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Oil from pumpkin seeds was extracted using soxhlet extraction method and the extracted oil was characterized using standard methods. The physicochemical parameters of purified oil was determined. The boiling point of pumpkin seed oil was (158.90 oC) was equal to the values obtained in literature for some oil seeds, but lower than the boiling point of the oils studied, plus the melting point of pumpkin seed oil was (15.39 oC) that was an advantage in cold cream manufacture. The iodine value (104 ± 0.03 mg of KOH/g) of oil, indicating a high degree of unsaturation. The saponification value was (181± 3.2 mg KOH/g), this value indicated that the pumpkin seed oil had fatty acids with higher number of carbon atoms. As a final point, the acid value was low (0.67 ± 0.09 mg KOH), while the peroxide value was low (10.03 ± 0.59 meq peroxide /kg). The extracted pumpkin seed oil had an acceptable initial quality. The herbal remedy individually or in combination with standard medicines has been used in diverse medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. Pumpkin seed oil is one of the recognized edible oil and has substantial medicinal properties due to the presence of unique natural edible substances. Inflammation is an adaptive response that is triggered by noxious stimuli and conditions, which involves interactions amongst many cell types and mediators, and underlies many pathological processes. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) can influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms, and have been indicated as alternative anti-inflammatory agents to treat several inflammatory skin disorders. Pumpkin seed oil is rich in (UFAs), that its topical anti-inflammatory properties have been investigated. For that reason, the goal of this article was to evaluate the effects of pumpkin seed oil on acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation experimental models.
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International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 8, August 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Physicochemical Properties of Pumpkin Seed Oil &
Therapy of Inflammatory Facial Acne Vulgaris
Abeer A. Ibrahim, Tara Faeq, Shifaa Jameel Ibraheem*, Taghreed H Al-Noor**
Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Technical College of Health, Medical analysis Department
* University of Baghdad, Medicine College,
**Department of Chemistry, Education for Pure Science College, University of Baghdad
Ibn- Al Haitham, Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding Author: drtaghreed2[at]gmail.com
orcid.org/0000-0002-6761-7131
Abstract: Oil from pumpkin seeds was extracted using soxhlet extraction method and the extracted oil was characterized using
standard methods. The physicochemical parameters of purified oil was determined. The boiling point of pumpkin seed oil was (158.90
oC) was equal to the values obtained in literature for some oil seeds, but lower than the boiling point of the oils studied, plus the melting
point of pumpkin seed oil was (15.39 oC) that was an advantage in cold cream manufacture. The iodine value (104 ± 0.03 mg of KOH/g)
of oil, indicating a high degree of unsaturation. The saponification value was (181± 3.2 mg KOH/g), this value indicated that the
pumpkin seed oil had fatty acids with higher number of carbon atoms. As a final point, the acid value was low (0.67 ± 0.09 mg KOH),
while the peroxide value was low (10.03 ± 0.59 meq peroxide /kg). The extracted pumpkin seed oil had an acceptable initial quality. The
herbal remedy individually or in combination with standard medicines has been used in diverse medical treatises for the cure of different
diseases. Pumpkin seed oil is one of the recognized edible oil and has substantial medicinal properties due to the presence of unique
natural edible substances. Inflammation is an adaptive response that is triggered by noxious stimuli and conditions, which involves
interactions amongst many cell types and mediators, and underlies many pathological processes. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) can
influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms, and have been indicated as alternative anti-inflammatory agents to treat
several inflammatory skin disorders. Pumpkin seed oil is rich in (UFAs), that its topical anti-inflammatory properties have been
investigated. For that reason, the goal of this article was to evaluate the effects of pumpkin seed oil on acute and chronic cutaneous
inflammation experimental models.
Keywords: The physicochemical parameters of extracted oil, therapy of acute and chronic facial inflammation
1. Introduction
Pumpkin is a storehouse of vitamins, mineral and other
healthy nutrients. Whether it is the pulp or the seed,
pumpkin is magnificent for your health and can offer
some inconceivable benefits [1]. Pumpkin seed oil has
been used traditionally as medicine in many countries
such as China, Yugoslavia, Argentina, India, Mexico,
Brazil, and America. It is applied in therapy of small
disorders of the prostate gland and urinary bladder caused
by hyperplasia (BHP)[2, 3]. Pumpkin seed extract has
been reported to have anti-diabetic, antitumor,
antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities.
