Article

Examining the Within-Person Effect of Affect on Daily Satisfaction

Article

Examining the Within-Person Effect of Affect on Daily Satisfaction

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Abstract

Assessments of global life satisfaction capture beliefs about overall well-being; state satisfaction assessments focus on short-term or “in-the-moment” appraisals of current life circumstances. Prior research has examined how trait measures of life satisfaction and affect are related at between-person and within-person levels of analysis. At the state level, however, a lack of clarity exists about the nature and magnitude of the association between satisfaction and affect. In a diary study involving assessments of both affect and satisfaction at the daily level (N = 350 with 6024 assessments), we found a consequential effect of affect on state satisfaction due to greater within-person variance over time.

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... Global judgments of life satisfaction are highly correlated with chronically accessible information about important life domains (Schimmack & Oishi, 2005), while judgments restricted to relatively short and recent periods are more likely to rely on episodic information, making those judgments more susceptible to the influence of temporarily accessible information (Robinson & Clore, 2002). One possible solution for this problem is to examine within-person effects of affect across several time points (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017b. The results of the Jayawickreme et al. (2017aJayawickreme et al. ( , 2017b) studies clearly pointed out that the relationship between the cognitive and affective components of well-being should be analyzed at the within-person level and that time-frame should not be ignored. ...
... One possible solution for this problem is to examine within-person effects of affect across several time points (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017b. The results of the Jayawickreme et al. (2017aJayawickreme et al. ( , 2017b) studies clearly pointed out that the relationship between the cognitive and affective components of well-being should be analyzed at the within-person level and that time-frame should not be ignored. When weekly reports were used as a time-frame, the effect of affect on life satisfaction was negligible (Jayawickreme et al., 2017a). ...
... When weekly reports were used as a time-frame, the effect of affect on life satisfaction was negligible (Jayawickreme et al., 2017a). Within a daily time-frame the effects of affect on satisfaction appear to be more consequential (Jayawickreme et al., 2017b). It is unclear, though, what is the within-person effect of affect at the state level in an even shorter, sub-daily momentary time-frame. ...
Article
This study aims to examine the effect of affect on satisfaction, both at the between- and the within-person level for momentary assessments. Affect is regarded as an important source of information for life satisfaction judgments. This affective effect on satisfaction is well established at the dispositional level, while at the within-person level it is heavily under-researched. This is true especially for momentary assessments. In this experience sampling study both mood and satisfaction scales were administered five times a day for 7 days via hand-held devices (N = 74 with 2,122 assessments). Several hierarchical linear models were fitted to the data. Even though the amount of between- person variance was relatively low, both positive and negative affect had substantial effects on momentary satisfaction on the between- and the within-person level as well. The within-person effects of affect on satisfaction appear to be more pronounced than the between-person ones. At the momentary level, the amount of between-person variance is lower than in studies with longer time-frames. The affect-related effects on satisfaction possibly have a curvilinear relationship with the time-frame used, increasing in intensity up to a point and then decreasing again. Such a relationship suggests that, at the momentary level, satisfaction might behave in a more stochastic manner, allowing for transient events/data which are not necessarily affect-related to affect it.
... The last finding, i.e. changes in well-being tend to persist over time, mirrors results obtained in longitudinal studies investigating the stability of well-being in adolescence 85,86 . It is also in line with findings from EMAs studies investigating (affective) well-being on a daily basis 77,87 . On the contrary, duration and frequency of smartphone use showed a greater variation on a daily basis and across different days, with auto-effects being very small and reaching a null value after few days-especially in the case of the frequency of smartphone use. ...
Article
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Well-being and smartphone use are thought to influence each other. However, previous studies mainly focused on one direction (looking at the effects of smartphone use on well-being) and considered between-person effects, with self-reported measures of smartphone use. By using 2548 assessments of well-being and trace data of smartphone use collected for 45 consecutive days in 82 adolescent participants (Mage = 13.47, SDage = 1.62, 54% females), the present study disentangled the reciprocal and individual dynamics of well-being and smartphone use. Hierarchical Bayesian Continuous Time Dynamic Models were used to estimate how a change in frequency and duration of smartphone use predicted a later change in well-being, and vice versa. Results revealed that (i) when participants used the smartphone frequently and for a longer period, they also reported higher levels of well-being; (ii) well-being positively predicted subsequent duration of smartphone use; (iii) usage patterns and system dynamics showed heterogeneity, with many subjects showing reciprocal effects close to zero; finally, (iv) changes in well-being tend to persist longer than changes in the frequency and duration of smartphone use.
