) more positive conversations with male (and not female) colleagues, and was only found for women and not men. The implications for reducing social identity threat in naturalistic settings are discussed.
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Group status and status legitimacy were tested as moderators of devaluing in response to threatening intergroup comparisons. In 3 experiments, participants received feedback comparing their in-group (based on school or gender) to a higher or lower status out-group. When the legitimacy of group status differences was assumed (Studies 1 and 2) or manipulated (Study 3), participants devalued the domain when their in-group compared unfavorably with a lower status out-group but did not devalue the domain when their in-group compared unfavorably with a higher status out-group. In Study 3, this status value asymmetry was eliminated when status differences were delegitimized. Mediational analyses suggested that the status value asymmetry was explained by the perceived utility of the domain for gaining status-relevant rewards.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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The goal congruity perspective suggests that students may not enter engineering, in part, because they believe engineering is unlikely to fulfill communal, other-oriented goals. Increasing beliefs that engineering fulfills communal goals can increase engineering interest. We examine how actual and expected communal experiences in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) shape engineering interest. Study 1 demonstrates that past communal STEM experiences predict greater beliefs that engineering fulfills communal goals and positive engineering attitudes. Using experimental methods, studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that including a service-learning project in an engineering course description increases beliefs that the course fulfills communal goals and course interest. These findings suggest that communal STEM experiences, and service learning in particular, can increase interest and participation in engineering.
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Adolescents have a strong desire to “be themselves.” How does experiencing authenticity—the sense of being one’s true self—influence subjective well-being? What allows adolescents to experience authenticity? This research tests a working model of how authenticity is implicated in adolescents’ well-being. Using survey, diary, and experimental methodologies, four studies (total N=759, age-range=12-17) supported the main tenets of the model. Authenticity (1) enhances well-being, (2) co-varies with satisfaction of psychological needs for relatedness and competence, and is caused by satisfaction of the need for autonomy, and (3) mediates the link between need satisfaction and well-being. Authenticity is more than a powerful motive: It has robust, replicable effects on well-being, and may thus be a pervasive force in positive youth development.
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Women obtain more than half of U.S. undergraduate degrees in biology, chemistry, and mathematics, yet they earn less than 20% of computer science, engineering, and physics undergraduate degrees (National Science Foundation, 2014a). Gender differences in interest in computer science, engineering, and physics appear even before college. Why are women represented in some science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields more than others? We conduct a critical review of the most commonly cited factors explaining gender disparities in STEM participation and investigate whether these factors explain differential gender participation across STEM fields. Math performance and discrimination influence who enters STEM, but there is little evidence to date that these factors explain why women’s underrepresentation is relatively worse in some STEM fields. We introduce a model with three overarching factors to explain the larger gender gaps in participation in computer science, engineering, and physics than in biology, chemistry, and mathematics: (a) masculine cultures that signal a lower sense of belonging to women than men, (b) a lack of sufficient early experience with computer science, engineering, and physics, and (c) gender gaps in self-efficacy. Efforts to increase women’s participation in computer science, engineering, and physics may benefit from changing masculine cultures and providing students with early experiences that signal equally to both girls and boys that they belong and can succeed in these fields.
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Notes that explanations of human behavior have generally favored unidirectional causal models emphasizing either environmental or internal determinants of behavior. In social learning theory, causal processes are conceptualized in terms of reciprocal determinism. Viewed from this perspective, psychological functioning involves a continuous reciprocal interaction between behavioral, cognitive, and environmental influences. The major controversies between unidirectional and reciprocal models of human behavior center on the issue of self influences. A self system within the framework of social learning theory comprises cognitive structures and subfunctions for perceiving, evaluating, and regulating behavior, not a psychic agent that controls action. The influential role of the self system in reciprocal determinism is documented through a reciprocal analysis of self-regulatory processes. Reciprocal determinism is proposed as a basic analytic principle for analyzing psychosocial phenomena at the level of intrapersonal development, interpersonal transactions, and interactive functioning of organizational and social systems. (62 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A deterrent to recruiting students into STEM pathways is the stereotype that STEM fields do not afford communal goals to work with or help others. We investigate the challenges to cueing communal opportunities in science via brief exposure to scientist exemplars. Both male and female scientists depicted as engaged in communal work increased beliefs that science afforded communal goals and positivity toward science careers (Study 1). Without the direct performance of communal activities, communal affordances were cued only when a female scientist was prototypic of her gender category and respondents were highly communally oriented (Study 2). To change stereotypes that science does not involve communal goals, both female and male scientists can highlight communal aspects of their work.
