Conference Paper

Improving pocket paint usability via material design compliance and internationalization & localization support on application level

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This paper discusses the implementation of Google's Material Design guidelines, internationalization, and localization for mobile applications in the case of Pocket Paint, an Android painting application. The intended goal of this redesign is to broaden the user base by improving overall usability and supporting right-to-left written languages such as Arabic. The main challenges of the redesign are the intricacies to thoroughly support both right-to-left and left-to-right scripts, e.g., the positioning, translation, mirroring of text and graphical elements, the 'when' and 'when not' to mirror. Related to the Material Design guideline compliance we carried out a user experience test with six users (age 13) of our target group. All participants rated the redesigned application being simpler, more appealing and concise in comparison to the previous version.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Today, in the product development process, UX and localization operate hand-in-hand to satisfy users' goals, mental models, and requirements. Both are central to the product's adoption and success [8,9]. ...
... The localization process enables users to get the best experience in the language of their choice. Truly successful localization requires a user-centered approach to understanding the social and emotional aspects of the intended culture or country [9,10]. ...
... If mobile apps are not localized properly, they will not be used in the local market where the apps' will be sold. Many mobile users have stopped using an app due to lacking localization [9]. ...
Article
p>Recently, the study of emotional recognition models has increased in the human-computer interaction field. With high recognition accuracy of emotions’ data, we could get immediate feedback from mobile users, get a better perception of human behavior while interacting with mobile apps, and thus make the user experience design more adaptable and intelligent. The harnessing of emotional recognition in mobile apps can dramatically enhance users’ experience. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a visual emotion-aware cloud localization user experience framework based on mobile location services. An important feature of our proposed framework is to provide a personalized mobile app based on the user’s visual emotional changes. The framework captures the emotion-aware data, process them in the cloud server, and analyze them for an immediate localization process. The first stage in the framework builds a correlation between the application’s default language and the user’s visual emotional feedback. In the second stage, the localization model loads the appropriate application’s resources and adjusts the screen features based on the real-time user’s emotion obtained in the first stage and according to the location data that the app collected from the mobile device. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework. The results show that our proposed framework can provide a high-quality application experience in terms of a user’s emotional levels and deliver an excellent level of usability that was before not possible.</p
... As of writing this article, the 1.11.1 version of the Kivy framework has very primitive looking core widgets, thus KivyMD library, which implements the Google's material design concepts [22], was employed for a better user interface, as material design concepts are believed to improve user experience [23]. The classifier component, which is responsible for utilizing the ML model, processes the utilization in two phases: ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Machine Learning (ML) is a fast-growing research and application field which allows developers to utilize different implementation platforms. One of the most common methods for implementing ML consists in deploying the trained model in servers, and evaluating the user data through the communication between a client app and a backend. This paper presents an alternative approach to the problem where the ML model is deployed in the client application, and discusses the pros and cons of this solution. As a case study, a cross-platform application, TeleML, has been developed. TeleML is a Telegram client, allowing users to perform sentiment analysis of posts that appear in chats. The experimental application features only the functionalities that are necessary to perform sentiment analysis on a chat, for example sign-in, iterate over dialogs, and choose a particular discussion, and does not have all the features of the Telegram original client. The findings show that, although the chosen machine learning reaches the state-of-the-art performance and the chosen frameworks allow developers utilize the model in the cross-platform environment, using a single programming language, the approach has limitations regarding user interface and deployment onto the platforms where the performance play an important role, such as mobile environment. The paper discusses technical aspects of the solution as well as limitations and future work.
... As an example, in Arabic numbers are still written from left-to-right, while the text needs to be adapted. Also layout elements, such as text views or buttons, need to be customized for such languages [18] [20]. To achieve this, Catrobat gets supported by developers who are native speakers of RTL languages. ...
