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Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities

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Video is increasingly used to support in-service teacher professional development (TPD). Advances in affordability and usability of technology mean that interest is set to develop further. Studies in this area are diverse in terms of scale, methodology and context. This places limitations on undertaking a systematic review; therefore the authors use a scoping review approach. Their analysis involves 82 studies from which they thematise subtopics and assess research characteristics. This provides a much-needed analysis to inform researchers and practitioners. Additionally, the authors identify robust studies that consider the effect of video on teacher cognition and classroom practice. A consistent finding is that video is effective when used as part of TPD. Since studies largely use thematic qualitative analysis, however, this consensus needs further examination. Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to identify how the use of video impacts on classroom practices.
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Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the
state of the field, limitations and possibilities
Louis Major* & Steven Watson
Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, 184 Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 8PQ
*lcm54@cam.ac.uk
Accepted for publication in Technology, Pedagogy & Education (Feb 2017)
Online DOI:
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1475939X.2017.1361469
Louis Major is a Research Associate at the University of Cambridge interested in the use of digital
technology for educational purposes. His research investigates how knowledge is developed by
learners who use digital technologies, and factors that afford and constrain the effectiveness of digital
tools educationally.
Steven Watson is a lecturer in mathematics education at the University of Cambridge. His research is
concerned with teachers’ professional learning, both in initial teacher education and for practicing
teachers. Steve completed a PhD in Mathematics Education in professional development at the Shell
Centre, University of Nottingham. Previously he was a secondary mathematics teacher and latterly
head of maths in secondary schools in North East Lincolnshire.
The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of Yi-Shan Tsai and Lyn Jones who provided
research assistance during the project.
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the
state of the field, limitations and possibilities
Video is increasingly used to support in-service teacher professional development
(TPD). Advances in affordability and usability of technology means that interest is set
to develop further. Studies in this area are diverse in terms of scale, methodology and
context. This places limitations on undertaking a systematic review; therefore we use a
scoping review approach. Our analysis involves 82 studies from which we thematise
subtopics and assess research characteristics. This provides a much-needed analysis to
inform researchers and practitioners. Additionally, we identify robust studies that
consider the effect of video on teacher cognition and classroom practice. A consistent
finding is that video is effective when used as part of TPD. Since studies largely use
thematic qualitative analysis, however, this consensus needs further examination.
Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to identify how the use of video
impacts on classroom practices.
Keywords: teacher education; professional development; digital technology; video;
scoping review
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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1. Introduction
The most important component in maximising outcomes for learners leaving school is the
teacher and the quality of their teaching (e.g. Darling-Hammond & Youngs, 2002). Teacher
professional learning is, however, a complex process that brings together a host of different
elements (Avalos, 2011). Video technology offers an opportunity to support teacher learning
as it can capture the richness and complexity of teaching in a manner that encourages a
deliberate examination of classroom practice (Borko, Whitcomb & Liston, 2009). Video
gives greater access to classroom events than classic observation (Ball & Cohen, 1999),
without compromising authenticity (Sherin, 2004). It also has the capability to provoke
cognitive, emotional and motivational processes (Seidel, Sturmer, Blomberg, Kobarg &
Schwindt, 2011). Using video in a professional development capacity complies with the
consensus that such activities need to be located in the familiar everyday practice of teaching
(Hennessy, 2014).
Recent developments greatly facilitate using video in teacher professional development
(TPD; Sherin, 2004). The increasing ubiquity of mobile devices (e.g. tablets and smartphones
with video recording/viewing functionality; Aubusson, Schuck & Burden, 2009), and the
transition from analogue to digital technology (Goldman, 2007), are important examples.
Video technology also continues to grow in affordability and usability (Calandra & Rich,
2014). Interest in video is set to develop further as technological advances add new and
beneficial dimensions to teacher professional learning (Aubusson et al., 2009; Baran, 2014).
The emergence of recent video-capable technologies has been described as a “tipping point”,
that is a period of time in which our views of the world are likely to be significantly altered
through the introduction of improved capabilities in video technology (Lawson, Comber,
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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Gage & Cullum-Hanshaw, 2010). Given the increasing pervasiveness of video-equipped
mobile devices (e.g. tablets; Major, Haßler & Hennessy, 2017), and the switch from analogue
to digital, it is important to inform researchers and educators about available research
evidence on the use of video to support TPD (Seidel et al., 2011).
In this article, we present the first systematic scoping review to investigate the use of video in
the context of supporting in-service TPD. This allows us to identify the characteristics of
existing research, including the most frequently applied research methods and how video is
reported to have been used. This review fills a gap by presenting a clear picture of the
landscape of recent work at a time when advances in video technology result in the need for
such an overview. By outlining results in an accessible and summarised format, policy
makers, practitioners and consumers are better placed to make effective use of existing
research findings (Arksey & O’Malley, 2005).
Initial research relating to video in the context of TPD emerged around the time when video-
recording was first made available to the general public (see Bosley, 1968; Fuller &
Manning, 1973; McHenry, 1967). More recently, several relevant literature reviews have
been disseminated. Tripp and Rich (2012) consider the use of video for supporting pre- and
in-service teacher self-reflection, identifying six dimensions along which video-aided teacher
reflection research varies. Marsh and Mitchell (2014) focus on the use of video in initial and
continuing teacher education reporting that video used synchronously (and particularly
asynchronously) can extend the classroom observation experience and support analysis and
reflection. Gaudin and Chaliès (2015) review the literature on video viewing in initial teacher
education and professional development and collect, summarise and categorise studies using
a conceptualization that includes four aspects: teachers’ activity as they view a classroom
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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video, the objectives of video viewing, the types of video viewed and the effects of video
viewing. The use of video is reported to heighten teacher motivation, optimise cognition and
improve classroom practice.
This study complements, and extends, these aforementioned reviews as it:
Reports the first scoping review relating to in-service TPD. Previous reviews have
identified the existence of a substantial number of independent research studies, but
these have not previously been organised using the scoping review methodology.
Appraises the quality of the body of existing research and considers selected evidence
relating to the effectiveness of video used in TPD.
Identifies a greater number of studies relating to in-service TPD than previous reviews
(see Section 3).
Extends and corroborates categorisations established by earlier authors.
1.2 The systematic scoping review approach
The goal of this review is to systematically survey and report on evidence relating to the use
of video to support in-service TPD. This is to provide a broad, but specific, overview of
relevant research. In doing so, the review paints a clear picture of the landscape of work
being conducted.
Scoping reviews involve collecting, evaluating and presenting available evidence (Arksey &
O’Malley, 2005). They represent an increasingly popular, rigorous and transparent form of
secondary research (Levac, Colquhoun & O’Brien, 2010). There are a growing number of
scoping reviews relating to teacher education (e.g. DeLuca, Shulha, Luhanga, Shulha,
Christou & Klinger, 2015; McEvoy, MacPhail & Heikinaro-Johansson, 2015). Scoping
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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reviews aim to be as broad and thorough as possible to obtain a clear and useful picture of the
research topic (Kitchenham, Budgen, & Brereton, 2015).
Scoping reviews may focus upon identifying the “hot” issues, how research has evolved over
a period of time, the research techniques used, or even the countries where research has been
performed (ibid). By producing a broad “map” of the evidence they allow better
understanding of existing research. Strength of the methodology is its ability to identify the
key features of a diverse body of evidence (Davis, Drey & Gould, 2009). This evidence is
interpreted and analysed at a ‘high level’, which allows for the identification of clusters and
gaps that can inform the focus of future research (Kitchenham et al., 2015).
It is important to define the boundaries of a scoping review to relate research outcomes to a
particular context (Anderson, Allen, Peckham & Goodwin, 2008). This work is concerned
with the use of video in in-service TPD only and does not encompass literature relating to
pre-service teacher education. Statistically significant differences have been identified
between pre- and in-service teachers in regards to both self-efficacy (Campbell, 1996) and
attitudes (Wen, Tsai & Chang, 2006). The working environment of pre- and in-service
teachers also differ in a way that may influence their responses to the use of technology
(Wright & Wilson, 2005).
Empirical research published since 2005 (inclusive) is considered. While video has been used
for several decades to support teacher learning (van Es & Sherin, 2010), interest in the
applications of video has intensified in recent years as video technology has evolved
(Calandra & Rich, 2014; Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015). As already discussed, this is in part due to
the increasing availability of mobile devices (Aubusson et al., 2009). To illustrate the rapid
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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growth of video-capable mobile technologies, by 2009 around 14 million tablet computers
had been sold worldwide (Ozok, Benson, Chakraborty & Norcio 2008). With the launch of
the first Google Android-based tablets (2009) and the Apple iPad (2010) the popularity of
tablets increased (Geyer & Felske, 2011). Sales have grown rapidly since, with projections of
321 million tablets sold in 2015 alone, overtaking those of ‘traditional’ PCs for the first time1.