Book
Despite decades of greater gender awareness at work in Western countries, gender inequality in the executive suites is alive and well. "The Face of the Firm" highlights new critical perspectives on the relationship between hegemonic masculine cultures, gender embodiment, and gender disparities in corporate organizations. Using data from over 100 interviews with female and male executives who worked for some of the most prestigious advertising and computer firms in the world, the book makes important connections between the empirical data and contemporary sexism in the United States and United Kingdom. The book refocuses the debate of executive work, organizational spaces, and gender inequality on gendered bodies at work. It also demonstrates that gendered and sexualized relations among executives often construct the production process. The book makes a contribution to masculinity, gender, and work scholarship and is organized along three key concepts: homogeneity, homosociability, and heterosexuality. These address such factors as the organizational locker room, sexual and heterosexual spaces at work, and the construction of women and men as different workers. This conceptual model is crucial for evaluating the mechanisms that support male dominance among highly skilled professionals and executives."
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The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.
Article
What evolutionary function does self-regard serve? Hierometer theory, introduced here, provides one answer: it helps individuals navigate status hierarchies, which feature zero-sum contests that can be lost as well as won. In particular, self-regard tracks social status to regulate behavioral assertiveness, augmenting or diminishing it to optimize performance in such contests. Hierometer theory also offers a conceptual counterpoint that helps resolve ambiguities in sociometer theory, which offers a complementary account of self-regard’s evolutionary function. In two large-scale cross-sectional studies, we operationalized theoretically relevant variables at three distinct levels of analysis, namely, social (relations: status, inclusion), psychological (self-regard: self-esteem, narcissism), and behavioral (strategy: assertiveness, affiliativeness). Correlational and mediational analyses consistently supported hierometer theory, but offered only mixed support for sociometer theory, including when controlling for confounding constructs (anxiety, depression). We interpret our results in terms of a broader agency-communion framework.
Chapter
Do self-enhancement/self-protection and self-esteem reflect fundamental human motivations or are they culturally bound occurrences? The debate on universalism versus cultural relativism of self-motives and self-esteem shows no sign of abatement. We advance the debate by proposing the extended self-enhancing tactician model. The model aspires to account for two seemingly contradictory phenomena: cross-cultural invariance (equivalence of self-motive strength and self-esteem desire across cultures) and cross-cultural variability (differential manifestations of self-motives and self-esteem across cultures). The model's four foundational tenets address cross-cultural invariance: (1) The individual self is panculturally valued, and it is so over the relational or collective self; (2) The self-enhancement/self-protection motives are equally potent in East and West; (3) The structure of self-enhancement and self-protection strivings is similar across the cultural divide; and (4) the desire for self-esteem is pancultural. The SCENT-R model's four key postulates address cross-cultural variability. First, Easterners assign relative importance to, and report higher, liking-based self-esteem, as well as consider collectivistic attributes important and self-enhance on them, whereas Westerners assign relative importance to, and report higher, competence-based self-esteem, as well as consider individualistic attributes important and self-enhance on them. Second, when constraints on candid self-enhancement are lifted, Easterners behave like Westerners: they report higher modesty and lower self-esteem than Westerners, but, controlling for modesty, differences in self-esteem disappear; they self-enhance in competitive, but self-efface in cooperative, settings; they profit from other-mediated than own-initiated self-enhancement. Third, implicit self-esteem is similarly high across cultures. Fourth, self-esteem and self-enhancement/self-protection confer parallel benefits in East–West, depending in part on domain relevance. Self-enhancement and self-protection, as well as self-esteem, reflect fundamental human motivation
Article
Two studies tested whether people are biased to infer that their positive actions are more authentic than their negative actions. In Study 1, participants identified a positive or negative personal characteristic and assessed the authenticity of past behavior that reflected that characteristic. In Study 2, people imagined themselves performing positive and negative behaviors that they authentically did or did not want to perform. Both studies showed that people’s judgments of the authenticity of their behavior were contaminated by their perceptions of the valence of their behavior even when the objective authenticity of the behavior was controlled. Future research must disentangle authenticity and positivity to determine the degree to which each contributes to positive outcomes that have been attributed to authenticity.
