Conference PaperPDF Available


Content may be subject to copyright.
Formalising and evaluating Cultural User Experience
Markos Konstantakis, Konstantinos Michalakis, John Aliprantis, Eirini Kalatha, George Caridakis
Department of Cultural Technology and Communication
University of the Aegean
Mytilene, Greece,,,,
Abstract— User Experience (UX) is considered a subjective
and universal concept which contributes to the success of any
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) framework.
However, in both Information Systems and Cultural Technology
research, little attention has been paid to the evaluation of UX
with technologies in cultural heritage environments. Since
Cultural User Experience (CUX) is an important factor, a formal
classification of how to design for and evaluate CUX is necessary.
This paper attempts to analyze and evaluate the aspects of CUX
methodologies that are currently available and to specify future
designing improvements for UX evaluation methods.
Keywords— user experience; cultural user experience; cultural
heritage; human computer interaction; methodology; evaluation
I. I
User Experience (UX) is a core concept of Human
Computer Interaction (HCI) that is increasingly used even
though no consensus has been reached about its scope.
Furthermore, during the past years, cultural interactive
experiences are produced in an increased pace [1]. One of the
main purposes of this interest has been to augment user’s
participation during his interaction with cultural objects by
making him actor of his own cultural experience [2, 3].
Lately, HCI has extended its focus on characteristics that
can be considered cultural applications of computing. This new
aspect covers artistic, entertainment, heritage and social
experiences [4]. Various examples can be found that integrate
such flavours into a cultural experience enhanced by digital
representations, games, tours and installations. These
applications illustrate a new design paradigm that draws
together technologies, artifacts and people into interactive
structures. HCI should engage with these new forms of user
experience in a way that it encompasses the traditional
characteristics of interface design (e.g. usability) and allowing
at the same time new features connected to CUX.
It is an undeniable fact that in the last years the cultural
industry and academia deal with a fledgling field that is related
to how to evaluate and measure UX. Therefore the field of
CUX is gaining ground constantly and is expanding
increasingly. Several studies have successfully developed
frameworks to measure UX, but it is important to highlight that
most of the frameworks developed by previous researchers
measuring UX have remained conceptual as they have not been
tested with visitors in realistic situations of cultural visits. Thus,
the evaluation of the visitors’ experiences using technology,
particularly mobile guides is of importance for the cultural
spaces, but as yet unexplored [5].
In this paper we intend to analyze which CUX evaluation
methods are currently available and specify development needs
for those methods. The rest of the paper is organized as
follows: Section 2 formalizes the UX and CUX definitions and
presents related work of studies and software. In Section 3 we
review the methodologies used with their respective HCI
design principles, while in Section 4 we analyze the results of
CUX methods. Finally in section 5 we conclude and suggest
our future plans and directions..
A. What is UX?
UX is a multidimensional concept and has been widely
defined as an umbrella term for designing, evaluating and
studying the experiences that people encounter while using a
particular product, system or service in a specific context. It
involves a person’s attitude, behavior and emotions towards
that context [6]. Hassenzahl and Tractinsky [7] summarize the
UX concept from the literature and suggest that it can be
divided into three different perspectives. One of the
perspectives is the emotion and affect which mainly focuses on
the affective computing concept and how it can influence
users’ emotions. The second one focuses on two aspects of
technology use: its situatedness and temporality. It is important
to note that these experiential components are interrelated.
Finally, the third perspective, beyond the instrumental
approach has the goal to create more holistic and complete
human - computer interaction using non-instrumental aspects
of HCI. In conclusion, they argue that:
UX is a consequence of user’s internal state, the
characteristics of designed system, and the context (or
environment) within which the interaction occurs”.
(Hassenzahl & Tractinsky - 2006).
UX is about technology that fulfils more than just
instrumental needs in a way that acknowledges its use as a
subjective, situated, complex and dynamic encounter.
Obviously, this creates innumerable design and experience
opportunities. Therefore, UX should not only be seen as
978-1-5386-0756-5/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE
Also Affiliated with the Intelligent Systems, Content and Interaction laboratory, National Technical
University of Athens
something evaluable after interacting with an object, but also
before and during the interaction. While it is relevant to
evaluate short-term experiences, given dynamic changes of
user goals and needs related to contextual factors, it is also
important to know how (and why) experiences evolve over
time. Finally, one of HCI’s main objectives in the future is to
contribute to our quality of life by designing for pleasure rather
than for absence of pain. UX is all about this idea.
