Handbook of research on educational communications and technology: Fourth edition



The 4th edition of the Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology expands upon the previous 3 versions, providing a comprehensive update on research pertaining to new and emerging educational technologies. Chapters that are no longer pertinent have been eliminated in this edition, with most chapters being completely rewritten, expanded, and updated Additionally, new chapters pertaining to research methodologies in educational technology have been added due to expressed reader interest. Each chapter now contains an extensive literature review, documenting and explaining the most recent, outstanding research, including major findings and methodologies employed. The Handbook authors continue to be international leaders in their respective fields; the list is cross disciplinary by design and great effort was taken to invite authors outside of the traditional instructional design and technology community. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.

Chapters (72)

In education, retrospection is often used as a method for better understanding emerging trends as documented in many books and articles. In this chapter, the focus is not on a broad description of the history of educational technology but on the interplay between learning theories and technologies. However, neither learning theories nor tools are monolithic phenomena. They are composed of multiple attributes, and they refer to many aspects and facets which render the history of educational technology highly complex. Moreover, evolution in both theory and technology re fl ects no clear successive breaks or discrete developments-rather, waves of growth and accumulation. When looking closer at learning and technology, it becomes clear that many interactions occur. These interactions will be documented following continuous development after World War II. We do not follow a strict timeline but cluster the critical appraisal in the following observations: (1) evolutions in society and education have in fl uenced the selection and use of learning theories and technologies; (2) learning theories and technologies are situated in a somewhat vague conceptual field; (3) learning theories and technologies are connected and intertwined by information processing and knowledge acquisition; (4) educational technologies shifted learner support from program or instructor control toward more shared and learner control; and (5) learning theories and findings represent a fuzzy mixture of principles and applications. The history re fl ects an evolution from individual toward community learning, from contentdriven learning toward process-driven approaches, from isolated media toward integrated use, from presentation media toward interactive media, from learning settings dependent on place and time toward ubiquitous learning, and from fixed tools toward handheld devices. These developments increasingly confront learners with complexity and challenge their responsibility to become active participants in a learning society. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
What is the most important factor influencing human learning? Different instructional theories give very different answers to this question, because they take different perspectives on learning and thus focus on other desired learning outcomes, other methods affecting learning processes, and other conditions under which learning takes place. This chapter describes how eight prevailing research paradigms have influenced and still strongly influence theory development in the field of educational communications and technology. According to the perspective of Gestalt psychology, the most important factor influencing learning is insight and understanding; according to behaviorism and neo-behaviorism, it is reinforcement; according to developmental psychology, it is the learner’s stage of cognitive development; according to cultural-historical theory, it is interaction with the world; according to information processing theory, it is active and deep processing of new information; according to cognitive symbolic theory, it is what the learner already knows; according to cognitive resource models, it is the limited processing capacity of the human mind, and according to social constructivism, it is the social construction of meaning. It is argued that research is typically done within one particular paradigm, but that researchers should be conscious of the fact that paradigms heavily affect their research methods and findings. Moreover, researchers should be open to alternative theories and paradigms because new developments often take place at the interface between paradigms.
Instructional technology research is broad both in terms of topics and explorations of basic and applied research. In this chapter, we examine various types of stimulus materials that instructional technology researchers have used to study different phenomena. Specifically, we discuss and illustrate how the choice of stimulus material (e.g., actual lesson content, pictures, prose, etc.) directly influences the internal validity (rigor) and external validity (generalizability) of the findings. While randomized experiments are considered the so-called gold standard (Slavin, Educational Researcher 37(1):5–14, 2008) of educational research, particularly for evaluating the effectiveness of instructional strategies, these studies may employ artificial or novel stimulus materials that can limit generalization of the results. Since one goal of instructional technology research is to provide evidence that allows the instructional designer to generate heuristics easily applicable (i.e., generalized) to new situations, studies with strong external validity should be highly desired. Similarly, there are also instances where initial studies need to be designed with high internal validity, sometimes at the sacrifice of external validity, to control for extraneous variables. Using selected studies as illustrative examples, this chapter examines how validity has been addressed in instructional technology research.
Instructional design (ID) and human performance technology (HPT) stem from a common origin in systems thinking and behavioral psychology, but today the two fields employ different research bases, system foci, and methods. To contrast these fields, this chapter presents an idealized and abstracted discussion that examines the theoretical origins of the two fields, briefly describes their similarities, and focuses on their differences in terms of analytical frameworks and methods. We conclude that contemporary practice in most contexts combines elements of ID and HPT, particularly when working in cross-functional teams seeking to improve organizational performance. Practitioners of ID are likely to encounter HPT in their work, and they may be called upon to serve as part of a cross-functional team using HPT as a common conceptual framework.
Neural functions are fundamental to learning, instruction, and performance. Although tremendous progress has been made in neuroscience in the past two decades, its applications in educational research are just beginning to be realized. This review focuses on selected technologies, methods, and findings from neuroscience that have important implications for educational sciences. Specifically, this chapter discusses conceptual and empirical research on the use, implications, and limitations of neuroimaging techniques such as continuous electroencephalography, event-related potentials, and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the domains of language and reading, mathematics learning, problem solving, cognitive load, and affective processes in learning. Neuroimaging has enabled scientists to open "the black box" of neural activity that underlies learning. It seems timely, therefore, to consider how educational researchers may employ the increased understanding of brain function to explore educational questions. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
This chapter reviews theories and research on academic emotions and motivation that can be integrated into the processes of instructional design and development. First, we discuss the impact of emotions in learning and performance contexts. Second, we review theories describing how emotions occur. Third, we discuss how to optimize emotional experiences in learning and performance contexts and review several models and approaches that can be used in instructional design. Fourth, we review instruments and technologies measuring emotions and emotion regulation. We conclude the chapter by suggesting future research directions including reframing motivation research that considers emotions in the realm of educational communications and technology.
This chapter presents information about the role of models used for instructional design. While heuristics provide broad references for approaching instructional design, specific applications of procedures necessary to actually develop teaching and learning materials require more defined models. The purpose here is to promote a better understanding about the appropriate utilization of instructional design models. Instruction is posited here as including both teaching and learning, and that teaching and learning are inextricably connected with regard to the construction of knowledge and skills. Since the first appearance of instructional design models in the 1960s there has been an ever-increasing number of models published in both the instructional technology and other education literature based on the assumptions that instruction includes both teaching and learning. While there are hundreds of instructional design models, there have been only a few major distinctions among them, until recently. Still, instructional design models provide conceptual tools to visualize, direct, and manage processes for creating high-quality teaching and learning materials. The proper selection of instructional design models assists us in appropriately matching the right process with the right situation. Thus, instructional design models serve as a valuable source for matching the right creative process to the right design situation as well as an effective framework for conducting instructional design research.
The impact of shifting epistemologies in the field of instructional design during the last century has had a major impact on how we design instruction. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of important shifts in ideas about what knowledge is, how it can be produced or constructed, and what it has meant for instructional design in the last decade. We discuss how technology has influenced instructor, learner, and designer beliefs about knowledge, instruction, and learning. Furthermore, we look at the changing landscape of theory and research that supports and questions these perspectives, and the implications it has on instructional practices.
In this chapter, we introduce a framework, called technological pedagogical content knowledge (or TPACK for short), that describes the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective technology integration. The TPACK framework emphasizes how the connections among teachers’ understanding of content, pedagogy, and technology interact with one another to produce effective teaching. Even as a relatively new framework, the TPACK framework has significantly influenced theory, research, and practice in teacher education and teacher professional development. In this chapter, we describe the theoretical underpinnings of the framework, and explain the relationship between TPACK and related constructs in the educational technology literature. We outline the various approaches teacher educators have used to develop TPACK in pre- and in-service teachers, and the theoretical and practical issues that these professional development efforts have illuminated. We then review the widely varying approaches to measuring TPACK, with an emphasis on the interaction between form and function of the assessment, and resulting reliability and validity outcomes for the various approaches. We conclude with a summary of the key theoretical, pedagogical, and methodological issues related to TPACK, and suggest future directions for researchers, practitioners, and teacher educators.
While ethics has been an under-researched area in educational technology, it is receiving current recognition as a critical focus for inquiry and development. In this chapter, we review the contribution of ethics as part of the history of professionalization of the field, the development of a code of ethics for the profession, and contemporary ethics issues like cultural competence, intellectual property, accessibility and universal design, critical theory in educational technology, system ethics, and social responsibility of professionals. In addition, this chapter presents major theoretical and philosophical models for ethics that pertain specifically to technology in educational systems along with implications of research from other fields exploring the integration of ethics into policy, standards, and higher education curricula. Existing research on ethics in educational technology programs suggests a very low level of integration in such domains at present; findings from a survey of the curricular landscape and implications for future research and development are discussed along with consideration of ethics as a foundational component not only to professional standards, practices, and leadership, but also to education policy, as we highlight the role of faculty and graduate programs, practicing professionals, and scholarly associations in shaping future directions and research in this emerging domain.
Educational design research is a genre of research in which the iterative development of solutions to practical and complex educational problems provides the setting for scientific inquiry. The solutions can be educational products, processes, programs, or policies. Educational design research not only targets solving significant problems facing educational practitioners but at the same time seeks to discover new knowledge that can inform the work of others facing similar problems. Working systematically and simultaneously toward these dual goals is perhaps the most defining feature of educational design research. This chapter seeks to clarify the nature of educational design research by distinguishing it from other types of inquiry conducted in the field of educational communications and technology. Examples of design research conducted by different researchers working in the field of educational communications and technology are described. The chapter concludes with a discussion of several important issues facing educational design researchers as they pursue future work using this innovative research approach.
