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Abstract

Objective: A previous experiment suggested that consumption of intentionally treated tea influenced subjective mood under double-blind, controlled conditions. To investigate that effect objectively, again under double-blind, controlled conditions, we studied whether Arabidopsis thaliana seeds hydrated with intentionally treated vs. untreated water would show differences in hypocotyl length, anthocyanin, and chlorophyll. Design: Three Buddhist monks focused their intention on commercially bottled water with the goal of improving the growth of seeds; bottled water from the same source served as an untreated control. Seeds with the following three variations of cryptochrome (CRY) were used: the wild type Arabidopsis (Columbia-4), a gain-of-function mutation (His-CRY2), and a loss-of function mutation (cry1/2), where "gain" and "loss" refer to enhanced and reduced sensitivity to blue light, respectively. Seeds were hydrated with treated or untreated water under blinded conditions, and then placed in random positions in an incubator. The germination process was repeated three times in each experiment, each time using new seeds, and then the entire experiment was repeated four times. Results: Data combined across the four experiments showed a significant decrease in hypocotyl length in the His-CRY2 seedlings (treated mean 1.31 ± 0.01mm, untreated mean 1.43 ± 0.01mm, P < 10(-13)), a significant increase in anthocyanin with all three forms of cry, particularly His-CRY2 (treated mean 17.0 ± 0.31mg, untreated mean 14.5 ± 0.31mg, P < 10(-4)), and a modest increase in chlorophyll in His-CRY2 (treated mean 247.6 ± 5.63mg, untreated mean 230.6 ± 5.63mg, P = .05). These outcomes conformed to the monks' intentions because a decrease in hypocotyl length and increase in anthocyanin and chlorophyll are associated with enhanced photomorphogenic growth. These experiments suggest that the His-CRY2 mutation of Arabidopsis may be an especially robust "detector" of intention.

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... The motivation to perform this study was based on previously reported double-blind experiments that explored the effects of intentionally treated water on enhancing the aesthetics of frozen water crystals, 1,2 improving mood in people who drank oolong tea brewed from treated water, 3 and producing more robust growth of the mustard plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. 4,5 Other studies have explored whether samples of wine and chocolate, also treated by focused intention, would produce subjective improvements in mood. 6,7 All of these studies reported significant effects in the predicted directions, supporting an "intention hypothesis." ...
... These same monks, and this type of intention, had successfully participated in several previous studies. [3][4][5] Procedure Only a research assistant and the three monks who were present during the intentional treatment knew which bottles of water were treated and which were not. None of those individuals were involved in any of the other experimental procedures in this study, and none of the authors of this study were aware of the blinding assignments at this stage of the experiment. ...
... Still, as mentioned in the Introduction, this outcome is in alignment with a growing number of previously reported studies studying similar intentional effects involving water. [3][4][5] Thus, while these results remain anomalous due to lack of an adequate theory about the underlying mechanisms, based on the prior literature this outcome is not especially unexpected. ...
Article
Objective : This study explored if human primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from two donors and cultivated in a medium made with intentionally treated water, would exhibit more growth and pluripotency than MSCs from the same source but grown in untreated (control) water. Design : To create the treated water, three Buddhist monks directed their attention toward commercially bottled water while holding the intention that the water would enhance the growth of MSCs. Under double-blind conditions, cell culture growth mediums were prepared with the treated and untreated water, which was in turn used to grow the primary MSCs. Primary cells obtained from two donors were designated as Cells #1 and Cells #2. The prediction was that treated water would result in increased cell proliferation, that more cells would enter the cell cycle growth phase, and that there would be increased expression of genes (NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2) associated with improved cell growth and decreased expression of genes (p16, p21, and p53) associated with a decline in cell growth. The improved growth hypothesis was directional, thus one-tailed p-values were used to evaluate the results. Results : Proliferation averaged across Cells #1 and #2 showed overall increased growth in treated as compared to control water (p = 0.0008). Cells #1 and #2 considered separately had differences in the same direction but only Cells #2 showed a significant difference on day 6 (p = 0.01). For cell cycle, there was a significantly greater percentage of Cells #2 in the S interphase with treated vs. control water (p = 0.04). For the gene expression analysis, when considering the average across the two donor cells, only the NANOG gene expression was in the predicted direction (p = 0.01); by contrast, the p16 gene expression was significantly opposite to the predicted direction (p = 0.005, one-tailed, post-hoc). For Cells #1 considered separately, no differences were significant except for p16, which resulted in an effect opposite to the predicted outcome (p = 0.05). For Cells #2, three genes were significantly in the predicted directions: NANOG (p = 0.0008), OCT4 (p = 0.005), and P53 (p = 0.05); p16 was significantly opposite to the prediction (p = 0.001). Conclusion : Intentionally treated water appeared to have some biological effects on the growth, pluripotency and senescence of human MSCs. This was especially the case in one of the two donor cells tested, but the effects were not consistently in the predicted direction. As an exploratory study, caution is warranted in interpreting these outcomes, and adjustment for multiple testing would likely reduce some of the weaker effects to nonsignificant. But given the double-blind protocol, as well as several more significant outcomes in the predicted directions, further research is warranted.
