ArticlePDF Available

Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected Clinical Isolates

3173 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Inventions 4(8): 3173-3177, 2017
DOI:10.18535/ijmsci/v4i8.12 ICV 2015: 52.82
e-ISSN:2348-991X, p-ISSN: 2454-9576
© 2017,IJMSCI
Original Research
Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some
Selected Clinical Isolates
*Abbas, Abel Anzaku1; Ernest Bassey Assikong2; Akeh,Martins1; Upla, Peter1; Tuluma, Terungwa
1 Department of Microbiology, Federal University Lafia, Nigeria.
2 Associate Professor , Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
3Department of Microbiology, School of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
Abstract: This study investigates the in vitro antimicrobial activity of coconut oil and its fatty acid( lauric acid) on selected
clinical isolates. Clinical isolates were obtained from the General Hospital Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria. Media preparation and
biochemical examination of the organisms were done according to standard methods. Organisms used were
StaphylococcusaureusStreptococcus species, Lactobacillus species and Escherichia coli. Coconut oil was extracted through
fermentation method were as lauric acids was esterified from coconut oil through freezing and were subjected to sterility test.
Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion assay was used for the sensitivity assessment. Zones of inhibition were measured in diametre. Coconut
oil showed resistant on the isolates at the various dilution concentrations. Lauric acid demonstrated significantly appreciable antim
icrobial effect on the test organisms with the highest zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus (10.50)mm, Streptococcus speci
es (10.00) mm, Lactobacillus species (10.00) mm and the lowest inhibition on Escherichia coli (4.00)mm even at the Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC).Escherichia coli which showed relatively low zone of inhibition even at the highest dilution
concentration. The acid generally demonstrated appreciable sensitivity on the isolates with low effect on E. coli compare to other
strains. This study recommends the use of coconut oil as therapeutic agent as well as in fighting antibiotic resistant since it
contains lauric acid which is bactericidal. Further studies should be done on the oil and its derivative both in vitro and in vivo
unveils its mechanisms of actions.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, coconut oil, lauric acid, clinical isolates.
Plants of medicinal importance containhuge varieties of
phytochemicals with important therapeutic properties that can
be used in the treatment of emerging and re-emerging
diseases. Consequently, there is the increasingly justified
assumption which claims that traditional medicine is cheaper
and more effective than modern medicine. The studies of
medicinal plants used as folklore remedies have therefore
attracted immense attention in the scientific world in an
attempt to find possible solutions to the problems of multiple
resistances to the existing synthetic and conventional
antimicrobials (Taiwoet’ al., 2011). The discovery of
antibiotics had eradicated the infections that once ravaged the
humankind, but their indiscriminate use has led to the
development of multidrug-resistant pathogens (Shanmuganet’
al., 2008).
Coconuts are an underutilized food with a hidden wealth of
nutritional value for the body. The fat content plays into the
mass confusion surrounding healthy and unhealthy fats, but
there are a surprising number of benefits with this unusual nut
as it provides a very unique type of oil, made of several
ingredients including medium chain fatty acids, lauric acid and
saturated fat (Schlievert,et’ al., 2008). It is semi-solid at room
temperature as a soft, almost waxy substance. Coconut oil is
prized for its health-giving properties, considered one of the
beneficial oils to use when cooking. Coconut oil is stable in
high heat while many other oils are damaged upon heating,
making them very unhealthy for cooking. Over the past
several years, nutritional advice has focused on the avoidance
of fat, particularly saturated fat. We are now learning, or
relearning, what many cultures have known for centuries.
Healthy fats can include some saturated fat. The quality of
animal fats will depend on the health of the animal. We are
also learning that many vegetable oils that were once
considered healthy are known to become damaged with heat.
One of the amazing qualities of coconut oil is its antibacterial
properties. Monolaurin, an ingredient in coconut oil, has long
been recognized for its bug-fighting properties. It is found in
breast milk, perhaps in part to help protect the developing
baby from infection (Clarke and May, 2007). It appears that
coconut milk can protect against several different kinds of
bacteria and fungi of clinical impact and can further benefit
Abbas, Abel Anzaku / Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected
Clinical Isolates
3174 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
the skin by treating and preventing skin infections (Carpo et’
al., 2007; Clarke and May, 2007). According to Abbas et’ al.
(2017), this virgin coconut oil which is a potent nondrug or
natural yeast fighter, contains three medium chain fatty acids,
i.e., lauric acid (5053%), caprylic acid, and capric acid, all of
which have antibacterial and antifungal effect against lipid
coated bacteria such as staphylococcus species and fungi such
as Candida spp.