The decision to consider only research from 2005 onwards ensures that an accurate picture of
current practice is provided.
2. Methodology
The research strategy was influenced by existing scoping review guidelines (Arskey &
O’Malley, 2005; Kitchenham et al., 2015; Levac et al., 2010) and other secondary studies
relating to educational uses of technology (e.g. Haßler, Major & Hennessy, 2016; Major,
Kyriacou & Brereton, 2012).
2.1 Research questions
The goal of this study is to investigate the use of video as a tool to support in-service TPD.
To identify the main characteristics, different research approaches/methods used and
limitations of existing work, we define three research questions (RQs):
[RQ1] What are the characteristics (e.g. schooling context; teachers’ academic
subject) of research involving video?
[RQ2] What are the most frequently applied research methods used to investigate the
use of video?
[RQ3] In what ways is video reported to have been used?
o What is the source of videos?
1 ‘Forecast: PCs, Ultramobiles, and Mobile Phones, Worldwide, 2011-2018, 2014 Update’ available
online: http://www.gartner.com/document/2780117.
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o How are videos viewed?
o What are the key TPD focuses?
[RQ4] Do relevant selected studies suggest that using video as a tool for in-service
TPD is effective?
We define in-service teachers as those who have completed initial teacher training/education
and are fully responsible for their own classroom teaching. We define TPD as ongoing formal
professional learning (e.g. structured professional development).
2.2 Search process and inclusion/exclusion criteria
A protocol detailing the search strategy was developed and reviewed by members of the
research team. Manual and automated searches were undertaken to identify studies published
between 2005 and 2015 (inclusive). Education- and technology-focused libraries were
searched:
EBSCO (http://search.ebscohost.com/)2
Scopus (http://www.scopus.com/)
Directory of Open Access Journals (http://doaj.org/)
Zetoc (http://zetoc.jisc.ac.uk/)
Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.co.uk/)
Three sets of keywords, and their permutations, facilitated searches:
Video: video; AV; “audio-visual”; “audio video”; audiovisual; film; filming;
recording.
Professional development: “professional development”; PD; CPD; “continuing
professional development”; “teacher development”; “vocational training”; training;
2 Specifically, the British Education Index (BEI) and Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC).
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“in-service training”; coaching; “career development”; “continuing education”;
mentoring; “professional learning”.
Education: education; teacher; classroom; school; “primary school”; “secondary
school”; “high school”; “junior school”; pupils; educators; educational; learning;
teaching; class.
Search terms were: i) devised iteratively after analysis of the titles, abstracts and keywords of
four studies (Brouwer, 2009; Coles, 2012; Marsh & Mitchell, 2014; Sherin, 2004) identified
through discussions with colleagues with an interest in the use of video in teacher education;
ii) validated during trial searches of selected electronic libraries as these four studies were
located.
A three-stage search was undertaken involving: i) electronic databases (using Boolean logic
searches or combinations of the search terms); ii) ‘snowballing’ of reference lists (i.e.
checking bibliographies of potentially relevant studies identified); iii) hand-searching of two
journals of particular relevance (Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education and
Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education) identified during trial searches.
Studies were included if they:
focus on the use of video in the context of in-service TPD,
describe empirical research (i.e. that acquired by means of observation or
experimentation),
are written in English,
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were published between 2005 and 2015 (corresponding with the increased availability
and popularity of video-capable mobile devices and the switch from analogue to
digital video consumer technologies).
Studies were excluded if they:
consider the use of video in the context of pre-service teacher education only,
pay limited attention to the role of video in supporting in-service TPD (e.g. reporting
primarily on the use of video as a research tool),
provide a “lessons learned” account, or description of an approach, without any
empirical evidence.
Critiques of the literature are not included. Longitudinal research (i.e. with participants
starting out as trainees and being followed for a number of years) and “grey literature” (e.g.
non-peer reviewed technical reports) is accepted. Where the same author(s) clearly reports on
the same study (e.g. in a conference paper followed by a journal article) the most recent
report of the study is included. In situations where several articles are related (e.g. the authors
draw on data collected during a particular professional development course), but each article
has a substantially different focus, all have been included. As the focus of the scoping review
is on TPD, the use of video as a research tool or teacher-researcher aid alone is not sufficient
grounds for inclusion.
2.3 Quality assessment
We consider methodological aspects of included studies to offer an assessment of the
standard of evidence relating to the use of video to support in-service TPD. This quality
assessment is undertaken at the same time as data extraction and is based on two existing
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approaches to study quality assessment (Fernandez, Insfran & Abrahão, 2011; Haßler, Major,
& Hennessy, 2016).
Consistent with the intention to provide a broad overview of existing research, the aim of our
quality assessment is not to offer a detailed critique of individual studies (as is the case during
systematic reviews) but rather to identify gaps and opportunities for further research by
considering included studies – collectively – at a high level in relation to four factors
(research context, participant sampling strategy, appropriateness of data collection,
appropriateness of data analysis). By doing so, we are able to offer insights into the state of
the field.
This quality assessment contributes to determining an overall ‘picture’, and the criteria we
use serve as a means of ensuring that the findings of the scoping review are treated with an
appropriate level of confidence. Incorporating a quality assessment element into scoping
reviews has been identified as useful and there is growing consensus that assessment of study
quality is a valuable component of such research (Daudt, van Mossel & Scott, 2013; Neto,
Machado, McGregor, Almeida & Meira, 2011; Petersen, Vakkalanka & Kuzniarz, 2015)
A three-point Likert-scale instrument was designed to facilitate the assessment of study
quality. The assessment strategy does not discriminate against any research approach (e.g.
qualitative, quantitative etc). We opted to assess studies after considering established
principles of good practice for conducting, and appraising, empirical research in education
(Gough, 2007). The instrument included four subjective closed-questions, which encompass
accepted principles for evaluating the quality of educational research:
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1. Is there is an adequate description of the context in which the research was
carried out?
Is the educational/research setting identified (e.g. primary school, secondary school, etc)?
Are the academic profiles (e.g. subject) of the teachers reported? Are participant and
institutional characteristics described?
2. Is the participant sampling strategy appropriate for the research approach and
clearly described?
Is there a description of how, and why, participants were selected? Is the sample
sufficiently large (i.e. does research involve 10 or more participants unless reporting on
an in-depth study and presenting a substantial amount of data e.g. a detailed case study)?
If appropriate, is a sufficient mix of genders and experiences reported? Were participants
drawn from different settings (i.e. not all from the same department within a school)?
3. Are method(s) of data collection appropriate and clearly described?
Is it clear what methods were used to collect data? Is there sufficient detail of the methods
used?
4. Is the data analysis and interpretation process appropriate and clearly
described?
Are details of the analysis strategy provided? Does the analysis appear sufficiently
rigorous? Is data triangulated? Are limitations of the research considered?
The possible answers are: “I agree (+1)”, “Partially (0)” and “I don’t agree (-1)”. The sum of
the four closed question scores, for each study, provides a final score (an integer between -4
and 4). Research assistants, in conjunction with one of the authors (A1), undertook the
quality assessment. Following a discussion with the other reviewers, the second author, who
independently appraised a random selection of included studies (10 of the 82 included in the
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final set) to ensure reliability of the scoring procedure, agreed with the quality scores
assigned. Scores awarded during the quality assessment were not used to exclude studies
given the scoping review’s intention to provide a broad overview of the characteristics of
existing research. See Section 3.6 for a discussion on the quality assessment criteria used.
The quality scores awarded for each included study are available in Supporting Document
One.
2.4 Data extraction
To answer the research questions data were extracted by research assistants, in conjunction
with one of the authors (A1), while the second author extracted information from a random
sample of 10 studies to ensure reliability. While queries were raised, discussed and clarified,
there was full agreement in regards to the data extracted from the 10 randomly-selected
items. All extracted data were stored in a spreadsheet (see Supporting Document One). See
Appendix One for details of the data extracted from each included study.
2.4.1 Considering the reported effectiveness of video as a tool to support in-service
TPD
This drew on studies awarded highest marks during the quality assessment, and which were
identified as considering the effectiveness of video as a central part of their research design. It
has been found how low-quality studies reported significantly larger and more beneficial
effects (i.e. impact of treatment) than good-quality studies (Moher, Jones, Cook et al., 1998;
Shang, Huwwiler-Muntener, Nartney et al., 2005). By only considering studies awarded
highest marks on the quality assessment, the risk of lower-quality research adversely
affecting the interpretation of benefit in regards to the effectiveness of video is minimised.
