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Intensities of Feeling: Towards a Spatial Politics of Affect

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Abstract

This paper attempts to take the politics of affect as not just incidental but central to the life of cities, given that cities are thought of as inhuman or transhuman entities and that politics is understood as a process of community without unity. It is in three main parts. The first part sets out the main approaches to affect that conform with this approach. The second part considers the ways in which the systematic engineering of affect has become central to the political life of Euro-American cities, and why. The third part then sets out the different kinds of progressive politics that might become possible once affect is taken into account. There are some brief conclusions.

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... Il s'agit d'un système complexe simultanément produit et producteur d'espace qui « contient à la fois la rupture et l'échange, la transaction, l'interaction, par son existence même » (Lampin-Maillet et al., 2010). Plus particulièrement, l'interface constitue un objet géographique, inscrit sur des discontinuités socio-spatiales (Chapelon et al., 2008) et qui s'incorpore souvent dans les discours et les représentations spatiales qui reposent sur des référentiels affectifs et émotionnels (Thrift, 2004) de l'espace. De ce fait, les interfaces sont des lieux géographiques privilégiés pour étudier la fabrique des territoires. ...
... L'interface constitue « un objet géographique » (Chapelon et al., 2008) articulé par des composants tangibles bien inscrits dans la matérialité de l'espace (Ibid.). Mais elle peut également émerger des discours et s'appuie sur des référentiels affectifs et émotionnels (Thrift, 2004) et prenant appui la plupart du temps sur des méthodologies ethnographiques et anthropologiques (Certeau, 2011;Friedman, 1998;Megoran, 2005;Paasi, 1996;Perry & Caldeira, 2000). De ce fait les interfaces sont des lieux géographiques privilégiés pour étudier à la fois les interactions et les échanges, ainsi que les significations et visions nouvelles des territoires. ...
... Cette perspective qui croise les données politiques et sociales pour analyser les frontières s'appuie de la trame Lefebvrienne de production de l'espace (Lefebvre, 2000), à l'intersection des trois interprétations spatiales « les représentations de l'espace, les pratiques spatiales et les espaces de représentation » en fonction des intérêts des différents acteurs. Cette trame inspire effectivement celle de la production territoriale (Kärrholm, 2007) (Tableau 1) 10 Une différentiation ethnique, linguistique, ou religieuse par exemple (Thrift, 2004). ...
Thesis
Cette thèse interroge les dynamiques territoriales et socio-spatiales de l’agglomération de Beyrouth, en partant de lieux chargés de symboliques et de significations fortes pour comprendre comment se déploient les individus dans la ville. Elle porte le regard sur un espace constituant une interface entre trois quartiers de la ville dont les composantes communautaires, religieuses et politiques sont bien identifiées. En privilégiant une approche relationnelle, où les mobilités et les pratiques spatiales sont au centre de l’observation du fonctionnement de l’espace, cette thèse fait l’hypothèse que l’interface produit des systèmes territoriaux originaux de contact, ainsi que des lieux et des moments de rencontres inattendues, qui contestent les représentations de fragmentation et d’enclavement qui prédominent les rhétoriques de la ville de Beyrouth. En croisant des perspectives disciplinaires variées en géographie, aménagement, architecture et sociologie, cette thèse croise plusieurs méthodes qualitatives comme l’observation directe, indirecte et participante des lieux, des enquêtes par questionnaires et des entretiens approfondis auprès des usagers de cette interface. Elle montre que c’est un espace complexe, un-entre deux où se déploient différentes formes de territorialités et de rapports aux lieux, non réductibles à un modèle territorial stable et bien déterminé. Cette approche est aujourd’hui d’actualité autant pour Beyrouth que pour d’autres villes, parce qu’elle permet de déconstruire les imaginaires et les lectures binaires et simplificatrices de la grande fragmentation des espaces urbains et des métropoles.
... However, these generally fall into two schools of affect theory. One school sees affect and discourse -and thus affect and emotion -as separate matters (e.g., Thrift, 2000Thrift, , 2004Deleuze, 1997). For instance, argues that 'emotion' is 'a subjective content, the sociolinguistic fixing of the quality of experience which is from that point onward 42 defined as personal', whereas affect is pure bodily 'intensity' not (yet) contaminated by discourse (p. ...
... 28). Similarly, Thrift (2004) sees affectivity as another way of experiencing the world and oneself than cognitive reflexivity, and as an experience that occurs in a bodily register rather than a rational register of discourse. ...
... Accordingly, I also use the articles to undergird my choice of not distinguishing between affect and emotion in this thesis and thus employing the two concepts interchangeably. However, I would also like to take a moment here to briefly 'defend' my choice, as I am aware that it is open to criticism -see the arguments of and Thrift (2000Thrift ( , 2004 above -and that the differences between affect and emotion have long been debated (see Wetherell, 2013). My theoretical armour for this choice is forged from theories, more specifically the following statement: ...
... For more than a decade cultural geography has experienced a "turn to affect" (see e.g. Allen, 2006;Anderson, 2006Anderson, , 2014Pile, 2010;Thrift, 2004). The understanding of the concept of "affect" is deeply contested within the social sciences (see Anderson, 2013). ...
... Taking a cue from the aforementioned cultural geography scholarship, this article will employ the concept of affect to signify the preconscious processes that condition meditated thought and action (see e.g. Brennan, 2004;Sedgwick, 2003;Thrift, 2004). Affect is further understood to be a collective and relational phenomenon that proliferates through and between individual bodies, exemplifiable by how a sense of fear suddenly spreads through a crowd, or conversely: how a feeling of cozy comfort settles around a group of dinner guests. ...
... This relates back to the caution provided by Thrift (2004, p. 58) that techniques to manipulate affect are "not only being deployed knowingly, they are also being deployed politically (mainly but not only by the rich and powerful) to political ends: what might have been painted as aesthetic is increasingly instrumental." Consequently, Thrift argues for the importance of staying attentive to the "politics of affect" (Thrift, 2004), which also dovetails more recent appeals for a scholarly focus on "atmospheric politics" (see e.g. Bille et al, 2015;Gandy, 2017;Sumartojo & Pink, 2019). ...
Article
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Procedural planning experiments often attempt to influence how planning actors think through producing physical and social environments that affect how they feel. In this paper such experiments are conceptualized as attempts at generating atmospheric “bubbles” through the engineering of affective atmospheres. Our empirical examples show that purposeful affective engineering is very difficult to achieve – and one cannot expect that their eventual outcomes can be predicted on the basis of the ambitions that underpin them. Therefore, it is crucial to remain attentive to questions concerning the variegated, distributed and often unexpected effects of such endeavors.
... El siguiente texto tiene como propósito contribuir a los estudios de afectos y emociones que desde el giro afectivo se han hecho sobre geografías de lo arquitectónico. Se apoya en la Teoría del Actor-Red de Bruno Latour (2008) por un lado, y por otro, en las reflexiones teóricas sobre los afectos y la nueva materialidad hechas por geógrafos como Nigel Thrift (2008Thrift ( , 2004, Ben Anderson (2004Anderson ( , 2005, Peter Kraftl (2008) y Peter Adey (2008). Si bien, ambas aproximaciones han destacado el papel que tiene la materialidad en la vida humana cotidiana, han abordado con mayor profundidad el papel de la primera sobre la segunda (Jacobs, 2006;Jacobs et al. 2012), y muy poco lo que sucede con la experiencia humana en relación con la materialidad (Rose et al. 2010). ...
... El siguiente texto tiene como propósito contribuir a los estudios de afectos y emociones que desde el giro afectivo se han hecho sobre geografías de lo arquitectónico. Se apoya en la Teoría del Actor-Red de Bruno Latour (2008) por un lado, y por otro, en las reflexiones teóricas sobre los afectos y la nueva materialidad hechas por geógrafos como Nigel Thrift (2008Thrift ( , 2004, Ben Anderson (2004Anderson ( , 2005, Peter Kraftl (2008) y Peter Adey (2008). Si bien, ambas aproximaciones han destacado el papel que tiene la materialidad en la vida humana cotidiana, han abordado con mayor profundidad el papel de la primera sobre la segunda (Jacobs, 2006;Jacobs et al. 2012), y muy poco lo que sucede con la experiencia humana en relación con la materialidad (Rose et al. 2010). ...
... Usualmente estudiada como representación cultural, poseedora de símbolos culturales y reflejo de los valores de una época, las aproximaciones más-allá-dela-representación han reconocido en la arquitectura un tipo de materialidad activa, animada y performativa (Jacobs et al., 2012;Yaneva, 2012), capaz de tener efectos, modificar comportamientos, potenciar estados de ánimo, hacer sentir cosas o mover emocionalmente a los cuerpos, en una palabra, afectar (Thrift, 2008;Kraftl y Adey, 2008;Rose et al., 2010). Así, la arquitectura ha dejado de ser entendida como una forma o contexto inerte donde suceden cosas y tiene lugar la acción humana, para analizar el co-performance que se produce a través de la interacción entre personas y espacios arquitectónicos. ...