Lauric acid a twelve (12) carbon chain acids, is one of the
medium chain fatty acids gotten from some plants oil
particularly coconut oil and others related oil such as palm
kernel oil which has been known as one of the most active
ingredient and is more predominant in the total saturated fat
present (Bruce, 2000).This acid is found in many vegetables,
fats particularly in coconut oil and palm kernel oil (Chuah et’
al., 2014); and has been known as one of the most active
ingredient and composed over 52% of the total 92% saturated
fats present in the coconut oil and is claimed to play a
significant role in the healing miracle that is revealed in
coconut oil (Fife, 2003). Medium-chain free fatty acids which
lauric acid fall under have been found to have a broad
spectrum of microbicidal activity though the mechanisms by
which the lipids kill bacteria is not known, but electron
microscope studies indicate that they disrupt cell
membranes(Ogbolu, 2007). On the other hand, Free Fatty
Acids (FFA) of various chain lengths (C8- C18) have
antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive
bacteria, but not against a number of Gram-negative bacteria
Georgel et al., 2005;Skrivanova et al., 2005;Drake et al.,
2008). Variations in composition of plant and genetic disparity
among bacteria and fungi of the same or different species have
been found to be responsible for the few inconsistencies in the
antibacterial and antifungal properties of plant extract. The
esterification of coconut oil which yielded a carbon chain has
proved beyond reasonable doubt that, lauric acid 12-carbon
chain fatty acid is more biological active and has the highest
antiviral activities than coconut oil which is the parent
substance (Kabara, 1960). This resulted from the Medium
Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) present in coconut oil which anti-
bacterial influence because it has the ability to disintegrate
bacterial cell walls; MCTs are also presenting the ability to
treat severe bacterial infections that are antibiotic resistant
(Bruce, 2000). Despite the vast impact of coconut plants as a
whole and its health importance to humanity hitherto, most
people still lack the basic knowledge in this plants and
relatively few studies has been done to ascertain its health
impact.In this study, antimicrobial activity of coconut oil and
its derivative (lauric acid) were investigated.
Preparation of coconut oil
Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera) was obtained from Lafia
modern market Lafia, Nigeria. The fresh coconut meat was
grated and pressed using a sterilized sieve to produce coconut
milk, which was further allowed to ferment for 48 hours under
anaerobic condition (Abbas et’ al., 2017). After the
fermentation, three layers were formed: the water layer, lipid
layer and the protein coat layer. Protein coat and the water
layer were separated from the oil (lipid layer). The oil was
then heated slightly to remove remaining moisture. After
which the oil was filtered by passage through a 25m-pore size
filter (Millipore, St. Quentin, France) to give an aqueous
extract of coconut oil. This was collected in a sterile vial and
stored at 4°C until use.
Preparation of lauric acid
Extra virgin coconut oil was poured into a temperature glass
container, manufacturer filter to remove impurities, digital
freezer was set at 25.1oC 3 to freeze coconut oil and lauric
acid was extracted at 47o C (Abbas et’ al., 2017).
Suspension of test organisms
Suspension of each of the test organisms was made by
collecting a loopful of colony from each plate and was
incubated overnight at 37°C in Nutrient broth. The overnight
broth culture of organisms was diluted in nutrient broth to an
inoculum load of approximately 1x106 cfu/ml. It was
standardized according to National Committee for Clinical
Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 2002) by gradually adding
normal saline to compare its turbidity to McFarland turbidity
standard of 0.5 which is approximately 1.0 × 106 cfu/ml.
Sterile swab sticks were dipped into each of the bacterial
solution and were used to inoculate the solidified Nutrient agar
plates ensuring that the plates were completely covered for
uniform growth as described by (Aboh et al., 2013).
Sterility test
Pure virgin coconut oil and the extracted lauric acid were
cultured differently on prepared media plates and incubated
overnight at 4°C. This was done to ensure that the extracts
were completely sterile. All media prepared were picked at
random and incubated overnight at 37°C for the purpose of the
Antimicrobial susceptibility test
Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out in each of the
plate using agar disc diffusion method as described by Bauer-
Kirby (2008).This involves a heavy inoculation of an agar
plate with the test organisms. A disc of filter paper (Whatman
filter paper) was impregnated with a known volume and
appropriate concentration of lauric acid and was placed on a
plate of susceptibility testing agar uniformly inoculated with
the test organism and equally spaced on the inoculated plate.
The antimicrobial agent diffused from the disc into the
medium and the growth of the test organism was inhibited at a
distance from the disc that is related (among other factors) to
the susceptibility of the organisms. Strains susceptible to the
antimicrobial were inhibited at a distance from the disc
whereas resistant strains have smaller zones of inhibition or
grow up to edge of the disc (Cheesbrough, 2006). Following
incubation, the agar plate was examined for zones of
Abbas, Abel Anzaku / Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected
Clinical Isolates
3175 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
inhibition (areas of no growth) surrounding the discs. Zone of
inhibition indicates antimicrobial activity against the
organisms. Absence of zone of inhibition indicates that the
acid was ineffective against the test organisms or the
organisms are resistant to the acid.
Result of the morphological identification, biochemical
reaction, carbohydrate utilization and haemolytic reaction of
the test organisms is shown in table 1 below.
Table 1:Biochemical identification and carbohydrate
utilization of the isolates
ccus ureus
cus species
lus species
hia coli
Methyl Red
V. P
Acid fast
Keys: + = Positive; - = Negative; VP = Voges Proskauer
The result of the agar disc diffusion antimicrobial assay of
coconut oil on the selected clinical isolates is shown in table 2
below. The clinical isolates used for the sensitivity assay
were: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus
species,Escherichia coliand Lactobacillusspecies showing
resistance to the oil extract.