Previous research has identified how video viewing positively impacts teacher motivation
and cognition (i.e. what teachers know, think and believe; Borg, 2003), and classroom
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practice (Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015). Influenced by the thematic synthesis method proposed by
Thomas and Harden (2008), we analyse selected qualitative data to interpret the ways in
which video is reported to be effective. Thematic synthesis has three stages: the coding of
text 'line-by-line'; the development of ‘descriptive’ themes; and the generation of ‘analytical
themes’. While the development of descriptive themes remains ‘close’ to the primary studies,
the analytical themes represent a stage of interpretation whereby it is possible to ‘go beyond’
the original studies and generate new interpretive constructs, explanations or hypotheses
(Thomas & Harden, 2008). Following an iterative process of review and discussion, a draft
summary of findings across selected studies, organised by the descriptive themes emerging
from the data, was written by one of the authors (A1) in collaboration with research
assistants. This work was then reviewed by the second review author (A2), before a final
version was agreed. We also consider experimental studies although, as there is a limited
amount of such research, it is not possible to undertake a meta-analysis of findings.
3. Results
In this section, we present the results of our scoping review.
3.1 Search overview
Several stages of screening were used to identify studies:
Initial search (implementing the search strategy to identify relevant literature, title and
abstract screening) – 650 potentially relevant studies identified;
Detailed examination (full text screening and applying the inclusion criteria) – 225
studies scrutinised;
Data extraction (data extraction, quality assessment, searching reference lists,
undertaking manual searches of journals) – final set of 82 studies identified.
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A systematic review considering video viewing in initial teacher education and professional
development (Gaudin and Chaliès, 2015) was disseminated during the final stages of
undertaking our own review. While the scope of Gaudin and Chaliès work differs from our
own, as it focuses on pre- as well as in-service teachers, a research assistant examined the
references cited to compare these against those identified by our scoping review. Of the 82
studies located by our search, 31 are also cited by Gaudin and Chaliès. Importantly, however,
our search identifies an additional 51 studies. This demonstrates how our scoping study
builds on, and extends, other work.
Appendix Two provides details of the included 82 studies and defines the IDs used to refer to
these (e.g. [S1] refers to Study One - Arya, Christ & Chiu, 2015). An overview of all data
extracted is presented in Supporting Document One (Data Extraction Spreadsheet).
3.2 Quality assessment
The overall quality of the 82 studies was assessed on the four categories: context, sampling
strategy, data collection and data analysis. The possible scores for each study in each
category were -1, 0 or 1 (details of the quality assessment for each study are available in
Supporting Document One). To get a sense of the overall quality of the included studies we
aggregated scores for each category, the range of possible values for each category was -82 to
+82. The result of this analysis is shown in Figure 1.
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Figure 1. Aggregated scores of included studies for each quality assessment category.
This shows how:
Almost all studies provide an adequate description of the context in which the
research was carried out and were awarded the highest mark (+1). In many cases,
however, this information was difficult to locate within the article and is often entirely
absent from the abstract/introduction/conclusion sections.
The sampling strategy was the lowest aggregate score. This was primarily because the
assessment criteria discriminated against studies involving fewer than 10 participants
(unless reporting in-depth research and presenting a large amount of data; e.g. an
extensive multi-case case study). It is important to note that we recognise the
limitations of considering sample size as an element of ‘quality’, and we acknowledge
our review does not examine factors such as study participation versus non-
participation, recruitment processes and study attrition.
Studies scored well for both data collection and data analysis. Where research did not
fully satisfy these criteria, it was usually because only limited details of the
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methodological strategy were provided (e.g. insufficient information for methods
used, ambiguity in regards to how themes and concepts were identified in the data, not
considering rival explanations).
An aggregated quality score across all quality criteria revealed the average quality score was
3.0 (where the range is -4.0 to 4.0). The quality assessment demonstrates that the majority of
included studies are of a good or high standard. Of the 82 included studies, 66 were awarded
an overall score of 3 or 4. We do not consider this surprising given that most studies are
examples of peer-reviewed research published in journals.
3.3 Analysis of publication details (high-level overview of existing research)
In this section, a high-level overview of results is provided. Figure 2 shows the year of
publication for included studies.
Figure 2. Temporal distribution of included studies.
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The location of the empirical research reported is as follows:
47 studies USA
8 studies UK
7 studies Germany
4 studies Netherlands
2 studies Bangladesh; Canada; New Zealand; Singapore
1 study China; France; Hong Kong; Israel; Norway; Sweden; Taiwan; Turkey
It is perhaps unsurprising that nations which are predominantly English-speaking (USA, UK,
Canada, New Zealand, Singapore) account for 61 of the studies, given that the inclusion
criteria exclude research not written in English. Nonetheless, it is evident that the USA is
leading research, having contributed well over half of all included studies.
Table 1 displays information on the 10 most cited studies according to Google Scholar
(http://scholar.google.co.uk/). Note, ranking studies in this manner favours older more
established research. The average number of Google Scholar citations for each included study
is 42.7 cites per article. The median number of citations is 14 cites per article.
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Study
Study
ID
Number of
Google Scholar
citations
1. Borko, Jacobs, Eiteljorg & Pittman, 2008
[S5]
456
2. van Es & Sherin 2008
[S70]
392
3. Sherin & van Es 2005
[S57]
387
4. Sherin & van Es 2009
[S58]
335
5. Seidel, Sturmer, Blomberg, Kobarg & Schwindt, 2011
[S53]
119
6. van Es & Sherin 2010
[S71]
115
7. Santagata 2009
[S51]
110
8. Zhang, Lundeberg, Koehler, Eberhardt, 2011
[S77]
105
9. Roth, Garnier, Chen, Lemmens, Schwille & Wickler, 2011
[S50]
99
10. Koc, Peker & Osmanoglu, 2009
[S32]
95
Table 1. Most cited studies according to Google Scholar (as at June 1st 2016).
3.4 Classification analysis (detailed mapping)
In this section we answer the research questions defined in Section 2. An overview of data
extracted from each study is presented in Supporting Document One.
3.4.1 [RQ1] What are the characteristics of research involving the use of video?
For the purposes of this study, we define the following school contexts:
Early Childhood - students aged 3 to 5 (encompassing nursery, pre-school, pre-k).
Primary [i.e. Elementary School] - students aged 5 to 11.
Secondary [i.e High School] - students aged 11 to 18 (encompassing middle
school/lower secondary).
Mixed - combination of two or more of the above categories (e.g. primary and
secondary together).
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Studies report on research in the following contexts: Secondary (28 studies); Mixed settings
(21 studies); Primary (21 studies); Early Childhood (5 studies). It is not possible to identify
the context of 7 studies. Research relates to the following academic subject(s): Early
Childhood (5 studies); Foreign Language (4 studies); Literacy (9 studies); Mathematics (25
studies); Multiple subjects [i.e. a mixture of academic subjects with no focus on any one
subject in particular] (24 studies); Science (9 studies); Special Educational Needs [SEN] (1
study). It is not possible to identify the academic subject context in 5 studies.
In Figure 3, information relating to school and academic contexts is displayed. Broadly the
same amount of research has taken place in Primary, Secondary and ‘Mixed’ contexts (i.e.
both primary and secondary). Research relating to mathematics has been a popular focus, as
has research focusing on no particular academic subject (‘multiple subjects’). It is interesting
that no study focuses on literacy in a secondary context, in contrast to primary (4 studies) and
mixed school contexts (4 studies), despite research in secondary schools accounting for over
one third of studies.
Figure 3. Breakdown of school and academic subject contexts.
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3.4.2 [RQ2] What are the most frequently applied research methods used to
investigate the use of video?
Figure 4. Research methods reported by included studies according to school context.
The majority of research reported by included studies is qualitative in nature, as displayed in
Figure 4. This predominantly involved the use of multiple qualitative methods such as video-
analysis, interviews and/or focus groups (see [S48] for an example) although research
involving the use of individual qualitative methods, specifically interviews ([S21] [S26]
[S30] [S59]) and questionnaires ([S46]), has been identified. Mixed methods research,
involving instruments such as interviews/focus groups and surveys/questionnaires (e.g.
[S41]), has also been undertaken across school contexts (albeit to a lesser extent).
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Experimental quantitative research is reported in six studies ([S20] [S31] [S40] [S50] [S53]
[S79]). We note how several studies involved a Design-based research (DBR) component
(e.g. [S51] [S60]).
The number of in-service teachers involved varies widely from 1 ([S56] [S63]) to 180
([S22]). The mean number of teachers involved is 18.7. Over three-quarters of studies report
research involving 19 or fewer participants (see Figure 5).
Figure 5. Number of in-service teachers reported as participating in included studies.
3.4.3 [RQ3] In what ways is video reported to have been used?
Analysis has been completed to establish: i) the source of videos used; ii) how videos are
viewed; iii) the key TPD focus(es) reported. The keywording strategy outlined by Petersen,
Feldt, Mujtaba and Mattsson (2008) is useful for developing a high-level understanding about
the nature and contribution of a research area as it helps secondary reviewers to define a set
of categories which is representative of the underlying population. Informed by Petersen et
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
23
al’s advice, an iterative process of classification was undertaken to make distinctions between
studies and to identify the key features of included research.
i. What is the source of videos?
Figure 6. Source of videos reported by included studies.