Likewise, the health benefits of pumpkin seeds are
attributed to their macro- and micro-constituent
compositions. They are a rich natural source of
antioxidative phenolic compounds [4].
Pumpkin owes its bright orange color to the high amount
of carotenoids present in it.
phoCarotenoids assist in staving off the free radicals in the
body, and help in preventing premature aging,
cardiovascular diseases and other infections [5, 6].see
photo below:
Pumpkin seed oil has high amount of phytosterols or
plant-based fatty acids which can help in reducing the
blood cholesterol levels [7, 8]. Pumpkin seed oil is a rich
source of essential fatty acids, that has numerous health
benefits, when it provides the protection against serious
health diseases such as high blood pressure, arthritis and
promoting healthy skin[9, 10]. An analysis of the oil
extracted from the seeds of each of twelve cultivars of C.
Paper ID: ART20176126
DOI: 10.21275/ART20176126
1747
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 8, August 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
maxima yielded the following ranges for the percentage of
several fatty acids (Table 1) [11].
Table 1: The percentage of several fatty acids
n:unsat Fatty acid name Percentage
range
(14:0)
Myristic acid
0.09-0.27
(16:0)
Palmitic acid
12.6-18.4
(16:1)
Palmitoleic acid
0.12-0.52
(18:0)
Stearic acid
5.1-8.5
(18:1)
Oleic acid
17.0-39.5
(18:2)
Linoleic acid
18.1-62.8
(18:3)
Linolenic acid
0.34-0.82
(20:0)
Arachidic acid
0.26-1.12
(20:1)
Gadoleic acid
0-0.17
(22:0)
Behenic acid
0.12-0.58
Pumpkin is a rich source of Vitamin A. Regular
consumption of pumpkin seed oil can promote the health
of your eyes and boost your immune system remarkably.
Vitamin C helps fight free radicals, improves immunity
and promotes the production of collagen. The high
Vitamin C content in pumpkin seed oil also offers
protection against various forms of cancer [12]. The seed
oil of pumpkin is rich in a mixture of minerals such as
magnesium, potassium and Zinc which are important
minerals required for various biological functions. Hence,
these minerals make pumpkin seed oil a memorable
choice for those who want a healthy and glowing skin,
also prevent appearance of wrinkles and to keep your skin
hydrated and nourished (Table 2) [13, 14].
Table 2: The weights and their percentages of minerals
that exists in pumpkin’s seed
Minerals Weight in
pumpkin’s seed Percentage %
Calcium 52 mg 5%
Iron 8.07 mg 62%
Magnesium 550 mg 155%
Manganese 4.49 mg 214%
Phosphorus 1174 mg 168%
Potassium 788 mg 17%
Sodium 256 mg 17%
Zinc 7.64 80%
Inflammatory skin disorders can be treated with some
success by pharmaceutical agents, such as corticosteroids
Paper ID: ART20176126
DOI: 10.21275/ART20176126
1748
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 8, August 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
However, they can frequently cause a set of undesirable
side effects [15]. Because of these risks, alternative
bioactive molecules are being intensively investigated. In
this scenario, fatty acids are highlighted as important
effectors and regulators molecules in the immune-
inflammatory response [16]. Owing to, the Beta carotene
present in pumpkin seed oil has anti-inflammatory
properties. Thus, pumpkin seed oil has been known to
supply relief from inflammation quickly, without the
harmful side-effects of anti-inflammatory medicines. The
present study is aimed at investigating physicochemical
properties of extracted oil from pumpkin seed, besides
exploring its effects on acute and chronic facial
inflammation models.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Materials
The dried pumpkin seeds (C. pepo subsp. pepo var.
Styriaca) were obtained from a local market in
Suliemanyah Iraq, and taxonomically identified and
authenticated by a taxonomist at the Department of
Agricultural, Faculty of Horticulture, Suliemanyah
University, in Suliemanyah Iraq. Approximately (1kg)
of pumpkin seed was milled fine and then ethanol extracts
were given pumpkin seed oil or natural product (100 ml).