Table 2: Sensitivity assay of coconut oil on the isolates
S. aureus
E. coli
R = Resistance of isolates to the oil extract, % =
percentage of the dilution concentration
The result of the agar disc diffusion antimicrobial assay of
coconut oil on the selected clinical isolates is shown in table 2
below. The clinical isolates used for the sensitivity assay
were: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Escherichia
coliand Lactobacillus the zones of inhibition observed were
recorded accordingly.
Table 3: Sensitivity assay of coconut oil on the isolates
Table 4 below is the presentation of the result of Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of lauric acid sensitivity on
the isolates at various dilution concentrations.
Table 4: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
In this study, both coconut oil and its fatty acid (Lauric acid)
were for their antimicrobial properties on a few selected
clinical isolates. Organisms isolated were Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coliand Lactobacillus
species. Both organisms showed resistance to coconut oil at
the variousdilutionconcentrations as opposed to the study of
Ogbolu et’ al.(2007), who reported the antimicrobial potential
of coconut oil on fungal organisms. The method employed by
Ogbolu et’ al. (2007) differed from this study because coconut
oil was diluted with 1% ethanol which earlier knowledge has
educated us on the antimicrobial properties of all classes of
alcohol in which ethanol is included. The diluent could be
responsible for the inhibitory effect exerted in the study.
Lauric acid in this study showed considerable inhibitory effect
on virtually all the clinical isolates used in this studywith
decrease in effects corresponding to the concentration of the
acid. The acid demonstrated highest zones of inhibition on the
isolates with the following diametre: Staphylococcus aureus
(10.50)mm, Streptococcus species (10.00)mm Lactobacillus
Susceptibility at giving concentration
100% 70% 50%
Escherichia coli
% = Percentage
Abbas, Abel Anzaku / Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected
Clinical Isolates
3176 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
species (10.00)mm whereas the lowest inhibitory effect was
observed on Escherichia coli(4.00)mm at the same dilution
concentration. In general the acid was more effective against
Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococci, and Lactobacillieven at
the lowestdilution concentration whereas E. coli which is a
Gram negative bacterium showed relatively low
inhibition.Similarly Abbas et’ al. (2016), reported that
Synthetic sodium laurate (lauric acid) fatty acid exhibit
significantly high antimicrobial activity by inhibiting
microbial survival and biofilm growth against Streptococcus
mutans. Arguably, Padgett et’ al. (2000), reported that high
level of lauric acid addition (8%) significantly lower the film
water permeability. This result conforms to the popular
assertion that says the higher the concentration, the higher the
antimicrobial effect of agent against organisms (Rutala et al.,
2008). Escherichia coliwhich is Gram negative bacteria
showed very low inhibitory effect to the acid tested at a lower
concentration compare to other Gram positive bacteria such as
S. aureus, Streptococci and Lactobacilli. This finding
obeysthe findings of Mamman et al. (2005) that says Gram
negative bacteria exhibit much resistance compare to Gram
positive bacteria. Lauric acid exhibited appreciably high
antimicrobial activity in some clinical isolates than others and
the zones of inhibition varied based on their dilution
concentration declining as the dilution concentration
This study argued the earlier acclamation that says coconut oil
has antimicrobial activity in vitro and further affirmedthat,
lauric acid has antibacterial effect on Gram positive bacteria
more compare to Gram negative bacteria. This however
recommends use of lauric acid in treating some of the
emerging and re-emerging diseases as well as improving
health status. More studies should be done to ascertain the
mechanisms of actions of this acid on microorganism
generally and their susceptibility pattern.
Authors’ contributions
AAA is the main author and was responsible for the writing of
the manuscript, participated in data collection and
interpretation as well as drafting and review of the manuscript.
UP was involved in the study design and data interpretation.
EBEA and TTK reviewed the manuscript. Both authors read
and approved the final manuscript.
Ethical consideration
This research does not required ethical clearance as human
participants were not involved in the study; however, proper
permission was taken to obtain clinical isolates for the purpose
of the study.
Competing interests
There is no competing interest in the publication of the journal
by authors.
Availability of data and materials: The datasets used and
analyzed during this study are available from the corresponding
author on reasonable request.
This study did not receive any funding from anywhere.
Abbas, A. A.; Peter, U.; Akeh, M.; Adeola, J.; Ewenighi C. O. and
Ishaku, A. (2017). Antibacterial Activity of Lauric Acid on Some
Selected Clinical Isolates. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory
Research.(10). 2386-5180.
Abdulelah H. Al-Adhroey, Zurainee M. Nor, Hesham M. Al-
Mekhlafi, Adel A. Amran, Rohela Mahmud. (2011). Evaluation
ofthe use of Cocosnucifera as antimalarial remedy in Malaysian
folk medicine.Journal of Ethnopharmacology.134:3, 988-991.
Aboh, M. I., Oladosu, P. and Ibrahim, K. (2013). Antimicrobial
Activities of Some Brands of Household Disinfectants Marketed In
Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.
American Journal of Research Communication, 1(8): 172-183.
"Define Abuja's at" Random
House, Inc. Retrieved 2015.
Bruce, F. (2000). Coconut oil and Medium Chain Triglyceride.
Health wise Chapter 7.