This chapter focuses on design and development research, a type of inquiry unique to the instructional design and technology field dedicated to the creation of new knowledge and the validation of existing practice. We first define this kind of research and provide an overview of its two main categories-research on products and tools and research on design and development models. Then, we concentrate on recent design and development research (DDR) by describing 11 studies published in the literature. The five product and tool studies reviewed include research on comprehensive development projects, studies of particular design and development phases, and research on tool development and use. The six model studies reviewed include research leading to new or enhanced ID models, model validation and model use research. Finally, we summarize this new work in terms of the problems it addresses, the settings and participants examined, the research methodologies employed used, and the role evaluation plays in these studies. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
This chapter aims to examine the practices and potential of Activity Theory (AT) for educational technology research (ETR). AT provides a framework within which to understand object-oriented, collective, and social environments (Engeström, Perspectives in activity theory (pp. 19-38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). Activity systems provide fl exible frameworks that can be modi fied according to the nature of the context. In ETR, AT has been used as a tool to analyze and design complex learning situations as well as to analyze the contradictions and barriers in technology integration and to describe the dynamics of organizational knowledge creation. In this chapter, the basics of AT are presented and the available research using AT as a methodological tool in ETR is examined. The use of AT as a metaphorical tool in learning design and artifact development, as an analytic tool in an innovation study, and as a descriptive and prescriptive tool in a knowledge management study is explained. I also refer to the potential use of Actor Network Theory (ANT) as a possible third generation AT (Engeström, Journal of Education and Work 14(1):134-156, 2001) that can be used to understand the symmetrical relationship between multiple activity systems. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Action research refers to the formalized, self-re fl ective research of practitioners. According to Cochran-Smith and Lytle (Inside and outside: Teacher research and knowledge. NY: Teachers College Press, 1993) action research is "systematic and intentional inquiry" (p. 7). It is often conducted collaboratively in research groups that meet in person or at a distance via communication technologies. Action research transforms the traditional "outside-in" relationship between practitioners and the educational community. It can provide a powerful means for bridging the divide between theory and practice and encouraging practitioners to engage in innovative practices. Action research includes a cyclical process of posing questions, collecting data, re fl ecting on findings, and reporting results. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of action research and its history in the USA, Great Britain, and Australia. It also describes the epistemological and ontological differences between practical and critical action research. To inspire future action research in our field, we detail the action research method, including data collection and analysis techniques and provide example studies from the field of educational communications and technology. More specifically, we demonstrate the manner in which action research has already been used to better understand the impact of the integration of technology in classrooms and social settings. At the same time, we describe how action researchers have used educational communications and technology to conduct action research and to teach this research method through online or hybrid classes. Technology can be both the focus and part of the method of the action research. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
In the almost two decades since the first AECT Handbook article on qualitative research debates about research philosophy, design, and purposes have led to clashes of opinion in the field of educational communications and technology as well as in the larger sphere of educational research. At the same time, the number of publications on qualitative methods specific to the field has increased, expanding the understanding of the potential of such approaches to explore, describe, and explicate key issues in instructional design and the application of technology to learning. While other chapters have included examples of qualitative studies related to specific disciplinary topics, this chapter focuses on trends in the use of qualitative research design and emerging approaches more generally. Within this framework, issues of design, methods, and knowledge generation are reviewed and examined through a sample of recent directions in qualitative studies and designs. For each method reviewed, examples are provided along with common issues and potential directions for future use of these. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Educational technology research and development nearly always involves an intervention of some kind aimed at solving a problem or improving a situation pertaining to learning and instruction. Those involved-the stakeholders-naturally want to know whether the problem was solved and/or the extent to which the situation was improved. Attributing any outcomes to the intervention is not as easy as it may appear, as many factors are typically involved, beyond just the technology involved. This chapter describes a holistic approach to educational technology project and program evaluation. The emphasis is on evaluating the entire process from needs assessment through design, development, deployment, and support with particular attention to evaluating every aspect of the process so as to increase the likelihood of successful technology integration. The use of a logic model to organize evaluation as well as research is described. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Data analysis tools for quantitative studies are addressed in the areas of: (a) enhancements for data acquisition, (b) simple to sophisticated analysis techniques, and (c) extended exploration of relationships in data, often with visualization of results. Examples that are interwoven with data and findings from published research studies are used to illustrate the use of the tools in the service of established research goals and objectives. The authors contend that capabilities have greatly expanded in all three areas over the past 30 years, and especially during the past two decades. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
The most common question from novices regarding the use of software in qualitative research is “which program should I use?” when they would be better served by asking “what analytical tasks will I be engaged in, and what are the different ways I can leverage technology to do them well?” In this chapter, we first provide an overview of tasks involved in analyzing qualitative data, with a focus on increasingly complex projects, before we turn to the software meant to support these tasks. One genre of software, known as Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS or QDA software), is specifically designed to support qualitative research, as opposed to tools primarily used for the collection of data (such as audio or video recorders), or presentation of findings (such as presentation or modeling software). We briefly review the historical development of QDA software—including associated methodological questions and issues—before identifying the increasingly diverse array of expected features and functions in most of the current software programs. We then summarize the “user experience” literature and subsequently discuss the boundaries between cadres of qualitative researchers who do use software, and those who do not. Finally, we address potential directions as these programs are being influenced by Web 2.0 developments.
Educational technology is often cited as a means to improve educational outcomes and reduce costs, leading to greater quality and efficiency in learning and instruction. Yet research that attempts to assess the costs and benefits of educational technology is limited, making it difficult for educators and policy makers to make efficient decisions. This chapter reviews international research on the effectiveness, costs, and cost-effectiveness of educational technology and provides a set of core conclusions from this literature. The chapter also describes methodological challenges to assessing costs and benefits of educational technology and suggests areas for future research. The chapter concludes with lessons learned for educators and educational decision makers. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
As Federal agencies have increasingly specified the methodology expected in the program evaluations that they fund, the long-standing debate about what constitutes scientifically based research has been resurrected. In fact, there are no simple answers to questions about how well programs work, nor is there a single analytic approach to evaluate the wide variety of possible programs and their complexities. Evaluators need to be familiar with a range of analytic methods, and it is often necessary to use several methods simultaneously, including both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Some evaluation approaches are particularly helpful in the early developmental stages of a program, whereas others are more suited to situations in which the program has become more routinized and broadly implemented. One of the key points that we stress in this chapter is that the evaluation design should utilize the most rigorous method possible to address the questions posed and should be appropriately matched to the program’s developmental status. The warnings not to evaluate a developing program with an experimental design have been sounded for some time [Patton, M.Q. (2008). Utilization focused evaluation (4th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Lipsey, M. (2005). Improving evaluation of anticrime programs. Washington, DC: National Academies Press], but this is the first time to our knowledge that the developmental phases of program development have been specified in detail and linked to evaluation designs.
Informal learning is a complex area, yet one that increasingly involves educational technologists in practice and research. Informal learning includes many different settings, contexts and goals, and draws upon many fields. Two fields that have yielded considerable research literature are museum/free-choice learning and informal science education. While some have defined informal learning as nonschool learning, the nature of informal learning includes dimensions such as location, timing, structure, control, pacing, regulation and content, and so informal learning is not necessarily tied to space. This means that informal learning can and does occur frequently in museums, after-school clubs, botanical gardens, zoos, science centers, and community centers, but can also be engaged in at home and also be integrated within formal school or college settings. Informal science education, museum learning and workplace learning are designed for varied outcomes and have different frameworks. Reasons for assessing for informal learning include to provide formative feedback to participants and to provide evaluation data to improve the organization's learning goals. Methods for assessment for informal learning encompass both quantitative and qualitative approaches, including traditional tests and measures, but primarily rely on such methods as surveys, group and individual interviews, observations, artifact and product analysis, and sometimes ethnographic or case studies. Emerging educational technologies, such as social media, Web 2.0 tools, eLearning and online learning, provide fertile ground for continuing developments in informal learning and assessment. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Methods for assessing problem-solving learning outcomes vary with the nature of the ­problem. For simpler well-structured problems, answer correctness and process may be used along with assessments of comprehension of problem schemas, including problem classification, text editing, and analogical comparisons. For more complex and ill-­structured problems that have no convergent answers, solution criteria, or solution methods, problem solving may be assessed by constructing and applying solution rubrics to assess mental simulations (scenarios), arguments in support of solutions, and student-constructed ­problems. Problem solving processes are normally assessed by coding schemes. In addition to assessing problem solutions, assessments of critical cognitive skills, including causal reasoning and student models, may be used to infer problem-solving skills.
This chapter introduces the functions of knowledge representation and presents a critical review of the model-based tools for assessment: Pathfinder, ALA-Reader, jMAP, HIMATT, AKOVIA. For each model-based tool, foundations and applications are discussed. Next, the tools are compared in order to illustrate their advantages and disadvantages, strengths, and limitations. The latter part postulates that there is no easy and no complete way to integrate any of the model-based tools. However, the strength of good research lies in a best possible integration: Multiple perspectives on the same construct are usually needed. Thus, the further development of existing tools as well as of new ones is necessary to explore human knowledge, its change, decision-making, performance, and problem-solving as our understanding of those complex human potentials evolves.
Education, industry, and the military rely on relevant and effective performance assessment to make key decisions. Qualification, promotion, advancement, hiring, firing, and training decisions are just some of the functions that rely on good performance assessment. This chapter explores issues, tools, and techniques for ensuring that performance assessment meets the goals of decision makers. Important considerations include the following: the task environment in which assessment takes place, the validity of the measures selected, the diversity and scope of the measures, and often the local political environment in which assessments are made. Unfortunately, primarily in education, assessment policy is a matter of intense political debate, and the debate is sustained by misinformation. For example, traditional paper and pencil assessment techniques have come under fire from those who do not feel they have the relevance they once did. Simulation-based training technologies in industry and the military have put more emphasis on performance assessment systems that show real-world work relevance. The chapter examines these topics.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) competencies comprise a subset of ­digital literacy, one of the various areas of technological competencies and skills necessary for real-life functioning in all kind of professional activities and levels of education from preschool to graduate levels. Assessment of ICT competencies involves the definition of specific target activities appropriate to the environment in which they are required. These environments range from the home to the workplace and involve such disparate activities as information-retrieval in healthcare settings or libraries; use of clerical, business, or investment applications; and interactions with government or other public services. The range of ICT competencies also includes the specific abilities needed by professionals responsible for the development of software or communication products and services. This chapter discusses several ICT assessment projects, addresses the primary technical specifications required for evaluation, and explores solutions to problems of test administration. These solutions range from electronic quizzes (similar to paper-and-pencil tests) to more “authentic” forms of assessment using e-portfolios or simulations of real software applications. A detailed analysis of the primary approaches for assessment of social, academic, commercial, or economic environments reveals that these approaches primarily focus on a basic core of skills consisting of Web navigation and the use of e-mail and office tools (text processor, spreadsheet, presentation, and database management). In the future, ICT evaluation will involve automatic scoring of natural language responses in documents, solutions of mathematical problems, and graphical or health applications, among many other real-life endeavors.
