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Insecticidal and repellent activities of Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus aurantium essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus


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In this research, fumigant toxicity of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Citrus limon L. (Rutaceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) peel essential oils was examined on adults of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) at 27±1°C and 65±5% RH in darkness. The oils were extracted from the fruit peels using water steam distillation. A Y-tube olfactometer was used to examine the repellency of the essential oil. Adults (1-7 days old) of cowpea beetles were introduced individually into the introduction chambers. The LC 50 values (%95 fiducial limits) for C. reticulata, C. limon and C. aurantium were estimated to be 8.70 (8.30-9.15), 7.21 (6.79-7.71) and 6.33 (5.88-6.88) µl/l air, respectively. LC 50 values indicated that C. maculatus was significantly less sensitive to C. reticulata. Also C. reticulata was significantly more repellent to C. maculatus. The findings showed the strong insecticidal and repellent activity of Citrus peel essential oils and their potential role as fumigants for stored product insects.
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Integrated Protection of Stored Products
IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 69, 2011
pp. 289-293
Insecticidal and repellent activities of Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon
and Citrus aurantium essential oils on Callosobruchus maculatus
Mahdieh Saeidi
, Saeid Moharramipour
*, Fatemeh Sefidkon
, Sirous Aghajanzadeh
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O.Box
14115-336, Tehran, Iran;
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, P. O. Box 13185-
116, Tehran, Iran;
Citrus Institute, Ramsar, Iran
* Corresponding author e-mail:
Abstract: In this research, fumigant toxicity of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Citrus limon L.
(Rutaceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) peel essential oils was examined on adults of
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) at 27±1°C and 65±5% RH in darkness. The oils were extracted from
the fruit peels using water steam distillation. A Y-tube olfactometer was used to examine the
repellency of the essential oil. Adults (1-7 days old) of cowpea beetles were introduced individually
into the introduction chambers. The LC
values (%95 fiducial limits) for C. reticulata, C. limon and
C. aurantium were estimated to be 8.70 (8.30-9.15), 7.21 (6.79-7.71) and 6.33 (5.88-6.88) µl/l air,
respectively. LC
values indicated that C. maculatus was significantly less sensitive to C. reticulata.
Also C. reticulata was significantly more repellent to C. maculatus. The findings showed the strong
insecticidal and repellent activity of Citrus peel essential oils and their potential role as fumigants for
stored product insects.
Key words: Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon, Citrus aurantium essential oil, Callosobruchus maculatus
Infestation of grain by various storage-product pests may occur at various stages from time of
harvest to consumption by consumers. Synthetic organic chemicals have been used as
effective means of stored-product pest control for many years. Many compounds have been
and will be phased out because of their toxicity to humans, resistance problems in insects and
environmental concerns. Fumigation has played a significant role in controlling stored-
product insect pests. In many storage systems, methyl bromide and phosphine are widely used
as fumigants. EPA (2001) has proposed elimination of the production of methyl bromide,
because of its ozone depletion potential. Additionally, some stored-product insects are found
to have developed resistance to methyl bromide and phosphine (Champ and Dyte, 1977;
Subramanyam and Hagstrum, 1995). Because of the drawbacks in continued use of today’s
conventional fumigants effort is needed for development of new compounds to replace those
currently used. Essential oils are potential source of alternative compounds to currently used
fumigants. Essential oils have low toxicity to warm blooded animals, high volatility, and
toxicity to stored-grain insect pests (Shaaya et al., 1991; Regnault-Roger et al., 1995). These
problems have highlighted the need for the development of alternative products to
conventional insecticides such as natural extracts derived from plants. Many types of spices
and herbs are known to possess insecticidal activities (Tripathi et al., 1999) especially in the
form of essential oils (Shaaya et al., 1991). They do not leave residues toxic to the
environment and have medicinal properties for humans with lower toxicity to mammals
(Duke, 1985). Essential oils of citrus peels proved to reduce oviposition or larval emergence
through parental adult mortality (Don-Pedro, 1996; Elhag, 2000). More recently fumigant
activity of three citrus species including Citrus sinensis Osbeck and Citrus medica L. on
callosobruchus maculatus (F.) has been demonstrated by Moravej et al. (2008).The present
study was undertaken to investigate the potential effects of essential oils extracted from the
C. reticulata, C. limon and C. aurantium on C. maculatus. However, this is the first study
demonstrating that three essential oils have both insecticidal and repellency activities against