... Satisfaction with life was measured each evening using a single validated item (Jovanović, 2016), modified to measure daily life satisfaction. Similar modifications to measure state, rather than trait, satisfaction with life has been applied in other studies (Jayawickreme et al., 2017;Maher et al., 2014). Participants responded to the question "all things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole today?" on a 10-point sliding scale from 1 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied). ...
Article
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Perceptions of satisfaction with life tend to become less positive during adolescence. Previous research has shown that physical activity may positively explain differences in satisfaction in life between adolescents, however, there is no research examining whether adolescents are more satisfied with their life on days that they are more active than usual. Additionally, little is known about the mechanisms which explain the association between physical activity and satisfaction with life. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between daily and average levels of physical activity and satisfaction with life in adolescents, and whether core affect mediated this association. As part of a four-day ecological momentary assessment study, 119 adolescents (mean age = 14.7 years) reported their core affect on multiple occasions each day and their satisfaction with life each evening. Additionally, levels of device-measured physical activity were measured using accelerometers and, self-reported daily levels of leisure-time physical activity, active travel, and household physical activity were assessed. Overall, 69 and 94 participants were included in analyses of the association between device-measured and self-reported physical activity and satisfaction with life respectively. Results from repeated measures correlation analyses showed that adolescents were more satisfied with their life on days when they accumulated more device-measured overall, light, and moderate-intensity physical activity than usual. Additionally, adolescents who reported engaging in more leisure-time physical activity on average than others were more satisfied with their life. Results from mediation analysis showed that energetic arousal might mediate the between-person association between physical activity and satisfaction with life. Therese findings highlight the potential of participation in physical activity to promote wellbeing in adolescents.
... Positive and negative emotions are considered affective components of subjective well-being (Diener et al. 1999). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgments has been extensively investigated (e.g., Schimmack 2008), using longitudinal and experimental studies (e.g., Metler and Busseri 2017), repeated daily assessments (e.g., Jayawickreme et al. 2017), and cross-national samples (e.g., Joshanloo 2019a; Kuppens et al. 2008). However, some issues remain unresolved, including the issue of whether the contribution of positive and negative emotions to life satisfaction varies across age groups. ...
Article
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People rely on their recent emotional experiences when constructing life satisfaction judgments. However, the role of positive and negative affect in life satisfaction across different age groups has rarely been examined in prior research. This study sought to investigate the contribution of positive and negative affect to life satisfaction across five age groups in a large sample of Serbians between 16 and 65 years of age (N = 3287, 59.9% females). Multi-group structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement invariance and to examine the relationships between affect and life satisfaction across the age groups. Full metric invariance was supported for life satisfaction and positive and negative affect across the groups. The results showed that positive affect had strong effects on life satisfaction across the groups, whereas negative affect had weak or nonsignificant effects. The effects of positive and negative affect on life satisfaction were found to be invariant across age groups. Our findings indicate that people rely more on positive emotional experiences than on negative emotional experiences when constructing life satisfaction judgments, and that age does not moderate the effects of affective experiences on life satisfaction.
... The asymmetry of activity effects found in the present study could be, at least in part, due to the conceptual and measurement overlap of satisfaction and affect. This appears to be less of an issue in longer time-frames than in shorter time frames or in momentary setting (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017bTončić & Anić, in press). On the other hand, there was a more pronounced effect of learning activities on satisfaction, which can be seen as a composite overall measure, combining both cognitive and affective components of well-being. ...