Carpo, BG., Verallo-Rowell, VM., Kabara, J. (2007). Novel
antibacterial activity of monolaurin compared with conventional
antibiotics against organisms from skin infections: an in vitro
study. J Drugs Dermatol, 6(10):991-8.
Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical
Countries Part 1, (2nd Ed). New York:Cambridge University Press.
Pp: 38-39.
Chuah, G., Rozanna, T. D., Salmiah, A., Thomas, Y. C. and Sa’ari, S.
M. (2014). Fatty acids used as Phase change Materials (PCMs) for
Thermal Energy storage in building Material Application. University
publication Malaysia.
Clarke, NM., May, JT. Effect of antimicrobial factors in human milk
on rhinoviruses and milk-borne cytomegalovirus in vitro.
Drake, D. R.; Brogden, K. A.; Dawson, D. V. and Wertz, P. W.
(2008) Thematic review series: skin lipids. Antimicrobial lipids at the
skin surface. Journal of Lipid Residue.49:411.
Fife, B. (2003). The Healing Miracles of Coconut Oil,Avery
Publishing Group Inc., New York.
Georgel P, Crozat K, Lauth X, Makrantonaki E, Seltmann H, Sovath
S (2005) A toll-like receptor 2-responsive lipid effector pathway
protects mammals against skin infections with gram-positive
bacteria. Journal of Infections and Immunology.73:451221.
Ja-Hyung L.and Young-Wook, J. (2016).Antimicrobial Effect of a
Lauric Acid on Streptococcus MutansBiofilm.Annals of International
medical and DentalResearch.2(4):21.
Kabara, J. J.Swieczkowski, D. M.; Conley, A. J. and Truant, J. P.
(1972)Fatty acids and Derivatives as Antimicrobial
Agents:Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy. 2:2328.
Kabara, J. J.(1978). Fatty Acids Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents-
A Review-Symposium on Pharmacological Effects of Lipids.
Kitahara T, Koyama N, Matsuda J, Aoyama Y, Hirakata Y, Kamihira
S(2004)Antimicrobial activity of saturated fatty acids and fatty amine
Abbas, Abel Anzaku / Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected
Clinical Isolates
3177 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
s against methicillin resi stant Staphylococcusaureus.
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin.27:13211326.
Mamman, P.H., Kazeem, H.M. and Kwanashie, C.N. (2005).
Disinfectant effect of carcil(Alkyl- benxyldimethyl ammonium
chloride) on bacteria. Sciences, 1:33 136.
Manisha DebMandal, Shyamapada Mandal. (2011). Coconut
(Cocosnucifera arecaceae): In health promotion and
diseaseprevention. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 4:3,
Murray, S. (2011) "Life of poverty in Abuja's wealth." BBC. Tuesday
13 February 2007. Retrieved on 12 September.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard. (2002).
Performance standard for antimicrobial disc susceptibility testing.
Twelfth International Supplement.
Ogbolu, D. O., Oni, A. A., Daini, O. A., and Oloko, A. P. (2007). In
Vitro Antimicrobial Properties of Coconut Oil on Candida Species.
Journal of Medicinal Food.(10)2:384387.
Padgett, T.; Han, L.and Dawsow, P. L. (2000). Effect Of Lauric Acid
Addition On The Antimicrobial Efficacy And Water Permeability Of
Corn Zein Films Containing Nisin Journal of Food Processing and
Rutala, W.A. and Weber, D.J. (2013). Disinfection and Sterilization.
American Journal of Infection Control. 41(5):S2 S3.
Seidele, A. and Linke, W. F. (2014). Solubilities of Inorganic and
Organic Compound, New York. D. Van Nostrand Company. PP 742-
Shanmugan, H.; Anil, K.; Mukesh, D. Synergism between natural
products and antibiotics against infectious diseases. J. Phytomed.
2008, 15, 639-652.
Schlievert, PM., Strandberg, KL., Brosnahan, AJ., et al. (2008).
Glycerol monolaurate does not alter rhesus macaque (Macaca
mulatta) vaginal lactobacilli and is safe for chronic use. Antimicrob
Agents Chemother, 52(12):4448-54.
Skrivanova, E.; Marounek, M.;Dlouha, G. andKanka, J. (2005)
Susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens to C-C fatty acids. Letter
of Applied Microbiology. 41:7781.
Taiwo, A. A.; Omobola, O. O; David, A. A. and Anthony, I. O.
(2011) In-Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Crude Aqueous and n-
Hexane Extracts of the Husk of Cocos nucifera: Molecules. (16):
Teruaki,N.; Mandy, C. K. and Chun-Ming, H. (2009). Antimicrobial
Property of Lauric Acid, Against Propionibacterium acnes: It’s
Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris: Journal of
Investigative Dermatology. 129.
Wille, J. J. and Kydonieus, A. (2003) Palmitoleic acid isomer
(C16:1delta6) in Humanskin Sebum is Effective against Gram-
positive bacteria.Skin PharmacolAppl Skin Physiol16:176188.
Yoo, Songkro, AnusakSirikatitham, SupreedeeSungkarak,
Khemmarat Buaking, Juraithip Wungsintaweekul,
DuangkhaeManeenuan, KwunchitOungbho (2010).Characterizatio of
Aromat herapy Massage Oils Prepared from Virgin Coconut Oiland
SomeEssential Oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
87:1, 93- 107.