All chemicals and solvents, and fatty acid methyl ester
(FAME) standards used in this study were of analytical
reagent grade and were purchased from Merck
(Darmstadt, Germany) and Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis,
MO).
2.2 Extraction of oil
Hot extraction of the oil was done according to AOAC
(1980), Pumpkin seed (50 g) was milled and extracted by
adding (200 ml) ethanol (96%) (boiling between 7078
◦C) with a soxhlet extractor for (3-4) h.Whatman No.1
filter paper was placed in the thimble of the Soxhlet
extractor. The oil was extracted with Ethanol (1:4 w/v)
and at the end of this period, the mixture was filtered and
the liquid part was evaporated by using a rotary
evaporator to remove excess solvent used in the oil,
cooled and preserved for further analysis [17].
2.3 Determination of boiling point
A capillary tube of about 3-4 cm long was sealed at one
end and placed in a glass tube with its open end
downwards. A little quantity of the oil samples was
introduced into the tube with a dropper. The tube was then
fastened to a thermometer and immersed in a bath of
liquid paraffin used for determination of boiling point.
The bath was heated slowly with continuous stirring until
a rapid and continuously stream of bubbles evolved from
the capillary tube and passed through the liquid. The
flame was removed and the system was allowed to cool
while continuously stirring until a point was reached
which the bubbling ceased and the oil started to rise in the
capillary tube. The temperature at which the oil just
entered the capillary tube was noted as the boiling point of
the oil. The procedures were repeated three times and the
mean temperatures were recorded.
2.4 Determination of melting point
In the determination of melting point of the oil, the oil
samples were left in the refrigerator to solidify and the
solidified samples was placed in a capillary tube. The tube
was inserted into the hole of the electro thermal melting
point apparatus. The temperature of the instrument was set
and the instrument was allowed to stand until the lipid
samples melted as observed through the lens of the
instrument.
2.5 Determination of iodine value
Prior to the determination of the iodine value of the oil,
Hanus reagent, potassium iodide and starch solution were
prepared as follows; 13.2 g of Iodine crystals were
dissolved in 100 mL of glacial acetic acid. The solution
was put in a water bath until the iodine dissolved. The
solution was cooled and 3 mL of bromine was added to
double the halogen content. The solution was stored in a
dark cupboard for use. 1 g of potassium iodide was
weighed and dissolved with 20 mL of distilled water. The
solution was made up to the 100 mL mark and stored in a
reagent bottle. The starch solution was also prepared by
dissolving 1 g of soluble starch in 10 mL of distilled water
and made up to mark in a 100 cm3 standard volumetric
flask. In the determination of iodine value of the oil, 0.5 g
of each of the oil sample was dissolved in 100 mL of
chloroform contained in a 500 cm3 conical flask. 25 mL of
Hanus solution was added into each flask, stoppered and
allowed to stand for 30 minutes in the dark. A blank test
was carried out without the samples using exactly the
same quantity of chloroform and Hanus solution,
stoppered and also allowed to stand for 30 minutes. 15
cm3 of 10% potassium iodide solution and 10 mL of
distilled water were added to each flask mixed by gentle
shaking. The content of the flask was titrated with 0.1 N
Na2S2O3 to pale yellow before the addition of 2 mL of
starch indicator. The titration continued until the blue
black color was completely discharged.
Calculation
1 cm3 of 0.1 N Na2S2O3, 0.01269 g of iodine 1.26 (a-b)/w,
w = weight of the sample,
b = volume of 0.1 N Na2S2O3 for the sample, a = volume
of 0.1 N Na2S2O3 for the blank,
1 cm3 of 0.1 Na2S2O3 0.01269 g of 12\1000 cm3
0.01269x1000, 12.69x0.1 N = 1.269.
2.6 Determination of saponification value
2 g of each of the oil sample were respectively weighed
into the different conical flasks and 25 mL of ethanedioic
potash was added. A blank was prepared by adding the
same quality of the ethanedioic potash (without the oil
sample) to another flask. All the flasks were boiled in a
water bath for 30 minutes with frequent shaking. Two
drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added to each
flask and titrated with 0.5 M HCl with vigorous shaking to
the end point.