Article
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El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la relación entre la destrucción arquitectónica y la memoria corporal de quienes habitaron el lugar antes de ser destruido. Se puntualiza en la manera como el entorno arquitectónico destruido puede influenciar y modificar experiencias colectivas de pertenencia. Se inicia revisando las aproximaciones recientes con las cuales los geógrafos han conceptualizado lo arquitectónico: la Teoría del Actor-Red y la teoría de los afectos, desde las cuales los edificios no son visualizados como objetos inertes sino como objetos que “hacen cosas”. Se reconoce que ambas aproximaciones no han explorado lo suficiente la experiencia corporeizada, el papel de la subjetividad humana ni de los recuerdos y memorias en la mediación de los afectos al contacto con arquitecturas y nohumanos del presente. Mediante el caso de estudio de un área fabril mexicana demolida, se muestra cómo los afectos de los restos materiales (atmósferas de destrucción) son intersectados por otro tipo de afecto que reúne la corporeización de encuentros pasados: el acecho. Co-habitar la post-demolición ha significado demarcar fronteras afectivas como límites mentales-corporales que les posibilita a los habitantes continuar su trabajo emocional afectivo ante el desvanecimiento de memorias y sentimientos de pertenencia.
... Previous work on affect by Massumi (1996) or Thrift (2004) has shown the significance of taking the ephemeral and non-representational seriously, yet, by focusing primarily on what is beyond words, they tend to ignore the 'messiness' of social life. This work is not fully able to theorise how affect shapes our lived experience; as work in sociology makes clear (Ahmed, 2014a(Ahmed, , 2014bWetherell, 2012), we must also consider how affective representations mobilise and ground all our experiences. ...
... By focusing on landing, we shed light on the multiple relational elements of these (mediated) atmospheres. As we have examined, atmospheres are constantly under construction and emergent (Anderson, 2009;Hill, 2016;Hill et al., 2014;Thrift, 2004;Wetherell, 2012), therefore, the concept of landing in them is problematic, as, by virtue of participating in them, we necessarily become part of this emergence. As a result, it is impossible to account for all possible landings. ...
... Surfacing and sticking thus provide us with analytical tools for understanding our orientations and how these can change throughout the journey into and out of affective atmospheres (Hill et al., 2021). Our theorisation of affect demonstrates that sensations and emotions do not land on subjects in a mysteriously homogenous way (Massumi, 1996;Thrift, 2004). Even Ahmed's work, in focusing on waves of public feeling, often presents affect as something diffuse with no originating point. ...
Article
Studies on affect and affective atmospheres have been a topic of increasing interest in marketing, particularly in the management of consumption and retail spaces where service providers attempt to orchestrate a prescribed, collective affective response in consumers. This paper draws on the work of Sara Ahmed and Margaret Wetherell to bring the subject back to the fore, providing a more fine-grained theorisation of how individuals land in such atmospheres. We articulate surfacing and sticking as key dimensions of landing, highlighting the heterogeneity of our landing, whereby affect is individually felt through bodily reactions due to how our personal affective history intersects with the socio-political context. Using a poetic affective attunement method, we capture intensely affective atmospheres, namely spirit-permeated religious settings in Brazil; demonstrating how landing results in different orientations or disorientations through which often elided emotional experiences come into view, privileging some subjects and objects whilst disadvantaging others.
... For Beyes and Steyaert the performative perspective puts an emphasis on the process of producing space, rather than on the spatial product itself, on how space comes to be as an excess composition of force aesthetic and active qualities of space, including the existential and (micro) political potential of organization that has been acknowledged in the human geography strand of non-representational theory, which combines issues like affect, materiality and space (Thrift, 2004(Thrift, , 2008(Thrift, , 2009McCormack, 2008bMcCormack, , 2015Ingold, 2011;Dewsbury, 2012;Anderson, 2018). ...
... Thrift presents affect as a way of thinking and a spatial politics, which is a corporeal thinking that focuses on movement and grasps tacit, embodied foundations (Thrift, 2004). According to Thrift, the attention to affect promotes a … a new kind of cultural engineering are gradually being constructed upon which and with which new forms of political practice, that value democracy as a functional disunity will be able to be built. ...
... As Gugutzer argues, embodied communication constitutes a kind of intersubjectivity (Gugutzer, 2012: 30), also termed 'transsubjective felt body dialogue', which uses encorporation to pave the way for social relations and thus for an understanding of the social and its organization (Gugutzer, 2017: 151ff.). This perspective resonates with discussions in affect and nonrepresentational theory on affect and affective atmospheres as a transpersonal dimension where collective evocations emerge in everyday life (Anderson, 2009;Thrift, 2004;McCormack: 2008bMcCormack: , 2013). According to Hasse, Schmitz understands the dialogical character of embodied communication as a performative practice in line with non-representational theory, thus emphasizing that Schmitz's dialogical focus presents a perspective where all partners -humans, things, spatial arrangements and landscape -are active and lively participants (Hasse, 2015: 181;Hasse, 2010). ...
Thesis
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The thesis 'Moving Organizational Atmospheres' provides a conceptual and empirical exploration of the notion of organizational atmosphere as a non-dualist concept. Both conceptually and analytically the thesis seeks to contribute to discussions in the fields of organizational aesthetics as well as the affective and spatial turn in organization studies by addressing how organizational atmospheres work when embraced as a fluid phenomenon, and by providing an analytically experimental account of experiencing and producing organizational atmosphere based on field work in two organizations.
... Building on Spinozian and Deleuzian scholarship, affects are considered to be distributed forces that are generated and shared with and through people's encounters with human and nonhuman agents. They are mobile and dynamic, constantly subject to change as people move through time and space (Thrift, 2004;Vannini, 2014). Affect refers to the ways that human bodies relate to each other and the intensities that are part of these relations. ...
... Affective atmospheres, therefore, are mobile intensities of feeling that are distributed and socio-spatial, mutually generated between people and nonhuman actors. The practices of sensing through human embodiment and the emergence of feelings and emotions from these practices are integral to the production and experience of affective atmospheres (Anderson, 2009;Thrift, 2004;Senior and McDuie-Ra, 2021;Bille and Simonsen, 2021). ...
Article
The COVID-19 crisis has generated an intensity of feeling globally, as people’s everyday spatial and embodied practices have been continually disrupted and fraught with anxiety and uncertainty. In this visual essay, I present and engage with smartphone photographs of public spaces in the Australian cities of Canberra and Sydney that I have accumulated as a ‘COVID Life’ archive. The photographs record my everyday experiences in and through spaces I inhabited and through which I moved. I have selected some of the images and provide a reflective analysis that draws on the concept of affective atmospheres to consider the sociomaterialities and spatialities evident in the images. I describe how the assemblages of people, things, place and space featured in these images generated a range of thoughts and feelings: both in the moment of capturing the images and in reviewing them at a later time as part of an archive of COVID memorialisation.
... Such work is underscored by a recognition that the component characteristics of a place or buildingof lighting, colours, temperature, materials, movement and use of spaceintersect with such sounds, smells and emotions. Yet, following from broader literature within the 'turn to affect' (see Thrift, 2004;Pile, 2010) that focuses on non-verbal, non-conscious and, often, non-human embodied experiences, scholars have attended to how 'these elementsand relations between themmight cohere or assemble into something far less obvious, but far more pervasive: atmospheres' (Turner and Peters, 2015: 313). ...
... cinemas, theme parks), tourism (e.g. hotels) and the workplace are aestheticised in a certain way through lighting, design, performance, music and so on, to generate expectations about a place (Thrift, 2004). Such 'cultivation' of affect often includes attention to 'the size or positioning of windows, the proportions of the room, the number and forms of doors and other circulation apertures, the materials used, and the acoustics', as well as decorations, objects and 'those less knowing but nonetheless purposeful agents such as mould, damp, dust, rust, and fading' that all form part of an architectural atmosphere (Jacobs et al., 2012: 136). ...
Article
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Contrary to descriptions of a desensitising situation – with restrictions on movement, monotonous regimes and sparse surroundings – much research highlights imprisonment as sensorially and emotionally powerful. Following work within the ‘turn to affect’ that focuses on non-verbal, non-conscious and, often, non-human embodied experiences, scholars have attended to how such elements cohere into ‘atmospheres’. Whilst the language of atmosphere is synonymous with the prison – a space that is widely anecdotally considered to conjure a particular ‘feeling’ – discussion of the mechanisms for and experiences of atmospheric production and consumption in this space has, thus far, evaded scholarly attention. Atmosphere is a word often used in prison literature, but it is rarely analytically unpacked. Accordingly, drawing on qualitative research data from individuals designing, and working and living in prisons, we focus on how various components – including aesthetics, olfaction, temperature, and the performances that arise from them – comprise sensory atmospheric affects in prison. In doing so, we find atmosphere(s) emerge – not simply from the materiality of the prison itself, but from cultural constructions of carceral and non-carceral landscapes and in conjunction with personal practice and preference. Accordingly, the prison is tied to particular constructions about what a prison should feel like and how people should (re)act to/in such spaces. In some cases, prison designers attempt to engineer particular atmospheres that cohere with wider political motivations around penal philosophies. However, despite the common reflection that prisons generate some kind of atmosphere, respondents are unable to offer a concrete description of what this may be, and much of our data highlights a definite precarity and changeability to atmospheric affect, which is likely to raise ambiguity around attempts to design carceral atmospheres.
... The "long histories" of Cork and Derry are, of course, an accumulation of these elements and a consideration of the "second-ness" of the cities can provide a helpful means of unpacking some of the similarities that can be discerned in these two cities and their discursive construction. A growing body of scholarship in the critical humanities has shone a light on phenomena such as the affective qualities of region (Allen et al. 1998;MacPherson 2003;Campbell, 2016) as well as the affective dimensions of cities (Thrift 2004;Bridge and Watson 2011). Affect is often considered in such scholarship as a means of unpacking intertwined elements constituting the emotional, cultural and political dimensions of the object of analysis. ...