During the past decade, data-driven decision making (DDDM) has been at the forefront of many discussions on how to improve public education in the USA. Professions such as medicine, business, politics, engineering, etc. have embraced a data culture and built tools to systematically collect and facilitate analysis of performance data, resulting in dramatic performance improvements. Every day the public depends on companies like Google that collect and aggregate data in ways that help us make decisions about everything from online purchases, to stock investments, to candidate selection. This chapter introduces current research undertaken to bring comparable advantages to education, with the goal of helping classroom- and school-level stakeholders incorporate DDDM as integral to their work. The chapter outlines several different theoretical perspectives currently applied to the DDDM challenge, including the lenses of cultural change, assessment, implementation/adoption, and technology. The bulk of the chapter focuses on research related to models of successful local DDDM implementation, including the design of technological tools and processes to facilitate collection and analysis of actionable data in ways previously not possible. The chapter concludes with implications for research and development that are relevant to those in the fields of instructional technology and learning sciences.
The selection of instructional strategies for learners requires consideration of the role of culture in learning. This chapter reviews current research across disciplines (i.e., mathematics, science, and e-learning) to provide a critical analysis of applications and conceptualizations of culture in learning. Given this research, implications for culture-based instructional strategies are offered.
Education has come to recognise the importance of the development of learning ability, that is, the acquisition of self-directed learning (SDL) skills and self-regulated learning (SRL) skills, because these skills equip students for functioning in our constantly changing society as life long learners. To give students the opportunity to develop these skills a flexible learning environment is needed. Such an environment enables learners to determine more or less personalised learning trajectories for themselves. Moreover, a flexible learning environment should be designed in such a way that the acquisition of SRL and SDL skills is supported. In this chapter after addressing the concept of learning ability or more specifically the concepts of SRL and SDL and the way the two are intertwined, the basic elements needed in the design of a flexible learning environment are discussed. The need for well-structured learning materials, assessment criteria, portfolios, advisory models and instructional support for acquiring SRL and SDL skills is discussed.
Instructional message design explores how various media and delivery systems might be used more effectively to help optimize instructional communications within context-specific instructional situations and learner needs. But use of the term appears to have fallen out of favor over the years since the mid-1990s. A review of the historical and theoretical foundations of instructional message design reveals that, while instructional design generally has shifted from objectivist to more constructivist perspectives on learning theory, the instructional message design field remains firmly rooted in early "transmission oriented" communications models. It appears that instructional message design has also suffered from definitional problems as well, with more recent narrow views of the field focused on media attributes supplanting earlier broad views of the field as an applied "linking science" between theory and practice. And, finally, while findings from studies on media attributes provide designers with some guidance for generally what will not work in terms of cognitive processing, the guidelines seldom shed light on what one should actually do within a particular learning context. It appears that reestablishing instructional message design as a valid area of inquiry within the field of instructional design will require catching up with recent philosophical shifts in communication theory while adjusting our definitions and research foci accordingly. The chapter concludes with recommendations for a revised guiding theoretical framework based in conversation theory, a broader definitional focus that looks at more than just optimizing cognitive processing, and a new systems view of our approach to research in this area.
Multimedia instruction consists of instructional messages that contain words (such as printed or spoken text) and pictures (such as illustrations, diagrams, photos, animation, or video). The rationale for multimedia instruction is that people can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone. Multimedia instruction began with the publication of Comenius’ Orbis Pictus (The World in Pictures) in the 1600s, and has progressed to a wide array of computer-based multimedia learning experiences that are available anytime and anywhere. The science of learning—that is, a research-based account of how people learn—is necessary for designing effective multimedia instruction. Meaningful multimedia learning occurs when the learner engages in appropriate cognitive processing during learning, including attending to relevant words and pictures, organizing words and pictures into coherent representations, and integrating the representations with each other and with knowledge activated from long-term memory. Successful instructional methods for improving learning with multimedia include research-based principles for reducing extraneous processing during learning, managing essential processing during learning, and fostering generative processing during learning.
Authentic learning is a pedagogical approach that situates learning tasks in the context of future use. Over the last two decades, authentic learning designs have captured the imaginations of innovative educators who see the approach as a means to enable students to develop robust knowledge that transfers to real-world practice. Authentic learning has its foundations in the theory of situated cognition, together with other pedagogical approaches developed over the last two decades, such as anchored instruction. It offers an alternative instructional model based upon sound principles for the design and implementation of complex and realistic learning tasks. The technologies associated with technology-based learning provide ideal conditions for the implementation of the approach, both in blended and fully online courses. New Web-based technologies and mobile devices provide affordances—as both cognitive tools and delivery platforms—for dissemination of polished and professional authentic learning experiences. As educational institutions increasingly embrace the internet and Web-supported learning, the potential exists for authentic learning environments to be used widely to improve student learning. This chapter reviews the seminal and recent literature in the field, and provides a model of authentic learning for the design of learning environments across educational sectors.
This chapter focuses on the role of feedback in learning with particular emphasis on its effect on learner performance, motivation and self-regulation. The authors provide a critical account of definitions and models of feedback, tease out the conceptual roots of practice guidelines and highlight how individual, relational and environmental factors can impact on the utility of feedback as a performance changing device. Many of the conceptual models published in the literature draw on theoretical principles rather than empirical data to support the impact of feedback on learning/performance change. The empirical data from a diverse range of disciplines converge to a common finding—that written and verbal feedback in practice deviates considerably from principles of effective practice. The reasons for this theory–practice disjunction are explored, and the authors suggest that the lack of adoption of advocated principles may represent a need to look at feedback in a different way. A constructivist view on feedback encourages learners and educators to view feedback as a system of learning, rather than discreet episodes of educators “telling” learners about their performance. Highlighting the need for a shift in conceptual framework is not enough however. What is limited in the feedback literature is how to achieve feedback encounters that are typified by learner engagement. We argue that contesting the traditional, behaviourist “feedback ritual” requires leadership from educators, and a deliberate commitment to curricular redesign with purposeful and structured opportunities for learners to engage in feedback episodes, to put into place changes triggered by feedback and finally to re-evaluate performance in relation to set goals. Such a “system-orientated” take on feedback design requires upskilling of both educators and learners and needs to factor in the influence of context, culture and relationships in learning.
The inclusion of computer technology in education has led to increased attention for personalized learning and instruction. By means of personalized learning, or adaptive learning, learners are given instruction and support directly, adjusted to their cognitive and noncognitive needs. This chapter aims at giving an overview of the current research that addresses advanced technologies, models, and approaches to establish personalized learning, instruction, and performance. In order to provide this, relevant learner and learning characteristics need to be measured or inferred and incorporated in learner models. These learner models provide the basis from which personalization can occur and have to be considered as the core of personalized learning environments. In order to provide dynamic personalized learning, learner models need to be adjusted and updated with new information about the learner's knowledge, affective states, and behavior. To do so, the fields of artificial intelligence and educational data mining provide advanced technologies that can be applied for fine-grained learner modeling. First, the field of artificial intelligence in education has largely supported the development of intelligent tutoring systems. Second, educational data mining is indispensable for providing information about the learning process and learner behavior. The integration of artificial intelligence and educational data mining in the learner modeling research provides a firm basis for effectiveness research on personalized systems. This chapter is concluded with the call for educational technologists to use advanced technologies as a method to support personalized learning and not as a goal when developing adaptive learning environments. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
This chapter reviews research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). Its scope includes learning that takes place face-to-face, remotely, and in blends of face-to-face and remote activity. It considers learning in groups of various sizes (from dyads to learning communities). It considers a range of approaches intended to promote and support collaborative learning, including instructor-led methods, scripted methods and methods that open up space for the autonomous, creative, productive work of the collaborating learners. The chapter builds upon and updates related chapters in previous versions of the handbook. It provides the reader with links to broad-based, landmark reviews and summaries of this area and some of the core texts on the role of technology in computer-supported collaborative learning. The chapter reviews selected research contributions from the last five years, identifying some emerging themes and highlighting important unresolved issues. It provides a conceptual orientation to the nature and potential educational benefits of CSCL. It summarises research results concerning: real-time (synchronous) CSCL, blended designs for CSCL, and CSCL using Web 2.0 technologies. It identifies some key issues in the methodology of CSCL research and also provides an overview of recent research on CSCL design using scripts and design patterns.
The basic tenet of inquiry learning is that students arrive at an understanding of the subject matter by engaging in self-directed investigations. The foundations of this mode of learning are derived from three related fields of study. Psychological research on scientific reasoning revolves around the cognitive processes involved in inducing knowledge from empirical data, and intends to give an account of the problems students encounter in performing these processes. These learning difficulties (should) serve as a starting point for educational research into the effectiveness of support or scaffolding that can be used to overcome known skill deficiencies. Research and development of software tools and environments addresses the ways in which this support can best be offered to the learner so as to enhance learning processes and outcomes. This chapter outlines recent trends and issues in these three research areas, and attempts to synthesize key findings in order to identify the latest advancements in inquiry-based learning.
Model-based learning is both a new and old paradigm of psychology and education. In pedagogy we can find this idea since decades (and until today various conceptions of model-based learning have been developed in the fields of mathematics, physics or geography education aiming at guided discovery and exploratory learning. Traditionally, there are two major approaches of theory and research on model-based learning: A functional-pragmatic approach and a constructivist approach, which is closely related with the theory of mental models. This chapter focuses on both approaches with a particular emphasis on measuring the effects of model-based learning on different performance criteria, such as understanding and problem solving, analogical reasoning, and situation-dependent decision making.
This chapter reviews a rapidly growing body of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of using video and computer games to provide instruction. Evidence of their effectiveness is drawn from existing results and data. The topics covered here are transfer from computer games to external tasks, enhancing cognitive processes, guidance and animated agents, playing time and integration with curricular objectives, effects on game players, attitudes toward games, cost-effectiveness, and, finally, the use of games for evaluation. Areas where the evidence base is particularly weak are identified in the discussion section. Findings and recommendations for the design of games used in instruction are summarized in a table. The chapter concludes with a call for development of tools and technology for integrating the motivating aspects of games with good instructional design. People do learn from games. Missing are generally effective design processes that ensure that learners will acquire the specific knowledge and skills the games are intended to impart.
Instructional scaffolding can be defined as support provided by a teacher/parent, peer, or a computer- or a paper-based tool that allows students to meaningfully participate in and gain skill at a task that they would be unable to complete unaided. The metaphor of scaffolding has been applied to instruction in contexts ranging from literacy education to science education, and among individuals ranging from infants to graduate students. In this chapter, scaffolding is defined and its theoretical backing is explored. Then scaffolding strategies and examples are explored. Trends, findings, and implications of current empirical research are presented and discussed. Current debates in the scaffolding literature are explored, including whether (a) scaffolding needs to be based on dynamic assessment and fading, and (b) domain-specific knowledge needs to be embedded in scaffolding. Finally, future research directions are outlined, including transfer of responsibility, the interaction between teacher scaffolding and computer-based scaffolding, and other scaffolding aspects.