B. From UX to CUX
Cultural Heritage represents a worldwide resource of
inestimable value, attracting millions of visitors every year to
monuments, museums and art exhibitions. It has been playing
an increasingly important role in the cultural fabric of society;
in the current rapidly changing and globalized world, museum
collections, ancient ruins, and artefact exhibitions represent at
the same time sources and instruments of education that should
be available to a wide range of people. Indeed, achieving a
wide fruition of a cultural space and its objects that is effective
and sustainable, is necessary in order to enhance visitor’s
experience during their interaction with cultural institutes [5]. It
remains to be seen if technology will be a valuable part of
cultural exhibitions enhancing user experience.
However, another factor that affects user experience
besides the wide range and diversity of the cultural objects, is
the cultural background and profile of the individual user. Each
user has its own cultural characteristics, learns and interacts
differently with a certain artefact and finally obtains a unique
cultural experience. The interaction between different cultural
objects and user’s cultural backgrounds defines the cultural
user experience (CUX) as “The unique produced knowledge
and experience from different cultural identities[8].
The first vital gist of CUX is understanding and
consequently meeting the cultural heritage users need.
Secondly, it will lead to the simplicity and elegant attributes of
a cultural product or system that creates positive experience
such as joy to own and to use [9].
To date, there are various technologies available in cultural
environments to support cultural exhibitions directly or
indirectly, and every technology used makes an impact on the
exhibition or the visitors. For example, digital technologies
have opened new possibilities in exhibition design and content
the past 40 years [8], whilst a comprehensive study of the
impact of technology on the museum [10] suggests that
technologies in museums have changed the way museums
communicate with their visitors and that this transformation is
necessary and technologies are expected to be used widely over
the coming decades.
It is important for cultural spaces to explore whether
technological enhancements can help them attract more visitors
and provide different ways of learning or interaction between
visitors and exhibits or among them. Previous researchers have
tried to understand visitor experience with interactive
technology in cultural spaces and particularly how visitors
approach, perceive and use physical spaces and how visitor
experience can be related to the design of the exhibition and
their exhibits [11]. This experience is important in shaping
visitors’ cultural experiences, especially with interactive
technology and exhibitions.
C. Related Work
In [12] authors develop two scales to measure visitor’s
museum exhibition and compare the traditional and
conventional ways of interaction with the use of multimedia
guides. After questioning a large number of visitors, they
produce four components to analyze their data and evaluate
user’s cultural experience (engagement, meaningful
experience, knowledge/learning and emotional connection) and
in all of them, multimedia or audio guides had better results.
Also in [13], authors emphasize that cultural background of the
participants in evaluation is playing a critical role not only on
how to perceive a question but also on the expression and the
style of their answers, by performing a remote online UX
evaluation across ten countries. CHESS project [14]
implements a different method of evaluation by building and
updating visitor’s profiles during their interaction with cultural
artifacts multimedia guides, and adjusts accordingly the rest of
the storytelling. Finally in [15], evaluation of cultural
experience is a result of many different tools such as personal
interviews, tests of knowledge and memory of the cultural
artifacts, and video cameras which monitor the point of view of
User-experience research methods are great at producing
data and insights, while ongoing activities help get the right
things done. Ongoing UX activities can make everyone’s
efforts more effective and valuable. At every stage in the
design process, different UX methods can keep product-
development efforts on the right track, in agreement with true
user needs and not imaginary ones. User research can be done
at any point in the design cycle [16].
The evaluation of the cultural visitors’ experience is a
crucial part of this study, since it will determine the outcome of
this research and validate the research objectives. In recent
decades, studies in cultural spaces have been revolutionized by
the change of direction and the methods used to study the
cultural spaces themselves. There are various methodologies
available to support such research: qualitative, quantitative,
experimental, grounded theory and many others.
The choice of methodology to be used in every research
project is based on the scope and aspects of the research itself.
In addition, the choices of methodology used must also be in
accordance with the components that will be evaluated. To
date, there are various evaluation methods available for
museum educators, researchers and curators, such as formative
evaluation, summative evaluation, and front-end evaluation.
Furthermore, there are various UX metrics available to
assist in collecting and processing data in the cultural context.
These metrics were discovered by Hassenzahl [3] as criteria for
Fig. 1 Cultural UX Methods Evaluations
evaluating UX. The characteristics of a positive UX, as shown
in Table 1, are described under two major dimensions of UX,
pragmatic and hedonic.
Evaluation Methods
A wide list of UX evaluation methods can be found in the
literature. For the purposes of this paper, we have reviewed
those methods described in a variety of sources. Specifically,
we identified 15 UX evaluation methods from Jordan’s set of
methods [17] and included them in our collection. Additionally,
17 methods from the ENGAGE pool of methods [18] were
added, as well as 8 methods from the HUMAINE set [19]. We
looked further up in the literature for possible additional
methods. We identified 10 new methods from the UX literature
found in the ACM Digital Library. Assessing all those
methods, we identified 15 common evaluation methods [20]
that are suited to cultural studies [12, 21], as shown in Figure 1.