Paper ID: ART20176126
DOI: 10.21275/ART20176126
1749
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 8, August 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Calculation
1 cm3 of 0.5M of HCl 0.02805 g KOH\1000 cm3
0.02805x1000 = 28.05, SV
(Saponification value) = (B-S) 28.05/w; where B =
Average blank titre, S = Average sample
titre and W = weight of the sample.
2.7 Determination of acid value
2 g each of the different oil samples were weighed and
were added to 25 cm3 of CCl4 in different conical flasks.
Two drops of phenolphthalein indicator were then added
to the mixture. A similar titration was performed without
the sample to determine the blank and titration was carried
out with 0.1 N alcoholic potash until the colour change
occurred in the different conical flasks.
Calculation
Av = (sample titre blank) 0.1x56.1/w. where W = weight
of sample. Estimation of ester value, The ester value of
the oil was calculated from the equation; EV = SV AV;
where EV is the ester value, SV is the saponification value
and AV is the acid value.
2.8 Determination of peroxide value
2 g each of the oil samples were respectively weighed into
different conical flasks and15 mL of the mixture of
(CH3COOH CHCl3) in the ratio of 3:2 respectively was
added to the oil sample. 0.5 mL of saturated potassium
iodide was added to each conical flask and allowed to
stand for 5 minutes, thereafter; 15 mL of distilled water
was added and titrated with 0.1 N Na2S2O3 until the
yellowish colour almost disappeared, then 0.5 mL of
starch was added and the titration continued to a colorless
end-point.
Calculation
Peroxide value =1000 (V2 - V1) T / M
Where M = mass of oil taken (2 g), V2 = volume of 0.1 N
Na2S2O3, V1 = volume of
0.1 N blank and T = normality of Na2S2O3 (0.1 N).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1 Physicochemical properties of the pumpkin seed oil
are shown in (Table 3). The boiling point of pumpkin seed
oil was (59.50 oC). The boiling point is equal to the values
obtained in literature for some oil seeds[18] but lower than
the boiling point of the oils studied[19]. The melting point
of pumpkin seed oil was (15.39 oC) comparable with the
melting point that reported for some seed oils [20, 21].
The melting point of the seed oils is an advantage in cold
cream manufacture. The lower melting point of the seed
oil, would exhibit the capability for making oil cream
[22]. The iodine value (104 ± 0.03 mg of KOH/g) of oil,
indicating a high degree of unsaturation. This value was
close to (103.2, 107.0, and 105.1) reported by,
respectively [23], but higher than 80.0 [24], plus lower
than 123.0 [25], and (116.0-133.4) [26] for Cucurbita
species. It also lied within the range reported for
cottonseed, canola, rapeseed, and corn oils [27]. The
iodine value of the oil reduce the risk of oxidative
rancidity, also pumpkin seed oil rich in unsaturation fatty
acids have been related as alternative anti-inflammatory
agents on skin disorders. [28-30]. The saponification value
was (181± 3.2 mg KOH/g), this value indicated that the
pumpkin seed oil had fatty acids with higher number of
carbon atoms in comparison with coconut (248265) and
palm kernel (230254) oils [27]. This result was in good
agreement with the (185.5-195.3) range [26], however, it
was lower than (200-218) range [31] and was higher than
132.3 [26] for Cucurbita species. Furthermore, it fell in
the range reported for olive, canola, corn, and sunflower
oils [27]. The acid value was low (0.67 ± 0.09 mg KOH),
while the peroxide value was low (10.03 ± 0.59 meq
peroxide /kg). The extracted pumpkin seed oil had an
acceptable initial quality. The Codex Alimentarius
Commission expressed the permitted maximum acid
values of 10 and 4 mg KOH/g oil for virgin palm and
coconut oils, respectively [32]. It has been shown that oils
the peroxide value ranges from 20.0 to 40.0 meq peroxide/
kg oil) oil [33]. Otherwise, in relation to the Codex
Alimentarius Commission [32], the peroxide value for
unrefined olive oil may be maximum 20 meq/kg oil [26].
This illustrates the commercial potential of the oil, which
is enhanced by the low peroxide and acid values.