... Describing the structure of feeling as "social experience in solution" (133), Williams utilizes an apt metaphor from chemistry to capture the fact such feelings are a mix, dissolved together, a pervasive mood atmosphere in which everyday life is lived. Incorporating affect as an approach can help in registering both the "intensities of feeling" (Thrift 2004) as well as minor " attened" or "ugly feelings" (Berlant 2011;Ngai 2005) that circulate through and in relation to the cities in question. The following, although necessarily schematic, is an attempt at tracking the affective qualities of these Irish "second cities" that emerge through pop cultural manifestations such as the sitcoms and feature lm that comprise the primary focus of this chapter. ...
Chapter
This chapter centres on representations of the two second cities of Ireland: Derry (Londonderry) and Cork. Contextualising these cities in historical, socio-economic, and cultural terms, the chapter examines screen comedies Derry Girls and The Young Offenders partially locating their transnational appeal in the homologies evident between these cities and other peripheral urban locales. The minoritized positions of the central characters, communicated variously through their youth, gender and class positioning, resonate with the minoritized status of the second/peripheral city, providing a further point of empathy for audiences outside of Ireland. The chapter argues that the two cities/comedies help to undermine monolithic conceptions of the nation, indexing societal and economic shifts within the island of Ireland in the twenty-first century.Keywords Derry Girls The Young Offenders CorkDerryAccentYouth programmingSecond citiesPost-Troubles cultureSitcomsGenderGirlhoodWorking-class representation
... It is a hidden mechanism of control and a governmental instrumentalisation. Military trainings, by bodily conditioning that helps control fear, are an example [40]. While affect has recently entered the records of urban studies, it has already become instrumental, allowing for politically complex interventions. ...
Article
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Body interacts with the space through undefinable, unpredictable actions and behaviors. Predictability disappears when the performativity of the body is taken into account. By dissolving and decoding the boundaries of space, the body challenges spatial dichotomy and prepares the new possibilities of thinking and understanding. Space becomes productive with new lines of escape and possibilities. Design as a temporary moment of intensity in the rhythm of daily life, on the other hand, recalls the affect that has been postponed in the academic field in architecture. At this point, affect theory together with the concept of interiority create a new discussion on space by questioning the existing theories. Affect plays a role in the spatial production of urban interiority; at the same time, urban interiority nourishes the affect. Exploring the neglected dimensions of our daily lives and the relational aspects of experience that produce and shape it, thinking about body, subjectivity and desire with non-representational theory in the focus of space: this is where the study turns towards the theory of affect. It produces a new understanding of relationality and space built with interactions between human/non-human, body and city, reflecting on different subjectivities and a different perspective to understand the city. It lays the groundwork for the appropriation of cities through their affective capacities and layers. In any case, it is not enough to think on urban space and architectural practice within disciplinary boundaries; they are in a constant state of formation and construction under the influence of different parameters. This study aims to rethink the concept of urban interiority through affect theory and aims to multiply questions about different becoming and possibilities rather than seeking answers.
... The affective turn, according to Gregg and Seigworth (2010) brings a transformative shift in thought by moving scholarship beyond the sovereignty of rationality and positivism and offering emotional and embodied dimensions to understand the social, the subject and the world. Even though in tourism and hospitality research affect is normally understood as the totality of a series of psychological states, including emotions, feelings, moods and related affective traits (Godovykh & Tasci, 2021), the theoretical foundations of affect are more eclectic, encompassing manifold knowledge across many disciplines such as philosophy, cultural studies, geography, psychology, and neurosciences (Anderson, 2014;Clough & Halley, 2007;Massumi, 2002;Thrift, 2016). In this working paper, we will look into how affect and affect theories have been understood by tourism scholars and how affect as a tourism research lens could be utilised, peri-pandemic, in order to elucidate how tourism research can contribute to understanding the peri-COVID-19 world. ...
Conference Paper
With a focus on affect as a multivalent force entangling with objects, tourists, and places, this working paper discusses how affect and its non-representational thought contribute to a deeper understanding of tourism realities, as well as furthering methodological considerations. Through adopting affect as a research lens, we highlight the relationships between various forces in the context of tourism, including the pandemic. By attending to affect and the concept of being and becoming with COVID-19 and/in tourism, we hope to open up a pathway for tourism researchers to explore new, critical and vital possibilities during the pandemic.
... Je sors de là revigorée, avec de nombreux sourires, embrassades et baisers. Dans les propos de nombreux artistes, l'affect entretient une relation étroite, avec la question de l'énergie, ce qui est en accord avec les élaborations plus conceptuelles que nous donnent les géographes des théories non-représentationnelles (Thrift, 2004;Gallagher, 2016), qui mettent en avant la partie pré-cognitive qu'il s'agit d'intégrer à cette notion. Loin d'être limitée aux émotions, cette notion englobe des résonances plus intimes, et beaucoup moins formulables, de la perception du monde qui nous entoure. ...
Conference Paper
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Cette communication est l’occasion de synthétiser certains apports de mon projet de thèse de doctorat défendu l’année dernière à l’Université d’État de Rio de Janeiro, qui s’intitule “Espace et rythme : étude des pratiques d’arts de rue comme formes d’appropriation de l’espace public” (Moreaux, 2020). S’intéresser à la rythmanalyse et aux arts de la rue m’a amené à explorer des auteurs d’autres horizons, notamment de la philosophie, des arts scéniques, de l’urbanisme et de l’anthropologie, contribuant ainsi à une ouverture de l’imaginaire géographique à travers une rénovation des outils conceptuels et l’élaboration de méthodologies qui impliquent l’engagement corporel et émotionnel du chercheur sur le terrain de recherche.
... In this sense, islands as places with social and material surroundings impinge on our very being. There is a growing body of literature connecting emotions to place (Davidson & Milligan, 2004;Löfgren, 2014;Thrift, 2004). We draw on this work to understand how emotional engagement with our surroundings may be constitutive of island belonging. ...
Article
This paper concerns belonging in islands. Place-belonging conjures images of feeling at home somewhere, in our case islands. Given the emotionality of belonging, we explore island belonging through emotions. More specifically, we apply the concept of the aquapelago to island belonging and refer to this as aquapelagic belonging. Bringing in emotions, embodied perceptions and mobility, we discuss how these are assembled in island-sea relations to form aquapelagic belonging. In doing so, we draw on qualitative data from fieldwork undertaken in locations where proximity to the sea and access to seaborne mobility is paramount. Our findings demonstrate how certain emotional dispositions and mobility practices emerge in processes of aquapelagic belonging, indicating that mobility is intricately entangled with island belonging. We propose that the interconnected nature of land and sea spaces co-produce emotions of belonging in island spaces. We therefore argue that the concept of aquapelagic belonging lends useful insight to understand what is particular about island belonging. Furthermore, we suggest that attention to mobility, which in this context means navigating land/sea environments, is key to understanding aquapelagic belonging. We conclude that to grasp island belonging, the notion of the aquapelago is relevant and assists in understanding the totality of island relations.
... Affect is concerned with experiences beyond cognition, so we acknowledge that narratives, emotions, and bodily responses observable during the fieldwork necessarily cover only a mediated affective experience. While many academics discuss affect as exclusively other-than-conscious or nonrepresentational (Massumi, 2002;Pile, 2010;Thrift, 2004), social scientists and social psychologists have focus on those instances and ways in which affects appear above the surface and can thus be represented through analysis of performances (McCormack, 2003), affective atmospheres (Anderson, 2009), affective and discursive practices (Wetherell, 2013). When setting out to look for moments of affect, and interpret affective moments as such, we look for narrative and performative patterns that appear in interviews and the participant observation conducted at the place. ...
Article
This article frames dark tourism experiences employing the geographical concept of sublime-as-affect. We contend that the sublime has features that allow us to analyse it as an affect, an intensity of feeling that circulates in-between bodies, which can be experienced poignantly in places of death, and lead to transformative experiences. By presenting accounts of tourism-related stakeholders in post-disaster Tohoku, Japan, devastated by an earthquake, a tsunami, and a nuclear meltdown, we overview moments in which the sublime-as-affect is experienced. Findings suggest that while the dilapidated and abandoned landscapes of Tohoku evoke a negative representation, they also demonstrate a potential for generating transformative affects , which can become a vehicle for meaning in post-disaster tourism encounters.
... Accordingly, ambiences are increasingly staged through sensory manipulations to create attractive and competitive cities (Thrift 2004) or, what Thörn (2011Thörn ( , 1004, informed by Allen, refers to as 'soft policies of exclusion' . Focusing on the city of Gothenburg, Thörn explains how urban regeneration often involves 'imagineering strategies' (ibid, 997), such as creating attractive window displays and appearance improvements, to form an environment '… seductively inclusive for some and at the same time mak[ing] others feel uncomfortable' (ibid, 1001). ...
Chapter
Music festivals have the potential to connect people, foster tolerance and are therefore often perceived as inclusive spaces. At the same time, previous research has shown that festival spaces can be exclusionary spaces, where social inequalities are aggravated. While festivals have dynamics of their own, they are organised on the basis of a specific vision (mission statement) which translates into the programming, staffing, organization and marketing of a festival. Festival organisers play an important role in the creation of festival spaces and the mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion. For positive encounters to occur within festivals and for people to share in the positive atmosphere of the festival, they must be planned and managed. This chapter therefore aims to explore to what extent and how music festival organisers deal with diversity in their everyday practices. We therefore investigate 1) discussing diversity: what meaning do festival organisers attach to the concept of diversity; 2) organising diversity: how they deal with diversity throughout the festival organisation process, and 3) implementing diversity: the difficulties and tensions perceived in making diverse festivals. This chapter is based on a study of ten music festivals in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. This city is often perceived as a festival city and a ‘superdiverse’ city, making it the perfect case to study dynamics of inclusion and exclusion as perceived by music festival organisers.