... In a third study, water was blessed by Buddhist monks to see if seeds hydrated by that water would exhibit enhanced growth. 5 Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were used because, like all living systems, it contains the photosensitive flavoprotein cryptochrome (CRY). 6 The first author proposed that CRY might be a possible "transducer" of intention in living systems because CRY is thought to have quantum biological properties, and as such it might be sensitive to quantum observer effects. ...
... Based on results from the previously published experiment, 5 Hypothesis 1 (H1) predicted improved photomorphogenic seed growth with treated vs. untreated water; H2 predicted improved growth with BR vs. B light based on known synergistic effects of exposing plants to different frequencies and intensities of light 12,13 ; and as an exploratory hypothesis, H3 predicted improved growth with treated vs. untreated seeds. These hypotheses were analyzed using a 2 £ 2 £ 2 factor ANOVA (Statistica 8.0, Tulsa, OK), with primary interest in the main effects. ...
... Arabidopsis His-CRY2 seeds hydrated with intentionally treated water showed enhanced photomorphogenic growth, replicating the results of our previous study. 5 This supports the possibility that this gain-of-function CRY mutation is apparently sensitive to focused intuition, and as such it may be a possible "transducer" of intention in living systems. 9 This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that focused intention also influences water in ways that can be detected by changes in mood, 2,4 by enhanced growth in plants, 5,15,16 by the shape of frozen water crystals, 17,18 and by alterations in molecular structure and electrochemical impedance. ...
Article
Objective . A previously reported experiment indicated that Arabidopsis thaliana seeds with cryptochrome mutation His-CRY2 showed more robust photomorphogenic growth when hydrated with intentionally treated water as compared to untreated water. The present study attempted to replicate that outcome, adding a condition where the seeds were also intentionally treated. Arabidopsis seeds were used because they contain a photosensitive flavoprotein called cryptochrome (CRY). CRY has been proposed as a possible “transducer” of intention in living systems because it is thought to have quantum biological properties, and as such, it might potentially be sensitive to quantum observer effects. Design Three Buddhist monks directed their attention toward commercially bottled water and Arabidopsis seeds while holding the intention to improve the growth of the plant. As a control condition, no attention was directed at water or seeds from the same sources. Under double-blinded conditions, treated and untreated seeds were placed in an incubator, hydrated with treated or untreated water, and exposed to either continuous blue light or blue plus far-red light. The seed germination process was repeated three times, each time using new seeds. A 2 × 2 × 2 ANOVA, with water, seeds, and light as factors, was used to analyze the results. Results . Treated water was associated with enhanced photomorphogenic growth, as reflected by a shorter hypocotyl length (p = 0.04) and greater amounts of chlorophyll (p = 0.0005) and anthocyanin (p = 2 × 10⁻⁶). Treated seeds resulted in greater amounts of chlorophyll (p = 0.04), but also a longer hypocotyl (p = 0.0004) and less anthocyanin (p = 0.01). Plants exposed to blue plus far-red light were constantly more robust than plants grown under blue light, regardless of the type of water or seed (p < 10⁻¹⁰). Conclusion . Intentionally treated water improved the growth of the His-CRY2 variant of Arabidopsis, confirming results of an earlier experiment. Enhanced growth associated with exposure to blue plus far-red light also confirmed to known effects. A more complex relationship was observed with treated seeds. Further research is required to understand the latter outcome, as it may provide clues about the underlying mechanisms of intentional influences.
... Research has shown that human intention can increase the probability of specific desired outcomes in the physical world. Examples include random number generator output (Schmidt, 2012) and plant growth (Shiah et al., 2017). The nuances of these mind-matter interactions have been explored (Schmidt, 1987;Kennedy, 1995;Radin, 2006), with much still to learn about how and why mind-matter interactions work. ...
