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Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected Clinical Isolates

3173 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Inventions 4(8): 3173-3177, 2017
DOI:10.18535/ijmsci/v4i8.12 ICV 2015: 52.82
e-ISSN:2348-991X, p-ISSN: 2454-9576
© 2017,IJMSCI
Original Research
Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some
Selected Clinical Isolates
*Abbas, Abel Anzaku1; Ernest Bassey Assikong2; Akeh,Martins1; Upla, Peter1; Tuluma, Terungwa
1 Department of Microbiology, Federal University Lafia, Nigeria.
2 Associate Professor , Department of Microbiology, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
3Department of Microbiology, School of Nursing and Midwifery Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria
Abstract: This study investigates the in vitro antimicrobial activity of coconut oil and its fatty acid( lauric acid) on selected
clinical isolates. Clinical isolates were obtained from the General Hospital Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria. Media preparation and
biochemical examination of the organisms were done according to standard methods. Organisms used were
StaphylococcusaureusStreptococcus species, Lactobacillus species and Escherichia coli. Coconut oil was extracted through
fermentation method were as lauric acids was esterified from coconut oil through freezing and were subjected to sterility test.
Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion assay was used for the sensitivity assessment. Zones of inhibition were measured in diametre. Coconut
oil showed resistant on the isolates at the various dilution concentrations. Lauric acid demonstrated significantly appreciable antim
icrobial effect on the test organisms with the highest zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus (10.50)mm, Streptococcus speci
es (10.00) mm, Lactobacillus species (10.00) mm and the lowest inhibition on Escherichia coli (4.00)mm even at the Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC).Escherichia coli which showed relatively low zone of inhibition even at the highest dilution
concentration. The acid generally demonstrated appreciable sensitivity on the isolates with low effect on E. coli compare to other
strains. This study recommends the use of coconut oil as therapeutic agent as well as in fighting antibiotic resistant since it
contains lauric acid which is bactericidal. Further studies should be done on the oil and its derivative both in vitro and in vivo
unveils its mechanisms of actions.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, coconut oil, lauric acid, clinical isolates.
Plants of medicinal importance containhuge varieties of
phytochemicals with important therapeutic properties that can
be used in the treatment of emerging and re-emerging
diseases. Consequently, there is the increasingly justified
assumption which claims that traditional medicine is cheaper
and more effective than modern medicine. The studies of
medicinal plants used as folklore remedies have therefore
attracted immense attention in the scientific world in an
attempt to find possible solutions to the problems of multiple
resistances to the existing synthetic and conventional
antimicrobials (Taiwoet’ al., 2011). The discovery of
antibiotics had eradicated the infections that once ravaged the
humankind, but their indiscriminate use has led to the
development of multidrug-resistant pathogens (Shanmuganet’
al., 2008).
Coconuts are an underutilized food with a hidden wealth of
nutritional value for the body. The fat content plays into the
mass confusion surrounding healthy and unhealthy fats, but
there are a surprising number of benefits with this unusual nut
as it provides a very unique type of oil, made of several
ingredients including medium chain fatty acids, lauric acid and
saturated fat (Schlievert,et’ al., 2008). It is semi-solid at room
temperature as a soft, almost waxy substance. Coconut oil is
prized for its health-giving properties, considered one of the
beneficial oils to use when cooking. Coconut oil is stable in
high heat while many other oils are damaged upon heating,
making them very unhealthy for cooking. Over the past
several years, nutritional advice has focused on the avoidance
of fat, particularly saturated fat. We are now learning, or
relearning, what many cultures have known for centuries.
Healthy fats can include some saturated fat. The quality of
animal fats will depend on the health of the animal. We are
also learning that many vegetable oils that were once
considered healthy are known to become damaged with heat.