Chapter
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Problem statement: Satisfaction and enjoyment in everyday experience, work and leisure is important for understanding subjective well-being. However, people experience different levels of pleasure, meaning, and engagement during specific activities. Research questions: The study investigated the effect of activity type (related or unrelated to learning) on momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction. Purpose: Students generally find meaning in education-related activities, although they usually do not enjoy them. Whereas pleasurable (predominantly freely chosen) activities immediately increase well-being, meaningful activities that are often imposed, may have a delayed effect on satisfaction and affect. However, the temporal extent of these effects is still unclear. Research methods: 117 students (aged 18-27 years, 28% males) participated in the experience sampling study during one week. They were prompted five times per day to describe what they were doing and to assess momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction on hand-held devices. Reported activities were coded as learning-related or other activities. Findings: Hierarchical linear modelling showed that engaging in learning activities immediately decreased satisfaction and increased negative affect, when compared with other activities. The delayed effects were significant up to three hours for negative affect and six hours for satisfaction. On the other hand, the activity type had neither immediate nor delayed effect on positive affect. Conclusions: Learning-related activities decrease subjective well-being, but this effect ceases after six hours. In general, freely chosen activities are source of pleasure and enjoyment. On the other hand, learning-related activities are necessary for the realization of long-term goals, but they are often not enjoyable because they are mainly imposed.
... The asymmetry of activity effects found in the present study could be, at least in part, due to the conceptual and measurement overlap of satisfaction and affect. This appears to be less of an issue in longer time-frames than in shorter time frames or in momentary setting (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017bTončić & Anić, in press). On the other hand, there was a more pronounced effect of learning activities on satisfaction, which can be seen as a composite overall measure, combining both cognitive and affective components of well-being. ...
Article
Problem statement: Satisfaction and enjoyment in everyday experience, work and leisure is important for understanding subjective well-being. However, people experience different levels of pleasure, meaning, and engagement during specific activities. Research questions: The study investigated the effect of activity type (related or unrelated to learning) on momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction. Purpose: Students generally find meaning in education-related activities, although they usually do not enjoy them. Whereas pleasurable (predominantly freely chosen) activities immediately increase well- being, meaningful activities that are often imposed, may have a delayed effect on satisfaction and affect. However, the temporal extent of these effects is still unclear. Research methods: 117 students (aged 18-27 years, 28% males) participated in the experience sampling study during one week. They were prompted five times per day to describe what they were doing and to assess momentary positive and negative affect and satisfaction on hand-held devices. Reported activities were coded as learning-related or other activities. Findings: Hierarchical linear modelling showed that engaging in learning activities immediately decreased satisfaction and increased negative affect, when compared with other activities. The delayed effects were significant up to three hours for negative affect and six hours for satisfaction. On the other hand, the activity type had neither immediate nor delayed effect on positive affect. Conclusions: Learning-related activities decrease subjective well-being, but this effect ceases after six hours. In general, freely chosen activities are source of pleasure and enjoyment. On the other hand, learning-related activities are necessary for the realization of long-term goals, but they are often not enjoyable because they are mainly imposed.
... The asymmetry of activity effects found in the present study could be, at least in part, due to the conceptual and measurement overlap of satisfaction and affect. This appears to be less of an issue in longer time-frames than in shorter time frames or in momentary setting (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017bTončić & Anić, in press). On the other hand, there was a more pronounced effect of learning activities on satisfaction, which can be seen as a composite overall measure, combining both cognitive and affective components of well-being. ...
... However, this is not a natural law. In fact, several psychological authors have argued (e.g., Eid 2008) and shown empirically that presumably cognitive concepts such as life satisfaction can vary substantially within short periods of time such as days or weeks (Eid and Diener 2004;Jayawickreme et al. 2017), and that presumably affective concepts such as positive and negative affect have a stable core that changes little within people (Anusic et al. 2012;Eid and Diener 2004). Our analysis shows that a theoretical elaboration and integration of these concepts may be of interest for both philosophers and psychologists. ...
Article
Full-text available
Philosophers have been interested in happiness and well-being since the Hellenic period. More recently, psychologists have begun to study how happy people are and what makes people’s lives go well. Today, these fields begin to converge, as philosophers and psychologists are interested in integrating the two disciplines. A central challenge for any interdisciplinary research is that disciplines often differ in their terminology. In this paper, we offer a novel approach to integrating philosophical and psychological accounts of happiness and well-being by describing these accounts on two independent continuous dimensions: degree of stability (from transient to stable) and psychological process (from affective to cognitive). This dimensional taxonomy highlights similarities and differences among the accounts and allows researchers to assess where philosophical and psychological accounts overlap and where they diverge. We first describe the methodological approach we used to develop our two-dimensional taxonomy, and then demonstrate how this taxonomy can be applied to a large number of existing theoretical accounts of happiness and well-being. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the dimensional approach and implications for future theoretical and empirical research.