Learning environments typically confront learners with a number of support devices. These support devices aim at helping learners in their learning; they provide a learning opportunity. As suggested by Perkins (Educational Researcher 14:11–17, 1985), it can be assumed that in order for these support devices to be beneficial (1) the opportunity has to be there, i.e., the support device has to be functional; (2) the learners have to recognize this opportunity, and (3) the learners have to be motivated to use the opportunity or the support device. Given that the use of the devices may strongly affect the effectiveness of learning environments and that usage seems to be problematic (Clarebout & Elen, Computers in Human Behavior 22:389–411, 2006), usage is a key issue for instructional design. This chapter reviews recent research on the impact of different learner variables on support device usage. First the functionalities and categorization of support devices is discussed, followed by an overview of different learner variables and their effect on support device usage. Next, the interactions between these learner variables and specific support device characteristics are discussed. In conclusion current issues with respect to research on support device usage are discussed and possible solutions to encourage support device usage are introduced.
In this chapter, we review recent research and development in technology-enhanced, modeling-based instruction (TMBI) in science education. We describe the cognitive, social, and curriculum-design aspects of science learning promoted in these environments. We emphasize the continuum of qualitative to quantitative modeling, the computational mind, and the system thinking that are critical for scientific modeling. We illustrate typical collaborative learning in TMBI science education settings. We highlight scaffolding strategies relevant to TMBI in science curricula.
This chapter presents an overview or the rationale and ev idence for the use of cognitive task analysis (CTA) in health care including the following: It presents a brief history and definition of CTA, the reason it is being adopted for healthcare education, evidence for its learning benefits when used in evidence-based instructional design and medical simulators, an example of how one of the evidence-based CTA methods was implemented in healthcare, and suggestions for future research. The point is made that when evidence-based CTA methods are used, learning from CTA-based healthcare instruction increases an average of 45 % when compared with current task analysis methods.
The chapter documents the emergence of mathematics education as a field in its own right, with its own distinctive theories, methodologies, and preoccupations. We present four widely differing examples of theoretical/practical programs of work that illustrate the rich diversity that now characterizes the field. These examples reflect a considerable maturation of the field, in terms of disciplinary influences, methodologies, philosophical and epistemological analyses, and broader considerations of the roles and purposes of mathematics education as embedded in historical, cultural, and societal contexts. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Our Western society depends strongly on continuous technological innovation. Engineers, the designers of the future technology need extensive competencies to face the challenge of dealing with ever increasing complexity. In some areas more than half the knowledge they learn in University is obsolete by the time the enter practice. Recognition of these issues has recently resulted in worldwide increase of attention for innovation of engineering education. This chapter presents a brief outline of the traditions in higher engineering education culminating in the stage of research and development in the last century. Next, the recent revival of engineering education research is described, contrasting the developments in the USA with Europe and the rest of the world. The efforts in the USA appear to follow Boyer’s concept scholarship of teaching, and aim for the establishment of engineering education research as a discipline in its own right. The trend in Europe is to build on the experiences with social sciences research in higher education, aiming to involve practitioners in research in their own fields. At the end of the chapter, a taxonomy of engineering education research questions is proposed, based on efforts by the SEFI (European Society for Engineering Education) working group Engineering Education Research (EER) and the European project EUGENE.
The National Council for the Social Studies, the largest professional organization for social studies educators, indicates that the primary purpose of the social studies is to help youth become responsible citizens who are capable of making informed and reasoned decisions for the good of society. For this purpose to be met, students need to understand a vast domain of knowledge and have the skills to think critically, problem-solve, collaborate, and act conscientiously in addressing complex issues. This means that teachers need to learn how to use innovative approaches to engage students as thinkers and problem solvers so students may be successful global citizens and leaders of the twenty-first century. Designing an environment where students have the opportunity to learn and practice these skills while exploring social studies content can be challenging, but not impossible. A key component is the essential role educational technology and twenty-first century skills have in facilitating teaching and learning in the social studies. This chapter provides an overview of the research on how educational technology has been used to engage and inspire all learners to be creative and critical thinkers, not only for the good of their individual futures, but for the future of our global society. In providing the overview, the focus is on two major areas within social studies education—historical inquiry and civic education.
Given the prevalence of the use of the image for communication in modern society, along with the rapid evolution of electronic tools to create such images and communicate through visual channels, it is easy to understand the dramatic changes that have occurred in teaching and learning in the visual arts. Technologies have evolved not only to provide unprecedented access to global resources for art education but also to offer new tools for the creation of art-thus representing both the medium of instruction as well as the resulting visual message produced by the developing artist. The adoption of electronic technology in art making has had a profound influence on approaches to visual arts instruction; other factors also have converged to impact present-day educational trends in this discipline. To understand the origins of these factors, a brief review of the history of visual arts education is provided. Following the historical overview, contemporary instructional design and technology trends are examined in relation to the teaching and learning of visual arts, as well as recent developments in educational research focused within this area of interest. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
This chapter reviews recent research on technology that supports students' developing literacy skills from preschool through high school. We examine technologies for students across three developmental periods of reading: emergent literacy (preschool through kindergarten); learning to read (kindergarten through third and fourth grade) and reading to learn (third grade through high school). In general, when used with students' learning needs in mind, literacy software can effectively support students' acquisition of skills throughout these developmental periods. However, accumulating evidence reveals that good software will not replace good or even adequate teaching unless it is used with attention to optimizing instruction to meet students' individualized learning needs both face-to-face and on computers. We also review the role of technology in assessment of literacy skills and present promising results. In general, technology can provide an environment that supports reliable and valid assessment, especially when automated scoring can assist teachers in the assessment of students' basic skills, writing, summarizing, and synthesizing information across multiple texts. Finally, we review technologies that support teachers' efforts to provide more effective literacy instruction. Overall, current research indicates that technologybased professional development and specific software applications that support teachers' ability to individualize student instruction using assessment are generally effective in improving students' literacy outcomes. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Design has become increasingly important in a number of technology-related fields. Even the business world is now seen as primarily a designed venue, where better design principles often equate to increased revenue (Baldwin and Clark, Design rules, Vol. 1: The power of modularity, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2000; Clark et al., Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 3:729–771, 1987; Martin, The design of business: Why design thinking is the next competitive advantage. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2009). Research on the design process has increased proportionally, and within the field of instructional design (ID) this research has tended to focus almost exclusively on the use of design models. This chapter examines the emergence of the standard design model in ID, its proliferation, its wide dissemination, and a narrowing of focus which has occurred over time. Parallel and divergent developments in design research outside the field are considered in terms of what might be learned from them. The recommendation is that instructional designers should seek more robust and searching descriptions of design with an eye to advancing how we think about it and therefore how we pursue design (Gibbons and Yanchar, Educ Technol 50(4):16–26, 2010).
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the state of research and theory in the area of Change Agency in instructional and organization systems. The study of the diffusion and adoption of innovations arguably began with a need to understand how external change agents could encourage relatively passive users of an innovation to accept the need for change and implementation of the desired change. The change agents' frustrations with the lack of relevant useful results led to more collaborative efforts to design, develop, implement and benefit from research, processes and products. The last few decades have seen research on change and change agency that is focused more on how to engage users in the change process through change agents who are internal and external to the system. We begin this chapter with a brief history of research and theory from diffusion and adoption processes to a more inclusive and collaborative look at organization and system change. This is followed by a discussion of the latest research in business/corporate and nonprofit organization change focused on leadership in change management and communication modes and messages. We finally consider what the overall research tells us and what gaps remain to be filled in order to continue a robust agenda for effective change agency research and practice. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this chapter is initially to examine the nature and characteristics of US federal policy regarding uses of technology for instruction in public elementary and secondary education. As a centering document the authors use Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology, the US National Educational Technology Plan 2010, issued November 9, 2010. Subsequently they use this examination to frame a discussion of policy and technology from an international perspective. A key question concerns the multiple roles of research. Thus, the authors broadly survey US federal policy on educational technology and support for research on such technology as identified in policy. This discussion is then extended to sample international viewpoints on policy, research, and practice in various nations. Included in this discussion is consideration of English as the de facto language of technology and how English dominance affects teaching and learning. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
New learning environment designs and frameworks have emerged that are consistent with constructivist-inspired views of learning. Collectively, student-centered, open learning environments provide contexts wherein the individual determines learning goals, learning means, or both the learning goals and means. The individual may also establish and pursue individual learning goals with few or no external boundaries as typical during spontaneous, self-initiated learning from the Web. The approaches represent fundamentally different learning and design paradigms and philosophies. However, student or self-directed learning has been criticized for lacking compelling evidence to document effectiveness. As new models emerge and technologies develop, we need to both document evidence that supports and challenges student-centered approaches and refine our approaches to designing effective environments. This chapter provides an overview and critical analysis of student-centered learning, and proposes directions for advancing needed research, theory, and practice.
While official definitions and textbooks in the field reflect a conception of design in which little has changed in decades, there has been a growing awareness since the early 1990s that broader conceptions of design could benefit practice in instructional design. Preparations of instructional designers in college programs traditionally include the use of instructional design models and processes incorporating project work. Approaches based on studio design are recently emerging in some programs. Research on design practice and the effectiveness of design pedagogies in the field are called for.
This chapter surveys ICT-based tools and methods that support instructional designers in planning the delivery of learning systems. This field has evolved since the seventies through several paradigms: authoring tools, expert systems and intelligent tutoring systems, automated and guided instructional design, knowledge-based design methods, eLearning standards and social/cognitive Web environments. Examples will be given to illustrate each paradigm and the major trends will be uncovered. ICT has evolved rapidly, enabling new approaches to emerge, helping more people to design learning environments and building learning design repositories. More and more people are learning on the Web, using learning portals, information pages and interacting with other people, but still with insufficient educational support. New challenges make this field an exciting and blooming research area that has a bright future.