... The app's language and locale can be changed without changing the smartphone's interface language on the system level. Languages such as Sindhi and Pashto, which are yet to be supported by operating systems, can thus be seamlessly used by our users (Awwad, 2017). Catrobat shares this feature, which improves accessibility and inclusiveness to users from all regions of the world, e.g., with Scratch and Snap!, and this certainly contributes in a major way to the positive worldwide reception of these visual programming environments. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most of the 700 million teenagers everywhere in the world already have their own smartphones, but comparatively few of them have access to PCs, laptops, OLPCs, Chromebooks, or tablets. The free open source non-profit project Catrobat allows users to create and publish their own apps using only their smartphones. Initiated in 2010, with first public versions of our free apps since 2014 and 47 releases of the main coding app as of July 2018, Catrobat currently has more than 700,000 users from 180 countries, is available in 50+ languages, and has been developed so far by almost 1,000 volunteers from around the world ("the world"). Catrobat is strongly inspired by Scratch and indeed allows to import most Scratch projects, thus giving access to more than 30 million projects on our users' phones as of July 2018. Our apps are very intuitive ("rock bottom"), have many accessibility settings, e.g., for kids with visual or cognitive impairments, and there are tons of constructionist tutorials and courses in many languages. We also have created a plethora of extensions, e.g., for various educational robots, including Lego Mindstorms and flying Parrot quadcopters ("the sky"), as well as for controlling arbitrary external devices through Arduino or Raspberry Pi boards, going up to the stratosphere and even beyond to interplanetary space ("the sky"). A TurtleStitch extension allowing to code one's own embroidery patterns for clothes is currently being developed. Catrobat among others intensely focuses on including female teenagers. While a dedicated version for schools is being developed, our apps are meant to be primarily used outside of class rooms, anywhere and in particular outdoors ("rock bottom", "the world"). Catrobat is discovered by our users through various app stores such as Google Play and via social media channels such as YouTube as well as via our presence on Code.org.
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents a usage-based insurance (UBI) platform that incorporates Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and blockchain technologies, discussing the potential stakeholders, business models, and interaction modes involved in this platform. Existing UBI products mostly use data on the driver’s mileage, driving period, or driving region for more accurate insurance calculations. Automobile UBI encourages customers to continue improving their ability to drive safety and provides a means to smoothly, transparently, and rationally calculate insurance pricing and payout. This paper proposes blockchain architecture to remedy management problems in a UBI environment. A bidding mechanism suitable for the blockchain-based UBI platform was designed to close the information gap between the insurance company and consumer, thus increasing consumer trust in the platform.
Chapter
Deep learning technology is widely used in medicine. The automation of medical image classification and segmentation is essential and inevitable. This study proposes a transfer learning–based kidney segmentation model with an encoder–decoder architecture. Transfer learning was introduced through the utilization of the parameters from other organ segmentation models as the initial input parameters. The results indicated that the transfer learning–based method outperforms the single-organ segmentation model. Experiments with different encoders, such as ResNet-50 and VGG-16, were implemented under the same Unet structure. The proposed method using transfer learning under the ResNet-50 encoder achieved the best Dice score of 0.9689. The proposed model’s use of two public data sets from online competitions means that it requires fewer computing resources. The difference in Dice scores between our model and 3D Unet (Isensee) was less than 1%. The average difference between the estimated kidney volume and the ground truth was only 1.4%, reflecting a seven times higher accuracy than that of conventional kidney volume estimation in clinical medicine.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
User Experience (UX) is increasingly being recognized as an important factor for the commercial success of digital products. In fact, it has become a buzzword, which is interpreted differently by different parties. This lack of common understanding inevitably leads to misunderstandings and inefficiency in industrial practice. We therefore propose a quantifiable way of describing User Experience (QUX). Based on the analysis of 84 UX evaluation methods, a sample of UX characteristics from literature, and 24 interviews with experts from academia and practice, we propose a formalism and a corresponding tool to measure, visualize, and communicate a product's UX within organizations. We showcase the benefits of our approach by integrating it into the product development processes of companies from three different industries.