One of the amazing qualities of coconut oil is its antibacterial
properties. Monolaurin, an ingredient in coconut oil, has long
been recognized for its bug-fighting properties. It is found in
breast milk, perhaps in part to help protect the developing
baby from infection (Clarke and May, 2007). It appears that
coconut milk can protect against several different kinds of
bacteria and fungi of clinical impact and can further benefit
Abbas, Abel Anzaku / Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected
Clinical Isolates
3174 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
the skin by treating and preventing skin infections (Carpo et’
al., 2007; Clarke and May, 2007). According to Abbas et’ al.
(2017), this virgin coconut oil which is a potent nondrug or
natural yeast fighter, contains three medium chain fatty acids,
i.e., lauric acid (5053%), caprylic acid, and capric acid, all of
which have antibacterial and antifungal effect against lipid
coated bacteria such as staphylococcus species and fungi such
as Candida spp.
Lauric acid a twelve (12) carbon chain acids, is one of the
medium chain fatty acids gotten from some plants oil
particularly coconut oil and others related oil such as palm
kernel oil which has been known as one of the most active
ingredient and is more predominant in the total saturated fat
present (Bruce, 2000).This acid is found in many vegetables,
fats particularly in coconut oil and palm kernel oil (Chuah et’
al., 2014); and has been known as one of the most active
ingredient and composed over 52% of the total 92% saturated
fats present in the coconut oil and is claimed to play a
significant role in the healing miracle that is revealed in
coconut oil (Fife, 2003). Medium-chain free fatty acids which
lauric acid fall under have been found to have a broad
spectrum of microbicidal activity though the mechanisms by
which the lipids kill bacteria is not known, but electron
microscope studies indicate that they disrupt cell
membranes(Ogbolu, 2007). On the other hand, Free Fatty
Acids (FFA) of various chain lengths (C8- C18) have
antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive
bacteria, but not against a number of Gram-negative bacteria
Georgel et al., 2005;Skrivanova et al., 2005;Drake et al.,
2008). Variations in composition of plant and genetic disparity
among bacteria and fungi of the same or different species have
been found to be responsible for the few inconsistencies in the
antibacterial and antifungal properties of plant extract. The
esterification of coconut oil which yielded a carbon chain has
proved beyond reasonable doubt that, lauric acid 12-carbon
chain fatty acid is more biological active and has the highest
antiviral activities than coconut oil which is the parent
substance (Kabara, 1960). This resulted from the Medium
Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) present in coconut oil which anti-
bacterial influence because it has the ability to disintegrate
bacterial cell walls; MCTs are also presenting the ability to
treat severe bacterial infections that are antibiotic resistant
(Bruce, 2000). Despite the vast impact of coconut plants as a
whole and its health importance to humanity hitherto, most
people still lack the basic knowledge in this plants and
relatively few studies has been done to ascertain its health
impact.In this study, antimicrobial activity of coconut oil and
its derivative (lauric acid) were investigated.
Preparation of coconut oil
Fresh coconut (Cocos nucifera) was obtained from Lafia
modern market Lafia, Nigeria. The fresh coconut meat was
grated and pressed using a sterilized sieve to produce coconut
milk, which was further allowed to ferment for 48 hours under
anaerobic condition (Abbas et’ al., 2017). After the
fermentation, three layers were formed: the water layer, lipid
layer and the protein coat layer. Protein coat and the water
layer were separated from the oil (lipid layer). The oil was
then heated slightly to remove remaining moisture. After
which the oil was filtered by passage through a 25m-pore size
filter (Millipore, St. Quentin, France) to give an aqueous
extract of coconut oil. This was collected in a sterile vial and
stored at 4°C until use.
Preparation of lauric acid
Extra virgin coconut oil was poured into a temperature glass
container, manufacturer filter to remove impurities, digital
freezer was set at 25.1oC 3 to freeze coconut oil and lauric
acid was extracted at 47o C (Abbas et’ al., 2017).