C. maculatus.
Material and methods
Insect rearing
Callosobruchus maculatus, was reared on mungbean pulses. The cultures were maintained in
the dark in a growth chamber set at 27±1°C and 65±5% RH. Adult insects, 1-7 days old were
used for fumigation toxicity tests. All experimental procedures were carried out as the same
environmental condition as the culture.
Plant materials
Fruits of C. reticulata (Klemantin cultivar), C. limon (Lisbone cultivar) and C. aurantifolia
were collected at the ripening stage from Ramsar, in December 2008. All the trees were
cultivated in the experimental fields of the Citrus Experimental Institute of Iran.
Extraction of essential oil
The essential oils were extracted from Fresh rind tissue (albedo and flavedo) of fruits by
water steam distillation using a Cleavenger-type apparatus, until there was no significant
increase in the volume of the oil collected. The essential oils were dried over anhydrous
sodium sulfate and were stored in glass tubes at 4°C in refrigerator, until they were used. The
oil of C. reticulata, C. limon and C. aurantium were yielded 1.71, 2.38 and 1.46% w/w on a
wet weight basis.
Bioassays with adults of C. maculatus
To assess 50 and 95% lethal concentration of adult insects, different dilutions were prepared
to evaluate mortality of insects after a preliminary dose setting experiment. Concentrations of
the C. reticulata, C. limon and C. aurantifolia oils were 6.45, 7.25, 8.06, 8.87, 9.67, 10.48µl/l
air, 4.43, 5.24, 6.04, 6.85, 7.66, 8.46, 9.27µl/l air and 7.14, 8.92, 10.71, 12.5, 14.28, 16.07,
17.85µl/l air respevtively. Control insects were kept under the same condition without any
essential oil. Each dose was replicated five times. The number of dead and live insects in each
bottle was counted 24h after initial exposure to the essential oil. The dead insects were
monitored for at least 48h after recording the data and no affected insects recoverd. Probit
analysis (Finney, 1971) was used to estimate LC
and LC
values with their fiducial limits
by SAS 6.12 (SAS institute, 1997). Calculated LC
values were considered significantly
different when their 95% fiducial limits did not overlap.
Repellency bioassay
Responses of T. confusum to the citrus essential oils were tested using a glass Y-tube
olfactometer. A Y-tube olfactometer that provide insects with one of two choices are
commonly used to measure unit olfactory responses. An introduction chamber with 5.5cm
length and 2cm diameter is located at the base of the Y-tube. Each arm of the Y-tube contains
a glass vial with 26.5cm length and an opening of 2cm in diameter which traps insects
moving into each chamber. Essential oil-treated food is placed in one chamber of the
olfactometer and the other (control) chamber contained a solvent-treated food (only acetone).
The end of glass vials were connected to two other glass vials, each containing charcoal
pellets. An air flow was first purified by passage through glass vials filled with charcoal
pellets and was then led into the vials containing essential oil-treated and acetone-treated as
Test solutions were prepared by dissolving 1, 3, 5 and l of three essential oils in 50µ l
acetone. One microlitre of essential oil was applied on 2g of wheat, as uniformly as possible.
In the control, the food was treated with acetone only. Thirty unsexed adults (1-7 days old) of
flour beetles were introduced into the release base chamber individually. After 20 min, the
number of beetles in each of treated and control chamber was counted and the percentage
repellency (PR) values were computed using the formula of Liu et al. (2005):
where C and E is the number of insects in control and treatment respectively; T is the total
number of responded insects.