Article
Full-text available
Mobile apps are everywhere. The release of apps on a worldwide scale requires them to be made available in many languages, including bidirectional languages. Developers and translators are usually different persons. While automatic testing by itself is important in general in order to be able to develop high quality software, such automatic tests become absolutely essential when developers that do not possess enough knowledge about right-to-left languages need to maintain code that is written for bidirectional languages. A few bidirectional localization tests of mobile applications exist. However, their functionality is limited since they only cover translations and adoption of locales. In this paper we present our approach for automating the bidirectional localization testing for Android applications with a complete consideration for BiDi-languages issues. The objective is to check for any localization defects in the product. The proposed methods are used to test issues of bidirectional apps in general and specifically for the Arabic language. The results show that the methods are able to effectively reveal deficiencies in the app’s design, ensure that the localized app matches all expectations of local users, and guarantee that the product is culturally congruent to local conventions.
Article
Full-text available
Being a supersophisticated system, the Internet not only gives unquestionable benefits but also brings some problems. These problems are caused by the transparency of the network space for creators and its nontransparency for general users, who experience processing complexity, lack of privacy, and fear of making a mistake. Such problems give grounds for questioning whether users can trust Internet services. We analyze graphic design and public relations (PR) as tools used to generate trust in Internet services under both the circumstances of transparency and nontransparency of the Internet. Our analysis shows that visual, reputational, and contextual factors have crucial importance in generating trust in Internet services under the circumstances of transparency and nontransparency of the network space; graphic design and PR play a critical role. Interactive design develops network images that produce the initial impression and lay the foundation for users’ trust (or lack of trust) in network resources (the perceptual and emotional level). PR tools are used to complete the process of generating trust by turning the initial impression into such qualitative characteristics as goodwill and information transparency with regard to status and social context (the rational level). Such combined application of graphic design and PR tools leads to harmonization of the network environment and generates users’ trust in Internet services.
Chapter
Full-text available
The cumulative binomial probability formula (given appropriate adjustment of p when estimated from small samples) provides a quick and robust means of estimating problem discovery rates (p). This estimate can be used to estimate usability test sample size requirements (for studies that are underway) and to evaluate usability test sample size adequacy (for studies that have already been conducted). Further research is needed to answer remaining questions about when usability testing is reliable, valid, and useful.
Article
Full-text available
Although there are several open-source Arabization projects, as well as individual and collective initiatives by many volunteers for the Arabization of software interfaces, operating systems, and web sites, etc. the quality of Arabization is still very poor and does not meet the minimum quality standards we found in other localized software. In the case of major software companies like Microsoft and IBM, and many other localization companies, we still find the quality level is barely adequate. There are many reasons for being in such a state, and this paper is intended to highlight some of the main issues concerning the Arabic Language and the Arabization process.
Conference Paper
Website button has become one of the most important elements for users to communicate with website, so website designer pay more and more attention to the feeling towards interaction between human and machine, this research will explore the feelings of users material design button brings to human so as to learn about (1) elements why material design button attracts people (2) the usage feeling of users towards the use of material design button, this research will through the survey results give suggestions and provide better design mode and application of material design button.
Article
Two studies of using the thinking aloud method for user interface testing showed that experimenters who were not usability specialists could use the method. However, they found only 28-30% of known usability problems when running a single test subject. Running more test subjects increased the number of problems found, but with progressively diminishing returns; after five test subjects 77-85% of the problems had been found.
Material Design is a unified system that combines theory resources and tools for crafting digital experiences
  • Google
Determining usability test sample size. International encyclopedia of ergonomics and human factors
  • W Carl
  • James R Turner
  • Jakob Lewis
  • Nielsen
Share of App Users Who Have Stopped Using An App Because It Was Not Localized Properly as of
  • Google
Forecasted Unit Shipments of Smartphones Worldwide from
  • Idc