Suspension of test organisms
Suspension of each of the test organisms was made by
collecting a loopful of colony from each plate and was
incubated overnight at 37°C in Nutrient broth. The overnight
broth culture of organisms was diluted in nutrient broth to an
inoculum load of approximately 1x106 cfu/ml. It was
standardized according to National Committee for Clinical
Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, 2002) by gradually adding
normal saline to compare its turbidity to McFarland turbidity
standard of 0.5 which is approximately 1.0 × 106 cfu/ml.
Sterile swab sticks were dipped into each of the bacterial
solution and were used to inoculate the solidified Nutrient agar
plates ensuring that the plates were completely covered for
uniform growth as described by (Aboh et al., 2013).
Sterility test
Pure virgin coconut oil and the extracted lauric acid were
cultured differently on prepared media plates and incubated
overnight at 4°C. This was done to ensure that the extracts
were completely sterile. All media prepared were picked at
random and incubated overnight at 37°C for the purpose of the
Antimicrobial susceptibility test
Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out in each of the
plate using agar disc diffusion method as described by Bauer-
Kirby (2008).This involves a heavy inoculation of an agar
plate with the test organisms. A disc of filter paper (Whatman
filter paper) was impregnated with a known volume and
appropriate concentration of lauric acid and was placed on a
plate of susceptibility testing agar uniformly inoculated with
the test organism and equally spaced on the inoculated plate.
The antimicrobial agent diffused from the disc into the
medium and the growth of the test organism was inhibited at a
distance from the disc that is related (among other factors) to
the susceptibility of the organisms. Strains susceptible to the
antimicrobial were inhibited at a distance from the disc
whereas resistant strains have smaller zones of inhibition or
grow up to edge of the disc (Cheesbrough, 2006). Following
incubation, the agar plate was examined for zones of
Abbas, Abel Anzaku / Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected
Clinical Isolates
3175 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
inhibition (areas of no growth) surrounding the discs. Zone of
inhibition indicates antimicrobial activity against the
organisms. Absence of zone of inhibition indicates that the
acid was ineffective against the test organisms or the
organisms are resistant to the acid.
Result of the morphological identification, biochemical
reaction, carbohydrate utilization and haemolytic reaction of
the test organisms is shown in table 1 below.
Table 1:Biochemical identification and carbohydrate
utilization of the isolates
ccus ureus
cus species
lus species
hia coli
Methyl Red
V. P
Acid fast
Keys: + = Positive; - = Negative; VP = Voges Proskauer
The result of the agar disc diffusion antimicrobial assay of
coconut oil on the selected clinical isolates is shown in table 2
below. The clinical isolates used for the sensitivity assay
were: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus
species,Escherichia coliand Lactobacillusspecies showing
resistance to the oil extract.
Table 2: Sensitivity assay of coconut oil on the isolates
S. aureus
E. coli
R = Resistance of isolates to the oil extract, % =
percentage of the dilution concentration
The result of the agar disc diffusion antimicrobial assay of
coconut oil on the selected clinical isolates is shown in table 2
below. The clinical isolates used for the sensitivity assay
were: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Escherichia
coliand Lactobacillus the zones of inhibition observed were
recorded accordingly.
Table 3: Sensitivity assay of coconut oil on the isolates
Table 4 below is the presentation of the result of Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of lauric acid sensitivity on
the isolates at various dilution concentrations.
Table 4: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
In this study, both coconut oil and its fatty acid (Lauric acid)
were for their antimicrobial properties on a few selected
clinical isolates. Organisms isolated were Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coliand Lactobacillus
species. Both organisms showed resistance to coconut oil at
the variousdilutionconcentrations as opposed to the study of
Ogbolu et’ al.(2007), who reported the antimicrobial potential
of coconut oil on fungal organisms. The method employed by
Ogbolu et’ al. (2007) differed from this study because coconut
oil was diluted with 1% ethanol which earlier knowledge has
educated us on the antimicrobial properties of all classes of
alcohol in which ethanol is included. The diluent could be
responsible for the inhibitory effect exerted in the study.