... Such problems are avoidable. We suggest researchers not start with Massumi (1995, 2002)--or Brennan (2004 or Thrift (2004) or Stewart (2007). Instead, we suggest they turn to Deleuze (1994Deleuze ( /1991, specifically the definition of concept he articulated in What is Philosophy?, the same book where he introduced his notions of affects and percepts. ...
... The "affective turn" (Clough, 2008;Thrift, 2004) in humanities and social sciences appears to be particularly productive to rethink literary criticism and questions about how to make sense of what artworks do. Affect theory encompasses different theoretical developments (see Coleman andRingrose, 2013, Ahern, 2018), that mostly coincide in departing from the understanding of affect by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari (1987) (D&G). ...
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A long-asked question in children’s literature studies is how the child reads the very same book we (adults) have read. In 1984, Peter Hunt argued for a “childist criticism” proposing that young readers’ multiple individual responses to literature should inform adults’ critical practice. In this article, I propose that affect theory and new materialist epistemologies could reorient our critical practice in and with children’s literature. Using the concept of childist criticism (Hunt 1984, 1991) and Maggie MacLure’s (2013) notion of the “wonder of data,” I follow different encounters between children (and researchers) and the book La madre y la muerte/La partida (Laiseca et al., 2016). This book tells a macabre story about a mother that cannot bear to have her child taken away by Death. By following the book’s agency (García-González & Deszcz-Tryhubczak, 2020) in the research assemblage of different projects, I propose possible affective methodological orientations to post-representational research for children’s literature criticism.
... Wie sind Praktiken prozessual in unsere mehr-als-menschliche Welt eingewoben und tragen zu deren kontinuierlichen Veränderung bei? Wie müssen sich unsere Konzeptionalisierungen von Raum und Ort in Abhängigkeit von den Antworten auf diese Fragen verändern?Diese und viele weitere Fragen werden heute in der Geographie in verschiedenen Forschungsfeldern, mittels unterschiedlicher Forschungsansätze und mit Rückgriff auf ein breites Spektrum meta-und erkenntnistheoretischer sowie methodologischer Überlegungen bearbeitet . Gemeinsam haben diese Überlegungen, dass sie den Menschen als Teil eines größeren Gesamtzusammenhangs begreifen, sich der Welt und ihren Geographien aus mehr als nur streng rational greifbaren Erfahrungs-und Sinndimensionen nähern und insofern die körperliche (siehe dazu den Beitrag von Dzudzek/Strüver in diesem Band), leibliche(Hasse 2007;Pütz 2019), viszerale (siehe dazu den Beitrag von Hafner in diesem Band), emotionale und affektive (bspw .Hasse 1999;Thrift 2004;Davidson et al . 2007;Schurr 2014; siehe dazu den Beitrag von Militz in diesem Band) Dimension von soziomateriellen Praktiken (bspw . ...
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Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrages ist es, die zentralen Debatten und Fragestellungen in den Mehr-als-menschlichen Geographien zusammenzufassen und aufzuschlüsseln, um dieses junge, thematisch vielfältige und vor allem in der angelsächsischen Literatur verankerte Forschungsfeld besser verstehbar zu machen. Hierfür identifizieren wir drei Hauptelemente der Diskussion, die eng miteinander verwoben sind: (1) Mehr-als-menschliche Geographien versuchen anthropozentrische Perspektiven zu überwinden. Dazu wenden sie sich von der rein vernunft- und sinnorientierten Dimension unseres Lebens ab und lenken den Blick auf die leiblichen, affektiven und emotionalen Erfahrungen der Welt und unsere soziomateriellen Praktiken. (2) geht es ihnen darum, den anthropozentrischen Dualismus von menschlichen und nichtmenschlichen Entitäten aufzubrechen und besser zu verstehen, wie wir in unserer menschlichen Existenz mit nichtmenschlichen Entitäten verwoben sind, wie wir gemeinsam unsere Geographien und Mitwelten ko-produzieren und was dabei für Menschen und Nichtmenschen in jeweils spezifischen Assemblages von Belang ist. (3) wird das Ideal einer forschenden Person, die aus einer externen Position auf die Welt blickt und Prozesse und Phänomene zu erklären versucht, aufgegeben. Dies hat Konsequenzen für die Methodologien und Methodiken in der Disziplin, die sich verstärkt mit der Frage beschäftigen, wie man sich in Forschungsdesign und praktischer Forschungsarbeit nichtrationalem und nichtmenschlichem – über Leiblichkeit, Affekte und Emotionen – adäquat methodisch nähern kann und ob und inwiefern sich unsere gewohnten Repräsentationsformen wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse verändern müssen. Vor diesem Hintergrund argumentieren wir, (a) dass die mit dem Feld verbundenen konzeptionellen Veränderungen einen im Entstehen begriffenen grundlegenden paradigmatischen Wandel in und außerhalb der Geographie anzeigen, der einer zweiten kopernikanischen Wende gleichkommt, (b) dass sich damit die Selbstpositionierung des Menschen in der Welt neukonfiguriert und die Art und Weise wie Wissenschaft und Humangeographie aktuell gedacht werden, radikal verändert und (c) dass diese Wende auch von naturwissenschaftlicher Forschung inspiriert ist, zunehmend in die Naturwissenschaften hineinwirkt und insofern neue Möglichkeitsräume für eine interdisziplinäre und integrative Forschung eröffnet. Im Sinne einer von der Philosophie des klassischen Pragmatismus inspirierten Humangeographie – in der einige der in den Mehr-als-menschlichen Geographien diskutierten Ansätze ihre (meta-)theoretischen Wurzeln haben – sehen wir eine neue Haltung wissenschaftlicher Forschung und Welterschließung entstehen, die sich von etablierten Dualismen verabschiedet und an deren Stelle nun Positionalität, Relationalität und Emergenz treten.
... Theming, retail theatre, sport spectacle and fashion photoshoots are some of the practices involved in the systematic engineering of affect to enchant/entrap (Thrift, 2004) consumers in marketized experiences (Carù and Cova, 2003). In our case, Kate Moss was selected by the fashion industry precisely because of the affective capacities of her body. ...
Article
In this paper, we are concerned with how we might account for the under-appreciated relation of intensities that flow through and around consumption experiences. In pursuing clarity, researchers have tended to treat consumer experiences as bounded and discrete, segregated from the messy unfolding of life around them. In this work, we look to acknowledge this everyday unfolding of the experience to appreciate how we might articulate the more-than-representational excess of seemingly un-spectacular, quotidian moments of encounter, and how we might attune ourselves to the constant unfolding of consumer experiences. In addressing these concerns, we produce a series of narratives designed to reveal both the ecologies and processual registers of experience. These narratives seek not just to inform, but also to evoke and provoke. Moreover, they work to engage readers with the messiness of everyday life attempting to give form to phenomena that are essentially formless and in continuous circulation.
... Thus, 'people not only live and work in places, they become attached to them, give them symbolic meanings, and derive part of their personal identity from residence in places' (Brown, 2019, p. 487). While authors have made connections between different conceptualizations of migration networks, place and affect (Massey, 2005;Thrift, 2004), few studies have highlighted the role of migrant networks in mobility and their transformation in time-space (Ryan, 2011;Ryan & Mulholland, 2014). This paper shows how, through their mobility, migrants have created several mobile networks in time-space that are characterized by connection and encounter, but also by differences linked to place. ...
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This paper explores the (re)interpretation of migration networks on the move following the European Union (EU) enlargement towards eastern Europe, which affected people's mobility in time–space. The paper poses two questions: are one or more migration networks engaged in this mobility? Is it possible to rethink migration networks in the context of mobility? Drawing on 60 in‐depth interviews with Romanians in Spain, my novel argument is that even while on they move people construct dynamic and multifaceted networks situated between encounter and difference that transcend their distinctive features and complement each other: ‘associative networks’ grouped around migrant associations; ‘professional networks’ articulated around the institutions that represent Romania in Spain; and ‘global networks of encounter’ that include highly mobile young people. The conclusions emphasize that the notion of migration networks on the move can be rethought by taking a transformative approach that overcomes differences and seeks interconnective synergy.
... Thereby, as theorized in the conceptual framework in chapter 2, affect describes the "transpersonal capacity […] to be affected (through an affection) and to affect" (Anderson, 2006, p.735). Addressing a gap in political analyses more generally and urban political economy specifically (Thrift, 2004;Ben Anderson, 2016), this chapter intervenes into abstract-concrete disputes by proposing to abstract from the granular, affect-laden realities of path-dependent structural contexts and theorize the role of affective mediations in neoliberal urban restructuring. Therein the developed conceptualization of multiple hermeneutics of affect underpins the analysis of the (often irrational seeming) reproduction of a context of neoliberalization and urban austerity, marked by the increasing dominance of market-based governance with its undeniably anti-social effects (Peck, 2012;Schipper and Schönig, 2016;Coleman, 2016;Cooper and Paton, 2019;Davies et al., 2020;Hall, 2020;Davies, 2021). ...