Children’s engineering involves design of a solution under specified constraints in response to a particular need or goal. Desktop manufacturing systems enable students to engineer complex solutions with tangible products, expanding the range of possible approaches to engineering education. Desktop manufacturing technologies encompass digital fabrication systems such as 3D printers and computer-controlled die cutting systems and related technologies such as 3D scanners. These systems offer an entry point for advancing children’s engineering as well as connecting to other STEM subjects. Because desktop manufacturing systems have only recently become affordable in schools and are continuing to evolve rapidly, the conditions under which they may be best used in classrooms are not yet well defined. However, there are several promising directions that may guide future research in this area. The design process involved in desktop manufacturing affords an opportunity for connections among multiple representations. The virtual design on the computer screen and the corresponding physical object that is produced are two representations of the same underlying construct. Negotiating these representations offers connections to mathematics taught in schools such as ratios, proportion, and scaling. Computer-assisted design programs developed as learning tools can capture information about student design choices and underlying thought processes. Construction of physical prototypes through desktop manufacturing involves extensive involvement of motor skills that may have linkages with student achievement. Digital objects and designs developed at one school can be disseminated via the Internet and reproduced at other sites, allowing designs to be shared and adapted for specific educational goals.
In recent years, educational research on interactive surfaces such as tablets, tabletops, and whiteboards, and spaces such as smart rooms and 3D sensing systems has grown in quantity, quality, and prominence. Departing from the mouse-and-keyboard form of input, users of these systems manipulate digital information directly with fingers, feet, and body movements, or through a physical intermediary such as token, pen, or other tractable object. Due to their support for natural user interfaces, direct input and multiple access points, these educational technologies provide significant opportunities to support colocated collaborative and kinesthetic learning. As hardware becomes affordable, development environments mature, and public awareness grows, these technologies are likely to see substantial uptake in the classroom. In this chapter, we provide a foothold on the current technology development and empirical literature, highlighting a range of exemplary projects that showcase the potential of interactive surfaces and spaces to support learning across age groups and content domains. We synthesize across the existing work to formulate implications of these technological trends for the design of interactive educational technologies, the impetus for academic research based on such systems, and the advancement of future educational practice.
This chapter examines the general characteristics of and related recent research on smart toys. Smart toys can be defined as new forms of toys featuring both tangible objects and electronic components that facilitate two-way child– smart toy interactions to carry out purposeful tasks. In this chapter, smart toy based learning projects are discussed and the characteristics of smart toys as cognitive tools to facilitate learning are analyzed. This chapter also covers the relationship between smart toys and children’s developmental stages—with a particular focus on motivation—in order to understand smart toys’ potential effects on children.
An e-book is a publication in an electronic format that users can read with an electronic device such as an e-book reader, a tablet, a computer, or a smartphone. Although research in this domain is fairly new and little of it has been published in the educational technology literature to date, that which has been published reveals issues important to educational technologists. Some of these studies have focused on hardware, including ones for the development of electronic ink and paper. Other studies have explored specific applications of e-books in various environments of interest to educators. Libraries have studied various programs to provide e-books to patrons, the challenges in administering these programs and related reactions. Although interest exists, participants in these studies often still prefer traditional printed books. In classrooms, researchers have explored different applications of e-books to traditional learning activities. Other research has explored uses of e-books in learning contexts outside of the classroom, the impact of digital publications on the market for books and periodicals, consumer perceptions and acceptance of e-books and unique issues of copyright and intellectual property arising from digital texts. Several other areas of research contribute to our understanding about e-books, such as research on tablet ­computing, software and processes related standards for publishing content digitally, and provide initial guidance in designing and developing e-books.
Virtual worlds and immersive simulations are designed to create a compelling, ­collaborative, and participatory experience for the user, and often contain a variety of features not possible in the real world to enhance users’ engagement and learning. Over the past several years, an increasing number of immersive virtual environment experiences have become available for both educational and entertainment purposes. Participants in entertainment experiences now number hundreds of millions, yet adoption in educational settings has been limited thus far. In this chapter, we review examples of virtual worlds and immersive simulations that are designed, or adapted, to support situated learning experiences, analyze their use for a variety of educational purposes, explore theoretical foundations, identify learning affordances and limitations, and examine instructional design considerations.
This literature review focuses on augmented realities (AR) for learning that utilize mobile, context-aware technologies (e.g., smartphones, tablets), which enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. We summarize research findings about AR in formal and informal learning environments (i.e., schools, universities, museums, parks, zoos, etc.), with an emphasis on the affordances and limitations associated with AR as it relates to teaching, learning, and instructional design. As a cognitive tool and pedagogical approach, AR is primarily aligned with situated and constructivist learning theory, as it positions the learner within a real-world physical and social context while guiding, scaffolding and facilitating participatory and metacognitive learning processes such as authentic inquiry, active observation, peer coaching, reciprocal teaching and legitimate peripheral participation with multiple modes of representation.
This chapter provides a review of the theoretical bases and international research on the uses of Web 2.0 applications for learning through collaboration. Web 2.0 applications empower users with a venue for personal expression, sharing, communicating, and collaborating with others, thus offering enriched opportunities for learning. In our review, we found evidence of engaging and effective uses of Web 2.0 applications such as blogs, wikis, collaborative documents and concept mapping, VoiceThread, video sharing applications (e.g., YouTube), microblogging (e.g., Twitter), social networking sites, and social bookmarking that applied contemporary and foundational educational theory. We also identified opportunities and challenges associated with learning through collaboration with Web 2.0 applications, which can inform research directions and areas to explore for ECT researchers.
In this chapter we synthesize the pedagogical agent literature published during 2005–2011. During these years, researchers have claimed that pedagogical agents serve a variety of educational purposes such as being adaptable and versatile; engendering realistic simulations; addressing learners’ sociocultural needs; fostering engagement, motivation, and responsibility; and improving learning and performance. Empirical results supporting these claims are mixed, and results are often contradictory. Our investigation of prior literature also reveals that current research focuses on the examination of cognitive issues through the use of experimental and quasi-experimental methods. Nevertheless, sociocultural investigations are becoming increasingly popular, while mixed methods approaches, and to a lesser extent interpretive research, are garnering some attention in the literature. Suggestions for future research include the deployment of agents in naturalistic contexts and open-ended environments, and investigation of agent outcomes and implications in long-term interventions.
Adaptive learning technologies provide an environment that intelligently adjusts to a ­learner’s needs by presenting suitable information, instructional materials, feedback and recommendations based on one’s unique individual characteristics and situation. This chapter first focuses on the concept of adaptivity based on four types of learner differences that can be used by adaptive technologies: learning styles, cognitive abilities, affective states and the current learning context/situation. In order to provide adaptivity, the characteristics of learners need to be known first. Therefore, this chapter discusses methods for identifying learners’ individual differences as well as how the information about these individual ­differences can be used to provide learners with adaptive learning experiences. Furthermore, the chapter demonstrates how adaptivity can be provided in different settings, focusing on both desktop-based learning and mobile/pervasive/ubiquitous learning. Finally, open issues in adaptive technologies are discussed and future research directions are identified.
This chapter begins by reviewing the many definitions of the term open educational resources and concludes by discussing challenges and opportunities for the approach. Open educational resources (OER) are educational materials either licensed under an open copyright license or in the public domain. Neither the term "open educational resources" nor the term "open" itself has an agreed upon definition in the literature. Research regarding open educational resources focuses on methods of producing OER, methods of sharing OER, and the benefits of OER. Significant issues relating to OER remain unresolved, including business model and discovery problems. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
The use of visualization techniques in learning is not new. They have been used in maps and drawings for thousands of years. This chapter analyzes how more novel visualization techniques can be used to enhance various activities during the learning process: finding and understanding educational resources, collaboration with learners and teachers, (self-) reflecting about learners’ progress, and designing learning experiences. We illustrate our analysis with example tools and visualizations. Results of our analysis indicate that visualization techniques are beginning to be more widely used for learning but further research is needed to assess the added value of these visual approaches in terms of effectiveness, efficiency or other criteria that pertain to learning.
When learners solve problems they often create an external representation to organize the information given in the problem statement, to translate this problem description into underlying domain terms, and to complete this with knowledge they already have. This representation is subsequently used to solve the problem. For creating such a representation learners have many formats available: text, diagrams, formulas, and the like. The choice for a specific representation format partly determines the solution strategy that is triggered. Today, technology supported representations have become available that extend the possibilities for learners. Technology can be used to present different but connected representations, to adapt the representation to the problem solving phase and to add aspects such as dynamics, reified objects, three dimensional (3D) representations, and haptic experiences. These new representational formats open new affordances but also create new challenges for learning. In this chapter the different affordances that representational formats offer are explored with an emphasis on modern technology supported representations.
Generational differences have been widely discussed; attention to and speculation on the ­characteristics of the Millennial Generation are especially abundant as they pertain to the use of educational technology for education and training. A careful review of the current popular and academic literature reveals several trends. First, whether based on speculation or research findings, discussion has focused on traits of the newer generations of students and workers and how their needs, interests and learning preferences can be met using new media, innovative instructional design and digital technologies. Second, generally speaking, although in the past few years there have been more critical and diverse perspectives on the characteristics of the Millennial Generation reported in the literature than before, more substantive studies in this area are still necessary. This chapter discusses trends and findings based upon the past 10 years’ literature on generational differences, the Millennial Generation, and studies and speculations regarding school and workplace technology integration that is intended to accommodate generational differences. There is still a lack of consensus on the characteristics of the newer generation sufficient to be used as a solid conceptual framework or as a variable in research studies; thus, research in this area demands an ongoing, rigorous examination. Instead of using speculative assumptions to justify the adoption of popular Web 2.0 tools, serious games and the latest high tech gear to teach the Millennial Generation, approaches to integrating technology in instruction, learning, and performance should be determined by considering the potential pedagogical effectiveness of a technology in relation to specific teaching, learning and work contexts. Clearly, today’s higher education institutions and workplaces have highly diverse student bodies and work forces, and it is as important to consider the needs of older participants in learning with technology as it is to consider those of the younger participants. Recommendations for future research and practices in this area conclude the chapter.
It is commonly believed that learning is enhanced through the use of technology and that students need to develop technology skills in order to be productive members of society. For this reason, providing a high quality education includes the expectation that teachers use educational technologies effectively in their classroom and that they teach their students to use technology. In this chapter we have organized our review of technology integration research around a framework based on three areas of focus: (1) increasing access to educational technologies, (2) increasing the use of technology for instructional purposes, and (3) improving the effectiveness of technology use to facilitate learning. Within these categories, we describe findings related to one-to-one computing initiatives, integration of open educational resources, various methods of teacher professional development, ethical issues affecting technology use, emerging approaches to technology integration that emphasize pedagogical perspectives and personalized instruction, technology-enabled assessment practices, and the need for systemic educational change to fully realize technology’s potential for improving learning. From our analysis of the scholarship in this area, we conclude that the primary benefit of current technology use in education has been to increase information access and communication. Students primarily use technology to gather, organize, analyze, and report information, but this has not dramatically improved student performance on standardized tests. These findings lead to the conclusion that future efforts should focus on providing students and teachers with increased access to technology along with training in pedagogically sound best practices, including more advanced approaches for technology-based assessment and adaptive instruction.