Book
In Philosophical Fragments the pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus explored the question: What is required in order to go beyond Socratic recollection of eternal ideas already possessed by the learner? Written as an afterword to this work, Concluding Unscientific Postscript is on one level a philosophical jest, yet on another it is Climacus's characterization of the subjective thinker's relation to the truth of Christianity. At once ironic, humorous, and polemical, this work takes on the "unscientific" form of a mimical-pathetical-dialectical compilation of ideas. Whereas the movement in the earlier pseudonymous writings is away from the aesthetic, the movement in Postscript is away from speculative thought. Kierkegaard intended Postscript to be his concluding work as an author. The subsequent "second authorship" after The Corsair Affair made Postscript the turning point in the entire authorship. Part One of the text volume examines the truth of Christianity as an objective issue, Part Two the subjective issue of what is involved for the individual in becoming a Christian, and the volume ends with an addendum in which Kierkegaard acknowledges and explains his relation to the pseudonymous authors and their writings. The second volume contains the scholarly apparatus, including a key to references and selected entries from Kierkegaard's journals and papers.
Book
Stereotype threat is defined as a situational predicament in which individuals are at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their group. It is the resulting sense that one might be judged in terms of negative stereotypes about one's group instead of on personal merit. Research over the past 15 years has shown that stereotype threat contributes to low performance among African Americans, Latinos, and the poor, but also among women in math and science, the elderly in memory, and even whites in athletics. This book examines this important topic not only at the level of basic processes and theory, but also at the level of application in the real world. It provides a contemporary and systematic treatment of research on the impact of negative stereotypes and devalued social identities on performance, engagement, sense of belonging, and self-control. This book is organized into four sections. The first section, Basic Processes, introduces definitions and conceptualizations of stereotype threat, including issues related to environmental triggers and questions of mechanism. Section two, Theoretical Extensions, explores how the initial theory has been refined to acknowledge stereotype threats (plural), how threat affects a sense of belonging, how it has implications that extend beyond the stereotyped domain, and the comparison of performance impairments due to motivational versus automated processes. Section three, Manifestations of Stereotype Threat, shows the breadth of the theory by exploring many of the different groups and performances to which the phenomenon of stereotype threat has been applied. Section four, Stereotype Threat and the Real World, examines issues of applied importance, taking a critical approach to understanding the extent to which stereotype threat has real-world consequences outside the lab. Finally, the originator of the theory, Claude Steele, provides a final essay in which he reflects upon the theory, from its origin to its implication.
Article
Although the hypothesis that people will alter comparison behavior in response to threat is consistent with the formulation of social comparison theory, the empirical evidence for the natural occurrence of such shifts is weak. Two studies were conducted to examine this hypothesis. In the first study, adolescents' perceptions were assessed before, during, and 6 months after their participation in an academic program for gifted students. Male students who performed poorly, and also worse than they had expected in the program, demonstrated self-protective "strategies" by lowering the amount and level of academic comparison they reported engaging in and by lowering their perception of the importance of academics. Female students, who generally performed as well as expected, reported relatively little change. By follow-up, most of the male students' perceptions had returned to baseline. A second study found that both male and female college students who thought they had performed poorly academically also demonstrated these shifts in comparison. Motivations behind the strategies are discussed.