... However, this is not a natural law. In fact, several psychological authors have argued (e.g., Eid, 2008) and shown empirically that presumably cognitive concepts such as life satisfaction can vary substantially within short periods of time such as days or weeks (Eid & Diener, 2004;Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017), and that presumably affective concepts such as positive and negative affect have a stable core that changes little within people (Anusic, Lucas, & Donnellan, 2012;Eid & Diener, 2004). Our analysis shows that a theoretical elaboration and integration of these concepts may be of interest for both philosophers and psychologists. ...
Preprint
Philosophers have been interested in happiness and well-being since the Hellenic period. More recently, psychologists have begun to study how happy people are and what makes people’s lives go well. Today, these fields begin to converge, as philosophers are increasingly interested in empirical approaches and some psychologists use philosophical theories to develop accounts of how to measure well-being and happiness. Yet, are philosophers and psychologists really studying the same concept? In this paper, we answer this question. We describe philosophical accounts of well-being and happiness and their corresponding psychological accounts on six characteristics: (a) temporal dimension (short term vs. long term), (b) degree of stability (trait vs. state), (c) psychological process (affective vs. cognitive), (d) constituent element (internal vs. external), (e) perspective (objective vs. subjective), and (f) theoretical approach (descriptive vs. normative). As a result, we identified three broad groups of theoretical accounts: mental state accounts, flourishing accounts, and multidimensional accounts. This classification highlights similarities and differences among the accounts and allows researchers to assess where philosophical and psychological accounts overlap and where they diverge. We conclude our paper with a discussion of the implications of our new way of integrating philosophical and psychological accounts, and present open questions that should be addressed in future research. Keywords: Happiness, Well-Being, Characteristics, Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being, Life satisfaction, Philosophy of Well-Being
... Research in several nations has demonstrated that positive and negative affect are causally related to life satisfaction, with positive emotions being more strongly related to life satisfaction than the absence of negative emotions (Kuppens, Realo, & Diener, 2008). Positive and negative affect are thought to influence life satisfaction either through the influence of current mood on satisfaction judgments (Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, & Kashdan, 2017a, 2017b or as a result of predispositions to positive and negative affect (Schimmack, 2008). ...
Article
Core self-evaluations (CSE) are associated with a range of indicators of positive personal and job outcomes. Current research suggests that CSE may be a precursor of judgment of life satisfaction but little is known about the factors that mediate the relationship. Affect is a potential mediator of the relationship and so we investigated whether positive and negative affect mediated the relationship between CSE and life satisfaction in two independent Spanish samples. Three hundred and fifty-two university students (Sample 1) and 520 adults (Sample 2) completed self-report measures of core self-evaluation, positive and negative affect and life satisfaction. In both samples, the association between CSE and life satisfaction was mediated by positive, but not negative affect. If replicated in longitudinal research, these results would provide evidence that CSE is associated with greater positive affect, which might influence life satisfaction judgments. These findings also highlight the importance of CSE and affect components that could take into consideration in positive psychology interventions aimed at increasing well-being.
... First, we defined state IH in this study as IH assessed twice per day. However, as noted in Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, and Kashdan (2017), there is variability in range of the duration of what is considered a "momentary" assessment. Jayawickreme and colleagues (2017) assessed daily satisfaction once per day, whereas King, Hicks, Krull, and Del Gaiso's (2006) "momentary" assessments of psychological well-being were from participants' reflections over their previous 2 days. ...
Presentation
Our research aims to examine individual differences in daily manifestations of IH, and the types of situations that elicit IH-relevant attitudes and behaviors, through the use of Experience Sampling Methodology. The presentation addresses foundational components for further conceptual understanding and empirical measurement of IH, including establishing a measure of the construct, and determining the predictive validity of self- and informant- reports of IH. Implications of the relevance of IH to positive outcomes are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the relevance of IH to an individual’s ability to enact wisdom-related thoughts and behaviors after experiences of adversity.