A recent call for medical school reform in the USA has sparked a renewed interest in the use of educational technologies to help enhance and standardize the complex medical curriculum. Medical school goals focus on preparing medical students to be physicians who connect multiple knowledge bases to clinical experiences, develop professional competencies, and continually self-assess knowledge and learning needs. Educational technology has been suggested as a critical factor in meeting these goals. Although there is a growing presence of technologies in medical schools, recent educational technology studies in medical education outlets overwhelmingly appear to be solo pilot efforts that are evaluative in nature and primarily describe uses and perceived value of technology. Few report widely studied technology phenomena and produce evidence-based results powerful enough to support uses of technology to inform curricular reform. Medical education scholars have suggested that more interdisciplinary and rigorous empirical studies are required to determine how educational technologies may enhance the efficiency and quality of medical curricula. This chapter describes the evolving process of educating physicians and provides a synthesis of recent themes in the medical school educational technology literature covering areas of adoption of educational technology innovations, technology support structures, design and development challenges, and recent research. Conclusions suggest future research that by nature is collaborative, interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, and aligns with curriculum enhancement themes. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
This chapter presents an exposition of how multicultural factors influence the design of electronic learning systems to support educational goals and improve learning outcomes for students from diverse cultures. The chapter reviews the specialized literature related to the intersection of the disciplines of multicultural education and instructional design to show how to make best use of instructional settings to support and respect the many cultures that are represented within the modern classroom. The chapter concludes with some suggested future directions for research with a specific recommendation that instructional designers embrace the powerful user configuration features now available in digital and social media to empower learners to modify both technologies and learning environments to support their own cultural learning needs to utilize the affordances available. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Educational technology-the study and practice of using technology to support learning and instruction-is influenced by developments in various fields such as cognitive science, information and communications technologies, and psychology. To address the broad range of questions that make up the domain of educational technology research, a variety of approaches to scientific research are relevant. To facilitate the pursuit of a diverse research agenda relying on various approaches, we discuss scientific research in the domain of educational technology, present three philosophical approaches to scientific research that are relevant to educational technology research (namely, postpositivism, constructivism, and phenomenology) along with examples, and then discuss the larger landscape of approaches to scientific inquiry. With this, we aim to contribute to expanding the domain and diversity of scientific approaches within the discipline of educational technology, thereby informing and improving subsequent educational technology research. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Many countries in the developing world, including the least developed countries, are making significant investments in educational ICT (information and communication technology). Even with extremely constrained financial resources, some countries are purchasing one laptop for every primary or secondary student. This chapter examines the policies and rationales used by governments to justify these investments, the issues involved in the implementation of ICT in developing countries, and the available research on the impact of ICT investments. Policy documents from a range of developing countries are analyzed to identify key policy goals and the implementation programs authorized to accomplish these goals. The rationales include the use of educational ICT to support economic development, social progress, and education reform. Field reports from developing countries are analyzed to describe sometimes unique implementation challenges related to infrastructure, maintenance, contents, and teacher training, as well as the efforts used to address these challenges. Such challenges include limited electrical or Internet infrastructure in rural areas, limited availability of technically skilled support staff, the predominance of minority languages, and underqualified teaching staff. And finally, the chapter reviews research on these ICT efforts, including descriptive studies, classroom practice studies, and impact research. The chapter makes some concluding remarks about the current status of ICT in developing countries and research needed to determine the contribution ICT will make in these countries. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
With most academic instructional design and technology (IDT) degree programs located within education units in higher education, teacher education is a focal point for research on the classroom teacher as instructional designer and implementer of technology in K-12. Further, teacher education serves as a locus for modelling and testing theory-based teaching practice arising from the discipline. This review examines the historical foundations and recent scholarship in teacher education from an instructional design and technology perspective in US and international contexts, providing a lens to the issues of theory versus practice and evolving research paradigms. Research areas reviewed include teacher thinking and planning, novice versus expert teacher differences, the use of systematic instructional design in classroom practices, and the teacher as designer of instructional materials. Changing research approaches and constructivist philosophies have widened the understanding of teacher instructional planning and action from earlier process-product causation to a more complex, situated view of practice. From an examination of the uneasy relationship between the two disciplines, prospects for future cooperation and research are explored in terms of theory building, impacts on training, debates on the nature of design practice, and potential for shaping educational reform efforts. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
Describing research as 'relevant' implies that there is an aim that it should serve; asking further how such work can be fostered raises questions about the encouragement and control of research practices. This chapter explores the idea of relevance in the context of research on educational communications and technology, and considers the mechanisms through which groups such as researchers and policy makers foster work that serves their interests. Firstly, historical patterns of cycles of promise then disappointment for technologies are noted. Then, the idea of relevance is considered in relation to the audiences with interests in work in this field. Next, mechanisms for fostering particular kinds of research are discussed, using concepts from Communities of Practice to frame the discussion. The chapter concludes by identifying ways of fostering relevant research that are distinctive to work in this field, such as the use of templates for knowledge representation and processes such as participative design, and problems that will persist in achieving this, such as the need to contextualize research claims in relation to specific teaching contexts. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
... On the other hand, it has been observed that many learning tools based on computer applications have not been accepted. This could be due to unsatisfactory results related to parameters in technological acceptability [6], motivation [7], and usability [5], among other parameters, required by educational users. In addition, application approaches depend on considerations of age and educational level of the learners to incorporate motivational attributes, combined with augmented reality (AR) game techniques, which allow learners to maintain application use. ...
... The use of AR approaches and play techniques are generally preferred by researchers in the motivational educational context [7]. AR, which provides visual and interactive experiences combined with relevant information, allows the understanding of complex phenomena [52], while play techniques add the motivational aspect to the learning process [8]. ...
... Complex phenomena and abstract concepts of science are analyzed at the level of objects and their properties for an effective understanding and to increase knowledge retention through experimentation [36]. Nonvisible phenomena are visible at molecular levels [69], and interaction with non-observable 3D elements in real instances are possible and allow to perform a series of experiments for a better understanding [42,68] that promotes research trends and strengthens the motivation to learn and improve practices in education [7,22,65]. MAR is available in any environment [78], for any age [96] and subject [22,74], and in natural sciences by using the evolutionary cycle in time [70]. It facilitates the student-teacher interaction, as an exposure flow, in the class [19,20]. ...
Full-text available
The teaching-learning process, at each educational level, is often an open problem for educators and researchers related to the stated topic. Researchers combine emerging technologies to formulate learning tools in order to understand the abstract contents of the subjects; however, the problem still persists. A technological learning tool would be effective when projected into an educational model that looks at motivation, usability, engagement, and technological acceptability. Some of these aspects could be attributed through the use of augmented reality and games. The aim of this work is to analyze, in the literature, the trends of learning models based on computer technologies for an effective and enjoyable learning activity. The analysis of the literature in that context emphasizing acceptability, categories, entertainment, educational models-shows that it is still not well explored.
... On y a recours dans plusieurs domaines tels que la médecine, l'architecture, la création de voitures personnalisées, les jeux vidéo et bien plus encore. Développée dans les centres de recherches au cours des années 1960(McLellan 1996), la RV est maintenant disponible sur le marché public depuis 2016.Bien qu'elle ne soit disponible pour le grand public que depuis 2016, les spécialistes de réalité virtuelle ont commencé à travailler sur cette technologie il y a plusieurs décennies, et ce, pour des entreprises privées, l'armée, l'éducation, le cinéma ainsi que pour des recherches en développement informatique(Boas 2013). Il est difficile de retracer avec précision l'origine de la RV puisque c'est l'ensemble des développements en lien avec les ordinateurs, l'infographie, les interfaces humain-machine et les simulations sensorielles qui ont permis, grâce à la fusion de plusieurs de ces technologies, de concevoir la RV(McLellan 1996). ...
... Développée dans les centres de recherches au cours des années 1960(McLellan 1996), la RV est maintenant disponible sur le marché public depuis 2016.Bien qu'elle ne soit disponible pour le grand public que depuis 2016, les spécialistes de réalité virtuelle ont commencé à travailler sur cette technologie il y a plusieurs décennies, et ce, pour des entreprises privées, l'armée, l'éducation, le cinéma ainsi que pour des recherches en développement informatique(Boas 2013). Il est difficile de retracer avec précision l'origine de la RV puisque c'est l'ensemble des développements en lien avec les ordinateurs, l'infographie, les interfaces humain-machine et les simulations sensorielles qui ont permis, grâce à la fusion de plusieurs de ces technologies, de concevoir la RV(McLellan 1996). Aucours des années 1950, le cinématographe Morton Heilig présenta le Sensorama, un dispositif permettant de visionner des films de manière immersive. ...
Full-text available
L’arrivée de la technologie de la RV a permis l’émergence de nouvelles expériences immersives. Celles-ci, basées sur l’utilisation des sens et du corps, emportent l’utilisateur dans une nouvelle réalité, une réalité virtuelle. Ce mémoire porte sur les discours entourant l’expérience au sein de la RV autant du point de vue des créateurs que des utilisateurs, et ce, en analysant le processus de création d’univers virtuel et de la mise en place d’une expérience immersive. Plus précisément, c’est l’utilisation des sens lors du processus d’immersion qui sera étudiée. Cette étude vise à mieux comprendre ce que sont les sens virtuels, comment ils sont utilisés et mis en place au sein des environnements virtuels. Elle permet également de démontrer l’objectif de l’utilisation de ceux-ci dans le processus de création d’une immersion sensorielle virtuelle convaincante. The arrival of VR technology has enabled the emergence of new immersive experiences. These, based on the use of the senses and the body, take the user into a new reality, a virtual reality. This thesis addresses the discourses surrounding the experience of VR from both designer and user perspectives by analyzing the process of creating a virtual universe and the implementation of an immersive experience. Most specifically, I will examine the mobilization of the senses during the immersion process. This study aims to better understand virtual senses and how they are used and implemented within virtual environments to produce a convincing virtual sensory immersion.