Results and discussion
The results of probit analysis showed that
C. maculatus
adults were comparatively less
susceptible to
C. reticulata
=8.70µl/l air) oil than
= 6.33µl/l air)
= 7.21µl/l air) oils (Table 1). In the present study, the repellency of
C. reticulata
C. limon
C. aurantium
were evaluated against
C. maculatus
essential oil of
C. reticulata
strongly repelled the
C. maculatus
in all concentrations.
Therefore, repellency of
C. reticulata
was significantly higher than
C. limon
C. aurantium
. The adult insects were exposed to the concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 7
l/l air to
estimate repellent activities. Repellent values for
C. reticulata
was estimated to be 26.66,
33.33, 33.66 and 40% respectively.
Citrus reticulata
essential oil was significantly more
repellent to
C. maculatus
at 7
l/l air (Table 2). The findings showed the strong repellent role
Citrus reticulata
oil. In general, the repellency increased with increasing concentration of
essential oils in all cases (Table 2).
In another study, three essential oils were tested for their fumigant toxicity and
repellency against adults of
C. maculatus
. The insecticidal activity varied with plant-derived
material and concentration. The chemical constituents of many plant essential oils are mainly
composed of monoterpenoids (Coats et al., 1991; Regnault-Roger and Humraoui, 1995; Ahn
et al., 1998). Monoterpenoid compounds have been considered as potential pest control agents
because they are acutely toxic to insects and possess repellent (Watanabe et al., 1993) and
antifeedant properties (Hough-Goldstein, 1990).
The LC
values of
C. reticulate
C. limon
C. aurantium
oils estimated in this study,
it could be concluded that these essential oils to be less toxic than
Artemisia sieberi
Besser oil
(Negahban et al., 2007). Our results did not show that fumigant toxicity is necessarily
correlated with the high repellency. As similar to our results in this study, Talukder and
Howse (1993) reported that in spite of high toxicity of pithraj (
Aphanamixis polystachya
and Parker) seeds against
Callosobruchus chinensis
(L.), it exhibited a weak repellency. Our
findings suggest that there may be different modes of action of the oil on insecticidal activity
and repellency.
Increased public concern over the residual toxicity of insecticides applied to stored grain,
the occurrence of resistant insect strains and the necessary precautions to work with
traditional insecticides calls for new approaches to control stored-product insect pests
(Yildirim et al., 2001). Our observations showed that fumigant activity of
C. reticulata
C. limon
C. aurantium
oils were characterized by hyperactivity, convulsion, paralysis and
fast knock down followed by death. Needless to say, that there is an urgent need for
environmentally safe alternatives to conventional fumigants, for the control of stored product
insects, namely phosphine and methyl bromide.
Table 1. Fumigant toxicity of
Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus aurantium on
Callosobruchus maculatus
df Slope ± SE LC
l/l air)
l/l air)
Essential oil source
0.772 3 1.23 ±8.06 17.2-12.34 (13.92) 9.15-8.30 (8.70) C. reticulata
5.043 5 0.82±5.81 18.17-11.81 (13.84) 7.71-6.79 (7.21) C. limon
0.610 3 0.85 ±5.02 20.17-10.92 (13.45) 6.88-5.88 (6.33) C. aurantium
Table 2. Repellent effects of the essential oil from
Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon
Callosobruchus maculatus
P-value %
Number of insects Concentration
Essential oil
0.046 26.66 4.0
12 14 4 1 C. reticulata
0.025 33.33 5.0
15 10 5 3
0.028 33.66 4.841 18 5 7 5
0.011 40 6.54 17 8 5 7
0.491 10 0.47
11 11 8 1 C. limon
0.157 20 2.00
12 12 6 3
0.090 23.33 2.88
12 13 5 5
0.012 36.66 6.25
20 1 9 7
0.491 10 0.47
11 11 8 1 C. aurantium
0.275 16.66 1.19
13 9 8 3
0.020 30 5.40
12 15 3 5
0.012 36.66 6.25
20 1 9 7
NR: No response, T: Treatment, C: Control
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Pest Bioregulators. ACS (American Chemical Society), Washington, DC: 305-316.