... First, we defined state IH in this study as IH assessed twice per day. However, as noted in Jayawickreme, Tsukayama, and Kashdan (2017), there is variability in range of the duration of what is considered a "momentary" assessment. Jayawickreme and colleagues (2017) assessed daily satisfaction once per day, whereas King, Hicks, Krull, and Del Gaiso's (2006) "momentary" assessments of psychological well-being were from participants' reflections over their previous 2 days. ...
Article
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Is post-traumatic growth (PTG) 'real'? The concept of 'real' is abstract, so I draw out four specific meanings of 'real' from the Jayawickreme and Blackie article. I propose three reasons being 'real' might matter: whether there are benefits to trauma, the possibility of interventions, and the accuracy of personal beliefs about growth. Using these reasons for mattering, I evaluated whether being 'real' matters for PTG in each of the specific meanings of 'real'. Only the pre-change to post-change meaning and the daily instantiation meaning appeared to matter for these reasons. Copyright (C) 2014 European Association of Personality Psychology
Article
Social cognition research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are based on a selected set of relevant information that is accessible at the time of the life-satisfaction judgment. Personality research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are quite stable over extended periods of time and predicted by personality traits. The present article integrates these two research traditions. We propose that people rely on the same sources to form repeated life-satisfaction judgments over time. Some of these sources (e.g., memories of emotional experiences, academic performance) provide stable information that explains the stability in life-satisfaction judgments. Second, we propose that the influence of personality traits on life satisfaction is mediated by the use of chronically accessible sources because traits produce stability of these sources. Most important, the influence of extraversion and neuroticism is mediated by use of memories of past emotional experiences. To test this model, participants repeatedly judged life-satisfaction over the course of a semester. After each assessment, participants reported sources that they used for these judgments. Changes in reported sources were related to changes in life-satisfaction judgments. A path model demonstrated that chronically accessible and stable sources are related to stable individual differences in life-satisfaction. Furthermore, the model supported the hypothesis that personality effects were mediated by chronically accessible and stable sources. In sum, the results are consistent with our theory that life-satisfaction judgments are based on chronically accessible sources.
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
We evaluate the suitability of Nussbaum's substantive account of capabilities in light of conceptual and empirical work that has shown that positivity is widely valued and pursued as an end by many people, and evidence that positive outcomes, even economic ones, are often caused by well-being rather than the other way around. While Nussbaum sees positive emotions as incidental to the experience of well-being, we argue that the experience of such mental states is partly constitutive of flourishing.
Article
The study of well-being is hampered by the multiplicity of approaches, but focusing on a single approach begs the question of what “well-being” really is. We analyze how well-being is defined according to the three main kinds of theories: “Liking” approaches (generally adopted by psychologists), “Wanting” approaches (predominant among economists), and “Needing” approaches (used in both public policy and psychology). We propose an integrative framework, the engine model of well-being, drawing on Seligman (Seligman, M. E. P., 2011, Flourish. New York, NY: The Free Press) and Sen's (Sen, A. K., 1999, Development as freedom. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press) emphasis on the plurality of this construct by distinguishing among (a) inputs (resources that enable well-being), (b) processes (internal states of mechanisms influencing well-being), and (c) outcomes (the intrinsically valuable behaviors that reflect the attainment of well-being). We discuss implications for research, measurement, and interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Scales with varying degrees of measurement reliability are often used in the context of multistage sampling, where variance exists at multiple levels of analysis (e.g., individual and group). Because methodological guidance on assessing and reporting reliability at multiple levels of analysis is currently lacking, we discuss the importance of examining level-specific reliability. We present a simulation study and an applied example showing different methods for estimating multilevel reliability using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and provide supporting Mplus program code. We conclude that (a) single-level estimates will not reflect a scale's actual reliability unless reliability is identical at each level of analysis, (b) 2-level alpha and composite reliability (omega) perform relatively well in most settings, (c) estimates of maximal reliability (H) were more biased when estimated using multilevel data than either alpha or omega, and (d) small cluster size can lead to overestimates of reliability at the between level of analysis. We also show that Monte Carlo confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals closely reflect the sampling distribution of reliability estimates under most conditions. We discuss the estimation of credible intervals using Mplus and provide R code for computing Monte Carlo confidence intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
We examined whether the empirical differences between affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) might be due to (a) the use of different time frames in measures of AWB and CWB or (b) structural differences. In Study 1, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis indicated that levels of different components are more similar but do not converge completely when the same time frame is used. In Study 2, we found that people are more likely to consider global life circumstances (as opposed to specific events and activities) when they evaluate their CWB, regardless of the specific time frame. In both studies, the time frame did not moderate the associations between AWB and CWB and important correlates (personality, life circumstances).