... Among these products are the oils that have a high concentration of medium-chain fatty acids, such as sesame, olive, and coconut oil. The latter, coconut oil in its virgin state (VCO), has a higher concentration of these fatty acids, giving it a greater antimicrobial capacity, especially in yeasts of the Candida genus [12][13][14]. ...
... To date, there are no studies analyzing the effect of VCO or other medium-chain triglycerides in the treatment of DS, despite their antifungal effect, both clinically and in vitro [13,14,21]. In the present clinical trial, VCO was used as an antifungal agent for the treatment of DS associated with oral candidiasis in older people with removable prostheses. ...
Full-text available
Objective To determine the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on the severity of denture stomatitis (DS) and the counts of Candida spp. in older people (OP) wearing removable prostheses (RP).Materials and methodsThis randomized, controlled and triple-blind study included forty-three OP presenting DS. The control group was treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and the experimental group with MCFA, 2 × /day for 15 days. Intraoral examination and counts of Candida spp. were performed at 0, 7, and 15 days. The differences between both groups in the decrease of the severity of DS and the viability of Candida spp. were determined clinically and microbiologically, respectively.ResultsOP carriers of RP treated with MCFA presented remission of the clinical signs of DS, but the Candida spp. counts only decreased significantly in the CHX-treated group at 7 days of treatment (p < 0.05). Besides, MCFA was shown to reduce the clinical signs of DS after the first week of application, while CHX after the second week.Conclusions The MCFA is effective in reducing the clinical signs of DS associated with oral candidiasis in subjects with RP. Both treatments showed a significant decrease in severity, for MCFA after the first week and for CHX two weeks after starting the corresponding treatment.Clinical relevanceThe MCFA is an effective, harmless, and accessible treatment alternative against DS, since it manages to reduce the severity of the lesion in the milder cases of DS in the oral mucosa of OP carriers of RP.
... Also, VCO and its most active fatty acids were tested in vitro for their antibacterial properties against Clostridium difficile [52]. Subsequently, Abbas et al. [53] investigated the antimicrobial activity of VCO and affirmed that the powerful lauric acid was highly effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, and Lactobacilli. Similarly, the current study was comparable to Widianingrum et al. [54] who concluded that the VCO has the potential to suppress the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and boost the ability of phagocytic immune cells to fight it, making it a viable alternative to antibiotics and a modulator of the cellular immune system. ...
Full-text available
Background/objective: Disinfection of a 3D-printed surgical guide is of utmost importance as it comes into contact with hard and soft tissue during implant placement so it poses a potential risk of pathogenic transmission. Methods used for disinfection in the surgical field should be reliable, practical, and safe for the instruments and the patients. The objectives of this study were to compare the antimicrobial potential of 100% Virgin Coconut Oil, 2% Glutaraldehyde, and 70% Ethyl Alcohol used to decontaminate 3D-printed surgical guides. Materials and methods: Thirty identical surgical guides were printed and cut into two halves (N = 60). Both halves were then contaminated with a defined amount of human saliva samples (2 ml). The first half (n = 30) was sub-grouped into three study groups which were immersed in one of the three disinfectants for 20 min as follows; group VCO was immersed in 100% Virgin Coconut Oil, group GA was immersed in 2% Glutaraldehyde, and group EA was immersed in 70% Ethyl Alcohol. The second half (n* = 30) was sub-grouped into three control groups which were immersed in sterile distilled water as follows group VCO*, group GA*, and group EA*. The microbial count was expressed as colony-forming units per plate and the comparison of the antimicrobial potential of the three tested disinfectants between the three study and three control groups was done using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: The culture results of three study groups revealed no bacterial growth with the highest % of reduction in the mean microbial count of the oral microorganisms (about100%) and an uncountable bacterial growth was shown between the three control groups (more than 100 CFU/plate) representing the baseline of the oral microorganisms. Therefore; statistically significant differences were found between the three control and three study groups (P < .001). Conclusion: The antimicrobial potential of Virgin Coconut Oil was comparable and equivalent to Glutaraldehyde and Ethyl Alcohol with a significant inhibitory action against oral pathogens.
... Ogbolu et al (2007).'s approach is different from this study's because coconut oil was diluted with 1% ethanol, and prior information has shown us that all classes of alcohol that contain ethanol have antibacterial capabilities. The inhibiting impact shown in the study may have been caused by the diluent [47] . This agrees with the achieved results. ...
... The antimicrobial potential of fatty acids has been investigated against pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Lauric acid, the compound with the highest percentage in the fixed oils of A. aculeata and S. cearensis, has been tested against several species of pathogens, including S. aureus and C. albicans [55][56][57][58][59][60]. Nakatsuji et al. [55], indicated that lauric acid has an inhibitory effect on the growth of skin bacteria species, for example, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, even at a concentration 15 times lower than the normally used for benzoyl peroxide. ...