These methods were rated against the 8 attributes of a
positive UX of Table 1. The evaluation was performed based
on (a) review of the literature, (b) empirical studies and (c) the
authors’ personal assessment. Figure 1 indicates a positive or
negative correlation for all methods towards each of those 8
Based on the two figures shown above, we review and
categorize each of the selected evaluation method and conclude
on the results below:
User interviews or Surveys and Focus Groups go
well with the Usefulness attribute as they can be used
by specified users to achieve specified goals with
effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction, and the
Identification attribute as they give users the ability to
express their thoughts and feelings in a more personal
way. Focus Groups also fulfill the Pleasure attribute
because they satisfy and entertain users at the same
Table 1. Characteristics of a positive UX
Contextual inquiry, Usability testing and
Walkthrough are reliable and easy to use methods
(Reliability and Ease of Use attributes) and they can
also induce the participation of the users to practice
their knowledge and skills (Stimulating) and entertain
them (Pleasure). However, Contextual inquiry adds
on the Usefulness attribute, when Walkthrough
promotes the effective use of resources such as time
effort and cost (Efficiency).
Journey Mapping and Field studies are methods that
both allow users to express important personal values
and stimulate them to grow their knowledge
(Identification and Stimulating), and also, they are
characterized by the Usefulness attribute. On the other
hand, Journey Mapping is an easy and entertaining
method to use (Ease of Use and Pleasure) while Field
studies focus more on the Accessibility attribute as any
kind of user can handle this method including people
with disabilities.
Paper Prototyping, Card sorting, Storyboards and
Diary studies are easy to use, interesting and
entertaining methods that also go well with the
Usefulness and Identification attributes. However,
Paper Prototyping and Card sorting are more efficient
methods while Diary studies are accessible to more
User personas and Emotional Cards are the only
methods that have seven out of eight attributes in our
analysis. User personas lack in reliability and
emotional cards dont satisfy only the Accessibility
Based on our analysis, we can assume that User personas
is one of the most complete evaluation method, as it only lacks
in reliability. Indeed, the design of personas as ‘fictional’
characters based on real data and research and created for a
specific target, is considered as a very consistent and
representative way to define actual users and their goals.
However, it is important to clarify the exact (minimum)
number of personas in each occasion in order to focus on the
visitor profiles to be examined [22]. A more reliable but
equally complete evaluation method is the Emotional Cards, an
easy, quick and interesting method for both users and
researchers, but not accessible by users with disabilities. Users
carry with them empty or pre-defined emotion cards and fill in
their mood at a given situation (usually after they examine an
object or be part of a procedure).
Furthermore, Paper Prototyping, Card Sorting and Diary
Studies are also suitable for CUX evaluation as they gain six
out of eight positive ratings based on our research in Fig. 1.
Paper Prototyping aims in giving users the ability to draw on a
piece of paper the interface and the interactions that they prefer
to have with an object of interest (OoI). It is a cost-effective
and easy evaluation method which doesn’t require design or
coding skills, consumes less resource than most of the others
and allows the exchange and tests of ideas and thoughts
between users and researchers in situ.
Card Sorting is very similar as again it requires from
small groups of users to organize items (pre-defined cards
which represent pieces of the desired information) into groups
and assign categories to each group. However, both methods
are too simple to evaluate important details and measure actual
time required to perform a certain task. Finally, Diary/Camera
Studies require from users to record and describe aspects of
their lives relevant to a certain object or procedure with a diary
or a camera over a period of some days to a few months. That
may be easy and entertaining for users but it requires much
more time and resources compared with other methods and it
lacks in reliability because users may forget or get tired of
recording important information for the researchers.
Through our CUX evaluation study, we were able to elicit
the technology and design level needs in regard to cultural
areas. Understanding cultural user expectations for novel and
immature technologies is challenging. We consider our CUX
evaluation study a necessary step towards understanding user
expectations. So far the research on UX in cultural services is
limited only to understanding user needs and expectations
through the use of limited use cases supporting limited
interaction. However, in our study, we have extended the
already existing work by formalizing and analyzing different
UX evaluation methods. In retrospect, we trust that our choice
of research methods, study process and UX evaluation can also
be used for the UX evaluation of other technology concepts
that are futuristic and novel.
The above evaluation procedures are important to
improve the UX in culture. However, and per our findings in
this research, it is imperative to understand the design
implications on the user experiences at the early phases of the
conceptual design and prototyping.
Fig. 2 Positive CUX Windmill
As a next step, we need more understanding of what is the
added value of Culture in the UX, and thus what are the most
culture-specific expectations. This requires controlled
experimental research setup with functional cultural services.