Article
Measurement invariance is usually tested using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis, which examines the change in the goodness-of-fit index (GFI) when cross-group constraints are imposed on a measurement model. Although many studies have examined the properties of GFI as indicators of overall model fit for single-group data, there have been none to date that examine how GFIs change when between-group constraints are added to a measurement model. The lack of a consensus about what constitutes significant GFI differences places limits on measurement invariance testing. We examine 20 GFIs based on the minimum fit function. A simulation under the two-group situation was used to examine changes in the GFIs (ΔGFIs) when invariance constraints were added. Based on the results, we recommend using Δcomparative fit index, ΔGamma hat, and ΔMcDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluate measurement invariance. These three ΔGFIs are independent of both model complexity and sample size, and are not correlated with the overall fit measures. We propose critical values of these ΔGFIs that indicate measurement invariance.
Article
Prior research suggests that spirituality is positively related to well-being. Nevertheless, within-person variability in spirituality has yet to be addressed. Do people experience greater spirituality on some days versus others? Does daily spirituality predict daily well-being? Do within-person relationships between spirituality and well-being vary as a function of trait spirituality? The authors examined such questions using a daily diary study with 87 participants who provided reports of their daily spirituality and well-being for a total of 1,239 days. They found that daily spirituality was positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and positive affect, and the link from daily spirituality to both self-esteem and positive affect was fully mediated by meaning in life. Moreover, within-person relationships between daily spirituality and self-esteem and meaning in life were stronger for people higher in trait spirituality. Lagged analyses found positive relationships between present day spirituality and next day's meaning in life; there was no evidence for meaning in life as a predictor of the next day's spirituality. When focusing on affect, for people higher in trait spirituality, greater negative affect (and lower positive affect) predicted greater spirituality the next day. These results provide new insights into how spirituality operates as a fluctuating experience in daily life.
Article
Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of quality oflife. SWB can be conceptualized as a momentary state (e.g., mood) aswell as a relatively stable trait (e.g., life satisfaction). Thevalidity of self-reported trait aspects of SWB has been questioned byexperimental studies showing that SWB judgments seem to be stronglycontext dependent. Particularly, momentary mood seems to have a stronginfluence on global SWB judgments. To explore the ecological validity ofthese conclusions a non-experimental longitudinal self-reportstudy with three occasions of measurement was conducted(N = 249). The associations between momentarymood ratings and global judgments of SWB (life satisfaction,satisfaction with life domains, frequency and intensity of emotions) aswell as personality ratings (self-esteem, optimism, neuroticism,extraversion) were analyzed in a multistate-multitrait-multiconstructmodel. This model takes (a) measurement error, (b) occasion-specificdeviations, and (c) stable interindividual differences into account. Itis shown that the variability in global SWB judgments and personalityratings is relatively small and much smaller than the variability inmood. Furthermore, the occasion-specific associations between moodstates, on the one hand, and global SWB and personality ratings, on theother hand, are relatively small and inconsistent. All global SWB andpersonality variables are more strongly related to mood on the traitlevel than on the occasion-specific deviation level. Therefore, incontrast to experimental studies, occasion-specific mood effects do notseem to be inherently important in ecological measurement settings.
Article
The article proposes a functional approach as a framework for the analysis of human well-being. The model posits that the adaptive role of hedonic feelings is to regulate stability and homeostasis in human systems, and that these feelings basically are created in states of equilibrium or assimilation. To regulate change and growth, a distinct set of feelings exists, which may be labeled eudaimonic feelings. Eudaimonic feelings are produced to motivate behavior in challenging environments, when a quick return to equilibrium is dysfunctional, or when accommodation of cognitive structures is needed for a stimulus or event to be perceived as meaningful. It was hypothesized that a trait-like concern for evaluation of outcomes in terms of goodness or badness, referred to as hedonic orientation, will moderate the relation between equilibrium/assimilation and hedonic feelings. The model also includes the concept of eudaimonic orientation, reflecting a stable tendency to get involved in challenging activities and to create and strive after demanding goals. It was hypothesized that a eudaimonic, and not a hedonic, orientation moderates hedonic feelings in challenging episodes. Three different studies gave empirical support to the model.