This study aimed to evaluate the antibiotic effects of the fixed oils of Acrocomia aculeata (FOAA) and Syagrus cearenses (FOSC) against the bacterial strains and the fungi strains of the genus Candida spp. The method of serial microdilution using different concentrations was used for measuring the individual biological activity of the fixed oils. The fixed oil of A. aculeata showed the presence of oleic acid (24.36%), while the oil of S. cearensis displayed the content of myristic acid (18.29%), compounds detected in high concentration. The combination FOAA + Norfloxacin, and FOSC + Norfloxacin showed antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus strains, demonstrating possible synergism and potentiation of the antibiotic action against multidrug-resistant strains. The combination FOAA + Fluconazole displayed a significant effect against Candida albicans (IC50 = 15.54), C. krusei (IC50 = 78.58), and C. tropicalis (IC50 = 1588 μg/mL). Regarding FOSC + Fluconazole, it was also observed their combined effect against the strains of C. albicans (IC50 = 3385 μg/mL), C. krusei (IC50 = 26.67 μg/mL), and C. tropicalis (IC50 = 1164 μg/mL). The findings of this study showed a significant synergism for both fixed oils tested when combined with the antibiotic.
... The ciprofloxacin-loaded microparticulate formulation prepared from the shea butter and cold-pressed coconut oil had the highest activity against S. aureus. This may have resulted from the cold-pressed oil having undamaged lauric and capric acid, which confer antimicrobial properties on the oil [34][35][36] alternatively because the phospholipid profile and fatty acid composition of soy and egg lecithin vary [37]. Antimicrobial lipids have been acknowledged to have antibacterial properties ever since Dr Robert Koch et al. demonstrated in the late 1880s that fatty acids, a significant class of antimicrobial lipids, prevented the proliferation of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax [38]. ...
Full-text available
Conventional drug delivery systems have several limitations, including poor bioavailability and an inability to effectively transport antibiotics to the needed site of infection in the bone. A formulation of ciprofloxacin-loaded microparticles derived from coconut oil and shea butter was developed to enable a selective and targeted distribution of the broad-spectrum antibiotic. Solid microparticles (SM), a mixture of solid and liquid lipid (coconut oil), solid-liquid microparticles (SLM), or coconut oil alone; liquid microparticles (LM), loaded with ciprofloxacin using the hot homogenization technique, were formulated. Evaluation of the microparticulate formulations included testing for particle size, the efficacy of entrapment, antibacterial activity, and in vitro drug release. The size of the microparticles that were loaded with ciprofloxacin ranked SM (5.25 ± 2.50 - 5.56 ± 2.01 μm) < SLM (7.94 ± 3.89 - 7.98 ± 2.00 μm) < LM (15.5 ± 1.50 - 20.29 ± 10.75 μm). The microparticulate formulations had an entrapment efficiency of 43.26% and 63.34% for the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. When tested against Staphylococcus aureus, all formulations exhibited good antibacterial activity; however, the microparticles generated from coconut oil and shea butter exhibited more significant antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 24.0 ± 0.8 - 39.5 ± 9.2 mm), in comparison to the other formulations. LM had the fastest ciprofloxacin release (t50 = 5.5 min), but the microparticles formed from shea butter had a higher cumulative release (t50 = 12.7 min) compared to that from the mixture (p>0.05). These findings were obtained from in vitro drug release studies. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model could account for every formulation using the Fickian Case I transport mechanism. Because of their increased antibacterial activity, size, ability to entrap drugs, and in vitro drug release, the ciprofloxacin-loaded microparticles made from cold-pressed coconut oil combined with shea butter have the potential to provide a more effective treatment for bone diseases.
... But it is generally considered safe by the food and drug administra" on (FDA), very few side eff ects are reported if they occur at all, and mainly consist of eczema like symptoms. 17 Coconut oil using group in the present study reported mild symptoms like pustules ,erythema, etc that did not warrant removal from the study. These side eff ects could be due to withdrawal of topical cor" costeroid before including pa" ent in this study. ...
Full-text available
Introduction: Dermatophyte infections have become a common entity with a prevalence ranging from 36.6-78.4%. Majority of the patients are from low socioeconomic background who favour topical treatment. High treatment costs of antifungal medication and consequent poor compliance have given rise to the need of an effective and economical topical preparation. Objectives: To compare efficacy of topical 1% clotrimazole versus virgin coconut oil application as an adjuvant to systemic antifungals in dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients presenting to the dermatology outpatient department and diagnosed with tinea infection clinically and by potassium hydroxide mount were taken up for the study. The patients were randomized into two groups with 50 patients in each group. One group received virgin coconut oil while the other group received 1% clotrimazole cream twice daily application as the topical preparation. Mycological cure was assessed by potassium hydroxide mount and clinical improvement was assessed objectively by severity score for itch, changes in clinical signs and symptoms and subjectively by Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. Statistical analysis was analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: Virgin coconut oil and 1% Clotrimazole had equivocal response after 12 weeks of treatment with respect to potassium hydroxide mount positivity, itch severity, clinical improvement and changes in Dermatology Life Quality Index scores when used along with systemic antifungal. Conclusion: Virgin coconut oil can be easily used as a topical emollient and antifungal preparation along with systemic antifungals in the treatment of dermatophytosis.