In the future, we will use this analysis as basis in designing
new evaluation metrics, with which we will evaluate the UX of
current cultural applications. This will allow us to examine to
what degree the expectations have been met and how
significant the expected UX characteristics actually have
become in cultural applications.
[1] [1] E. L-C. Law et al.,”Understanding, Scoping and Defining User
eXperience: A Survey Approach”, April 7th, 2009,Boston, USA.
[2] [2] A. Vermeeren, et al., “User Experience Evaluation Methods:
Current State and Development Needs”, NordiCHI, October, 2010.
[3] [3] M. Hassenzahl, “User Experience (UX): Towards an experiential
perspective on product quality”, University of Koblenz-Landau,
Germany. 2008.
[4] [4] S. Benford, G. Giannachi, B. Koleva, and T. Rodden, “From
interaction to trajectories: designing coherent journeys through user
experiences”. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human
Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, April 2009, pp. 709-718.
[5] [5] A. Chianese and F. Piccialli, “Improving User Experience of
Cultural Environment Through IoT: The Beauty or the Truth Case
Study,” Springer International Publishing, Intelligent Interactive
Multimedia Systems and Services, Switzerland, 2015.
[6] [6] V. Roto, E. Law, A. Vermeeren, and J. Hoonhout, “User
Experience white paper. Bringing clarity to the concept of user
experience,” 2011.
[7] [7] M. Hassenzahl and N. Tranctinsky, “User experience – a research
agenda,” Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 25, no. 2, March-
April 2006, pp. 91 – 97.
[8] [8] de Souza, T. R. C. B., & Bernardes Jr, J. L. (2016, July). The
Influences of Culture on User Experience. In International Conference
on Cross-Cultural Design (pp. 43-52). Springer International Publishing.
[9] [9] Z. Zahidi, “User Experience for Digitisation and Preservation of
Cultural Heritage”, 2013, International Conference on Informatics and
Creative Multimedia.
[10] [10] R. Parry, Recoding the museum: Digital heritage and the
technologies of change, Routledge, 2007.
[11] [11] D. Bearman and K. Geber, “Transforming cultural heritage
institutions through new media. Museum Management and Curatorship,”
2008, pp. 385-399.
[12] [12] L. Ciolfi, L. Bannon, and M. Fernström, “Envisioning and
Evaluating ‘Out-of-Storage’ Solutions,” In Proceedings of ICHIM01
International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meeting: Milan, September
[13] [13] M. Othman, H. Petrie, and C. Power, “Engaging Visitors in
Museums with Technology: Scales for the Measurement of Visitor and
Multimedia Guide Experience,” Human-Computer Interaction, 2011.
[14] [14] T. Walsh, P. Nurkka, and R. Walsh, "Cultural differences in
smartphone user experience evaluation". In Proceedings of the 9th
International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, ACM,
December 2010, pp. 24.
[15] [15] M. Vayanou, et al., “The CHESS Project: Adaptive Personalized
Storytelling Experiences in Museums,” UMAP Journal, vol.1181, 2014.
[16] [16] K. E. Chang, et al., “Development and behavioral pattern analysis
of a mobile guide system with augmented reality for painting
appreciation instruction in an art museum”, Computers & Education, vol.
71, pp. 185-197, 2014.
[17] [17] Τ. Tullis and Β. Albert, “Measuring the User Experience.
Collecting, Analyzing, and Presenting Usability Metrics”, 2008, Morgan
[18] [18] P. Jordan, “Designing Pleasurable Products”, 2000, Taylor &
Francis, London.
[19] [19] ENGAGE, Report on the evaluation of generative tools and
methods for ‘emotional design’. Deliverable D15.3. EU project Engage
520998 (2006).
[20] [20] H. Foster, “Evaluation toolkit for museum practitioners,” East of
England Museum Hub, February 2008.
[21] [21] A. Dhir and M. Al-Kahtani, “A case study on User Experience
Evaluation of Mobile Augmented Reality Prototypes,” Journal of
Universal Computer Science, vol. 19, no.8, 2013.
[22] [22] Cooper, A. (2004). The inmates are running the asylum:[Why
high-tech products drive us crazy and how to restore the sanity].
Indianapolis, IN, USA:: Sams.
... The reasons to conduct the two-phase study are the combination of the two techniques helping identify more usability problems of the systems [18]. Our method meets more attributes of positive cultural UX, including usefulness, ease of use, efficiency, accessibility, and identification [19,20], and increases the reliability of the data collected [21]. ...
... Using these mixed methods of HE and user surveys satisfies a pragmatic category with five attributes, including usefulness, reliability, ease of use, efficiency, and accessibility [19,20]. Nielsen [24] concluded that usability specialists evaluate much better than those without usability expertise at finding usability problems. ...