Lauric acid in this study showed considerable inhibitory effect
on virtually all the clinical isolates used in this studywith
decrease in effects corresponding to the concentration of the
acid. The acid demonstrated highest zones of inhibition on the
isolates with the following diametre: Staphylococcus aureus
(10.50)mm, Streptococcus species (10.00)mm Lactobacillus
Susceptibility at giving concentration
100% 70% 50%
Escherichia coli
% = Percentage
Abbas, Abel Anzaku / Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil and its Derivative (Lauric Acid) on Some Selected
Clinical Isolates
3176 International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention, vol. 4, Issue 8, August, 2017
species (10.00)mm whereas the lowest inhibitory effect was
observed on Escherichia coli(4.00)mm at the same dilution
concentration. In general the acid was more effective against
Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococci, and Lactobacillieven at
the lowestdilution concentration whereas E. coli which is a
Gram negative bacterium showed relatively low
inhibition.Similarly Abbas et’ al. (2016), reported that
Synthetic sodium laurate (lauric acid) fatty acid exhibit
significantly high antimicrobial activity by inhibiting
microbial survival and biofilm growth against Streptococcus
mutans. Arguably, Padgett et’ al. (2000), reported that high
level of lauric acid addition (8%) significantly lower the film
water permeability. This result conforms to the popular
assertion that says the higher the concentration, the higher the
antimicrobial effect of agent against organisms (Rutala et al.,
2008). Escherichia coliwhich is Gram negative bacteria
showed very low inhibitory effect to the acid tested at a lower
concentration compare to other Gram positive bacteria such as
S. aureus, Streptococci and Lactobacilli. This finding
obeysthe findings of Mamman et al. (2005) that says Gram
negative bacteria exhibit much resistance compare to Gram
positive bacteria. Lauric acid exhibited appreciably high
antimicrobial activity in some clinical isolates than others and
the zones of inhibition varied based on their dilution
concentration declining as the dilution concentration
This study argued the earlier acclamation that says coconut oil
has antimicrobial activity in vitro and further affirmedthat,
lauric acid has antibacterial effect on Gram positive bacteria
more compare to Gram negative bacteria. This however
recommends use of lauric acid in treating some of the
emerging and re-emerging diseases as well as improving
health status. More studies should be done to ascertain the
mechanisms of actions of this acid on microorganism
generally and their susceptibility pattern.
Authors’ contributions
AAA is the main author and was responsible for the writing of
the manuscript, participated in data collection and
interpretation as well as drafting and review of the manuscript.
UP was involved in the study design and data interpretation.
EBEA and TTK reviewed the manuscript. Both authors read
and approved the final manuscript.
Ethical consideration
This research does not required ethical clearance as human
participants were not involved in the study; however, proper
permission was taken to obtain clinical isolates for the purpose
of the study.
Competing interests
There is no competing interest in the publication of the journal
by authors.
Availability of data and materials: The datasets used and
analyzed during this study are available from the corresponding
author on reasonable request.
This study did not receive any funding from anywhere.
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... The monoglyceride of lauric acid, monolaurin, is antimicrobial against some of these species. Palmitic acid is known to have antibacterial activity against numerous [48,49,52], antifungal activity against Scedosporium apiospermum [53]. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of palmitic acid against many species such as Streptococcus mutants, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguis, Candida albicans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were reported by Huang et al. [48]. ...