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... Low LC 50 values were also estimated for the 24 h treatment with the EOs from S. aromaticum, E. citriodora and R. graveolens EOs, 1.8, 1.6 and 1.4 µg mL −1 , respectively. LC 50 values of the C. aurantium EO always resulted largely above the range of tested concentrations, as confirming the poor activity on nematode J2. ...
... This study is the first investigation of the nematicidal properties of C. aurantium EO, whereas it was widely proved for a biocidal and/or repellent activity on crop insect pest insects, such as Bemisia tabaci, or stored product parasites as Callosobruchus maculatus [50,51]. Our C. aurantium EO confirmed the typical chemical composition documented by previous literature reports [51], characterized by the presence of limonene as the almost exclusive component (94.9%). ...
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... dominica (Abbas et al., 2012). A study by Saeidi et al. (2011) reported significantly higher repellent effect of essential oils of C. reticulata and C. aurantium against stored grain insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus. However, one study showed that the essential oil of C. reticulata were less toxic to T. granarium and other stored grain insect pests as compared to other citrus species (Zia et al., 2013). ...
... The peel essential oil of the plant is reported to possess repellent effect against Callosobruchus maculatus [6], Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus [7]. Similarly, the insecticidal and repellent activity of Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus aurantium peel oils was demonstrated against Callosobruchus maculatus [8]. Insecticidal activity of Citrus limon and Citrus sinensis against vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus [9]. ...
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... Essential oils with limonene and α-pinene as the main compounds, such as the essential oil of Tagetes minuta [32] and Myrica gale [33], show strong (100% and 82%, respectively) mosquito repellent activity. In addition, good repellent activity has been reported for AEs that contain high amounts of limonene such as the essential oils of Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus aurantium [34]. The results obtained validate the use of D. peruviana essential oil as an active principle in the elaboration of repellent formulas such as cream, spray or lotions. ...
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... In comparison to other studies, the obtained oil in the current study witnessed significant compositional differences, which could possibly owe to discrepancies in geographical location, growing habitat and the extraction technique [20,21]. The presence of these compounds of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil suggests antimicrobial potential against pathogenic bacteria stains, insecticidal activity, and implies the oil's use as an ingredient in manufacture of local antiseptic and anesthetic products [22][23][24]. However, further investigation involving scalability and feasibility of production of the oil from Citrus reticulata Blanco peel should be contemplated. ...
In this research, the hydrodistillation extraction method has been adopted to extract the essential oil from Vietnamese Mandarin ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) peel purchased from Thu Duc, Vietnam. Various extraction conditions influencing the oil yield were investigated. The obtained essential oil was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics. GC–MS studied the chemical composition of the oil. The results showed that with the ground Mandarin peel, the ratio of peel to solvent ratio 1:4 (g/mL), extraction time of 150 minutes at a temperature of 110-120°C, the highest essential oil yield was attained at 5%. Bioactive components found at high content included limonene (97.655%), were followed by β-Myrcene (1.395%), 1R-α-Pinene (0.561%), L-β-pinene (0.264%), Sabinene (0.126%).
... All cultivated species probably derive from plants native to tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia (Tutin et al., 1968). Most species of Citrus are medically valuable because of their high content of vitamin C. It is shown that essential oil from the fruit peel of several Citrus plants contain chemicals that exhibit insecticidal and antifungal activity (Sharma and Tripathi, 2008;Siskos, 2008;Singh et al., 2010;Saeidi et al., 2011Saeidi et al., , 2014. ...
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... 66, 33.33, 33.66, and 40 %, respectively. C. reticulata essential oil was significantly more repellent to C. maculatus at 7 ppm (Saeidi et al. 2011). Analysis of the data by Taghizadeh Saroukolai et al. (2009) has shown that the essential oil of P. acaulis strongly repelled adult insects and was significantly differed between insect species. ...