Use of videos from both teachers’ own and peer classrooms are reported by the largest
number of studies (see Figure 6). These typically describes a ‘video club’ (e.g. [S6] [S18]
[S34] [S72]), professional development meetings in which teachers watch and discuss
excerpts of video from their own and others’ classrooms (van Es, 2009). Variants of the video
club model are also reported, including a headteacher filming their classroom observations to
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
24
showcase a school’s instructional practice ([S62]) and a TPD programme in which video
supported reciprocal peer coaching by experienced teachers ([S8]).
Video from teachers’ own classroom is often used to support video-stimulated reflections of a
teacher’s own practice (e.g. [S25] [S26] [S56]). Additional work relates to researcher and
practitioner collaboration ([S28]), real-time remote teacher observation ([S35]) and a
telepresence-enabled apprenticeship model of TPD where teachers communicate with a
remote consultant to discuss instructional strategies ([S19]).
Video involving unknown teacher classroom(s) most commonly involves ‘video cases’.
These allow teachers to view a realistic picture of a complex classroom environment by
capturing voices, body language and interactions (Koc, Peker & Osmanoglu, 2009). Such
research includes using video to support lesson modelling ([S47]), illustrating enactments of
cognitively challenging tasks ([S30]) and as a pedagogical tool for deepening teachers’
awareness of students’ reasoning ([S40]).
Research involving teacher constructed videos reports on PD courses relating to video editing
skills (see [S3] [S21]). Two ‘other’ studies report on the design of an online community of
practice ([S60]) and an exploration of teachers' reflections after watching video footage
filmed during group peer-coaching sessions ([S9]). Studies are classified as involving
multiple video sources where comparison of two or more means of collecting video forms an
explicit part of the research design (e.g. [S11] [S50] [S81]).
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
25
ii. How are videos viewed?
Figure 7. Means of viewing videos reported by included studies.
The large proportion of studies involving teachers collaboratively viewing video is perhaps
unsurprising given that a number report on the video club model (see Figure 7). Additionally,
research featuring multiple video sources (e.g. [S4] [S11] [S13] [S14]) and unknown teacher
classrooms (e.g. [S42] [S47] [S49]) has been the focus for collaborative teacher analysis.
In addition to teachers viewing video of their own practice for self-reflective purposes, there
are reports of teachers individually viewing videos of unknown teacher classroom(s) ([S15]
[S59]) and those of their peers ([S31] [S53]).
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
26
Studies are categorised as teachers individually and collaboratively viewing videos where
this focus is an explicit part of the research design ([S12] [S51] [S65] [S77] [S80]). Multiple
viewers is a category for where research involved more than one group of video viewers (e.g.
researchers and practitioners [S28] [S82]) other than those already identified. Studies
involving students viewing video, report on research that features teacher-constructed videos
(specifically [S3] and [S21]). Research involving facilitator(s)/observer(s) viewing videos
retrospectively (i.e. after lessons; see [S20] [S24] [S43] [S72]) and in real-time ([S19] [S35])
is identified.
iii. What are the key TPD focuses?
Figure 8. Key TPD focuses reported by included studies.
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
27
A more even distribution is observed in regards to the key TPD focuses (see Figure 8). These
categories are loosely based on a classification scheme for where video is used to support
teacher education (Wang & Hartley, 2003). In instances where a study could potentially be
classified in one or more categories (e.g. [S58]), a subjective judgement was made by paying
particular attention to the information presented in the title, abstract, introduction and
conclusion sections. Implications of this classification strategy are considered in Section 3.6.
Studies involving eliciting reflection on teaching involve teachers obtaining feedback from
colleagues collaboratively (e.g. during video clubs [S1] [S6] [S18]) or retrospectively from a
facilitator/observer ([S20] [S24]). The collaborative viewing of video by teachers is also
reported in regards to learning how to observe and interpret student learning/thinking (e.g.
[S58] [S69]), which again took place during video clubs.
Providing representations of subject matter in action involves video case studies analysed by
teachers both collaboratively (e.g. [S2] [S22]) and individually (e.g. [S33] [S59]). Studies
classified as supporting self-reflection largely relate to the use of video by teachers
individually, although research has featured multiple-viewers (e.g. teachers individually in
addition to others [S25] [S63]) and a facilitator/observer retrospectively ([S43]). Pedagogical
development is the specific focus of six studies ([S13] [S28] [S45] [S50] [S65] [S79]).
Teachers as video producers refers to research involving teacher constructed videos for
classroom use (see [S3] [S21]).
17 studies have been classified as other, including research with multiple TPD focuses ([S12]
[S46] [S53] [S77] [S78] [S80] [S81]). Other work is concerned with the process of using
video in the context of TPD, including investigating participant involvement in a video club
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
28
([S66] [S67] [S68]) and the role of a facilitator ([S72]). Research relating to teachers’
cognitive, emotional and motivational processes ([S31]) has been investigated as has
teachers’ reflections on their learning process by watching video footage filmed during group
peer-coaching sessions ([S9]). Other research relates to a telepresence-enabled cognitive
apprenticeship model of TPD ([S19]), designing a video-based approach to TPD ([S51]
[S60]) and the use of live video observation to reduce the “observer effect” in TPD
observations ([S35]).
While beyond the scope of this research, we acknowledge that included studies draw on a
broad range of theoretical frameworks including, but not limited, to (Gaudin & Chaliès,
2015): Cognitive Development Process Model (Chan & Harris, 2005) e.g. [S7]; Enaction
theory (Varela & Rosch, 1991) e.g. [S17]; Learning to Notice Framework (Goodwin, 1994)
e.g. [S70]; Lesson Analysis Framework (Hiebert, Morris & Glass, 2003) e.g. [S51]; Problem-
based Learning (Hmelo-Silver & Barrows, 2008; Hung, 2006; Mennin, 2007; Savery, 2006)
e.g. [S77]; Problem-Solving Cycle (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Greeno, Collins & Resnick, 1996)
e.g. [S5].
3.4.5 Do relevant collected studies suggest that using video as a tool for in-service
TPD is effective?
Of all 82 studies, 33 were awarded the highest quality score of 4. Of these 33 high quality
studies, 21 investigate the effectiveness of video as a tool for supporting in-service TPD. The
remaining 12 high quality studies do not have a research design suitable for determining
effectiveness and are not featured in this subsection ([S1] [S2] [S11] [S18] [S23] [S28] [S31]
[S51] [S62] [S64] [S72] [S73]). These omitted studies consider issues relating to teachers’
perceptions of learning with video, propose a framework/theory for utilising video or
investigate the practicalities and/or implications of using video amongst other topics.
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
29
All 21 studies that investigate the effectiveness of video as a tool to support in-service TPD
can be categorised as considering effectiveness in two main ways:
1. the impact of video on teacher cognition (i.e. what teachers know, think and believe);
2. the impact of video on teacher classroom practice.
These two categories are consistent with those established by previous research which
identified how video viewing impacts teacher motivation/teacher cognition (Borg, 2003) and
teacher classroom practice (Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015). All 21 studies report video to be an
effective tool for supporting in-service TPD. Studies are distributed as follows:
Effectiveness focus: Teacher cognition only = [S10] [S12] [S33] [S39] [S40] [S41]
[S44] [S47] [S48] [S49] [S53] [S54] [S69] [S74] [S76] [S77]
Effectiveness focus: Classroom practice and teacher cognition = [S22] [S50] [S58]
Effectiveness focus: Classroom practice only = [S20] [S79]
Effectiveness of video in relation to teacher cognition
16 studies focus primarily on the effectiveness of video as a tool to enhance teacher
cognition. Based on guidance offered by Thomas and Harden (2008), a thematic synthesis of
qualitative data reported by studies relating to teacher cognition has been undertaken. An
overview of the main findings of this thematic synthesis is presented in Figure 9 while in
Appendix Three illustrative quotations/extracts are listed.
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
30
Figure 9. How video is reported to be effective for supporting the development of teacher
cognition - thematic synthesis overview.
Two experimental studies ([S40] [S53]) report statistically significant results that suggest
video used in TPD is effective for enhancing teacher cognition:
[S40] reports how a video collection is an effective pedagogical tool for deepening teachers’
awareness of how students’ mathematical reasoning can emerge naturally through problem
solving. 68 in-service teachers, drawn from over 20 school districts, were involved. 52% of
the experimental group exhibited growth in contrast to 4% of comparison teachers. The
growth rate of the experimental group significantly exceeded that of the comparison group (p
< 0.0001), while experimental participants were also found to have over 25 times the odds of
growth compared to comparison participants.
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
31
[S53] describes an experiment involving 67 in-service teachers (38 with experience in video-
based research, 29 with none). Participants were assigned to one of three treatment groups.
Results show that teachers experienced video analysis as a meaningful learning tool,
particularly when watching a video of their own teaching. Indeed, teachers who analysed
their own teaching experienced higher activation as indicated by higher immersion,
resonance, and motivation.