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This study investigated the anti-fungal activities and the fatty acids composition of two oil samples of Jatropha. Seeds collected from two different agro climatic localities were used for oil extraction. These oils at the 1% and 2% concentrations were tested on Fusarium solani strains isolated from tomato plants against negative and positive controls. The fatty acids composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that, at all concentrations, both oils showed growth inhibition and sporulation reduction depending on the oil. Calthio C, used as positive control showed complete inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation while sterile water, the negative control showed no growth inhibition. The 2% concentration of oil in sample 2 recorded the best inhibition rate (72.7%) while the lowest (34.5%) was recorded with the 1% concentration of oil in sample 1. The sample 1 oil and the sample 2 oil presented 45 and 51% sporulation inhibition respectively. In addition, the 2% concentration of Jatropha seeds oils from both agroclimatic zones showed a slightly higher inhibition than the 1% concentration. GC analysis revealed that both oil samples were predominantly unsaturated and had a variable fatty acid composition depending on the oil. The most important ones were vaccenic (50.18%), nonadecanoic (26.95%) and palmitic (12.87%) acids for sample 1 and linolelaidic (49.04%), nonadecanoic (25.7%) and palmitic (15.11%) acids for sample 2. Sample 1 had 11 fatty acids compared to 18 for sample 2. Both samples also had 9 identical fatty acid structures. Some of these fatty acids are known for their antimicrobial activity. Compared to sample 1, oil sample 2 also showed 7 additional fatty acids such as myristic and erucic acids. The activity of the oil is depended on the origin and fatty acid composition of the oils. Results study suggest that the samples are promising sources of natural antifungal.
... VCO and LA reduced the inhibitory effect against Gram-negative bacteria relative to their Gram-positive counterparts (Abbas et al., 2017). Despite their lack of bactericidal effect, they can affect bacteria's development, probably due to the viscosity of the oil interfering with the adhesion of bacteria on Petri dishes (Kaushik et al., 2016) being a physical and not a biological effect. ...
This study evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial activity of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and lauric acid (LA) against three fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Saprolegnia parasitica and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). The experiments occurred in completely randomized design with five concentration for pathogen to determine lethal concentration. All data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05). Virgin coconut oil (VCO) and lauric acid (LA) affected the fungal and bacterial growth. Only the lauric acid (LA) prevent the mycelial growth (r² = 0.94) while the virgin coconut oil (VCO) reduced it. However, none treatment (VCO and LA) promoted fungicidal effect. Lauric acid provoked complete mortality (100%) of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis at concentration 40 mg.L⁻¹ while the virgin coconut oil only reduced its development with 386.71 μL.L⁻¹ (equivalent to the LA 200 mg.L⁻¹). In the bacterial assy, both VCO and LA caused reduced the colonies amount, but they have no any inhibition halo against the bacterium. The results suggest positive effect to control the pathogen development with greater effects using lauric acid.
... Escamol oil contains saturated fatty acids, most of which are C12:00 and C14:0. The fatty acid C12:0 has antiviral and antibacterial health benefits for the human body (Abbas et al., 2017). C14:0 can slightly decrease the ratio between total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Orsavova et al., 2015). ...
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Keywords butter-fried; fatty acids; Liometopum apiculatum Mayr. The object of this study was to evaluate nutrient content and oil profile in Escamol, which are edible ants native to Mexico. These are dehydrated and butter-fried, and they are commercially available in Mexico. The nutrient content was analysed by using proximal analysis , while the oil profile and its quality were analysed using a refractive index and phys-icochemical analysis, respectively. The results of the proximal chemical analysis of fresh Escamol showed moisture (56.00±0.00 %), protein (15.30±0.50 %), lipids (20.05±0.37 %), ash (1.91±0.12 %), and carbohydrates (6.73±0.00 %) percentages fall within the parameter reported for the order Hymenoptera (p < 0.05) compared with butter-fried Escamol (p < 0.05). The moisture (1.53 %) in Escamol oil accelerates the degradation of the triacyl-glycer-ides, producing free fatty acids (17.48 % oleic acid). At the same time, frying increases lipids with double linkages (133. 79 cg I2 g-1) and causes oxidation products (3.60 meq O2 kg-1 of oil). The Escamol oil extracted from the dehydrated and butter-fried sample showed a refractive index similar to beeswax (1.442) and pure edible coconut oil (1.447), respectively. Therefore, they would mainly present fatty acids as the lauric acid [C12:0 (41.00-56.00 %)], monounsaturated: palmitoleic acid [C16:1 (12.00 %)] and oleic acid [C18:1 (3.50-11.00 %)] and polyunsaturated: linoleic acid [C18:2 (1.00-2.5 %)]. The frying has a minimal effect on the chemical composition of the oil and the fatty acids in Escamol.