... Disamping itu Matt Dunleavy and Chris Dede menyatakan bahwa terdapat 2 bentuk Augmented Reality yang dapat digunakan oleh pendidik, yaitu location aware dan vision based [14]. Location aware -Augmented Reality menyediakan media digital untuk peserta didik ketika mereka bergerak melalui daerah fisik dengan smartphone yang dilengkapi fitur GPS atau perangkat seluler sejenis akan menampilkan informasi lingkungan fisik dengan narasi, navigasi, dan/atau informasi akademik yang relevan dengan lokasi. ...
... Matt Dunleavy and Chris Dede menyatakan bahwa Augmented Reality bisa memberikan peningkatan pengalaman belajar didasarkan pada dua kerangka teoritis yang saling bekerja, yaitu situated learning theory and constructivist learning theory [14]. Situated learning theory berpendapat bahwa semua pembelajaran terjadi dalam konteks tertentu dan kualitas pembelajaran adalah hasil dari interaksi antara orang-orang, tempat, benda, proses-proses, dan budaya dalam dan relatif terhadap konteks tertentu [18]. ...
Full-text available
Augmented Reality merupakan salah satu teknologi rich interface yang sedang berkembang dan telah diimplementasikan di banyak bidang. Penelitian yang mendalam terhadap pembelajaran berbasis Augmented Reality untuk pendidikan anak usia dini belum banyak dilakukan, padahal potensi pemanfaatan Augmented Reality untuk pendidikan sangat besar dan memiliki peluang yang tidak terbatas. Tujuan makalah ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh augmented reality pada pendidikan berdasarkan kajian literatur hasil penelitian di bidang tersebut dan untuk mengetahui potensi pemanfaatan teknologi tersebut sebagai media pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris untuk meningkatkan penguasaan kosa kata dan hasil belajar siswa.
... Abbiamo analizzato alcuni Handbook of Research in questo ambito pubblicati dopo il 2000. In particolare le due pubblicazioni dell'Association of Educational Communications and Technologies (AECT) (Jonassen, 2002;Spector et al., 2014), pubblicate a distanza di oltre un decennio, rappresentano le pubblicazioni più recenti di questo tipo e offrono un'interessante prospettiva dell'evoluzione tematica di questo settore. 1. Una prima dimensione, sempre frequentata e spesso indicata come Foundations (Spector et al., 2014), riguarda il rapporto tra le tecnologie e le teorie dell'apprendimento/insegnamento. ...
... In particolare le due pubblicazioni dell'Association of Educational Communications and Technologies (AECT) (Jonassen, 2002;Spector et al., 2014), pubblicate a distanza di oltre un decennio, rappresentano le pubblicazioni più recenti di questo tipo e offrono un'interessante prospettiva dell'evoluzione tematica di questo settore. 1. Una prima dimensione, sempre frequentata e spesso indicata come Foundations (Spector et al., 2014), riguarda il rapporto tra le tecnologie e le teorie dell'apprendimento/insegnamento. Alcuni autori si appellano alla neutralità degli strumenti e dei media, che acquistano valore e direzione se integrati nelle pratiche di insegnamento e apprendimento secondo un determinato orientamento pedagogico o didattico; altri propongono invece modelli di progettazione degli strumenti stessi ispirati a determinati approcci teorici, siano essi di stampo costruttivista, cognitivista, post-moderno, ecc. ...
Full-text available
In light of the strong social and cultural pervasiveness, in contemporary societies, of technologies called “information and communication technologies”, which are characterized by the digital dimension, the article aims to make an informed synthesis on the theme of digital technologies in education and training. This synthesis comes from a sample of 25 relevant articles and highlights three major thematic areas that have distinguished the theme of digital technologies in education and training: the use of digital resources within teaching and learning practices, the appropriate use of digital technologies, even outside the educational and educational contexts, and the training of the teaching staff to digital technologies and especially their use for educational and pedagogical purposes. This synthesis represents a privileged opportunity to highlight what the journal has contributed to spread in this field from a scientific point of view. The article, through a current look at the developments of research on technologies in education, thus allows to outline past and recent orientations, as well as current problems and issues that characterize this important and constantly evolving field.
... como también materias de tecnologías e ingenierías (Lindgren et al., 2016), los conceptos abstractos de las ciencias pueden ser analizados por los estudiantes a nivel de objetos conjuntamente con sus propiedades, para un entendimiento efectivo y así aumentar la retención de conocimiento por experimentación (Billinghurst & Dunser, 2012), orientar el análisis y síntesis de conceptos a través de visualizaciones 2D y 3D (Salinas et al., 2013), aprender conceptos matemáticos con RA (Bujak et al., 2013) . Con esta tecnología, los estudiantes fortalecen aspectos motivacionales (Spector et al., 2014;Khan, T. et al., 2019), motivación que les permite aprender y mejorar sus prácticas en la educación, como es el caso del trabajo presentado por Liu et al. (2016), juego de RA móvil local de aprendizaje de lenguas; algunas aplicaciones de RA se combinan con juegos serios para el aprendizaje (Moloney et al., 2017), y algunas otras aprovechan la atracción que los juegos producen para inducir el conocimiento en los estudiantes (Tomi & Rambli, 2013;Rambli et al., 2013). Por el contrario, la falta de motivación puede ser una causa del bajo interés en la ciencia por parte de los niños (Laine et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
El avance de las tecnologías de información y comunicación y la incorporación de tecnologías emergentes en la educación, ha dado lugar a al desarrollo de herramientas innovadoras como es el caso de las aplicaciones de Realidad Aumentada, en las cuales se combinan elementos virtuales en ambientes reales al mismo tiempo. Estas aplicaciones vienen siendo utilizadas en diferentes áreas educativas, con mayor frecuencia en temas con contenidos abstractos, con la intención de facilitar la asimilación de los mismos. Varias de éstas aplicaciones de realidad aumentada fueron analizadas en la presente investigación, con el objetivo de determinar sus características y de esta manera sirvan de guía para futuras aplicaciones.
... The existence of the leadership has a huge influence on the progress and development of the organization it leads. Leaders must be able to pay attention and supervise employees in order to work with discipline without being authoritarian (Spector et al., 2014). A leader must be able to influence the behavior of his employees, recognize the individual qualities of his employees and have the ability to awaken the emotional and rational forces of his employees. ...
Full-text available
Discipline is very important because discipline plays a role in creating disciplined and productive employees. Discipline means carrying out its responsibilities in accordance with office regulations, thus employees will become more productive and able to work effectively and efficiently. One of the factors that affect the discipline of work is the example of the leader, the example of the leader is very instrumental in determining the discipline of employees, because the leadership is used as an example and role model by his subordinates. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of leadership on work discipline. This research was included in associative-quantitative research, which was research that connects two or more variables to see the influence between variables through hypothesis testing. In this study, researcher gave five alternative answers to respondents using a scale of one to five. The population in this study was employees at the Office of Cooperatives, Small and Medium Enterprises, Industry and Trade of North Tapanulli Regency as many as 30 people under the leadership of echelon 3. The R Square value of 0.744 means that 7.44% of employee work disciplinary variables (Y) can be explained by leadership (X). While the remaining 25.6% can be explained by other variables that were not studied in this study. Based on the results of the analysis of this study where the leadership plays a role in the discipline of employees' work, this is because good leadership is one of the important factors in the process of disciplining employees' work. Leadership can affect employee discipline and result in the form of work requirements that employees will carry out. If the leadership in the company or organization is good and has the ability to influence or control its employees in carrying out office tasks then the work discipline will be improved as expected by the company.
... The design of this study uses the ADDIE development model with five steps, namely analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (Spector et al., 2014). The five steps can be seen in Figure 3. ...
Full-text available
This study aims to develop self and peer assessment instruments to improve students' critical and appreciative abilities in learning drama appreciation. This research was conducted by following the ADDIE model development steps, namely needs analysis, product design, product development, product implementation, and product evaluation. There are two types of data in this study, namely qualitative data and quantitative data. Qualitative data is in the form of suggestions and comments from assessment experts, literature experts, and drama appreciation learning experts, as well as students, while quantitative data is in the form of scores obtained from assessment experts, literature experts, and drama appreciation learning experts, as well as students. Both data were obtained through questionnaire guidelines. The data obtained were then analyzed. For qualitative data analyzed using descriptive analysis techniques, while quantitative data using quantitative descriptive analysis techniques. From the analysis technique used, it is known that the product developed can increase students' critical appreciative abilities by getting an average percentage of 8.3% for the display aspect, 9.7% for the product content aspect, and 90.4% for the language aspect. The three averages were obtained from assessment experts, literary experts, and drama appreciation learning experts. When testing the product, students got an average score of 82.2% on the aspect of 'student impressions of the use of self and peer assessment in increasing students' critical appreciation skills in learning drama appreciation 'and 80.4% on the aspect of' practicality and ease of self and peer assessment for improve students 'appreciative critical abilities in drama appreciation learning'.
... Dies thematisieren Mayrberger und Kumar (2014) indem sie eine Perspektive auf das Lehren und Lernen mit Medien über die Dichotomie aus Mediendidaktik und Educational Technology aufzeigen. Educational Technology kann demnach als "study and practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources" definiert werden (Januszewski und Molenda 2008, S. 2;Spector et al. 2014). In diesem Kontext wird die Virtual Reality Technologie (VR) in Form von 360°-Videos in VR verortet, da über diese immersive Technologie eine Interaktion mit einem Lerngegenstand erreicht werden kann, die über eine passive Betrachtung oder Darstellung hinaus geht. ...
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Virtuelle Realitäten ermöglichen neue Lernumgebungen in der Lehrpersonenbildung. Der Beitrag geht hierzu der Frage nach, inwiefern 360°-Videos in Virtual Reality geeignet sind, um realitätsnahe handlungsorientierte Lernsituationen im Lehramtsstudium abzubilden. Zur Abschätzung einer technologie- und zielgruppenbezogenen Eignung wurden virtuelle Unterrichtsszenarien auf der Basis von 360°-Videos entwickelt und mit Studierenden im Lehramt an berufsbildenden Schulen sowie Studierenden der Berufspädagogik in einem quasi-experimentellen Setting getestet. Die Ergebnisse belegen eine hohe Akzeptanz gegenüber der virtuellen Technologie. Bei den Teilnehmenden wurden ein hohes Immersions- und Präsenzerleben festgestellt. Zudem liefert die Studie mit ihren qualitativen Befunden Hinweise zur Konzeptionierung und Optimierung für die Nutzung virtueller Lernumgebungen in der Lehrpersonenbildung und liefert Forschungsdesiderata.