... The surveyed museums include two national museums in Vietnam (VNMH and TL) and one national museum in Australia (NMA). The survey was chosen because this method is simple and stimulating, used prevalently in CH field to collect both quantitative and qualitative, and goes well with the usefulness attribute [20]. ...
Full-text available
Usability is a principal aspect of the system development process to improve and augment system facilities and meet users’ needs and necessities in all domains. It is no exception for cultural heritage. Usability problems of the interactive technology practice in cultural heritage museums should be recognized thoroughly from the viewpoints of experts and users. This paper reports on a two-phase empirical study to identify the usability problems in audio guides and websites of cultural heritage museums in Vietnam, as a developing country, and Australia, as a developed country. In phase one, five-user experience experts identified usability problems using the set of usability heuristics, and proposed suggestions to mitigate these issues. Ten usability heuristics identified a total of 176 problems for audio guides and websites. In phase two, we conducted field usability surveys to collect the real users’ opinions to detect the usability issues and examine the negative-ranked usability. The outstanding issues for audio guides and websites were pointed out. Identification of relevant usability issues and users’ and experts’ suggestions for these technologies should be given immediate attention to helping organizations and interactive service providers improve technologies’ adoptions. The paper’s findings are reliable inputs for our future study about the preeminent UX framework for interactive technology in the CH domain.
... It is well known that several methods have been studied to evaluate the user experience, and the design as well [40], and many studies are based on self-developed questionnaires [4], which makes comparison problematic. Even if we restrict the field to the evaluation of the interactive user experience in a cultural heritage environment, we find a great deal of evaluation procedures [23] in the open literature. While an effort toward standardization and generalization must undoubtedly be made, we remark that such literature includes: ...
... (22) The installation is suited to the context of the museum aesthetically. (23) The sound is suitable for the context of the museum (it is not a disturbing element). (41) The BlowFlute functionality is well integrated into the installation. ...
Digital technology in museum practice provides new means of interaction with artifacts and collections. In particular, we need interactive installations in order to encourage and stimulate visitors to learn and understand archaeological musical instruments through engagement and active participation: these instruments (i.e., interactive artifacts per se) are de facto unplayable and inaccessible to visitors, as a consequence of their preservation issues. However, presenting artifacts to the general public is a complex task for their multifaceted nature, and digital technology must not sacrifice accuracy or depth of information for the sake of entertainment. Moreover, deploying digital technology is a multidisciplinary effort that requires an interplay among different fields, from history and archaeology to information engineering and craftsmanship. In this article, we present a methodology to relate such disciplines in order to design a digital multimedia installation that promotes archaeological musical instruments in a museum. In defining the problem, we identify four different aspects to consider: the museum collection, the museum environment, the manufacturing opportunities for the installation, and the user experience. Such aspects are integrated in a design approach that is centered on Design Thinking. The proposed methodology is exemplified in the designing and manufacturing of an installation for a Pan flute from Egypt dated back to 700 A.D., a case in which multisensory interaction is particularly important to convey the lost sound of the instrument. We describe in detail an installation (exhibited at the Museum of Archaeological Science and Art at the University of Padova), which virtually recreates the Pan flute and communicates information related to its history, iconography, acoustics, and musicology. Just after the deployment of the installation, we also carried out an assessment with a group of experts in the fields of information engineering, music, musicology, and archaeology. The good results obtained demonstrate that the installation is a convenient way of interaction, simple to use and aesthetically integrated in the museum context.
... In this context, Cultural User eXperience (CUX) becomes a critical factor when presenting Cultural Heritage (CH) content [1]. For that reason, the cultural industry and relevant academic sectors have shown increased interest in research around CUX [2]. ...
Full-text available
The modern cultural industry and the related academic sectors have shown increased interest in Cultural User eXperience (CUX) research, since it constitutes a critical factor to examine and apply when presenting cultural content. Recent CUX studies show that visitors tend to carry their own cultural characteristics and preferences when visiting destinations of cultural interest, thus obtaining a virtually unique experience. To cope with this tendency, various research efforts have been made to identify different profiles of cultural visitors based on their background and preferences and classify them into distinct visitor types. In this paper, we proposed the ACUX (Augmented Cultural User eXperience) typology for classifying visitors of cultural destinations. The proposed typology aims to provide the multi-profile classification of cultural visitors based on their visiting preferences. Methodology-wise, the ACUX typology was the output of a harmonisation process of existing cultural-visitor typologies that base their classification on visiting preferences. The proposed typology was evaluated in juxtaposition with the harmonised typologies from which it was derived through an experiment conducted using a recommender and a dataset of TripAdvisor user responses. The evaluation showed that the ACUX typology achieved a more accurate profiling of cultural visitors, enabling them to reduce information overload by directly suggesting content that is more likely to meet their diverse preferences and needs.