... In high CO content samples, these functional groups are blocked by steric effects associated with the high content of hydrophobic regions in the materials, therefore not favoring bacterial inhibition. Although nanofiber samples were more effective against Staphylococcus Aureus, they exhibited lesser activity against Escherichia coli [64]. This could happen because of the impenetrable wall, inner cell membrane, and hydrophobic property of gram-negative bacteria that makes them more resistant to antibiotics and herbal extracts [65]. ...
Coconut oil (CO) is a naturally derived bio-oil which exhibits specific characteristics such as biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. In this work, the biological properties of poly(caprolactone)/gelatin (PCL/Gel) nanofibers are improved using CO encapsulation. This bio-oil was added to the PCL/Gel polymer solution with different concentrations (5–40%). Nanofibers were crosslinked using glutaraldehyde vapor. Different types of characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, DSC, tensile measurements, water contact angle, and water vapor permeability were used to study the chemical, physical, thermal, and morphological properties of resultant nanofibers. Results showed an average diameter of 300–370 nm for as-spun nanofibers, which increased to 360–470 nm after the crosslinking reaction. The presence of CO was confirmed using FTIR and DSC experiments. Moreover, results indicated that the presence of CO increases the hydrophilicity and water vapor permeability of nanofibers, which are desirable for their final application. Biological tests, such as antibacterial activity, cell viability, and cell morphology tests were performed to evaluate the possible application of the produced nanofibers for wound healing applications. Results indicated that the crosslinked PCL/Gel nanofibers containing 20% CO exhibited the highest cell compatibility and antibacterial activity against gram-positive (S. aureus) and gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria.
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Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.
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The increasing numbers of cases of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio species poses a major problem to the food and aquaculture industries, as most antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria affecting these industries. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude aqueous and n-hexane extracts of the husk of Cocos nucifera against some selected Vibrio species and other bacterial pathogens including those normally implicated in food and wound infections. The crude extracts were screened against forty-five strains of Vibrio pathogens and twenty-five other bacteria isolates made up of ten Gram positive and fifteen Gram negative bacteria. The aqueous extract was active against 17 of the tested bacterial and 37 of the Vibrio isolates; while the n-hexane extract showed antimicrobial activity against 21 of the test bacteria and 38 of the test Vibrio species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the aqueous and n-hexane extracts against the susceptible bacteria ranged between 0.6-5.0 mg/mL and 0.3-5.0 mg/mL respectively, while the time kill study result for the aqueous extract ranged between 0.12 Log₁₀ and 4.2 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 hours interaction in 1 x MIC and 2 x MIC. For the n-hexane extract, the log reduction ranged between 0.56 Log₁₀ and 6.4 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 hours interaction in 1 x MIC and 2 x MIC. This study revealed the huge potential of C. nucifera extracts as alternative therapies against microbial infections.
Based on biochemical and nutritional evidences, lauric acid (C12) has distinctive properties that are not shared with longer-chain saturated fatty acids: myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), and stearic acid (C18). Because medium-chain saturated fatty acids C6 to C12 show sufficiently different metabolic and physiological properties from long-chain saturated fatty acids C14 to C18, the term “saturated fatty acid” does not convey nutritionally accurate information and chain length should be specified as “medium-chain” and “long-chain”. Many of the properties of coconut oil can be accounted for by the properties of lauric acid. Lauric acid makes up approximately half of the fatty acids in coconut oil; likewise, medium-chain triglycerides which contain lauric acid account for approximately half of all triacylglycerides in coconut oil. It is, therefore, justified to classify coconut oil as a medium-chain vegetable oil. There is no link between lauric acid and high cholesterol. © 2014, Science and Technology Information Institute. All rights reserved.