Article
We examined the extent to which satisfaction with life, with one’s self, and with one’s day are predicted by pleasure, purpose in life, interest, and mood. In a sample of 222 college students we found that both satisfaction with life and self-esteem were best predicted by positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings, as well as purpose in life. By contrast, satisfaction with individual days was predicted by negative feelings, and very strongly predicted by positive feelings, but not by purpose in life. In predicting life satisfaction purpose in life provided a buffering effect for lower levels of mood. People high in purpose in life reported high levels of life satisfaction even with moderate levels of mood. Thus, what makes a satisfying day is different from what makes a satisfying life or self. Life and self satisfaction were predicted significantly by purpose in life even after controlling for physical pleasure and affect balance, suggesting that they are more than just hedonic variables. KeywordsDaily satisfaction–Life satisfaction–Purpose–Feelings–Self-esteem
Article
Curiosity is the propensity to recognize and seek out new information and experience, including an intrinsic interest in learning and developing one's knowledge. With few exceptions, researchers have often ignored the social consequences of being curious. In four studies using cross-sectional (N = 64), daily diary (Ns = 150 and 110, respectively), and behavioral experimental (N = 132) designs, we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in curiosity are linked to less aggression, even when people are provoked. We showed that both trait and daily curiosity were linked to less aggressive responses toward romantic relationship partners and people who caused psychological hurt. In time-lagged analyses, daily curiosity predicted less aggression from one day to the next, with no evidence for the reverse direction. Studies 3 and 4 showed that the inverse association between curiosity and aggression was strongest in close relationships and in fledgling (as opposed to long-lasting) romantic relationships. That is, highly curious people showed evidence of greater context sensitivity. Intensity of hurt feelings and other personality and relationship variables failed to account for these effects. Curiosity is a neglected mechanism of resilience in understanding aggression.
Article
Anger is commonly associated with aggression. Inefficient anger-coping strategies increase negative affect and deplete the regulatory resources needed to control aggressive impulses. Factors linked with better emotion regulation may then weaken the relationship between anger and aggression. The current work explored one factor associated with emotion regulation-differentiating one's emotions into discrete categories-that may buffer angry people from aggression. Three diary studies (N = 628) tested the hypothesis that emotion differentiation would weaken the relationship between anger and aggression. In Study 1, participants high in emotion differentiation reported less daily aggressive tendencies when angry, compared to low differentiators. In Study 2, compared to low differentiators, high differentiators reported less frequent provocation in daily life and less daily aggression in response to being provoked and feeling intense anger. Study 3 showed that high daily emotional control mediated the interactive effect of emotion differentiation and anger on aggression. These results highlight the importance of considering how angry people differentiate their emotions in predicting their aggressive responses to anger.
Article
The Gallup World Poll, the first representative sample of planet Earth, was used to explore the reasons why happiness is associated with higher income, including the meeting of basic needs, fulfillment of psychological needs, increasing satisfaction with one's standard of living, and public goods. Across the globe, the association of log income with subjective well-being was linear but convex with raw income, indicating the declining marginal effects of income on subjective well-being. Income was a moderately strong predictor of life evaluation but a much weaker predictor of positive and negative feelings. Possessing luxury conveniences and satisfaction with standard of living were also strong predictors of life evaluation. Although the meeting of basic and psychological needs mediated the effects of income on life evaluation to some degree, the strongest mediation was provided by standard of living and ownership of conveniences. In contrast, feelings were most associated with the fulfillment of psychological needs: learning, autonomy, using one's skills, respect, and the ability to count on others in an emergency. Thus, two separate types of prosperity-economic and social psychological-best predict different types of well-being.
Article
Three experience-sampling studies explored the distributions of Big-Five-relevant states (behavior) across 2 to 3 weeks of everyday life. Within-person variability was high, such that the typical individual regularly and routinely manifested nearly all levels of all traits in his or her everyday behavior. Second, individual differences in central tendencies of behavioral distributions were almost perfectly stable. Third, amount of behavioral variability (and skew and kurtosis) were revealed as stable individual differences. Finally, amount of within-person variability in extraversion was shown to reflect individual differences in reactivity to extraversion-relevant situational cues. Thus, decontextualized and noncontingent Big-Five content is highly useful for descriptions of individuals' density distributions as wholes. Simultaneously, contextualized and contingent personality units (e.g., conditional traits, goals) are needed for describing the considerable within-person variation.