Effectiveness of video in relation to classroom practice
A more limited amount of research (5 studies: 3 experimental and 2 qualitative) consider the
effectiveness of video in relation to the impact on classroom practice. Four of these involve
teachers working collaboratively, although the source of viewed videos come from multiple
sources (unknown teacher classroom(s) [S22]; own and peer classrooms [S58] [S79];
multiple video sources [S50]).
Statistically significant differences were found for video-based interventions in regards to:
The difference between a video group and control group (p = 0.000) and the impact
on early-childhood teachers’ use of stimulating caregiving behaviour (with results still
apparent three months later) [S20].
Science teachers’ content knowledge (p < 0.001), their ability to analyse the science
content storyline (p < 0.001) and student thinking (p < 0.001). Average science
learning gains of students were also higher after being taught by teachers involved in
the video TPD programme [S50].
A programme targeting the effects of productive classroom dialogue on students'
perceived situational learning processes (p < 0.05) and cognitive elaboration strategies
(p < 0.05). Differential analysis revealed that students with a low self-concept
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
32
particularly benefited from the treatment, especially for their situational learning
processes [S79].
Of the two qualitative studies, [S22] considers how elementary teachers’ thinking and
practice developed as a result of video-based PD, with both teachers’ thinking and practice
found to have been positively impacted. In [S58] an investigation into the effects of video
club participation on teachers’ professional vision is reported, with this influencing teachers’
professional vision and their instructional practices.
3.6 Methodological limitations and threats to validity
This scoping review is subject to the usual limitations and threats to validity. It is possible
that some relevant studies have not been identified despite undertaking trial searches,
examining reference lists and speaking with contacts (both inside and outside of academia)
working in the area. Earlier relevant work may have been omitted as the search only covers
studies published since 2005. Only English-language resources were searched and an
English-language bias is, therefore, possible. The inclusion criteria may have inadvertently
excluded some relevant studies and resulted in the omission of valuable information. There is
a risk that research was not identified because the titles/abstracts of articles did not appear
relevant. Analysing work relating to pre-service teachers may have provided additional
insights, as might studies that were not considered to sufficiently focus on the use of video
(e.g. Lee, Kinzie & Whittaker, 2012; Piwowar, Thiel & Ophardt, 2013). Issues with
misclassification of studies (particularly where there may be considered an overlap between
defined categories) is another threat, as is the subjective nature of the quality assessment
process. Undertaking member checking on a sample of studies helps to alleviate such
concerns as does adopting a flexible and iterative approach (e.g. using a key wording
strategy; Petersen et al., 2008) to establish codes and categories. Implementing other
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
33
validation strategies (e.g. searching reference lists and prominent journals by hand) serves to
increase confidence in the review’s results. Several studies in the final set have the same
author(s) and describe similar research (e.g. the work of van Es and Sherin). After
scrutinising the focus of these, however, all were included as independent entities as they
report research that was sufficiently distinct. While research was found to have been
undertaken in 16 countries, almost three-fifths of included work emanates from the United
States. Thus, the impact of cultural and social differences must be considered.
4. Discussion
This is the first scoping review to investigate the use of video in the context of supporting in-
service TPD. The review fills a gap by presenting a clear picture of the landscape of recent
work at a time when advances in video technology mean there is a need for such an overview.
By rigorously outlining results in an accessible and summarised format, policy makers,
practitioners and consumers are better placed to make effective use of existing research
findings. The presented analysis identifies the key features of a diverse body of evidence in a
manner that stimulates new insights and important questions.
Following implementation of the search strategy, 82 studies were identified as relevant and
included in the final set. This demonstrates how a considerable amount of research has
investigated the use of video as a tool to support in-service TPD, particularly considering
only work published between 2005 and 2015 is included. As a comparison, another scoping
review related to teacher development (McEvoy et al., 2015) identifies a broadly similar
number of studies - 96 in total - but over a much longer period (25 years compared to our 11).
Broadly the same amount of research has taken place in primary, secondary and ‘mixed’ (i.e.
both primary and secondary) contexts. While a particular focus on mathematics or ‘multiple
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
34
subjects’ is identified, there remains potential for research across schooling contexts for all
academic subjects. Most included studies scored highly on the quality assessment. This was
expected beforehand due to most being examples of peer-reviewed work published in
journals located through respected digital libraries. Many studies did not achieve the highest
possible score for sampling strategy, since they report on research involving fewer than 10
participants.
Given that most identified research originates from the United States, there is a need to
undertake further work in other contexts as research completed in the US may not necessarily
be transferrable to educational settings elsewhere. We also observe an almost complete lack
of research in an international development context (with the exception of [S59] and [S75]).
This is surprising given that video presents a promising opportunity for influencing
professional learning in low-resource school settings (Hennessey, Haßler & Hofmann, 2015).
While involving greater numbers of participants can offer advantages (e.g. increased
reliability and statistical power, and ability to conduct different types of analysis), we
recognise sample size is not necessarily an indicator of a study’s quality. Nonetheless, the
fact that less than one-quarter of included studies report on research involving 20 or more
teachers is an important finding of this review. Most studies have been identified to use
emergent thematic qualitative analyses (53 of the 82 included studies are entirely qualitative
in nature) and involve small numbers of participants. As these studies reveal similar findings,
the field is reaching a saturation point and we are approaching a limit on what might be
learned from such research. It is recommended, therefore, that future research might take a
more quantitative and/or longitudinal approach that involves greater numbers of participants.
This could reveal insights and nuances about video use in TPD, heretofore unexplored
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
35
through other methodologies. Small-scale qualitative studies will continue, however, to be
important since these can help to investigate process and contribute to developing theory.
In their recent systematic review, Gaudin and Chaliès (2015) report on the growing
popularity of using video in teacher education/professional development and suggest that
video viewing is a potentially powerful tool. Our findings corroborate these conclusions. By
using the scoping review methodology, we have been able to look in further detail at the
nature of the research that has been undertaken to investigate the use of video in the context
of supporting in-service TPD. We also agree that simply viewing video does not ensure
teacher learning (Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015). Guskey (2000) states that, “one constant finding
in the research literature is that notable improvements in education almost never take place in
the absence of professional development”. Indeed, accompanying high quality support is a
prerequisite if video is to realise its transformative potential in supporting in-service teachers
and in improving classroom practice.
We suggest that fresh thinking is now needed to advance understanding of how professional
learning is supported through the use of video. Extant research is generally focussed on
participants’ reactions and their learning. This is consistent with previous research which
suggests the use of video technology is effective for fostering reflection on teaching practices,
and enabling teachers to employ techniques of analysis and criticism to learn more
sophisticated pedagogy or to deepen understanding of teaching actions (e.g. Capraro,
Capraro, & Lamb, 2001; Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2000; Finn, 2002). For the field to develop
further, it is necessary to look in particular at how video-based TPD impacts on students’
learning.
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
36
Consequently, it is not possible to confidently claim that video is effective in supporting TPD
more generally, and we recommend that practitioners and schools approach any large
investment in video-based TPD carefully. Consistent with other evidence relating to the
effective use of digital technology in education (Haßler, Major, Warwick, Watson, Hennessy,
& Nicholl, 2016), practitioners and schools need to think carefully about how video will be
used and how professional learning will take place. Having issued this caution, however, our
review shows that using video in TPD is extremely promising. Indeed, there are multiple
indications that video is an effective TPD tool and can have a beneficial impact in a variety of
ways.
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44
Appendix One: Data extracted
The following data were extracted from included studies:
study aim(s)/objective(s);
research methodology;
number of in-service teachers involved;
in-service teacher profiles (e.g. high school teachers, primary school teachers);
academic context (e.g. academic subject to which the PD relates);
country in which research was executed;
Video source - own classroom(s), own and peer classrooms, unknown teacher
classroom(s), teacher constructed video for classroom use, other, multiple sources3;
Primary viewers of video - teachers individually, teachers collaboratively, teachers
individually and collaboratively3, facilitator/observer retrospectively,
facilitator/observer in real-time, students, other, multiple viewers;
Focus of the TPD - supporting individual self-examination, eliciting reflection on
teaching (e.g. collaboratively with peer(s) during a video club or through feedback
from a coach), providing representations of subject matter in action (e.g. video cases
of unknown teachers), teachers as video producers (e.g. teacher constructed video for
classroom use), pedagogical development, learning how to observe and interpret
student learning/thinking, other, multiple focuses3;
The number of citations for each study as reported by Google Scholar4 (as at
01/05/2015).
Note, where a study reports on research involving in-service teachers along with another
group (e.g. pre-service teachers) data extracted relates to in-service teachers only.
3 n.b. where this was an integral part of the research design.