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Citrus essential oils (EOs) are widely used as flavoring agents in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetical and chemical industries. For this reason, their demand is constantly increasing all over the world. Besides industrial applications, the abundance of EOs in the epicarp is particularly relevant for the quality of citrus fruit. In fact, these compounds represent a natural protection against postharvest deteriorations due to their remarkable antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities. Several factors, including genotype, climatic conditions and cultural practices, can influence the assortment and accumulation of EOs in citrus peels. This review is focused on factors influencing variation of the EOs’ composition during ripening and on the implications on postharvest quality of the fruit.
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O Brasil é um grande produtor de grãos, sendo assim, é imprescindível o conhecimento de alternativas sustentáveis para o controle de pragas nos grãos armazenados, que são responsáveis por severas perdas. Este estudo de revisão objetivou reunir informações atualizadas sobre a atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais de plantas no controle de carunchos do feijão armazenado. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e bibliográfico, com abordagem qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada a partir das bases eletrônicas, Google acadêmico e o Portal de Periódicos da CAPES. As palavras-chave pesquisadas foram ‘Pragas de feijão armazenado’, ‘Carunchos’, ‘Controle de pragas’, ‘Óleo essencial’, 'Acanthoscelides obtectus’, ‘Zabrotes subfasciatus’, ‘Callosobruchus maculatus’, ‘Fumigação’, ‘Contato’, ‘Repelência’, ‘Atividade inseticida’, ‘Sementes de feijão’, ‘Viabilidade e Qualidades fisiológicas’, sendo estes termos também pesquisados em inglês nas primeiras dez páginas do artigo. Após as etapas de busca, exclusão e leituras dos artigos selecionados, estes foram organizados em tabelas que evidenciam as espécies vegetais utilizadas, método de utilização do óleo essencial sobre os insetos e a referência do trabalho, em ordem cronológica crescente, de 2010 a 2020. No total foram selecionados 46 artigos que atenderam aos critérios da pesquisa, considerando as três espécies de carunchos pesquisadas. Os resultados apontam que o óleo de Sálvia officinalis foi mais eficiente frente ao A. obtectus e o de Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides mais eficiente para fumigação. Para o Z. subfasciatus os óleos de de Baccharis trimera, Cymbopogon winterianus e Pimpinella anisum apresentaram maior eficiência por fumigação, e junto a Myrocarpus frondosus, apresentaram alto efeito repelente e atividade ovicida/larvicida. Para o C. maculatus, o óleo com maior potencial em menores concentrações é o da espécie Mentha piperita. Conclui-se que a utilização dos óleos essenciais em sistemas de manejo integrados de pragas do feijão é positiva, visto as vantagens que apresentam. Entretanto, deve-se verificar se a viabilidade das sementes tratadas com óleos essenciais não são afetadas, bem como devem ser avaliados seus riscos à saúde humana, animal e sua influência na produtividade das culturas.
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Aqueous suspensions produced by grinding leaf tissue of tansy, sage, basil, catnip, dill, and rue in water deterred feeding of adult and larval Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), when tested on eggplant leaf disks in laboratory choice tests. Tansy showed the most potent antifeedant effect. Adult beetles refused to feed on leaf disks dipped in a 10% (2 g in 20 ml) suspension of tansy tissue, even after 22 h in either a choice or no-choice situation. Beetles kept for 22 h on leaf disks treated with a 1% (0.2 g in 20 ml) tansy suspension subsequently rejected the treatment to the same extent as naive beetles. Tansy treatments caused substantial mortality to beetle larvae that fed on them from egg hatching. These effects could have been caused by starvation or physiological toxicity. Tansy and other herbs show potential for use in integrated pest management programs aimed at the Colorado potato beetle.
The fumigant toxicity of 28 essential oils extracted from various spice and herb plants and some of their major constituents were assessed for adult coleopteransRhyzopertha dominica, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Tribolium castaneum, andSitophilus oryzae. Three groups of active materials were distinguished: (1) The compounds terpinen 4-ol, 1,8-cineole, and the essential oils of three-lobed sage, sage, bay laurel, rosemary, and lavender were most active againstR. dominica; (2) The compounds linalool,α-terpineol, and carvacrol and the essential oils of oregano, basil, Syrian marjoram, and thyme were most active againstO. surinamensis; and (3) the compound 1,8-cineole and the essential oils anise and peppermint were active againstT. castaneum.
Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the efficacy of seed extracts of pithraj,Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall & Parker), a locally grown plant in Bangladesh, against the red flour beetle,Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.). Results of three different bioassays showed that crude extracts of pithraj seeds have strong repellent effects and moderate feeding deterrent and insecticidal (direct-contact) effects on adultTribolium castaneum.
A new compound named eucamalol and 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol were isolated as mosquito repellents from the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The structure of eucamalol was elucidated to be 3-formyl-6alpha-isopropyl-2-cyclohexen-1beta-ol by H-1 NMR analysis and confirmed by synthesis. Both compounds exhibited potent repellent activities against Aedes aegypti.
Insecticidal and acaricidal components from sawdust of Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai against eight species of anthropod pests (Reticulitermes speratus, Lasioderma serricorne, Callosobruchus chinensis, Sitophilus oryzae, Plutella xylostella, Myzus persicae, Blatella germanica, and Tetranychus urticae) were isolated by chromatographic techniques and characterized by spectroscopic analyses as the terpenoids carvacrol and -thujaplicine. In tests using the filter paper diffusion method, carvacrol had broad insecticidal and acaricidal activity against agricultural, stored-product, and medical arthropod pests. However, -thujaplicine showed only weak termiticidal activity. Insecticidal activity of carvacrol was attributable to fumigant action. As a naturally occurring insecticide, carvacrol could be useful as a new preventive agent against damage caused by these arthropod pests.
The toxic activity of some characteristic monoterpenoids: p-cymene, α-pinene, camphor, linalool, terpineol, cuminaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, anethole, carvacrol, thymol, estragole and eugenol, was tested against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), a bruchid pest of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A fumigant toxic effect was observed and LC50 concentrations for 24h and 48h were calculated for adults.Besides this effect, a reproductive inhibition was observed. This inhibition involved female fecundity, oviposition, and the development of neonate and intracotyledonal larvae. The effects of monoterpenes on oviposition, larval penetration inside the seeds and emergence were determined. All monoterpenes revealed a more or less pronounced vapour toxicity and significantly inhibited beetle reproduction. Oxygenated monoterpenoids: carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, linalool and terpineol were identified as the most efficient compounds in both respects and the structure-activity relationship is discussed.
Artemisia sieberi is a widely distributed plant in Iran. Because some species of Artemisia are insecticidal, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil. Dry ground leaves were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and the resulting oil contained camphor (54.7%), camphene (11.7%), 1,8-cineol (9.9%), β-thujone (5.6%) and α- pinene (2.5%).The mortality of 7 days old adults of Callosobruchus maculatus, Sitophilus oryzae, and Tribolium castaneum increased with concentration from 37 to 926 μL/L and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. A concentration of 37 μL/L and an exposure time of 24 h was sufficient to obtain 100% kill of the insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was significantly more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum; a second more detailed bioassay gave estimates for the LC50 of C. maculatus as 1.45 μL/L, S. oryzae 3.86 μL/L and T. castaneum 16.76 μL/L. These results suggested that A. sieberi oil may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.
Repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Artemisia princeps Pamp and seeds of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. against storage pests Sitophillus oryzae L. and Bruchus rugimanus Bohem were investigated. Results showed that the two individual oils displayed good, but their mixture (1:1) exhibited much better repellent activities at concentrations from 250 to 1000 microg g(-1) and insecticidal actions at concentrations 1000 microg g(-1) against the test beetles S. oryzae and B. rugimanus. Oils from A. princeps and C. camphora applied individually were significantly toxic to seed germination of wheat at 500 microg ml(-1). However, no toxic effects were found when the two oils were mixed (1:1 w/w) at the same concentration. These observations indicated that the mixture of the two plant-derived oils had a synergic effect and could be used in the control of storage pests.