... The findings drawn regarding the user experience are critical, and a careful interpretation of the results enables teachers to optimize the application's performance. The most generally used evaluation methods include questionnaires, interviews, and user observations [28,45,46]. ...
Full-text available
In today's world, the ability to communicate in a foreign language is more highly prized than ever by prospective employers, which results in more options and possibilities for students, both academically and professionally. As a result of this tendency and the need for new communication methods, language instructors are driven to include cutting-edge language teaching approaches , resources, and materials in their classroom instruction, such as using ICT, or information, communication and ubiquitous technologies. In this paper, we introduce learning scenarios based on two mobile learning apps that facilitate language learning through interesting, interactive settings in a more personalized way based on children's age. The writers' emphasis will be on demonstrating interactive activities devised in their classrooms and on providing examples of student work in two languages, English and Spanish. Through this paper, we examine a range of educational tools and determine that Mondly Kids and Language Drops-Kahoot are the best acceptable teaching materials. On the basis of this assumption, we created three distinct groups of students, and the outcomes from the assessment technique show that mobile language learning enhances children's experiences and increases their willingness to learn a new language. Additionally, students can use mobile applications to improve their speaking abilities and critical thinking skills throughout a language learning session.
... To date, there are various technologies available in educational environments to support teaching exhibitions directly or indirectly (augmented reality, digital storytelling, serious games, linked open data, user profiling), and every technology used makes an impact on the exhibition or the visitors. It is important for educational spaces to explore whether technological enhancements can help them attract more students and provide different ways of learning or interaction between students and exhibits or among them (Konstantakis, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present a thematic English lesson to be delivered on a weekly basis to 12–13-year-old students learning English as a foreign language. Each week a different culture will be selected and presented to the students with the help of some digital tools. The tools used are digital storytelling, animation, serious games - created on the TinyTap online platform - and gamification achieved through the kahoot platform. The aforementioned tools are combined with historical and cultural elements from all over the world in order to simultaneously achieve the learning of English vocabulary but also the learning of English as a foreign language. This lesson plan will be implemented once a week to make the distance learning process more enjoyable and efficient. Once the course has been completed, students will be asked to evaluate this course through questionnaires distributed to them via Google forms to provide feedback regarding the improvement of the teaching procedure.
... Furthermore, UX studies have concentrated on the multi-dimensional of pragmatics, hedonics and aesthetics aspects, and these may affect user perception of the interactive system and user experience. UX has a very broad definition in designing, evaluating and reviewing one's experience when using a particular product, system or service (Konstantakis, Michalakis, Aliprantis, Kalatha, & Caridakis, 2017). It is said to involve one's attitude, behaviour and emotions in a particular context (Roto et al., 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
E-procurement system is one an online marketing platform that provides a secured transaction for buyers and sellers. Despite e-procurement benefits, the usage of the system is remaining poor due to its module complexity, lack user-friendliness and some of the users dwelt with negative past experiences while using the system. The challenges faced in the implementation of e-procurement are not well understood even though there are past studies that focus on this phenomenon. The users were having difficult experiences while using e-procurement in the early usage of system. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the user experience during the early usage of e-procurement so that this experience could be used to address the challenges of e-procurement and some improvement can be taken by the stakeholders. This study uses a quantitative approach that is a questionnaire survey. A purposive sampling was used in the study and 35 respondents are comprised of large companies and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. The study showed that the industries expect that the e-procurement system, such as online applications, report generation, product and services advertising, payment and termination information, is fast, easy to learn, understandable and easy to use. However, the analysis of this survey shows that the users feel there are some modules in the e-procurement system that are difficult to be used. This study contributes to the procurement domain in terms of identifying the prior user experience and user challenges that are important to be highlighted for better system improvement. The study is very significant not only to stakeholders but also to researchers, where this information will be used to develop a UX evaluation model that are derived from an industry perspective.
... It is also important to highlight that this instrument have been thoroughly validated and were used to measure visitors' experiences in different museums and historical churches in UK [Othman et al. 2011;2013a;Petrie et al. 2017], Korea [Jeon et al. 2014], Malaysia [Othman et al. 2015], China [Chen et al. 2016], and Austria [Neuburger and Egger 2017;. Previous studies such as Baker et al. [2017], Kabassi [2017], Konstantakis et al. [2017], and Moesgaard et al. [2015] also highlighted the development of this instruments to measure visitors' experiences in their studies. ...