4 http://scholar.google.co.uk/
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
45
Appendix Two: Study IDs and associated references
Study ID
Associated Reference
[S1]
Arya, P., Christ, T., Chiu, M., Arya, P., Christ, T., & Chiu, M. (2015). Links between
Characteristics of Collaborative Peer Video Analysis Events and Literacy Teachers’
Outcomes. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 23(2), 159183.
[S2]
Arya, P., Christ, T., & Chiu, M. M. (2014). Facilitation and Teacher Behaviors: An
Analysis of Literacy Teachers’ Video-Case Discussions. Journal of Teacher Education,
65(2), 111127.
[S3]
Blonder, R., Jonatan, M., Bar-Dov, Z., Benny, N., Rap, S., & Sakhnini, S. (2013). Can
You Tube it? Providing chemistry teachers with technological tools and enhancing their
self-efficacy beliefs. Chem. Educ. Res. Pract., 14(3), 269285.
[S4]
Borer, V. L., Ria, L., Muller, A., & Durand, M. (2014). How Do Teachers Appropriate
Learning Objects Through Critical Experiences? A Study of a Pilot In-School
Collaborative Video Learning. Form@re, 14(2), 6374.
[S5]
Borko, Hilda, Jacobs, J. K., Eiteljorg, E., Pittman, M. E., & Hilda Borko, J. J. Eric
Eiteljorg and Mary Ellen Pittman. (2008). Video as a tool for fostering productive
discussions in mathematics professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education,
24(2), 417436.
[S6]
Brantlinger, A., Sherin, M. G., & Linsenmeier, K. A. (2011). Discussing discussion: a
video club in the service of math teachers’ National Board preparation. Teachers and
Teaching, 17(1), 533.
[S7]
Brouwer, C. N. (2011). Equipping Teachers Visually. Retrieved from
http://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/115289 (1st September 2015).
[S8]
Brouwer, N. (2009). Teacher peer coaching with digital video - Evaluation of a four-year
professional development program. Paper presented at the meeting of Teacher Autonomy
in Using Digital Video for Professional Learning of Practicing Teachers, San Diego.
American Educational Research Association.
[S9]
Charteris, J., & Smardon, D. (2013). Second look second think: a fresh look at video to
support dialogic feedback in peer coaching. Professional Development in Education,
39(2), 168185.
[S10]
Cherrington, S., & Loveridge, J. (2014). Using video to promote early childhood teachers’
thinking and reflection. Teaching and Teacher Education, 41, 4251.
[S11]
Christ, T., Arya, P., & Chiu, M. M. (2012). Collaborative Peer Video Analysis Insights
About Literacy Assessment and Instruction. Journal of Literacy Research, 44(2), 171
199.
[S12]
Christ, T., Arya, P., & Chiu, M. M. (2015). A Three-Pronged Approach to Video
Reflection: Preparing Literacy Teachers of the Future. In Video Reflection in Literacy
Teacher Education and Development: Lessons from Research and Practice, 235253.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
[S13]
Christ, T., Arya, P., & Ming Chiu, M. (2014). Teachers’ reports of learning and
application to pedagogy based on engagement in collaborative peer video analysis.
Teaching Education, 25, 349374.
[S14]
Close, E. W., Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., Rebello, N. S., Engelhardt, P.
V., & Singh, C. (August, 2012). Development of proximal formative assessment skills in
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
46
video-based teacher professional development. In AIP Conference Proceedings, Omaha,
NE. American Institute of Physics.
[S15]
Cockburn, M., Yadav, A., Diamond, K., & Powell, D. (2010). Effectiveness of a
Hypermedia Video Case-Based Library for Inservice Teachers’ Professional
Development. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher
Education International Conference 2010. Chesapeake, VA: Association for the
Advancement of Computing in Education.
[S16]
Coles, A. (2010). Using video for professional development: a case study of effective
practice in one secondary mathematics department in the UK. In Proceedings of the
British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics, 30(2), 16.
[S17]
Coles, A. (2012). Using video for professional development: the role of the discussion
facilitator. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 16(3), 165184.
[S18]
Dobie, T. E., & Anderson, E. R. (2015). Interaction in teacher communities: Three forms
teachers use to express contrasting ideas in video clubs. Teaching and Teacher Education,
47, 230240.
[S19]
Edmondson, R. S. (2005). Evaluating the effectiveness of a telepresence-enabled
cognitive apprenticeship model of teacher professional development (Doctoral
dissertation, Utah State University).
[S20]
Fukkink, R. G., & Tavecchio, L. W. C. (2010). Effects of Video Interaction Guidance on
early childhood teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(8), 16521659.
[S21]
Girod, M., Bell, J., & Mishra, P. (2007). Using Digital Video to Re-Think Teaching
Practices. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 24(1), 2329.
[S22]
Grant, T. J., & Kline, K. (2010). The impact of video-based lesson analysis on teachers’
thinking and practice. Teacher Development, 14(1), 6983.
[S23]
Gröschner, A., Seidel, T., Kiemer, K., & Pehmer, A.-K. (2014a). Through the lens of
teacher professional development components: the “Dialogic Video Cycle” as an
innovative program to foster classroom dialogue. Professional Development in Education,
41(4), 729756.
[S24]
Gröschner, A., Seidel, T., Pehmer, A.-K., & Kiemer, K. (2014b). Facilitating
collaborative teacher learning: the role of “mindfulness” in video-based teacher
professional development programs. Gruppendynamik Und Organisationsberatung,
45(3), 273290.
[S25]
Gün, B. (2011). Quality self-reflection through reflection training. ELT Journal, 65(2),
126135.
[S26]
Harlin, E.-M. (2014). Watching oneself teach long-term effects of teachers’ reflections
on their video-recorded teaching. Technology, Pedagogy & Education, 23(4), 507521.
[S27]
Hauge, T. E., & Norenes, S. O. (2009). Changing teamwork practices: videopaper as a
mediating means for teacher professional development. Technology, Pedagogy and
Education, 18(3), 279297.
[S28]
Hennessy, S., & Deaney, R. (2009). “Intermediate Theory” Building: Integrating Multiple
Teacher and Researcher Perspectives through In-Depth Video Analysis of Pedagogic
Strategies. Teachers College Record, 111(7), 17531795.
[S29]
Kiemer, K., Gröschner, A., Pehmer, A. K., & Seidel, T. (2014). Teacher learning and
student outcomes in the context of classroom discourse. Findings from a video-based
teacher professional development programme. Form@ re-Open Journal per la
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
47
formazione in rete, 14(2), 51-62.
[S30]
Kisa, M. T., & Stein, M. K. (2015). Learning to see teaching in new ways a foundation for
maintaining cognitive demand. American Educational Research Journal, 52(1), 105136.
[S31]
Kleinknecht, M., & Schneider, J. (2013). What do teachers think and feel when analyzing
videos of themselves and other teachers teaching? Teaching and Teacher Education, 33,
1323.
[S32]
Koc, Y., Peker, D., & Osmanoglu, A. (2009). Supporting teacher professional
development through online video case study discussions: An assemblage of preservice
and inservice teachers and the case teacher. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(8),
11581168.
[S33]
Kucan, L., Palincsar, A. S., Khasnabis, D., & Chang, C.-I. (2009). The Video Viewing
Task: A source of information for assessing and addressing teacher understanding of text-
based discussion. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(3), 415423.
[S34]
Lefstein, A., & Snell, J. (2011). Professional vision and the politics of teacher learning.
Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(3), 505514.
[S35]
Liang, J. (2015). Live video classroom observation: an effective approach to reducing
reactivity in collecting observational information for teacher professional development.
Journal of Education for Teaching, 41(3), 235253.
[S36]
Liu, M. (2012). Discussing teaching videocases online: Perspectives of preservice and
inservice EFL teachers in Taiwan. Computers & Education, 59(1), 120133.
[S37]
Loo, S. Y. (2013). Professional development of teachers: using multimodality and
reflective peer review approaches to analyse digitally recorded teaching practices.
Teacher Development, 17(4), 499517.
[S38]
Lynes, M. J. (2012). The effects of self-evaluation with video on the use of oral language
development strategies by preschool teachers (Doctoral dissertation, The University of
Utah).
[S39]
Maher, C. A., Landis, J. H., & Palius, M. F. (2010). Teachers Attending to Students
Reasoning. Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(2), 124.
[S40]
Maher, C. A., Landis, J. H., & Palius, M. F. (2014). Teachers Can Learn to Attend to
Students’ Reasoning Using Videos as a Tool. Issues in Teacher Education, 23(1), 3147.
[S41]
McConnell, T. J., Lundeberg, M. A., Koehler, M. J., Urban-Lurain, M., Zhang, T.,
Mikeska, J., et al. (2008). Video-based Teacher ReflectionWhat is the Real Effect on
Reflections of Inservice Teachers. In Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the Association of
Science Teacher Education, St. Louis, MO.