Article
In 2 studies, college students evidenced differing levels of the "Big-Five" traits in different roles, supporting social-contextualist assumptions regarding trait expression. Supporting organismic theories of personality, within-subject variations in the Big Five were predictable from variations in the degree of psychological authenticity felt in different roles. In addition, two concepts of self-integrat ion or true selfhood were examined: 1 based on high consistency of trait profiles across roles (i.e., lowself-concept differentiation; E. M. Donahue, R. W. Robins, B. W. Roberts, & O. P. John, 1993) and 1 based on high mean levels of authenticity felt across roles. The 2 self-integration measures were found to be independent predictors of psychological and physical well-being indicating that both self-consistency and psychological authenticity are vital for organized functioning and health.
Article
This chapter focuses on how stereotype threat is produced and sustained through threatening situational cues in an environment-such as its organization, features, and physical characteristics-that suggest the possible mistreatment or devaluation of stigmatized individuals. First, we illustrate how threatening situational cues engender a vigilance process whereby stigmatized individuals direct attention toward additional cues to determine the value and meaning of their social identity in a setting. We review how both explicit and subtle situational cues elicit stereotype threat, particularly among racial minorities in academic settings and women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) domains. We propose that the meaning people assign to those cues ultimately affects whether they will become vulnerable to-or protected against-stereotype threat. Further, we suggest that situational cues are meaningful to the extent that they elicit identity-related concerns, such as concerns for belonging, institutional fairness, or of being marginalized in a setting. Finally, we explore how "identity-safe" cues in a setting can eliminate stereotype threat by reducing identity threat concerns and signaling to stigmatized individuals that their social identity will not be a liability to their outcomes. Understanding how situational cues trigger and diffuse identity threat offers hope for changing the dynamics of social identity threat and ultimately points toward a new wave of identity threat research-investigating the interactive and contextual nature of identitysafe cues to create environments that are welcoming and comfortable for all groups.
Article
We examined the components and situational correlates of state authenticity to clarify the construct's meaning and improve understanding of authenticity's attainment. In Study 1, we used the day reconstruction method (participants assessed real-life episodes from 'yesterday') and in Study 2 a smartphone app (participants assessed real-life moments taking place 'just now') to obtain situation-level ratings of participants' sense of living authentically, self-alienation, acceptance of external influence, mood, anxiety, energy, ideal-self overlap, self-consciousness, self-esteem, flow, needs satisfaction, and motivation to be 'real'. Both studies demonstrated that state authentic living does not require rejecting external influence and, further, accepting external influence is not necessarily associated with state self-alienation. In fact, situational acceptance of external influence was more often related to an increased, rather than decreased, sense of authenticity. Both studies also found state authentic living to be associated with greater, and state self-alienation with lesser: positive mood, energy, relaxation, ideal-self overlap, self-esteem, flow, and motivation for realness. Study 2 further revealed that situations prioritizing satisfaction of meaning/purpose in life were associated with increased authentic living and situations prioritizing pleasure/interest satisfaction were associated with decreased self-alienation. State authenticity is best characterized by two related yet independent components: authentic living and (absence of) self-alienation.
Article
Social identity theory Social identity theory is a “grand” theory. Its core premise is that in many social situations people think of themselves and others as group members , rather than as unique individuals. The theory argues that social identity underpins intergroup behavior and sees this as qualitatively distinct from interpersonal behavior. It delineates the circumstances under which social identities are likely to become important, so that they become the primary determinant of social perceptions and social behaviors. The theory also specifies different strategies people employ to cope with a devalued social identity. Social identity theory is a truly social psychological theory, in that it focuses on social context as the key determinant of self-definition and behavior. People's responses are thus understood in terms of subjective beliefs about different groups and the relations between them, rather than material interdependencies and instrumental concerns, objective individual and group characteristics, or individual Since ...
Article
Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism- collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more- and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content.