Table 3: Physicochemical characteristics of pumpkin seed
kernel oil at 25 ºC
Properties Mean value
Boiling point oC 59.50 ±0.26
Melting point oC 15.39 ±0.15
Iodine value, gI2/100 g 104 ± 0.03
Saponification value, mgKOH/g 181± 3.2
Acid value, mgKOH/g 0.67 ± 0.09
Peroxide value, meq peroxide/
kg oil 10.03 ± 0.59
3.2 Pumpkin might be used to solve facial problems
Although pumpkin is a recognized ripe plant, most parts
of this plant are also used in traditional systems of
medicine around the world. In addition, pumpkin seed oil
has been considered to provide a significant source of
vitamin E in Japanese diets [34]. Thus, diseases caused by
bacteria, viruses, fungi and other parasites are major
causes of facial problems for millions of individuals.
Despite the existence of safe and effective interventions,
many individuals lack access to needed preventive and
treatment care. Increasing drug resistance in infectious
micro-organisms has warranted the development of new
drugs against pathogenic micro-organisms. In this heed,
natural source has been considered as the best option to
isolate new anti-microbial component. Anti-microbial
component has been isolated from pumpkin seed oil.
Pumpkin seed oil inhibits Acinetobacter baumanii,
Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans,
Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Propionibacterium, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype
typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus
aureus at the concentration of 2·0% (v/v)[35]. A
noteworthy inhibitory effect of a purified protein (MW 28
kDa) against the fungal growth of Fusarium oxysporum
was exerted in an agar disc plate at a concentration greater
than 2mM. This protein owned a synergistic effect with
Paper ID: ART20176126
DOI: 10.21275/ART20176126
1750
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 8, August 2017
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Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
nikkomycin, a chitin synthase inhibitor, for the growth
inhibition of Candida albicans[36]. Three pumpkin seed
oil basic proteins, MAP2 (MW 2·2 kDa), MAP4 (MW 4·6
kDa) and MAP11 (MW 11·7 kDa), have been shown to
inhibit the growth of yeast cells, with MAP11 being the
most effective inhibitor. Nevertheless, MAP2 and MAP4
did not inhibit the growth of the Gram-negative bacterium
E. coli [37]. Moreover, it has been reported that phloem
exudates from pumpkin seed oil has anti-fungal activity
via inhibition of pathogenic fungal proteases [38].
Pumpkin seed oil has been used for various cosmetic
applications such as skin scrubber, massage oil, lotion and
dry facial masque [39].
3.3 General Considerations
A. Definitions of Acne
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin
disease that occurs when hair follicled are clogged with
dead skin cells and oil from skin [40].It is characterized by
black heads or white heads, pimples, greasy skin, and
possible scarring[41-43]. It primarily affects areas of the
skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including
the face, upper part of the chest, and back [44]. The
resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-
esteem and, in extreme cases, depression [45, 46].
Genetics is thought to be the primary cause of acne in
80% of cases [42]. The role of diet is unclear, and neither
cleanliness nor uncover to sunlight emerges to play a
part[47, 48]. During puberty, in both sexes acne is often
brought on by an increase in hormones such as
testosterone [49]. Excessive growth of the bacterium
Propionibacterium acnes, which is normally present on the
skin, is often involved [50].
B. Study design
This cross-sectional study was conducted at the
Department of Medical Analysis of the Suleimani
Polytechnic University, Kurdistan region/ Iraq. All
patients were recruited as they presented or were referred
for facial acne care. The study was carried out from March
2017 to June 2017. Male and female subjects (18 to 25
years old) Results which has received acne topical
treatment in three months were analyzed. Evaluation of
patients’ subjective response to treatment was performed
by a questionnaire ranking the degree of satisfaction as
highly satisfied, satisfied, neutral, or dissatisfied. Lesion
counts and the standard deviation at baseline and at each
subsequent treatment session were compared using the
paired Student’s t-test. As such, the paired t-test was
appropriately picked for analysis to account for initial
variation in lesion counts [51].
C. Method
This study was performed on 20 patients with acne
vulgaris. Inclusion criteria include having acne vulgaris
and being over the 18 years. Exclusion criteria include
having skin diseases. The aim of the survey was
demonstrated the significance of orientating to utilize
natural products to solve facial disease. Moreover, the
responders benefit to rid of their acne vulgaris plus
participate in this study.
D. Results
All twenty patients exhibited reductions in their acne
lesion counts. Overall, the mean acne lesion count
decreased from a baseline of 36.2±29.6 to 22.7±23.1 after
the first treatment (p˂ 0.01). After the second and third
treatments, the mean acne lesion count decreased to
15.3±15.4 (p˂ 0.01) and 6.2±6.9 (p˂ 0.01), respectively.