This empirical study was conducted to design, develop, and evaluate children's experiences with a game-based mobile guide (GBMG) application at Sarawak Cultural Village (SCV). The Interaction Design lifecycle model was used for the systematic development of the GBMG application. A total of 45 children took part in this study who were divided into two groups: a paper-based pamphlet and GBMG application group. The Museum Experience Scale were used to evaluate the overall experience with the GBMG application in this study. Results showed that the children in the mobile-based groups have a higher mean for the four dimensions of MES, although the difference is only significant for the emotional connection dimension. This study shows that the game-based mobile guide application did not significantly improve children's museum experience at SCV except for their emotional connection. Additional findings from the Heuristic Evaluation with six Human-Computer Interaction experts offered a deeper understanding of why the GBMG did not improve the children's visitor experience at SCV. The outcome of this study contributes to the research field of game-based mobile applications to enhance children's experiences at living museums with several issues raised for further research.
... It is generally believed that users' cultural background has an impact on their experience. Each user has their own cultural background, giving them a unique experience of the product (Konstantakis et al,. 2017). Consequently, to study the experience, based on user's culture, we do not need to enter any specific variable into the research, since essentially each user has their own cultural experience evaluation. On the other hand, the argued aspectsaesthetic, function, ergonomics and material-are more affected by culture and experience. As a r ...
Full-text available
The present paper studies the products in which the created experiences are more perceived. It examines 404 products, claimed by the designer or manufacturer as experience-designed, by means of a questionnaire with four open-ended and closed questions. The validity of the questionnaire was determined via formal methods. As for its reliability, it has been tested through representation along with Cronbach's Alpha methods. The paper employs SPSS-22 for a statistical analysis of the results, chi-square and one-sample T-Student test. The results indicated that (p<0.05) furniture, lighting and decorative products are mostly influenced by experience-design and that users percept the experience from different aspects of a product. Aesthetic aspect is the first one through which a user gains the experience, followed by function, material and manufacturing. Lastly there are the ergonomic features which play an important role in creation of the experience. In general, there is a significant relation between product groups and the aspect that demonstrates the new experience.
Cultural Heritage Institutions fueled by the advances in Information Technology are exploiting new ways to present their content to visitors. The emergence of the Internet of Things paradigm has shifted their efforts into a more personalized and adaptable experience that takes into consideration the visitor profile and behavior, in respect to presented artifacts and environmental parameters. Context-awareness allows the understanding of the situation and the optimization of the delivered cultural User Experience. In this article, we survey context awareness in cultural heritage applications. After presenting the background of Context Awareness and its features to cultural environments, a subset of research projects that incorporate context aware traits in a cultural scenario is reviewed. Each prototype is analysed in respect to several criteria that include context sensing, middleware, and incorporation methods. Finally, based on the review, lessons learnt, and directions for the development of similar prototypes are highlighted.
The cultural heritage (CH) sector has always been looking for preeminent ways to improve visitors’ interactions with their collections through interactive technologies such as applications and websites. However, economic inequality between developed and developing countries hinders the effective and widespread deployment of interactive technologies; therefore, there is a lack of understanding about how visitors interact with such applications in developing countries. Our research aims to understand the current user experience (UX) practices with CH interactive technologies in developing and developed countries and discuss how to improve the interactive application design for museums’ user experience in developing countries. We conducted two field surveys to examine the current UX practices with audio guides and websites at national CH museums in Vietnam and Australia. Additionally, short interviews with interactive service providers and museum interactive service managers confirm the current UX practices and help to fill the UX gaps in developing countries. Our work complements the wealth of knowledge about designing good UX in developed countries and concludes that UX requirements are likely similar between developing and developed countries.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper addresses the importance to integrate user experience (UX) in cultural heritage digitisation and preservation initiatives. UX is an essential consideration that should be acknowledged and implemented when initiating digital culture heritage preservation. It is because UX is beyond the usability of a product or system. It includes both pragmatic (function and features) and hedonic (user expectation, motivation and feelings) factors. These attributes could influence user's positive experience when interacting with the system or product and this will lead to effectiveness of digitisation and preservation activities. The output from this study will propose the approach towards integrating UX and gather insights for future initiatives in establishing cultural and heritage digital preservation that consider effective UX to encourage user satisfaction.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
User Experience (UX) is not just "old wine in new bottles". It is a truly extended and distinct perspective on the quality of interactive technology: away from products and problems to humans and the drivers of positive experience. This paper will present my particular perspective on UX and will discuss its implications for the field of Human-Computer Interaction.
Full-text available
Over the last decade, 'user experience' (UX) became a buzzword in the field of human – computer interaction (HCI) and interaction design. As technology matured, interactive products became not only more useful and usable, but also fashionable, fascinating things to desire. Driven by the impression that a narrow focus on interactive products as tools does not capture the variety and emerging aspects of technology use, practitioners and researchers alike, seem to readily embrace the notion of UX as a viable alternative to traditional HCI. And, indeed, the term promises change and a fresh look, without being too specific about its definite meaning. The present introduction to the special issue on 'Empirical studies of the user experience' attempts to give a provisional answer to the question of what is meant by 'the user experience'. It provides a cursory sketch of UX and how we think UX research will look like in the future. It is not so much meant as a forecast of the future, but as a proposal – a stimulus for further UX research.