[S42]
McGraw, R., Lynch, K., Koc, Y., Budak, A., & Brown, C. A. (2007). The multimedia
case as a tool for professional development: an analysis of online and face-to-face
interaction among mathematics pre-service teachers, in-service teachers, mathematicians,
and mathematics teacher educators. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 10(2),
95121.
[S43]
McNally, J. (2015). Learning from one’s own teaching: New science teachers analyzing
their practice through classroom observation cycles. Journal of Research in Science
Teaching. In press.
[S44]
Osipova, A., Prichard, B., Boardman, A. G., Kiely, M. T., & Carroll, P. E. (2011).
Refocusing the Lens: Enhancing Elementary Special Education Reading Instruction
through Video Self-Reflection. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(3), 158
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
48
171.
[S45]
Powell, E. (2005). Conceptualising and facilitating active learning: teachers’ video-
stimulated reflective dialogues. Reflective Practice, 6, 407418.
[S46]
Preston, C. (2014). Using web enabled video technology to build professional capital
through reflective practice, coaching and collaboration. Retrieved from
http://www.irisconnect.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Innovation-in-teaching-and-
learning-research-report.pdf (1st September 2015).
[S47]
Pryor, C. R., & Bitter, G. G. (2008). Using multimedia to teach inservice teachers:
Impacts on learning, application, and retention. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6),
26682681.
[S48]
Romano, M., & Schwartz, J. (2005). Exploring technology as a tool for eliciting and
encouraging beginning teacher reflection. Contemporary Issues in Technology and
Teacher Education, 5(2), 149168.
[S49]
Rosaen, C. L., Carlisle, J. F., Mihocko, E., Melnick, A., & Johnson, J. (2013). Teachers
learning from analysis of other teachers’ reading lessons. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 35, 170184.
[S50]
Roth, K. J., Garnier, H. E., Chen, C., Lemmens, M., Schwille, K., & Wickler, N. I. Z.
(2011). Videobased lesson analysis: Effective science PD for teacher and student learning.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(2), 117148.
[S51]
Santagata, R. (2009). Designing Video-Based Professional Development for Mathematics
Teachers in Low-Performing Schools. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 3851.
[S52]
Schmid, E. C. (2011). Video-stimulated reflection as a professional development tool in
interactive whiteboard research. ReCALL, 23, 252270.
[S53]
Seidel, T., Sturmer, K., Blomberg, G., Kobarg, M., & Schwindt, K. (2011). Teacher
Learning from Analysis of Videotaped Classroom Situations: Does It Make a Difference
Whether Teachers Observe Their Own Teaching or that of Others? Teaching and Teacher
Education, 27(2), 259267.
[S54]
Shanahan, L. E., & Tochelli, A. L. (2014). Examining the Use of Video Study Groups for
Developing Literacy Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Critical Elements of Strategy
Instruction With Elementary Teachers. Literacy Research and Instruction, 53(1), 124.
[S55]
Sherin, M. G., Linsenmeier, K. A., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Selecting video clips to
promote mathematics teachers’ discussion of student thinking. Journal of Teacher
Education, 60(3), 213230.
[S56]
Sherin, M. G., Russ, R. S., Sherin, B. L., & Colestock, A. (2008). Professional Vision in
Action: An Exploratory Study. Issues in Teacher Education, 17(2), 2746.
[S57]
Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2005). Using Video to Support Teachers’ Ability to
Notice Classroom Interactions. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(3),
475491.
[S58]
Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Effects of Video Club Participation on Teachers’
Professional Vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 2037.
[S59]
Shohel, Mahruf, & Banks, F. (2012). School-based teachers’ professional development
through technology-enhanced learning in Bangladesh. Teacher Development, 16(1), 25
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[S60]
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[S61]
Song, K. H., & Catapano, S. (2008). Reflective professional development for urban
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[S62]
Sterrett, W., Dikkers, A. G., & Parker, M. (2014). Using Brief Instructional Video Clips
to Foster Communication, Reflection, and Collaboration in Schools. The Educational
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[S63]
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Thurlings, M., Vermeulen, M., Kreijns, K., Bastiaens, T., & Stijnen, S. (2012).
Development of the Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme: evaluating the quality of
feedback in peer groups. Journal of Education for Teaching, 38(2), 193208.
[S65]
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Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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Appendix Three: Illustrative quotations/extracts representing themes identified
during the thematic synthesis process
Teacher cognition
theme
Illustrative quotations/extracts
Teacher self-efficacy
Gaining confidence in ability
to help students learn
Affirming choices made in
own practice/instruction
Gaining in interpretive self-
confidence over time
“I can see the success the kids are having now and that motivates me to keep
them improving!” [S44]
Hillary noticed the noise level in the classroom during guided reading and
recalled that her own decision to eliminate centers in favor of a different
approach was ‘more manageable… and the kids like it a lot more and it’s
much, much quieter” [S49]
“It’s hard when you hear about timings and then you read about it, without
even seeing it working. And for me seeing things happening is really good,
[it] gives me courage to try it myself” [S49]
Knowledge of teaching
Modelling - learning new
techniques
Observing others’ practice
Enabling comparisons with
own practice
Noticing events not apparent
in the moment
Sharing and developing PCK
Collaborative reflection
“I thought the videos that we viewed in the summer were helpful in the
sense that they worked as a model. They helped me to know what are some
of the things I would look for, and what I would want to videotape in doing
that” [S77]
“...you could really see the love she had for her kids, the relationship she had
for them and the comfort of her group” [S49]
“Since I rarely get to see the other teachers in action, this was eye-opening. I
could see pitfalls to avoid, exemplars to emulate the window into the
process of science was fascinating” [S77]
“Wow! I saw so much when I viewed my tape, I found this to be the most
powerful assessment” [S41]
“...just the time to be able to pull resources and see what other teachers were
doing…..different schools have different resources, and so it was nice to see
what was out there” [S44]
“...we were kind of forced to sit down and talk about actual teaching and
share ideas and learn a little bit about each other’s strengths and weaknesses.
So I felt it was very valuable in that way” [S49]
Teacher self-evaluation
Aid to reflect on
practice/critiquing own
performance
Identifying directions for
improvement
“I learned so much by watching myself teach. I think every teacher should
be required to videotape themselves, even though it’s uncomfortable at first”
[S41]
“...when you see these types of videos…it helps you reflect and it helps you
tweak and get better at all the different aspects of your teaching” [S49]
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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Recognising when something
learned previously was not
applied, but should have been
In response to the prompt, “What did you do that did not go so
well?” (Edith) identified a problem “I stumbled over some of the questions”.
This showed that he had not applied what he learned in the case study. Later,
in response to the reflective prompt, “What will you do differently in the
future?,” he generated the following hypothesis to address the problem: “For
my next interview, I will definitely rewrite and simplify the interview
questions” [S12]
Challenging beliefs
Positively disrupting views of
practice
Contrasting espoused
philosophy with reality
“Those things are probably something as a team we need to [ask] ‘Where
were we?’ ‘What were we doing when you were there?’ [S10]
Watching this episode provoked these teachers to reflect on the fit between
their espoused philosophy and their actual practices as team members: “we
need to go, ‘oh I’ll just go round there cos I can see Jayde with that group’.
That’s something we need to learn about you, not that you change and go,
“Heeellp,” we need to go, ‘Actually look at all of us here. One of us needs to
go round and be round there’ [S10]
Using video to support in-service teacher professional development: the state of the field, limitations and possibilities
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Supporting Document One: Data Extraction Spreadsheet
See supporting spreadsheet submitted with this manuscript.
... Surveys of literature on standard video usage indicate that they are generally used as vignettes (of an "unknown teacher"), to review pedagogy of oneself, or professionally evaluate the teaching of a peer (Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015;Hamel & Viau-Guay, 2019;Major & Watson, 2018). Examining the grade-level di erentiation of such scholarship, Major and Watson (2018) found that 34.1% were at the secondary level (ages 11-18), while 25.6% were at the primary/elementary level (ages 5-11). ...
... Surveys of literature on standard video usage indicate that they are generally used as vignettes (of an "unknown teacher"), to review pedagogy of oneself, or professionally evaluate the teaching of a peer (Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015;Hamel & Viau-Guay, 2019;Major & Watson, 2018). Examining the grade-level di erentiation of such scholarship, Major and Watson (2018) found that 34.1% were at the secondary level (ages 11-18), while 25.6% were at the primary/elementary level (ages 5-11). In terms of content, 30.5% of such studies focused on mathematics while 11.0% focused on literacy. ...
... Another set of key ndings from this study lay in comparison with various reviews of research on video use (Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015;Hamel & Viau-Guay, 2019;Major & Watson, 2018) and surveys of teacher educators' implemented use (Arya et al., 2013;Christ et al., 2017). For example, Major and Watson (2018) found that the studies on standard video use were more prevalent at the secondary level than the primary grades level. ...