Changes in the organization of health services in developing countries have led to district levels assuming more responsibility for the planning, delivery and quality of community health care. This fully up-dated new edition has been produced to help those working in the district laboratory, and those responsible for the organization and management of community laboratory services and the training of district laboratory personnel. Replacing the previous publication Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries, this book provides an up-to-date practical bench manual, taking a modern approach to the provision of a quality medical laboratory service. Reviews: Review of District Laboratory Practice in Developing Countries Part 1: 'Clear and easily understood information is provided on the clinical biochemistry of laboratory analytes and the biology of parasites … The book is probably the most comprehensive source of information available today to those who work in or need to know about laboratory services in developing countries. It can be recommended as a basic document for laboratory technicians, technologists, and medical doctors at all levels …' Bulletin of the World Health Organization.
The percent lipid composition of pooled human sebum analyzed by thin-layer chromatography was: ceramides (13&percnt;), fatty acid (47&percnt;), cholesterol (7&percnt;), cholesterol esters (2&percnt;), squalene (11&percnt;), triglycerides (3&percnt;), and wax esters (17&percnt;). Total sebum lipids (2– 4 mg/ml), sonicated into bacterial culture medium, caused 4- to 5-fold log reduction in growth of gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius and the anaerobe Fusobacterium nucleatum, but was ineffective against most gram-negative bacteria. Fractionation of the sebum lipids showed that both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids contained the bulk of the antimicrobial activity. Lauric acid (C12:0) was the most active saturated fatty acid. The unsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid (C16:1Δ6, cPA) was both the most predominant monoene and the most active antimicrobial fatty acid. Purified cPA (>99&percnt;) yielded typical minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 10–20 μg/ml against gram-positive bacteria. Organically synthesized cPA isomer gave MIC values comparable to the natural material. Both natural and synthetic cPA were found to be the most active sebum lipid fraction in blocking the adherence of a pathogenic strain of Candida albicans to porcine stratum corneum. Ethanol in combination with cPA exerts a synergistic bactericidal activity against gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, and several methacillin-resistant strains of S. aureus. Palmitoleic acid may be useful in topical formulations for treatment of secondary gram-positive bacterial infections, as a gram-positive bacteria antimicrobial in wound dressings, and as a natural gram-positive antimicrobial preservative in skin and hair care products.
All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection, and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization.
The effect of the addition of lauric acid and nisin to corn zein films on the water permeability and inhibition of bacterial growth was examined using two methods. A zone of inhibition test on solid media and a log reduction assay with the film exposed to a bacterial culture (Lactobacillus plantarum) in liquid media (cell count method) for six hours were conducted. the corn zein cast films contained nisin (5.0 mg nisin/g film and lauric acid at 0, 4, and 8% (w/w). the highest level of lauric acid addition (8%) significantly lowered the film water permeability compared to the 4 and 0% levels. the zone of inhibition test on solid media showed no clear inhibitory zones for films containing lauric acid alone, but did produce clear zones for films with nisin with or without lauric acid. Zone size decreased as the level of lauric acid increased or with decreased water permeability. Cell counts in liquid media exposed to film were reduced by the addition of lauric acid alone to the film. the nisin alone and in combination with lauric acid in the film reduced cell numbers in the cell count as well as increased zone size in the zone assay. No additional cell reductions were found when lauric acid and nisin were combined in the films compared to films containing lauric acid alone. Nisin alone was not as effective in reducing cell counts as 8% lauric acid. Log reductions for the nisin only treatment were 2 logs after 1 h and 3 logs after 4 h. However, while the lauric acid only treatment achieved the same ultimate 5.5 log reduction, the 1 and 2 h reductions were 0 and 1 logs, respectively.