This corresponded to a 38% reduction in mean acne lesion
count after one treatment, a 59% decrease after two
treatments, and an 84% decrease after three treatments
(Figure 1). There was no difference in improvement
between male and female patients (p=0.44), as both
showed statistically significant improvements (p˂ 0.01).
Figures (25) demonstrate representative pretreatment and
photographs of patients. In the group with mild
inflammatory acne (n=6), the mean acne lesion count
decreased from a baseline of 10.1±4.2 to 5.1±7.2 after the
first treatment (p=0.12). After the second and third
treatments, the mean acne lesion count decreased to
9.3±12.5 (p=0.84) and 3.3±5.8 (p=0.20), respectively. In
the group with moderate inflammatory acne (n=7), the
mean acne lesion count decreased from a baseline of
28.1±15.2 to 19.3±12.1 after the first treatment (p˂ 0.01).
After the second and third treatments, the mean acne
lesion count decreased to11.9±8.9 (p˂ 0.05) and 6.1±4.8
(p=0.06), respectively. In the group with severe
inflammatory acne, the mean acne lesion count decreased
from a baseline of 70.3±20.7 to 37.8±29.6 after the first
treatment (p˂ 0.05). After the second and third treatments,
the mean acne lesion count decreased to 25.9±20.3 (p˂
0.05) and 10.6±13.5
(p˂ 0.05), respectively.
Figure 1: Percentage reduction in mean inflammatory
acne lesion count after one, two, and three treatments with
the pumpkin seed oil
When questioned concerning treatment, 50% of patients
reported being ‘highly satisfied’ and 50% reported being
‘satisfied’ with their outcome. Significantly, there were no
patients who reported dissatisfaction with their treatment.
In addition, 90% of patients stated that they would
recommend the treatment to others. No harmful affects
such as pigmentary alteration, scarring, or infection were
remarked.
Paper ID: ART20176126
DOI: 10.21275/ART20176126
1751
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 8, August 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Before (A)
After (B)
Figure 2: (A) acne traces. (B) A 88% clearance of acne
traces after three treatments with the pumpkin seed oil
Before (A)
After (B)
Figure 3: (A) acne traces. (B) A 95% clearance of acne
traces after three treatments with the pumpkin seed oil
Before (A)
Paper ID: ART20176126
DOI: 10.21275/ART20176126
1752
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 8, August 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
After (B)
Figure 4: (A) Multiple inflammatory papules and few
scattered pustules pretreatment. (B) After two treatments
with the pumpkin seed oil, a 89% decrease in active acne
lesions was observed compared with baseline
Before (A)
After (B)
Figure 5: (A) Multiple inflammatory papules and
pustules. (B) After four treatments with the pumpkin seed
oil, an 88% decrease in lesion counts from baseline was
observed
4. Discussion
In our study, there was a statistically significant
improvement in inflammatory facial acne lesion counts
overall, patients were uniformly satisfied with their
treatment. This may, in part, be due to the fact that our
patients included previously refractory cases who
responded dramatically to pumpkin seed oil treatment. We
deem that the effectiveness, convenience, and adaptability
of this treatment contribute to its high patient satisfaction
rate. In our experience, this oil has been equally safe and
effective when used to treat inflammatory acne. Although
this study is not conducive to a cost-effectiveness analysis
and was not carried out over a long period of time, this
treatment should be considered as an alternative for the
treatment of acne in patients who are noncompliant with
or resistant to standard acne treatments.
5. Conclusion
Pumpkin seed oil performs as a topical anti-inflammatory
agent, and it is effective against acute and chronic skin
inflammatory processes. In this study, documenting the
safety and efficacy of pumpkin seed oil treatment for
inflammatory facial acne. In addition, medical
enhancement was seen in all patients. This scientific study
further supports and suggests the use of this plant oil as an
adjuvant along with commonly used anti-inflammatory
agent.
Acknowledgements
The author would acknowledge all the patients whom
participate in this study and donate the samples in spite of
their suffering.
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Paper ID: ART20176126
DOI: 10.21275/ART20176126
1753
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Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
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