Conference Paper
In the last years, some studies about how cultural differences influences user experience (UX) have started being published. Most of these studies concluded that cultural differences really affect UX. These studies were conducted in different countries, using different methods and led by researches with different cultures. Observing these points, the main objective of this review is to map the work in this area and to suggest a research guideline for similar work. First, a systematic literature review was conducted in the main academic search engines, using many related keywords. The search engines returned 1227 studies and all abstracts were read and evaluated according to the acceptance criteria. Twenty three remaining studies were analyzed in detail. Results showed that the Hofstede’s definition of culture and cultural differences is the most commonly used definition in this area, most studies used questionnaires to evaluate if the culture really influences UX and regarding the results, the majority, 87 %, confirm that it does. Based on this analysis, we identify and propose a guideline to replicate this kind of work in other scenarios. This guideline may represent a significant contribution to the area, perhaps enabling an increase in the number and standardization of certain cross-cultural studies, in the development of new techniques and in the relevance of this subject during UX projects.
Internet of Things (IoT) computing applied to the Cultural Heritage domain is an emerging discipline which consists of the application of intelligent sensors and technologies within cultural sites; it is strongly related to the development of systems able to be pervasive and ubiquitous with the definitive goal of rethinking such spaces. IoT paradigm can constitute a powerful tool to enhance people fruition and enjoyment of such spaces; thanks to ICT technologies, a cultural object can be effectively “dressed” of its context and juxtaposed into it. In this paper, an intelligent IoT system, designed with the aim of improving user experience and knowledge diffusion within a cultural space, is presented. The paper describes the hardware/software system components, and presents a case study of a sculptures exhibition named the Beauty or the Truth (http:// www. ilbellooilvero. it) in Naples where the system was deployed. Furthermore, the paper provides the results of an users behaviour analysis which revealed up a significant increase in user satisfaction and cultural knowledge diffusion.
Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) blends the real world with digital objects especially in ubiquitous devices such as smartphones. The MAR applications provide an intelligent interface for users. In this, valuable digital information is advertised in physical spaces. However, the success of these applications is tied directly to the degree of user acceptance. This makes understanding the needs and expectations of the MAR's potential users of paramount importance for designing and building the proper application. The objective of the paper is to expose an important gap in the development of novel applications in the virtual world. Previous research has shown that it is essential to study and understand the needs and expectations of the potential users of the upcoming application or system. Studying user needs and expectations before offering the developed application ensures a minimum level of acceptance and, of course, success. This paper presents a detailed study comprising of a userexperience (UX) evaluation of different prototypes through the use of three different UX evaluation methods. This kind of evaluation allows new developments to offer systems, which do not fail. The main contributions of this study are that it: 1) solicits expectations when consumers use MAR applications, 2) assesses the UX over different prototypes using three different metrics, 3) provides methodological insights on UX evaluation experiments and, 4) is useful for anyone who wants to develop handheld applications after understanding user expectations and how his experience should progress. The results of the study show that users value concreteness, realizability, personalization, novelty, intuitiveness and the usefulness of presented information. Paying attention to these factors can help develop more acceptable MAR applications and lead to more novel future designs.
Museums are responding to the challenges of adapting to an ever-changing environment in their quest to remain relevant to their visitors, communities and stakeholders. New and emerging technology opportunities can support practices to adapt to this new environment. This paper presents a framework for transformation and a range of innovation scenarios offered by enabling technologies. The paper identifies opportunities based on technologies that are expected to be used widely within the next decade. It explores obstacles lying in the way of greater access to global cultural heritage and how these can be overcome. This paper is designed to be useful to decision-makers at memory institutions responsible for planning their direction in a rapidly changing technological environment and to serve as a basis for discussion of business transformations with their staff.
Measuring the User Experience was the first book that focused on how to quantify the user experience. Now in the second edition, the authors include new material on how recent technologies have made it easier and more effective to collect a broader range of data about the user experience. As more UX and web professionals need to justify their design decisions with solid, reliable data, Measuring the User Experience provides the quantitative analysis training that these professionals need. The second edition presents new metrics such as emotional engagement, personas, keystroke analysis, and net promoter score. It also examines how new technologies coming from neuro-marketing and online market research can refine user experience measurement, helping usability and user experience practitioners make business cases to stakeholders. The book also contains new research and updated examples, including tips on writing online survey questions, six new case studies, and examples using the most recent version of Excel.