... TCK (Technological Content Knowledge) is knowledge about the reciprocal linking of technology with content (Spector et al., 2014). Teachers should know the subject matter they teach and how to modify it with technology applications. ...
Full-text available
Adaptation of new habits in many aspects of life, including education, is required amid the COVID-19 outbreak. Many countries, including Indonesia, suddenly implement online learning as a realization of social distancing policies. This sudden change in the learning system has become a challenge for teachers. They must be able to integrate technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge to conduct online learning well. Therefore, this study investigates the readiness of biology teachers to face online learning based on their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). The purposive survey method was used by distributing questionnaires and conducting online interviews. The questionnaire consists of 30 statements about the TPACK readiness of biology teachers and ten questions about the online learning process during the COVID-19 outbreak. A total of 121 biology teachers in West Java, Indonesia, participated in this study. The findings indicate that biology teachers have sufficient TPACK skills in implementing online learning. However, their technological capabilities still need to be improved. The flexibility of place and time, availability of learning resources, and increased independence of teachers and students in using technology are the advantages of online biology learning during the COVID-19 outbreak. Meanwhile, the problems faced by teachers include technical connectivity and student honesty in taking exams in the implementation of online learning. The uncertainty of when the pandemic will end makes this study important to carry out for evaluation and potential improvement of online biology learning systems.
... Through this exploration, the author became convinced as researcher that Authentic eLearning offers a promising set of design principles for enhancing a constructivist group work learning environment (Jonassen, 2008). This provided confirmation of her proposed objective to explore the praxis of Authentic eLearning through her own learning and teaching; this process will be reported on in a forthcoming article. ...
Full-text available
Group work education develops student competences for praxis. The Authentic eLearning framework has the potential to strengthen course design, develop critical thinking, multiple perspectives, articulation and reflection. This qualitative study conducted using educational design research explored the pedagogical practices of South African social workers in group work education. Ethics clearance for this study was received and data were analysed using content analysis. Findings identified educator strategies including the use of real-world context, reflection and group collaboration, but the study noted the potential for incorporating technology-enhanced learning. Extrapolating from this study, opportunities for educators in this field during the Covid-19 pandemic are indicated.
... TPACK merupakan kerangka yang mengintegrasikan hubungan antara komponen teknologi, pedagogi dan konten pengetahuan (Spector et al., 2014). Guru di abad 21 bukanlah guru yang hanya mampu menyampaikan materi dengan metode yang menarik saja. ...
Full-text available
Abad 21 menuntut guru untuk adaptif terhadap tantangan dan kebutuhan zaman. TPACK merupakan salah satu jenis pengetahuan yang harus dikuasai guru di abad 21. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis komponen-komponen TPACK guru SD. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif deskriptif. Sampel penelitian ini adalah guru SD yang megikuti PPG SD dalam jabatan. Instrumen dikembangkan dari penelitian terdahulu yang memiliki validitas dan reliabilitas tinggi. Pengumpulan data menggunakan angket tertutup dengan skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan uji Analyze Descriptive Statistics. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan nilai mean komponen TK sebesar 3,01, PK sebesar 3,00, CK sebesar 2,98, TCK sebesar 3,00, PCK sebesar 3,13, TPK sebesar 3,14 dan TPCK sebesar 2,94. Keseluruhan komponen berada pada kategori baik. TPCK memiliki nilai mean terendah diantara komponen lainnya. Kemampuan guru untuk mengintegrasikan keseluruhan komponen tidaklah mudah. Perlu ada kesimbangan antara aspek pengetahuan teknologi, pedagogi dan konten materi
... This matters in the context of developing valid and robust assessment tools. Cutting-edge Bayesian frameworks, such as the Evidence-Centered Design (ECD, sometimes referred to as Stealth Assessment [145]), require an evidence model where weights are given to particular behaviors. In the age of Big Data, one can imagine such an evidence model being fueled not just by limited, anecdotal, contextspecific data, but by the entire academic literature, taking into account contexts, as well as individual and cultural differences, to build a generic assessment tool that can adapt to most common collaborative scenarios. ...
Full-text available
This paper reviews 74 empirical publications that used high-frequency data collection tools to capture facets of small collaborative groups—i.e., papers that conduct Multimodal Collaboration Analytics (MMCA) research. We selected papers published from 2010 to 2020 and extracted their key contributions. For the scope of this paper, we focus on: (1) the sensor-based metrics computed from multimodal data sources (e.g., speech, gaze, face, body, physiological, log data); (2) outcome measures, or operationalizations of collaborative constructs (e.g., group performance, conditions for effective collaboration); (3) the connections found by researchers between sensor-based metrics and outcomes; and (4) how theory was used to inform these connections. An added contribution is an interactive online visualization where researchers can explore collaborative sensor-based metrics, collaborative constructs, and how the two are connected. Based on our review, we highlight gaps in the literature and discuss opportunities for the field of MMCA, concluding with future work for this project.
... The increasingly ubiquitous availability of digital and networked tools has the potential to fundamentally transform the teaching and learning process. Research on the instructional uses of technologies, however, has revealed that teachers often lack the knowledge to successfully integrate technologies into their teaching and their attempts tend to be limited in scope, variety, and depth (Spector, Merrill, Elen, & Bishop, 2014). ...
Full-text available
In order to provide readers with an overview and summarizes the content, the purpose of this chapter is stated as reporting on an investigation around acquiring 21st century skills through e-learning. This study takes place against the BACKGROUND of the factors affecting the successful implementation of an e-education policy and community engagement. In terms of research methodology, a case study is used of a specific high (secondary) school in the Metro North district of the Western Cape province, South Africa.
... 2. Barang siapa dengan sengaja menyiarkan, memamerkan, mengedarkan, atau menjual kepada umum suatu ciptaan atau barang hasil pelangaran hak cipta terkait sebagai dimaksud pada ayat (1) dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 5 (lima) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp.500.000.000,00 (lima ratus juta rupiah) anak", dan Lev Vygotsky (1962, asli diterbitkan pada tahun 1934) tentang "Pikiran dan Bahasa" (Spector et al., 2014). Sebagai hasil dari konseptualisasi umum dari pembelajaran, teori belajar banyak digunakan dalam sistem pendidikan. ...
... Gamification could effectively improve learning outcomes in children through the implication of key brain regions to engaging in any task, resulting in greater motivation and adherence to the program [49][50][51] . Both playful methodologies (board and card games and gamification) seem to increase the motivation of participants escalating their interaction with the learning environment to finally modify behaviors and cognitions 52,53 . However, as far as we know, no previous study has tested whether gamification could enhance the effects of a cognitive intervention based on modern board and card games. ...
Objective: Modern board and card game-based cognitive interventions and gamification practices showed effectiveness in boosting executive functions and decreasing behavioral problems in children. However, the combination of both game-based methods has not been tested. So, the main aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of gamification in modern board and card game-based cognitive intervention in Spanish school children at risk of social exclusion. Materials and methods: In this multicenter single-blind study with a quasi-experimental design, 176 schoolers (6-13 years old) were assigned to a gamified group (with a narrative context and a rewarding system) and 107 to a non-gamified group (with no narrative context or rewarding system). The interventions were implemented in regular classes. Behavioral executive dysfunctions were assessed by BRIEF-2 (Teacher form) pre- and post-intervention. Results: We found significant time effects in all BRIEF-2 domains with small and medium effect sizes (d=-.35 to d=-.62). The non-gamified group showed significantly higher decreases in all measures than those who used gamification. Conclusion: It is possible that playing for the joy of playing in the non-gamified group was enough motivation to focus on the task while adding gamification elements did not favor the greater effectiveness of the program.
... On this basis, online learning has gradually entered educational practice and research. Online learning environment is an open and distributed learning environment supported by the Internet and other technologies, such as telephone, videotape, satellite transmission or computer (Zuhairi, 2018), using these techniques to mediate a necessary communication (Jonassen, 2004). This kind of learning can be both in synchronous or asynchronous format. ...
Full-text available
The pandemic in 2020 made online learning the widely used modality of teaching in several countries and it has also entered the spotlight of educational research. However, online learning has always been a challenge for disciplines (engineering, biology, and art) that require hands-on practice. For art teaching or training, online learning has many advantages and disadvantages. How art teachers embrace and adapt their teaching for online delivery remains an unanswered question. This research examines 892 art teachers' attitudes toward online learning, using learning environment, need satisfaction, mental engagement, and behavior as predictors. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between these four dimensions during these teachers' participation in an online learning program. The results reveal significant correlations between the learning environment, need satisfaction, mental engagement, and behavior. Moreover, this study reveals the group characteristics of art teachers, which can actually be supported by online learning programs. These findings provide insights into how art teachers view and use online learning, and thus can shed lights on their professional development.
... For many teachers, new educational technologies and facilities may cause discomfort or even feel unsettling due to their lack of suitability for effective pedagogical use and acculturation in teaching and learning [29]. ...
Full-text available
E-learning was a major study area during COVID-19 pandemic. Practically, public and private higher education institutions worldwide have switched from traditional face-to-face teaching to online learning solutions in order to deal with the spread of the coronavirus. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the e-learning solution during COVID-19 crisis. The research data were gathered using a self-administered online survey from Moroccan public university students. Through using the structural equation modeling under the partial least squares (PLS-SEM), the findings reveal that instructor quality has a direct and significant influence on system use and learner satisfaction. Likewise, user satisfaction is positively associated with system quality. Moreover, the e-learning system success is driven by both system use and learner satisfaction. These results are useful for Moroccan University policymakers in order to develop best practices to ensure a successful e-learning implementation.
... Despite the growing trend toward using AR/VR technologies for teaching and learning, the current approaches largely fail to provide the requisite interaction and communication with the instructor during the learning process (Dunleavy and Dede 2014;Kavanagh et al. 2017). As a result of these prevalent constraints, the learning output of students under the same virtual setting will vary significantly. ...
... The differences among the reviews are likely related to different methodological frameworks adopted to conduct literature review studies, the temporal span (1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004)(2005)(2006)(2007)(2008)(2009)(2010), the evolving body of knowledge and the technology available at the time of the review. Over the last decade, newer tools and further knowledge have created new opportunities to address consistency and generalizability across studies [19][20][21] . An updated synthesis of the current literature can be considered an important first step in achieving consensus and developing guidelines to help researchers make informed decisions regarding research designs and methods used in iridology. ...