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This thesis untangles the influence of neoliberal urban restructuring on political polarization in Leipzig, East Germany, and demonstrates how in turn the local, politicized relations of tenants marked by solidarities, fragmentation and authoritarianism, impact urban restructuring. Uncovering the interrelation of housing privatization and financialization driven urban change since the end of state socialism with tenants’ political subjectivation, it offers an interdisciplinary contribution to urban political economy and the political, sociological, and geographical study of the formation of political subjectivities. Through retroductive research based on a qualitative and ethnographic empirical case study, it proposes a relational lens to inquire the interdependence of neoliberal urban restructuring and emergent relations of, among and between tenants. After illustrating the affectively mediated patterns of housing financialization at the base of the neoliberal restructuring of an exceptional, East German boomtown, the thesis then shows how this structural process is reproduced through the stratified effects of residential alienation. Therewith, a multi-scalar theorization of residential alienation is developed in its dialectical counterpart with appropriation. The analysis of its structural, stratified psychosocial, and meso-relational aspects reveals that neoliberal urban restructuring reproduces hierarchical class divisions among tenants. These interplay with tenants’ spatialized (dis)identification and temporalities of belonging and constitute a context favourable for the emergence of fragmentations between tenants and groups of tenants. Introducing this concept as a pivotal part of residential alienation, it is demonstrated how fragmentations (a) shape the politically polarized climate of Leipzig by limiting solidarities and nurturing authoritarian divisions, and (b) tendentially reproduce neoliberal urban restructuring.
... What intellectual conditions might have conditioned the emergence of a set of scholarship interested in 'affective infrastructures'? It is compelling to juxtapose the above scholarship with geographers involved in debates concerning the role of affect and emotion in space and place that occurred in the prior decade (Henderson, 2008;McCormack, 2006;Mohammad and Sidaway, 2012;Pile, 2010;Thien, 2005;Thrift, 2004;Tolia-Kelly, 2006). These debates turned first on whether there is a conceptual difference between affect as an inaccessible or excessive realm with regards to emotion, deemed more conscious and representational. ...
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Recent work in analyses of infrastructure and affect theory has mobilized a concept of 'affective infrastructure' in two related but somewhat different ways. On the one hand, some scholars use the concept to draw our attention to the emotions produced by concrete infrastructure systems. On the other hand, scholars have sought to locate how affect might condition forms of political organization. The concept risks analytic confusion: is 'infrastructure' metaphor, analogy, or material-technical system? Is the concept historically, spatially, or empirically situated, or does it have potential generic parameters as well? This article seeks to reconstruct two 'sides' of affective infrastructure, while drawing out its significance for infrastructural politics. Doing so also involves understanding the problem space from which it emerged: affective geographies and 20 th century Marxism. This article's process of reading results in a cluster of attendant concepts that give 'affective infrastructure' further specificity: mediation, endurance, determination, technical alienation, temporalities of repair, and political organization. The article's wager is that the concept gains analytic utility when it is used to clarify the ratio between historically-situated technical alienation as a power relation of enduring colonial capitalism; and the project of organizing anti-colonial social relations that might work to transform the capitalist mode of production.
... In 1945, Zygmunt Wojciechowski, the founder of the Institute of Western Affairs in Poznań, wrote that to fulfil the great tasks in the Recovered Territories, 'it is necessary to awaken the vital emotional states in Polish society', which must 'feel that it is going for its own [possession] ' ( cited in Dobrzycki 1974). This purposeful 'spatial affective politics' (Thrift 2004) triggers the whole sphere of overlapping affects and emotionsfrom enthusiasm and pleasure, through to resentment, reluctance and hatred. 'Hospitable things' were one of the main rhetorical figures in the propaganda, which stimulated positive emotions like pleasure, belonging, and happiness with a return to the homeland. ...
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In this article, I propose the category of 'hospitable things', and argue that it can improve our understanding of the relationships between subjects and objects in the situation of migration. The analysis uses a case study of Polish migration to territories of prewar Germany and the Free City of Danzig-the so-called Recovered Territories [Ziemie Odzyskane]-in the twilight of World War II. Based on primary sources from the time, I scrutinise how the new Polish settlers transformed German property into 'hospitable things' with substantial help from the postwar propaganda. I reconstruct the affective atmosphere of the period and confront these expectations with the actual experience of hostility materialised by everyday things. The image of 'hospitable things'-waiting and ready to be taken-has been formed through the experience of migration in radically inhospitable circumstances. 'Hospitable things' enable people to cope with the emotions accompanying the fragile experience of displacement; they help to form and transform fears and insecurities, but also desires and wants.
... Qué son y para qué sirven los afectos y las emociones son preguntas abiertas, que no tienen una respuesta única y concreta pero que invita a los estudios culturales, a las humanidades y a las ciencias sociales, a buscar acuerdos operativos sobre su lenguaje, conceptos y categorías (Lozoya, 2018(Lozoya, y 2019. Desde estos campos del conocimiento podemos pensar afecto como una experiencia del mundo y un contacto con el mundo que precede a todo pensamiento sobre este (Didi-Huberman, 2014); como la propiedad del resultado activo, emergente de un encuentro (Clough y Halley, 2007;Kraftl, 2008) que toma la forma de un aumento o disminución en la capacidad del cuerpo y mente para actuar (Thrift, 2004); como una propiedad de las relaciones, interacciones o eventos (Davidson, Bondi y Smith, 2005); como una lógica procesual de transiciones que ÍNDICE toman lugar durante los encuentros espaciales y temporales (Anderson, 2009). ...
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El diseño en sus diferentes dimensiones forma parte de la vida humana, los objetos que utilizamos fueron pensados para ser funcionales y ajustarse a las ideas estéticas de cada época. Sin embargo, no siempre existe una acuciosa reflexión respecto del papel que juegan los objetos de diseño en los diferentes escenarios donde se insertan. A pesar de que en las últimas décadas desde el campo del diseño se han incursionado en la interdisciplinariedad para generar productos más asertivos, aún falta realizar estudios que hagan evidentes los vínculos con otras áreas de conocimiento y el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones. En este sentido, desde la perspectiva de la interdisciplinariedad se podrían generar más explicaciones teóricas y diferentes metodologías, alejando los resultados de visiones fragmentadas y demasiado especializadas, para tener una perspectiva holística. Por otra parte, en el terreno de la creación del diseño, los objetos que se producen podrían estar enfocados y con características específicas para donde se habrían de desenvolver.
... Böhme's argument is important in that it invites us to attend to atmospheres and their affects empirically, to follow their production, and to think through the implications of atmospheres as they are operationalised in the built environment. Much has been written about the ambivalent and powerful use of architectural affects within commercial environments (e.g., Allen, 2006;Thrift, 2004), but within a healthcare context, Duff argues, 'work on affective atmospheres avails a means of tracing some of the mechanisms by which capacities like hope, sociality, meaning and empowerment ebb and flow for bodies in recovery ' (2016: 62). ...
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This paper explores the design of hospital environments, in order to investigate how issues of infection control, spatial layout, and embodied practices intersect in the accomplishment of ‘care-ful’ geographies. Specifically, we trace how the material environments of three UK cystic fibrosis (CF) clinics are assembled in order to orchestrate routines that minimise the risk of cross-infection between patients and safeguard their wellbeing. Our analysis of these clinics, derived from interviews with staff and patients and ethnographic observation, reveals the importance of environmental factors in brokering affective atmospheres that can alleviate patients’ anxieties. Theoretically, we draw on Ben Anderson's understanding of how affect works as, simultaneously, an object-target, bodily capacity, and collective condition, in order to draw out the architectural atmospherics of the CF clinic. That is, we first report how clinic staff anticipate cross-infection risks and configure the physical environment in order to minimise these risks. We then describe the embodied practices of patients as they move through hospital spaces in ways that protect themselves, and others, from cross-infection. Finally, we analyse how this choreography of material environments by staff and the movement of patients’ bodies combine to evoke a shared understanding of the clinic as a safe space, in contrast to perceptions of the hospital as a threatening environment. Our focus on the affective atmospheres of the CF clinic allows us to develop an in-depth analysis of the role of materialities, mobilities, and design in the social construction of risk, especially in a post-COVID pandemic age.
... For example, Landau and Toland (2021) argued that political action is stimulated when the senses are galvanized through artistic engagement. Moreover, within non-representational theory (Thrift 2004) there has been increased concern with the articulations of ethics and aesthetics, often turning to the arts and the sensate (Harrison 2000) to identify "new modes of ethical and aesthetic inhabitation" (McCormack 2002: 473). ...
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The Anthropocene brings to the fore the need to foster ontologies that reject the modern "one-world world" (Law 2015) model, characterized by extractivism, dualism and human exceptionalism, requiring the enactment of pluriverses (de la Cadena & Blaser 2018) that recognize the heterogeneous clamor of human and non-human agency. As an attempt to listen-with those oppressed and silenced by the modern extractivist paradigm, in this paper, we propose the mobilization of relational, dialogic and non-dualistic methodologies that attend to subaltern and more-than-human worlds. Drawing on a variety of sources-such as the Parliament of Things, the Council of All Beings, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, meditative and artistic practices-, our article speculatively engages with affective, situated, hybrid and counter-hegemonic methodologies that articulate contemplative practices, the arts, more-than-human agency and local communities, recognizing that politics, aesthetics and affect are intimately entwined. Our experimental endeavour is centred on three case studies that encapsulate some of the socio-political and technological tensions of our current zeitgeist-wildfires, geoengineering, and lithium mining-, speculating on how pluriversal methodologies can bring to the fore the many worlds silenced by the modern "one-world world".