... Biochar has potential to increase crop production by enhancing the soil physical, chemical, and biological properties such as aggregate stability, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, water holding capacity, bulk density and particle density, nutrient retention, cation exchange capacity (CEC), EC, and pH, microbial population in the rhizosphere, microbial biomass C and N, and enzymatic activity (Lehmann and Joseph, 2009;Sohi et al., 2010). Biochar has magic properties to adsorb salts and other elements present in the soil (Thomas et al., 2013;Abbas et al., 2017). In a study, Parkash and Singh (2020) showed that biochar application enhanced the stomatal conductance and photosynthesis and decreased the leaf temperature and electrolyte leakage in eggplant leaves. ...
Full-text available
Globally, Food security main threaten by abiotic stress like salinity and levels amongst the majority serious environmental stressors which reduce crop yield mass production. Biochar application has received much attention in agricultural practices as it enhances crop quality and production. The present study was carried out to analyze the role of lysine zinc and biochar on growth enhancement of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PU-2011) under saline stress (EC 7.17 dSm-1). Seeds were sown in pots containing saline soil with and without 2% biochar, and foliar application of Zn-lysine (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mM) was made at different time intervals during plant growth. A combined application of biochar and Zn-lysine 2.0 mM highly improved the physiological attributes such as chlorophyll a (37%), chlorophyll b (60%), total chlorophyll (37%), carotenoids (16%), photosynthesis rate (Pn) 45%, stomatal conductance (gs) 53%, transpiration rate (Tr) 56%, and water use efficiency (WUE) 55%. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) 38%, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 62%, and electrolyte leakage (EL) 48% were decreased with the combined application of biochar and Zn-lysine 2.0 mM as compared with other treatments. The activities of catalase (CAT) 67%, superoxide dismutase (SOD) 70%, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) 61% as well as catalase (CAT) 67% were regulated with the combined biochar and Zn-lysine 2.0 mM treatment. Similarly, the combined application of biochar and zinc-lysine (2.0 mM) enhanced the growth and yield attributes such as shoot length (79%), root fresh weight (62%), shoot fresh weight (36%), root dry weight (86%), shoot dry weight (39%), grain weight (57%), and spike length (43%) as compared with untreated control. The concentrations of sodium (Na) decreased whereas potassium (K), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were enhanced in plants with the combined application of Zn-lysine and biochar. Overall, results showed that the combined application of Zn-lysine (2.0 mM) and biochar significantly inhibited the negative effect of salinity and improved the growth and physiological performance of wheat plants. The combined use of Zn-lysine and biochar might be a practical solution to tackle salt stress in plants, but field studies by growing various crops under varied environmental conditions are needed before any recommendation to farmers.
This study investigates the in vitro antibacterial activity of coconut oil on selected clinical and pure bacterial isolates. Clinical samples were isolated from the people of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Biochemical examination of the microorganisms was done according to standard methods. Pure bacterial cultures were provided from LTA srl Italia. In this research work, an effort has been made to highlight the valuable properties of Cocos nucifera oil, in order to rationalize the use of coconut oil against bacteria. Experiments were performed by agar well diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin was used as a standard antibiotic. The assay of antibacterial activity of clinical isolate of Streptococcus species showed the highest susceptibility to coconut oil while Escherichia coli had the least. This study endorses the use of coconut oil as therapeutic agent since it contains lauric acid which is bactericidal. The utilization of coconut oil should be promoted as a functional food and the use of coconut seed flesh in our diets should be encouraged for health-supporting functions. Further studies should be done on the oil and its derivatives both in vitro and in vivo to unveil their mechanism of action.
Full-text available
In response to the chemically harmful effects of commercially sold body creams on the skin due to the presence of steroids, hydroquinone and kojic acid, natural oil extracts from medicinal plants and fruits are seen as alternative. The use of natural oil extract is not without some intricacies too as its effect against skin microflora has been reported. Therefore, the inhibitory potentials of coconut and carrot oil extracts on some bacterial skin microflora were determined using standard laboratory identification and agar well diffusion methods for identification of bacteria from human skin swab and antibacterial susceptibility test, respectively. The isolated organisms include, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The result obtained shows that carrot oil extract inhibits all the test isolates with mean zones of inhibition (MZI) ranged from 6.00±1.00 to 12.15±0.55 while coconut oil extract was only active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MZI of 12.50±0.55. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) result also shows that carrot oil extract was significantly (p ˂ 0.05) more active than coconut oil with MIC of 50% while the test isolates were still viable at 100% use of coconut oil extract. There was no minimum inhibitory concentration (MBC) obtained as all the test organisms were still viable at 100% of both oil extracts. From the result of this study, it can be concluded that carrot oil extract possesses inhibitory potentials against skin microflora as opposed to coconut oil extract. Therefore, it is safer to apply coconut oil on human skin since it has less inhibitory effect on skin microflora.
Full-text available
Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.