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This preliminary study explored how many representations of standard videos, animations/comics, and 360 videos are being used in mathematics methods courses to teach future teachers. Drawing on knowledge from prior studies on standard videos, this study aimed to address the gaps in literature to encompass other representations that are being utilized and obtained. Analyses show that standard videos are the primary medium being used to teach future teachers in math methods, followed by animations/comics, and then 360 videos. Findings suggest that teacher educators are more likely to use a medium that they are more familiar with than a medium with greater perceived usefulness. Further, findings indicate that teacher educators perceived usefulness and frequency of use as not related to their level of familiarity with all representation types, suggesting more factors are at play.
... In recent years, PD programs have increasingly used video recordings of classroom instruction to foster teacher reflection and facilitate teacher learning (Gaudin & Chaliès, 2015;Major & Watson, 2018;Santagata & Guarino, 2011;Sherin & Dyer, 2017). The ...
... 87.07% of preservice teachers perceived that the use of video as a self-observation tool was effective to improve their linguistic and self-reflection abilities. The potential of digital observation to improve perceptions of one's own work agrees with previous research (Boster et al., 2007;Santagata and Angelici, 2010;Santagata and Guarino, 2011;Toci et al., 2015;Barth-Cohen et al., 2018;Major and Watson, 2018). For example Kane et al. (2016) reported that for 63% of teachers, the use of video was "quite helpful" or "extremely helpful" in identifying areas where they need to improve. ...
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This article analyzes the capacity for improvement of digital observation in initial teacher training to investigate whether the implementation of visual materials is effective for the reinforcement of previously taught content, the assessment of one’s own linguistic abilities and whether it motivates learners. To do so, the subjects analyzed classroom behavior and learning typology through the reflection of their own videos recorded with children and tutors. Data was collected through 12 closed-ended questions that follow the Likert scale and one open-ended question for general reflection. The questions focused on the motivation and interest of the students with respect to the videos viewed, comprehension, learning, perceived usefulness, and the problem arising with the privacy of the Students’ personal data. The responses were classified and their frequencies and percentages were calculated. The results show that implementing video tools in the classroom and reflecting on their content afterward can be an effective means of assessing one’s learning and language skills. In addition, the study highlights the inherent complexities posed by EU GDPR regulations and the significant barriers to integrating video technology into the classroom for schoolchildren in these contexts.
... Scoping reviews are an accepted approach for reviewing educationrelated research, especially when the research is aimed at being ground-breaking (e.g. Major and Watson 2017;Virtanen et al. 2017). They can be particularly useful for conducting literature reviews when a topic is dispersed and the terminology used by different authors is inconsistent (Peters et al. 2015). ...
... Recent reviews of the role of videos in the professional development of teachers (Gaudin and Chalies 2015;Major and Watson 2017) suggest that the use of videos for professional development is a useful and powerful strategy. Seidel et al. (2011, 266) found that science teachers consider video analysis "a meaningful learning tool". ...
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This study examined how a video-based professional development (VBPD) initiative influenced early childhood teachers’ practices. A purposive sample of 22 early childhood education teachers voluntarily participated in this study. The confidentiality of all participants was assured and their informed consent was obtained prior to the study. The design of the study was qualitative in nature and video based interventions were carried out during the research process. The study data was drawn from a larger study and collected through informal and semi-structured individual interviews. A constant comparative method of data analysis was utilised in the study. The themes identified in the data were guiding teachers’ practices; self-awareness and desire to improve. The teachers expressed that VBPD was supportive for instructional awareness, instructional assessment practices, and the quantity and quality of classroom interaction. Furthermore, from the teachers’ perspectives, the VBPD was found to improve their self-awareness and aid them in staying up-to-date professionally.
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Assessment for Learning (AfL) can increase student achievement. However, teachers find implementing AfL coherently difficult, as it requires complex professional competence. In this experimental study, we investigated the effect on student achievement of teacher professional development for AfL based on the dynamic approach (nteachers = 41, nstudents = 599). The dynamic approach includes four principles: (1) a competence-based approach, (2) adapting to teachers’ needs, (3) explaining underlying mechanisms, and (4) supporting teachers in acquiring the competences. We found a positive effect (d = 0.27) on student achievement. Recommendations for teacher professional development and future research are presented.
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The increased popularity of tablets in general has led to uptake in education. This chapter builds upon the past research and experience of the authors, in particular the findings of a critical systematic literature review that reports on the use of tablets in schools (see Haßler, Major & Hennessy, 2015). The aim of that review is to determine if, when and how using tablets impacts on learning outcomes: Do the knowledge and skills of students increase following the use of tablets for particular purposes, and, if so, what factors contribute to successful or unsuccessful use? Outcomes of the review enable us to reflect on the impact and affordances of using tablets educationally, and allow us to consider factors related to the successful integration of tablets in schools. This chapter provides information and advice for educators (including initial teacher educators) and school policy makers interested in the educational use of tablets. Overall, tablets have significant potential for enhancing learning—but, as with all technology—the most important element remains the teacher, and their classroom practice.
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This paper examines the supporting and constraining factors influencing professional learning about interactive teaching and mobile digital technology use in low-resourced basic schools in sub-Saharan Africa. It draws on a case study of iterative development and refinement of a school-based, peer-facilitated professional learning programme (“OER4Schools”) that integrated use of mobile technologies, digital open educational resources and interactive pedagogy. The research and development involved teachers in three Zambian primary schools and culminated in an extensive multimedia resource. Using an ecological framework, factors emerging were characterised at three levels: teacher, school, and the wider community and policy context. They include school organisation and leadership, teacher motivation and perceptions of opportunities for professional learning and change, teacher views of pupil capabilities, availability of resources, teacher collaboration, and viewpoints of parents and policymakers.
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This study examined how characteristics of Collaborative Peer Video Analysis (CPVA) events are related to teachers’ pedagogical outcomes. Data included 39 transcribed literacy video events, in which 14 in-service teachers engaged in discussions of their video clips. Emergent coding and Statistical Discourse Analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings suggest that particular types of clips (assessment vs. instruction), the purpose for sharing (problems vs. successes), and conversation-turn characteristics—including aspects of pedagogy discussed, aspects of disciplinary knowledge discussed, sources of knowledge, and conversation actions—predicted teachers’ outcomes, such as generation of specific categories of pedagogical ideas and their consideration of applying these ideas in their future literacy pedagogy. Additionally, based on the explanatory model, most of the differences in whether teachers generated ideas or considered applying them in future occurred within a CPVA event (across conversation turns) rather than across events.
Book
This book presents a fresh approach to bridging the perceived gap between academic and classroom cultures. It describes a unique form of research partnership whereby Cambridge University academics and school teachers together grappled with and reformulated theory - through in-depth case studies analysing practice using interactive whiteboards in five subject areas. The inquiry exploited the collaborators' complementary professional knowledge bases. Teachers' voices are particularly audible in co-authored case study chapters. Outcomes included deeper insights into concepts of sociocultural learning theory and classroom dialogue, more analytical mindsets, sustained new practices and ways of working collegially. The book reflects upon the power of lesson video review and details how the co-inquirers negotiated "intermediate theory" - bridging educational theory and specific settings - framed in mutually accessible language and embodied in interactive multimedia resources for teacher development. These include video clips, analytic commentary from multiple perspectives, lesson materials, plus optional prompts for reflection and critique - not models of "best practice". The resources make pedagogy explicit and vividly illustrate the book's ideas, offering theory-informed yet practical tools designed with and for practitioners. Hennessy and colleagues have tested a model of ongoing, teacher-led development and innovation, professional dialogue and classroom trialing stimulated by discussing selected multimedia resources. The book will interest academic and teacher researchers, initial teacher educators, professional development leaders, mentors, plus practitioners interested in using interactive whiteboards and dialogic teaching. It explores widening approaches to collegial development to reach educators working in other contexts (with and without technology). This could involve intermediate theory building or shortcutting by sharing and adapting the outcomes - springboarding teachers' further critique and professional learning. "I cannot recommend this book too highly... it weaves a complex developmental story with a range of facets. It emphasises clearly the rigour of the research that was conducted, while demonstrating the complexity of the inter-relationships, practices and issues for both teachers and researchers in developing practical and theoretical knowledge. Its graphic insights through text and associated media provide exemplars for teachers and those who work with teachers as a rich resource. It shows us all what can be achieved and the means of achieving it." Prof. Barbara Jaworski, University of Loughborough.
Book
Digital video use is becoming prevalent in teacher education as a tool to help improve teaching and learning and for assessing effective teaching. Timely and comprehensive, this volume brings together top scholars from multiple disciplines to provide sound theoretical frameworks, research-based support, and clear practical advice on a variety of unique approaches to using digital video in teacher education programs. Part I deals with the use of video for teacher learning. Part II focuses on the role played by those other than teachers in the effective use of digital video in teacher education programs. Part III addresses how to administer video for teacher education. Exploring the complexities of effectively and appropriately integrating digital video into teacher development at various stages, this book is a must-have resource for scholars and professionals in the field.