... The notion of affect splits affect from thought, and thought from its representatives (Pile, 2010). It denotes embodied doings or responses and a quality of life that is noncognitive, non-reflexive, transpersonal, transhuman, virtual, inexpressible and non-representational (Anderson, 2006;Anderson and Harrison, 2006;Pile, 2010;Thrift, 2004). ...
Article
This article outlines the connections between technologies (mobile devices, photo-editing apps, social media, and so on), people, and digital/physical places through the lens of everyday photography practices. It contributes to wider discussions in digital geographies by investigating affective social media’s role in the embodied and performative practices of digital photography. Drawing on a qualitative analysis of digital photography in urban Guangzhou (a city in south China), this article argues that digital photography practices and processes are entangled with people’s imaginaries of places based on their social and cultural identities, photography skills, aesthetics, geographical knowledge, as well as local cultures reframed by affective social media platforms. Embodied and performative photography practices, in turn, can reproduce the affective value of social media platforms.
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This paper explores the affective dimensions of the Taliban’s violence in the Swat Valley of Pakistan, with a particular focus on the affective atmosphere of women’s markets there. This paper explores: How is the affective atmosphere of women’s markets in Swat embedded in the structure of feelings that forms the gendered geography of these markets in Swat? How were these culturally embedded places of sociality affected by Taliban’s violence? What effect did Taliban’s violence against women’s markets create in the broader affective economy of fear and violence in Swat? How have these markets revived in the post-conflict Swat? Instead of top-down theorizing of these everyday affective dimensions of the gendered perspective on violence, the paper relies on local voices to explain how women’s markets are perceived and lived during and after violent conflicts in the Swat Valley.
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Die Einreise von Geflüchteten in die Mitgliedsstaaten der EU erreichte einen zahlenmäßigen Höhepunkt im Sommer und Herbst 2015. Zu dieser Zeit prägten in Deutschland zwei Schlagworte die mediale Berichterstattung: "Flüchtlingskrise" (als Beschreibung der gegenwärtigen Migrationsphänomene) und "Willkommenskultur". Letztere stand für die breite und vielschichtige Bewegung ehrenamtlicher Flüchtlingshilfe, die das organisatorisch überforderte Asylsystem Deutschlands bei der Aufnahme und Integration Geflüchteter spürbar entlastete und so vielerorts einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Aufrechterhaltung des sozialen Friedens leistete. Damit ist ehrenamtliche Flüchtlingshilfe nicht nur eine sinnvolle Freizeitbeschäftigung oder ein lobenswerter Beitrag für die Gesellschaft, sondern immer auch eingebunden in die öffentlichen und politischen Debatten um den Umgang mit und die Konsequenzen von Migrationsereignissen. Die ehrenamtlich Aktiven bewegen sich folglich in einem hoch politisierten Umfeld, welches sich mit der Verschärfung der Diskussion um Migration und Integration zunehmend konfliktreich darstellt. Diesem dynamischen Feld zivilgesellschaftlichen Engagements widmet sich das vorliegende Buch, indem es mit Hilfe einer praxistheoretischen Perspektive die Wirkungsweisen und Aushandlungsprozesse ehrenamtlicher Flüchtlingshilfe dargestellt und reflektiert. Die Analyse des prozessualen Beziehungsgeschehen der Menschen untereinander in und mit ihrer (Um-)Welt zeigt, dass ehrenamtliches Engagement für Geflüchtete insbesondere in Bezug auf die vier zum Teil konfligierenden Kernaspekte der Offenheit und Unverbindlichkeit, des moralisch guten Tuns, der Übernahme gesellschaftlicher Verantwortung und der Erwartung einer erfahrbaren kulturellen Differenz gestaltet und legitimiert wird. Darüber hinaus wird deutlich, dass insbesondere die persönlichen Beziehungen zwischen Ehrenamtlichen und Geflüchteten dazu beitragen können, asylrechtlichen Verschärfungen entgegenzuwirken, neue Teilhaberäume zu eröffnen und damit einen Beitrag zu gesamtgesellschaftlicher Stabilität zu leisten.
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This article discusses whether and how the ‘Anthropocene’ concept per se as well as recent interdisciplinary dialogue and philosophical scholarship developed around the global sustainability crisis and the role of humans in inciting or alleviating it, can enrich the theory and practice of Environmental Education for Sustainability (EEfS). It is argued that fostering post-humanist and new-materialist lines of thought and practice can serve as tools for critically challenging the roots and reality of the Anthropocene and enable the transition to a Post-Anthropocene era. Education has a central role to play by challenging anthropocentric approaches and fostering a relational ethic that shifts attention from individual human agents to the communities of both human and more-than-human agents in a place. ‘Pedagogy of the assemblages’, drawing on the philosophical thought and work by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, is proposed as an appropriate pedagogical framework that can enrich EEfS to this direction. Following a relational ontology and based on the experiential and embodied explorations and interactions of children/students with the more-than-human world, pedagogy of the assemblages offers new planes for reflection and practice in EEfS. Our article aims to illustrate that creative interaction between an appropriate philosophical and conceptual framework with educational theory, practice and research in EEfS can render the Anthropocene challenge into a mechanism to activate transformative teaching and learning for more sustainable ways of living and co existence. Το παρόν άρθρο εξετάζει κατά πόσο η έννοια του «Ανθρωπόκαινου» και μαζί με αυτήν η διεπιστημονική προβληματική και ο φιλοσοφικός στοχασμός που έχουν αναπτυχθεί για την πραγματικότητα που εκπροσωπεί και τον ρόλο του ανθρώπου στην πρόκληση που εμπεριέχει θα μπορούσαν να εμπλουτίσουν την παιδαγωγική σκέψη και πράξη της Περιβαλλοντικής Εκπαίδευσης για την Αειφορία (ΠΕΑ). Υποστηρίζεται ότι η καλλιέργεια μιας μετα-ανθρωπιστικής και νεο-ματεριαλιστικής γραμμής σκέψης και πρακτικής μπορεί να λειτουργήσει ως εργαλείο αμφισβήτησης και μετεξέλιξης σε μια Μετα-Ανθρωπόκαινo εποχή, με την Εκπαίδευση να έχει κεντρικό ρόλο στη μετατόπιση της προσοχής από τον «Άνθρωπο» στις «κοινότητες των ανθρώπινων και μη- ανθρώπινων στοιχείων» ενός τόπου. Προτείνεται και συζητείται η «παιδαγωγική των συναρμογών» (pedagogy of the assemblages), η οποία αντλεί στοιχεία από τη σκέψη και το έργο των Gilles Deleuze και Felix Guattari, ακολουθώντας μια σχεσιακή οντολογία που στηρίζεται στις βιωματικές, ενσώματες εξερευνήσεις και αλληλεπιδράσεις των παιδιών με τον πέρα-από-τον-ανθρώπινο (more-than-human) κόσμο, δημιουργώντας νέους «τόπους» προβληματισμού και δυναμικής για την ΠΕΑ. Το άρθρο επιδιώκει να καταδείξει ότι η δημιουργική αλληλεπίδραση ανάμεσα σε ένα κατάλληλο φιλοσοφικό και εννοιολογικό πλαίσιο και την εκπαιδευτική θεωρία, πράξη και έρευνα στην ΠΕΑ μπορεί να καταστήσει την πρόκληση του Ανθρωπόκαινου μηχανισμό ενεργοποίησης μετασχηματιστικών πρακτικών διδασκαλίας και μάθησης για πιο αειφορικούς τρόπους ζωής και συνύπαρξης.
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This book examines urban experience from the vantage point of the global South. Drawing upon narratives coming from three key axes—communities, neighbourhoods, and market places—it lays bare the specificities of urban experience in contemporary Surat. It discusses a host of issues, including the ambiguity of urban experience, its uncomfortable ties with frames of the capital, and the politics of urban belonging that operate at multiple levels, shaping the contours of urban society. Musing on the subjectivities pertaining to the social and the spatial in a milieu of a fast-transforming urban landscape of Surat, Gujarat, the book is an exploration of how people perceive and associate with their surroundings, how they aspire, how they stigmatise others, the relation between the city and its migrants and castes, and at a broader level, between the capital and the city. An important contribution to the study of cities, the volume sheds light on how urban experience can be approached as a socially and spatially embedded concept. It will be of great interest to scholars and researchers of social history, urban sociology, urban studies, global South, and South Asia. Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Preface Acknowledgements Introduction Chapter 1: Surat: An Overview Chapter 2: Caste in a Contemporary City Chapter 3: Cityscapes and Dalit Desires Chapter 4: A City of Migrants Chapter 5: Neighbourhoods Chapter 6: What Dwells in the Market Place? Epilogue Bibliography Index
Chapter
Fifty years have passed since the original publication of Italo Calvino’s magisterial book Invisible Cities (Le città invisibili). Despite its brevity, the work’s themes and poetics are expansive, challenging traditional conventions of genre and academic discipline. Much has been written about the book as a piece of literature, but Invisible Cities has long been a favorite among social scientists and planners as well. This collection serves as both appreciation and critical engagement, tribute and extension. To commemorate the 50th anniversary, the essays in this volume grapple with the theoretical, pedagogical, and political legacies of Invisible Cities. The chapters, by and large, approach the novel not only as a novel but as a work of urban theory, a work of evocative ethnography, a work of place-writing. Fifty years on, what can Calvino’s dreamlike book offer to scholars and practitioners interested in actually existing urban life? This chapter examines Calvino and his work before introducing the scope of the volume and the the chapters that follow.