Full-text available
The increasing numbers of cases of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio species poses a major problem to the food and aquaculture industries, as most antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria affecting these industries. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude aqueous and n-hexane extracts of the husk of Cocos nucifera against some selected Vibrio species and other bacterial pathogens including those normally implicated in food and wound infections. The crude extracts were screened against forty-five strains of Vibrio pathogens and twenty-five other bacteria isolates made up of ten Gram positive and fifteen Gram negative bacteria. The aqueous extract was active against 17 of the tested bacterial and 37 of the Vibrio isolates; while the n-hexane extract showed antimicrobial activity against 21 of the test bacteria and 38 of the test Vibrio species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the aqueous and n-hexane extracts against the susceptible bacteria ranged between 0.6-5.0 mg/mL and 0.3-5.0 mg/mL respectively, while the time kill study result for the aqueous extract ranged between 0.12 Log₁₀ and 4.2 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 hours interaction in 1 x MIC and 2 x MIC. For the n-hexane extract, the log reduction ranged between 0.56 Log₁₀ and 6.4 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 hours interaction in 1 x MIC and 2 x MIC. This study revealed the huge potential of C. nucifera extracts as alternative therapies against microbial infections.
Based on biochemical and nutritional evidences, lauric acid (C12) has distinctive properties that are not shared with longer-chain saturated fatty acids: myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), and stearic acid (C18). Because medium-chain saturated fatty acids C6 to C12 show sufficiently different metabolic and physiological properties from long-chain saturated fatty acids C14 to C18, the term “saturated fatty acid” does not convey nutritionally accurate information and chain length should be specified as “medium-chain” and “long-chain”. Many of the properties of coconut oil can be accounted for by the properties of lauric acid. Lauric acid makes up approximately half of the fatty acids in coconut oil; likewise, medium-chain triglycerides which contain lauric acid account for approximately half of all triacylglycerides in coconut oil. It is, therefore, justified to classify coconut oil as a medium-chain vegetable oil. There is no link between lauric acid and high cholesterol. © 2014, Science and Technology Information Institute. All rights reserved.
Changes in the organization of health services in developing countries have led to district levels assuming more responsibility for the planning, delivery and quality of community health care. This fully up-dated new edition has been produced to help those working in the district laboratory, and those responsible for the organization and management of community laboratory services and the training of district laboratory personnel. Replacing the previous publication Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries, this book provides an up-to-date practical bench manual, taking a modern approach to the provision of a quality medical laboratory service. Reviews: Review of District Laboratory Practice in Developing Countries Part 1: 'Clear and easily understood information is provided on the clinical biochemistry of laboratory analytes and the biology of parasites … The book is probably the most comprehensive source of information available today to those who work in or need to know about laboratory services in developing countries. It can be recommended as a basic document for laboratory technicians, technologists, and medical doctors at all levels …' Bulletin of the World Health Organization.
The percent lipid composition of pooled human sebum analyzed by thin-layer chromatography was: ceramides (13&percnt;), fatty acid (47&percnt;), cholesterol (7&percnt;), cholesterol esters (2&percnt;), squalene (11&percnt;), triglycerides (3&percnt;), and wax esters (17&percnt;). Total sebum lipids (2– 4 mg/ml), sonicated into bacterial culture medium, caused 4- to 5-fold log reduction in growth of gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius and the anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum, but was ineffective against most gram-negative bacteria. Fractionation of the sebum lipids showed that both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids contained the bulk of the antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid (C12:0) was the most active saturated fatty acid. The unsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid (C16:1Δ6, cPA) was both the most predominant monoene and the most active antimicrobial fatty acid. Purified cPA (>99&percnt;) yielded typical minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 10–20 μg/ml against gram-positive bacteria. Organically synthesized cPA isomer gave MIC values comparable to the natural material. Both natural and synthetic cPA were found to be the most active sebum lipid fraction in blocking the adherence of a pathogenic strain of Candida albicans to porcine stratum corneum. Ethanol in combination with cPA exerts a synergistic bactericidal activity against gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, and several methacillin-resistant strains of S. aureus. Palmitoleic acid may be useful in topical formulations for treatment of secondary gram-positive bacterial infections, as a gram-positive bacteria antimicrobial in wound dressings, and as a natural gram-positive antimicrobial preservative in skin and hair care products.
All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection, and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization.
The effect of the addition of lauric acid and nisin to corn zein films on the water permeability and inhibition of bacterial growth was examined using two methods. A zone of inhibition test on solid media and a log reduction assay with the film exposed to a bacterial culture (Lactobacillus plantarum) in liquid media (cell count method) for six hours were conducted. the corn zein cast films contained nisin (5.0 mg nisin/g film and lauric acid at 0, 4, and 8% (w/w). the highest level of lauric acid addition (8%) significantly lowered the film water permeability compared to the 4 and 0% levels. the zone of inhibition test on solid media showed no clear inhibitory zones for films containing lauric acid alone, but did produce clear zones for films with nisin with or without lauric acid. Zone size decreased as the level of lauric acid increased or with decreased water permeability. Cell counts in liquid media exposed to film were reduced by the addition of lauric acid alone to the film. the nisin alone and in combination with lauric acid in the film reduced cell numbers in the cell count as well as increased zone size in the zone assay. No additional cell reductions were found when lauric acid and nisin were combined in the films compared to films containing lauric acid alone. Nisin alone was not as effective in reducing cell counts as 8% lauric acid. Log reductions for the nisin only treatment were 2 logs after 1 h and 3 logs after 4 h. However, while the lauric acid only treatment achieved the same ultimate 5.5 log reduction, the 1 and 2 h reductions were 0 and 1 logs, respectively.