Article
Social cognition research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are based on a selected set of relevant information that is accessible at the time of the life-satisfaction judgment. Personality research indicates that life-satisfaction judgments are quite stable over extended periods of time and predicted by personality traits. The present article integrates these two research traditions. We propose that people rely on the same sources to form repeated life-satisfaction judgments over time. Some of these sources (e.g., memories of emotional experiences, academic performance) provide stable information that explains the stability in life-satisfaction judgments. Second, we propose that the influence of personality traits on life satisfaction is mediated by the use of chronically accessible sources because traits produce stability of these sources. Most important, the influence of extraversion and neuroticism is mediated by use of memories of past emotional experiences. To test this model, participants repeatedly judged life-satisfaction over the course of a semester. After each assessment, participants reported sources that they used for these judgments. Changes in reported sources were related to changes in life-satisfaction judgments. A path model demonstrated that chronically accessible and stable sources are related to stable individual differences in life-satisfaction. Furthermore, the model supported the hypothesis that personality effects were mediated by chronically accessible and stable sources. In sum, the results are consistent with our theory that life-satisfaction judgments are based on chronically accessible sources.
Article
Two studies investigated whether situations are associated with the manifestation of Big Five trait contents in behavior. Several times per day for 2 or 5 weeks, participants reported their current Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability states and rated the concurrent situation on several characteristics. Multilevel models tested for the average individual's contingency of each Big Five state on each situation characteristic and for whether individuals differed from each other reliably in those contingencies. Results showed that (1) there are psychologically active characteristics of situations on which trait-manifesting behavior is contingent; (2) contingencies on psychologically active characteristics of varying situations are part of the explanation for the sizeable within-person variability in behavior; (3) individuals differ reliably in their contingencies, and such individual differences may partially explain individual differences in amount of variability; and (4) the situation characteristics that are psychologically active differ by trait. These findings suggest that within-person variability in personality states is meaningful and is related to situations, that personality psychology should characterize situations in terms of their relevance to personality states, and that process and individual-difference structure approaches can be integrated in personality psychology.
Article
This study examined how the frequency of positive and negative emotions is related to life satisfaction across nations. Participants were 8,557 people from 46 countries who reported on their life satisfaction and frequency of positive and negative emotions. Multilevel analyses showed that across nations, the experience of positive emotions was more strongly related to life satisfaction than the absence of negative emotions. Yet, the cultural dimensions of individualism and survival/self-expression moderated these relationships. Negative emotional experiences were more negatively related to life satisfaction in individualistic than in collectivistic nations, and positive emotional experiences had a larger positive relationship with life satisfaction in nations that stress self-expression than in nations that value survival. These findings show how emotional aspects of the good life vary with national culture and how this depends on the values that characterize one's society. Although to some degree, positive and negative emotions might be universally viewed as desirable and undesirable, respectively, there appear to be clear cultural differences in how relevant such emotional experiences are to quality of life.
Emotion differentiation buffers aggressive behavior in angered people: A daily diary analysis
  • R S Pond
  • Jr
  • T B Kashdan
  • C N Dewall
  • A A Savostyanova
  • N M Lambert
  • F D Fincham
Pond, R. S., Jr., Kashdan, T. B., DeWall, C. N., Savostyanova, A. A., Lambert, N. M., & Fincham, F. D. (2012). Emotion differentiation buffers aggressive behavior in angered people: A daily diary analysis. Emotion, 12, 326-337.
Evaluating one's life: A judgment model of subjective well-being
  • N Schwarz
  • F Strack
Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1991). Evaluating one's life: A judgment model of subjective well-being. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective well-being: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 27-47). Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon Press.
The engine of wellbeing
  • E Jayawickreme
  • M J C Forgeard
  • M E P Seligman
Jayawickreme, E., Forgeard, M. J. C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2012). The engine of wellbeing. Review of General Psychology, 16(4), 327-342.