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The paper deals with the idea of participation or community in dance. The idea of community has become key in contemporary discussions about the globalization of contemporary societies, and dance has a large share in the reflections of these global processes. Dance also has a very long tradition of community thinking. From this long and rich tradition, this paper will point out the ways in which the idea of community is reflected in social and artistic dances, pointing out both concrete dance forms and theoretical concepts, ideas and practices. Of the dance forms, the paper will discuss the tango pair dance, the flash mob dance-gathering form as well as the contact improvisation developed within postmodern dance. Of the theoretical and philosophical settings that underpin discussions of community in dance studies, the paper will discuss the concept of kinesthesia or “kinesthetic empathy”, “mirror neurons” in neuroscience as well as philosophical reflections on affect.
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The edited volume Senses of Cities: Anthropology, Art, Sensory Transformations brings some of the latest research and artistic approaches to the sensory experience of contemporary urban landscapes to the Slovenian scholarly space and also highlights past sensory perceptions and memories of them in selected cities (e.g. Ljubljana, Skopje, Turku, Brighton). Scholarly texts from the field of cultural anthropology, its sub-disciplines such as sensory and urban anthropology, and related disciplines, especially cultural history, cultural studies, ethnomusicology and various posthumanist philosophies, are interwoven in an innovative way with experimental and artistic contributions and interdisciplinary interpretations of sensory perceptions. The thematic comprehensiveness of the subject matter, the empirical richness and the methodological diversity make the volume essential reading for anyone interested in contemporary, critical, socially engaged and unconventional theories and practises of urban space and its contradictions through all five human senses.
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Skate-stoppers are ubiquitous objects installed on outdoor surfaces in built environments all over the world. Skate-stoppers are an essential part of low-tech security of urban surfaces at a micro-scale—a single bench, handrail, or ledge—with the sole-purpose of protecting these surfaces from skateboarders. As such skate-stoppers are an extension of human and electronic surveillance systems, though in many patches of the urban landscape, skate-stoppers are a low-cost substitute for more sophisticated technologies. This interplay of control and liberation draws attention to surfaces in urban space and specific tactics adopted to secure and protect them through surveillance. In this article, we explore the criticality of skate-stoppers and tactics for removing them to advance the study of surveillance of small spaces. We argue that skate-stoppers are aggressive attempts to control urban space by interrupting the flow of bodies and boards along particular surfaces, namely the “spots” desired by skateboarders. Second, we argue that the installation of skate-stoppers has shifted from reaction to anticipation of skateboarders, and new construction projects now come with skate-stoppers already installed as part of surveillance infrastructure. Third, we argue that skateboarders have become adept at liberating spots from skate-stoppers, restoring flow to surfaces through both organised activism and covert acts, underscoring the limitations of surveillance using objects. We conclude with some thoughts on the disjuncture between the embrace of creative cities and the proliferation of skate-stoppers, suggesting creative play and its desired affective properties are regulated by the control of surfaces in the same spaces.
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The study of place atmospheres is relevant to understand a series of elements in the relationship between subjectivity and place (Gandy, 2017); especially the processes of change in urban space and the possibilities for this change to be purposefully directed (Sumartojo & Pink, 2019). In this article, I analyse how the curation of food markets requires the use of different cultural and aesthetic knowledges that capitalize on the vast gentrification process in London’s (UK) key areas in order to create a place atmosphere, and with it, to generate belonging and exclusion. This work explores specifically how commercial space organizers, as cultural intermediaries or “curators” use their specific taste to create pop-up street food markets. Curation implies a delicate design process and arrangement of different material, affective and sensorial elements. This includes the selection of food vendor with particular cuisines, and the distribution and flows in the market space to attract a certain audience. In this article, I draw findings from an ethnography conducted in 2014 and 2015, using the case of Vibes Feast, a company that organises night markets in London in areas such as Dalston, Lewisham and Battersea. I use the case of the Lewisham market in southeast London to illustrate the curatorial work or market organisers. I analyse their working practices and decision-making process to understand how the curation of this kind of markets is a relevant practice in the generation of place atmospheres for consumption and the integration of a middle class public, excluding the rest.
Thesis
Amidst the contemporary ‘War on Woke’ in the UK and elsewhere, increasing concern has been focussed on the ‘offendability’ or ‘sensitivity’ of students on university campuses – a concern that has largely been captured in the notion of an ongoing ‘culture war’. Critical voices within the media and in government – as well as in academia – claim there has been a rise of a culture of “toxic victimhood” (Fox, 2016), and a creeping “crusade of conformism” (Hume, 2016) whereby students currently seek “freedom from speech” in the name of “intellectual comfort” (Lukianoff, 2014). This ‘conformity’ to the principles of ‘wokeness’ is considered to have an “infantilizing” effect on a generation of young people, producing pathologically vulnerable subjects, jeopardising academic freedom, and endangering freedom of expression more broadly (O’Neill, 2015; Furedi, 2017). However, largely absent from such diagnoses of the ‘problem’ of taking offence ‘too easily’ is any empirical analysis of how offence is experienced, understood, and responded to by those social subjects who describe themselves as ‘offended’. This thesis seeks to remedy that absence by demonstrating the disconnect between what such contemporary criticism describes and participants’ own accounts of the experience and impact of being offended. In this thesis, understood as an archive of offence, I map out and interrogate the phenomenon, materiality, feeling, and experience (the texture) of offence. This archive is primarily composed of 38 semi-structured personal interviews conducted between March 2015 and June 2017, conducted in the context of the University of Cambridge, in which participants were asked to reflect on a time in which they were offended. By interrogating the complexity and nuance of how participants describe their own experiences, and their strategic responses to offensive behaviour in the context of everyday routine university activities, I generate new models and concepts that contribute to a sociology of offence. Through unpacking participants’ accounts of feeling offended, I explore both the affective and analytical dimensions of such encounters – which I argue are powerfully indexical of under- described dimensions of ‘the politics of everyday feeling’ in contemporary society. I explore, for example, that interviewees were able to clearly describe vulnerability to offence as a historical and materially produced relation rather than a product of individual pathology, and I argue such testimony from the study participants can help to reveal the highly patterned and repetitive nature of offence. Furthermore, through an exploration of how participants themselves analysed and deconstructed their own experiences of feeling offended, as well as their accounts of strategies deployed to respond or resist such injuries, I provide a critical and sociological language of becoming and being ‘woke’ as a particular incarnation of being or acting ‘politically correct’. Using my participants’ descriptions of how they manage and navigate the feeling of being offended in relation to others, I describe being ‘woke’ as a prefigurative horizon politics legible through underlying guiding principles that aim to transform conditions of livability for marginalized subjects. Yet, importantly, these accounts also demonstrate that understanding ‘wokeness’ as a prefigurative horizon politics means that it is necessarily replete with tensions, failures, and strategic dilemmas. Being and becoming ‘woke’, from this perspective, is thus revealed as an ongoing project rather than something that can be mapped or known in advance. Furthermore, this politics, in seeking to extend comfort to others, often comes at a personal cost. However, I conclude by suggesting that these operations of ‘wokeness’ are a means of practicing more inclusive and radical transformation through a politicization and transformation of everyday interaction. As such, this thesis utilizes queer, feminist, and anti- racist scholarship to further understanding of classical sociological issues such as identity formation, belonging, and institutional, social, and interpersonal violence through the “keyhole issue” (Hochschild, 2016) of offence and aims to provide an initial intervention into a subfield of the sociology of emotions in its own right – the sociology of offence.
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Affect theory raises greater awareness of non-representational forces in social life that can shape different levels of subjectivity in ways that may not be immediately known to the subjects. In outbreaks of mass hysteria when subjects are suddenly exposed to bizarre and extreme behaviors, the question of affect becomes a key to understanding how their subjectivity is impacted by situations that seemingly slip immediate control. Hysterical subjectivity occurs not from unconscious forces but from affective contagions spreading throughout network assemblages. These are flows of fear and conflict that with non-conscious influences constitute the new forces of mass encounters. In these encounters, micro-flows of imitation are automatized by various assemblages of intention and action to produce repeatable contagions of affects and behaviors. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the power of these flows as facilitating a global affectivity of mass hysteria. It is an affectivity in which imitation takes on a central role as technology of the social for the behavioral control of mass populations. Ubiquitous mask-wearing in the pandemic is not only seen as a prophylactic against viral infection but also intended as a mandated form of mimicry for propagating the new politics of virality. These are politics that empower fear as an agent of cascading contagions paralyzing social, cultural, and economic life around the world.
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In this chapter we look at how housing commons enable autonomy and degrowth, recognizing that state hierarchy and market commodification pose a threat to autonomy. The maintenance of autonomous housing presents a challenge for degrowth planning. In the chapter we explore the institutional architecture of a housing cooperative built around degrowth ideals: Amsterdam's De Nieuwe Meent. We develop a compass that identifies the conditions under which autonomy in urban housing markets can be maintained and show how these work in practice.
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El ecoturismo se convirtió en uno de los sectores más importantes de la agenda gubernamental del Guaviare desde mediados del 2000. A través de sus capacitaciones, buscaba convertir a los campesinos cocaleros en sujetos ambientales-emprendedores, y a la Amazonia, en recurso no transformado generador de valor. Con el concepto de ecologías afectivas, exploro las relaciones que tuvieron lugar entre el ecoturismo, los campesinos, la selva y los residuos de guerra en el departamento del Guaviare entre 2005 y 2018. Al hacerlo, argumento que, aunque los campesinos reproducían los tipos de subjetividad y naturaleza del ecoturismo institucional que operan en la división sociedad-naturaleza, también los excedían. De esta manera, reflexiono sobre las capacidades que puede tener el concepto de ecologías afectivas para rastrear y pensar formas alternativas de vida sin ser capturadas por los marcos conceptuales modernos de las políticas ambientales y de lo que algunos llaman lo propiamente político.
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This is a study about representations, imaginaries and emotionalities of blackness configured from the city of Ouro Preto - Minas Gerais. The analysis discusses the symbolic dispute around the meanings of Ouro Preto landscapes between the patrimony institutions and people that, nowadays, accomplishes a coronation party of black kings in that city, the congadeiros from Alto da Cruz. The different memory versions that compete to the public representation of black people identities are presented from two main analytical axes: the places and the symbolic itineraries. To the survey I adopted an interpretative perspective in which I proceeded with an analysis of documents, artistic works, architectural buildings and touristic routes, conjugated with the fieldwork of observance of the rituals of achievement and production of the parties and the conduction of interviews. The immersion in Ouro Preto landscape and the interaction with congadeiros made possible to indicate the way the festive rituals made by groups of Congado produce insurgent symbolic itineraries consonant to the re-signification of the hegemonic images of blackness disclosed by the official organs of memory maintenance. The description and analysis of the dynamics of production of these different representations and of the interactions between them made possible to recognize the practices of affirmation, contestation and the updating of the identities mediated by Ouro Preto landscape. Este é um estudo sobre as representações, imaginários e emocionalidades de negritude configurados a partir da cidade de Ouro Preto-MG. A análise discute a disputa simbólica em torno dos significados das paisagens ouro-pretanas entre as instituições patrimoniais e aqueles que atualmente realizam naquela cidade uma festa de coroação de reis negros, os congadeiros do Alto da Cruz. As diferentes versões memoriais que concorrem pela representação pública das identidades dos povos negros são apresentadas a partir de dois eixos analíticos principais: os lugares e os itinerários simbólicos. Para a pesquisa adotei uma perspectiva interpretativa em que procedi com a análise de documentos, obras artísticas, construções arquitetônicas e percursos turísticos, conjugados ao trabalho de campo de observância dos rituais de realização e produção das festas e à condução de entrevistas. A imersão na paisagem ouro-pretana e a interação com os congadeiros possibilitou indicar o modo como os rituais festivos elaborados pelos grupos de Congado produzem itinerários simbólicos insurgentes consoantes à ressignificação das imagens hegemônicas de negritude veiculadas pelos órgãos oficiais de conservação da memória. A descrição e análise da dinâmica de produção dessas diferentes representações e das interações entre elas possibilitou reconhecer as práticas de afirmação, contestação e atualização das identidades mediadas pelas paisagens em Ouro Preto.
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This paper focuses on the study of affective and digital cartographies and on relating them systematically with their design applications. The research is based on theDesign Science Research strategy, through the following logical structure: (1) Problem identification; (2) Communication; (3) Definition of the objective of the solution; (4)Artifact design, development and implementation; (5) Demonstration and Evaluation.The results presented correspond to phases (1), (2) and structuring of (3). The categorization was based on the principles: (a) dynamism (dynamic vs. static), (b)responsiveness (immediate vs. non-immediate), (c) implementation domain (hard vs.soft), and (d) affective aspect (quantitative vs. qualitative). This was synthesized in achart, which was submitted to the analysis of a group of 4 experts from a public urban planning entity, and possible applications of affective cartographies in urban projects were obtained. Those were confronted with reality from the overlapping of the problems listed with the synthesis chart, positioning such cartographies as to their vocations (PDF) Affective Cartographies for Smarter Cities. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/358607280_Affective_Cartographies_for_Smarter_Cities [accessed Aug 16 2022].
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The aspiration to be creative seems today to be more or less compulsory in an increasing number of areas of life. In psychological vocabularies, in economic life, in education and beyond, the values of creativity have taken on the force of a moral agenda. Yet creativity is a value which, though we may believe we choose it ourselves, may in fact make us complicit with what today might be seen as the most conservative of norms: compulsory individualism, compulsory 'innovation', compulsory per­formativity and productiveness, the compulsory valorization of the putatively new. This article suggests that, in order to escape the moralizing injunction to be creative, we need to cultivate a kind of ethical philistinism, albeit disaggregating such philistinism from the negativism of outright cynicism or fatuity. However, there is not much use in outlining an abstract model of philistinism. Instead, we take some 'exemplars' of a philistine attitude to creativity - Gilles Deleuze, F. R. Leavis, and Paul Cézanne - in order to show how such an ethos can be accomplished, on the one hand, with or without philosophy, and, on the other, with or without even the very idea of creativity itself, invoking instead the notions of 'inventiveness' and an 'ethics of inertia' as against creativity as such. The message should be that, rather than this or that theory, only exemplars - the bit-by-bit assembly of reminders - can help liberate us from the potentially moronic consequences of the doctrine of creativity.
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List of tables List of figures Preface Introduction: 1. The decline and fall of political activism? 2. Theories of political activism Part I. The Puzzle of Electoral Turnout: 3. Mapping turnout 4. Do institutions matter? 5. Who votes? Part II. Political Parties: 6. Mapping party activism 7. Who joins? Part III. Social Capital and Civic Society: 8. Social capital and civic society 9. Traditional mobilising agencies: unions and churches 10. New social movements, protest politics and the internet 11. Conclusions: the reinvention of political activism? Appendix: comparative framework Notes Select bibliography Index.
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In The Navigation of Feeling: A Framework for the History of Emotions, William M. Reddy offers a theory of emotions which both critiques and expands upon recent research in the fields of anthropology and psychology. Exploring the links between emotion and cognition, between culture and emotional expression, Reddy applies this theory of emotions to the processes of history. He demonstrates how emotions change over time, how emotions have a very important impact on the course of events, and how different social orders either facilitate or constrain emotional life. In an investigation of Revolutionary France, where sentimentalism in literature and philosophy had promised a new and unprecedented kind of emotional liberty, Reddy's theory of emotions and historical change is successfully put to the test.
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This article attempts to understand the reconstitution of the `present' in modern societies. I argue that this reconstitution is the result of work done on `bare life', which I associate with that little space of time between action and performance. The article goes on to consider the ways in which this reconstitution of the present is taking place, using examples from the economic sphere. Throughout the article, I argue that operations on bare life are not only instrumental but also open up new spaces of biopolitical practice based on a greater recognition of the value of slowness in a world commonly figured as fast.
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This article expores the implications of Agamben's refinement of Foucault's thesis concerning the positivity of power or the positive, concrete and micropolitical ways power produces subjects of form and life. Agamben argues both that the inclusion of bare life within the political realm is not simply a modern phenomenon but constitutes the original, if unconcealed, source of sovereign power, and that classical and modern politics are constituted through a structure of exception that simultaneously includes and excludes bare life from the political order. Juridico-political space is organized by the constitution of a zone of indiscernibility between inside and outside (the state of exception), but the problem of politics today, as symbolized by the Holocaust, is that the state of exception has become a place, or nomos which functions within and in place of the normal political order. For, in the camp, transition is made to an absolute biopolitical space where the critical relation between fact and law, exception and rule, and inside and outside that determine the concept of the political decision can no longer be sustained. The challenge that Ambagen presents to us is to imagine a politics that takes us beyond the decision on life as the ground of value. Following Foucault and Derrida, I concentrate on literature as a style of thought that offers us a radically impersonal or post-human position from which to contemplate being irreducible to the intention of the speaking or questioning subject and which cannot be situated within the anthropological fold that predicates man as the ground of being. Having examined the strengths and limitations of their readings of literary language, the article concludes by reflecting on Deleuze's work on literature as an inhuman and affective force that provides a privileged viewpoint for the construction of subjectivities and ideological statements. These reflections are developed through an analysis of 'political correctness' as a type of subjective becoming and a form of moral style in the fiction of Philip Roth.
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What will 21 st-century global social forms be like? In this article, we focus on the 'candidate system': this emerged in the late 19705 from the world of nation states, a world from which it has disembedded but on whose existence it thrives, foreshadowing things to come in other areas (though the lifeform may also simply disappear under certain regulatory circumstances). In the 1970s, first the USA (1971), then major European countries, including Britain by 1979, and finally Japan in the early 1980s, abolished exchange controls, effectively eliminating the Bretton Woods Agreement of fixed exchange rates in place since 1944 and allowing foreign exchange trading for purposes of speculation. In 1986, Hamilton and Biggart (1993) observed that the dealing rooms of the world had taken off; with an average of US$150 billion and as much as $250 billion being traded around the globe, double the volume of five years before. In April 1998, according to the Bank for International Settlements' latest Triennial Survey, the average daily turnover in traditional global foreign exchange instruments had risen from $36.4 billion in 1974 to $1.5 trillion (BIS, 1998).Two-thirds of this volume derives from 'over the counter' transactions, i.e. from inter-dealer transactions in a global banking network of institutions. Banks had responded quickly to the business opportunities which arose with the freedom of capital that the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system initiated. They also responded to an increasing demand stimulated by volatile exchange and interest rates reflecting various crises (e.g. the energy crisis of 1974) and to the tremendous growth in pension fund and other institutional holdings that needed to be invested.
  • W. REDDY
Les Cours de Gilles Deleuze. Deleuze/Spinoza. Cours Vincennes
  • G Deleuze
Display of passion which will end in tears
  • F Gibbons
  • K. KNORR CETINA
  • I. STENGERS