Article
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Noetic comes from the Greek word noēsis, meaning inner wisdom or direct knowing. Noetic experiences often transcend the perception of our five senses and are ubiquitous worldwide, although no instrument exists to evaluate noetic characteristics both within and between individuals. We developed the Noetic Signature Inventory (NSI) through an iterative qualitative and statistical process as a tool to subjectively assess noetic characteristics. Study 1 developed and evaluated a 175-item NSI using 521 self-selected research participants, resulting in a 46-item NSI with an 11-factor model solution. Study 2 examined the 11-factor solution, construct validity, and test–retest reliability, resulting in a 44-item NSI with a 12-factor model solution. Study 3 confirmed the final 44-item NSI in a diverse population. The 12-factors were: (1) Inner Knowing, (2) Embodied Sensations, (3) Visualizing to Access or Affect, (4) Inner Knowing Through Touch, (5) Healing, (6) Knowing the Future, (7) Physical Sensations from Other People, (8) Knowing Yourself, (9) Knowing Other’s Minds, (10) Apparent Communication with Non-physical Beings, (11) Knowing Through Dreams, and (12) Inner Voice. The NSI demonstrated internal consistency, convergent and divergent content validity, and test–retest reliability. The NSI can be used for the future studies to evaluate intra- and inter-individual variation of noetic experiences.
... 3 Another motivation may be that while water is ubiquitous and essential for life, it is also one of the least understood liquids, with over 50 anomalous properties, including its phases, density, material, thermodynamic, and physical properties. 4 Methods used to study intentional effects on water have included (a) assessing the aesthetics of frozen water crystals, 5À7 (b) examining the residue of evaporated water drops, 8 (c) using differential electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, 9 (d) measuring changes in plants hydrated with intentionally treated water, 10,11 (e) collecting subjective mood assessments while individuals consume intentionally treated tea or wine, 12,13 (f) measuring structural changes via scattered laser light, 14 and the motivation for the present study, (g) measuring changes in molecular bonds by the absorption of infrared light. 15À17 The preponderance of evidence from these studies suggests that to a small magnitude, but statistically significant degree, water is affected by intention. ...
Article
Previously reported experiments suggest that healing intention focused toward water, or merely taking place in the vicinity of water, affects the hydrogen-oxygen (HO) covalent bonds. This claim was explored in the context of a clinical energy medicine pilot study involving 17 practitioners and 190 participants. In a “direct” test, samples of water were directly treated by the practitioners; in an “indirect” test, aliquots attached to lanyards were worn by practitioners and participants as they were engaged in healing sessions. Samples of laboratory-grade distilled water and Fiji brand water were used in the tests, and the water was analyzed using an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer equipped with a liquid nitrogen-cooled detector. The comparison of interest was the ensemble average spectrum recorded during pre- vs. post-intentional healing periods in the primary infrared absorption portion of the water spectrum. The analyses indicated that distilled water directly treated by the practitioners resulted in a change in the HO bond at the wavenumber 3200 cm⁻¹ (p < 0.03, two-tailed). No effect was observed with the Fiji water. The distilled water in aliquots worn by practitioners also resulted in a significant change at the same wavenumber (p = 0.0004, two-tailed). No effects were observed in Fiji water aliquots worn by practitioners or participants, or in distilled water worn by participants. This study contributes to previously reported observations suggesting that the structure of water reacts in an anomalous way to healing intentions. Such effects appear to involve some form of energetic influence, but that is not yet well established. Nor is it certain that the observed effect can only be due to intention; it is conceivable, for example, that an unidentified environmental factor may have been responsible for the observed comparisons. However, given similar results observed in several experiments so far, including the present study, further research seems warranted.
Chapter
In the light of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism, a well-functioning person with full potential can possess Psi abilities. It is suggested that everyone can have the Psi abilities after completing the second level of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist SEMs. Accordingly, Psi abilities would be trained. There are six kinds of Psi ability which is addressed in this chapter. There are two main purposes for why we can have Psi abilities. The first purpose is to help the others who are in suffering. The second purpose is to use the Psi abilities to seek understanding or witness the authority of Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist wisdom, as well as the other cultural wisdom. There are two stages for Psi performance. The chapter presents a possible mechanism for Psi at the initial stage and a proposed process for experiencing visual images of targets during Psi performance. In the first stage, Psi information enters the brain via unknown sensory mechanisms, which I developed the Cryptochromes (CRY) Theory (CT). CRY exists in all living systems and has quantum biological properties which allow, among other things, for the extreme sensitivity to weak energy such as light and magnetic fields in avian magnetonavigation. It is assumed that Psi information triggers chemical reactions in the CRYs, influencing the spin states of paired radical ions. This process activates the CRYs and then spreads their summed signal throughout the brain, creating a meaningful synthesis. In the second stage, I developed a visual Psi model that this Psi information interacts with target-relevant memories, resulting in the experience of targets-related visual images. This process is likely similar to the process of creating visual information in the brain in non-psi contexts. Finally, a three-stage Psi training model developed by the author is presented. In the first stage, the model suggests that participants need to attain a quiet and/or drowsy mental state. In the second stage, the brain plasticity of adapting to Psi targets will be trained by largely repeated Psi stimuli, while participants attempt to experience awareness of the targets. The third stage is the trial-by-trial feedback only thought to be effective when participants experience images, and awareness of targets in whole or part.
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To investigate von Neumann's proposal that an “extra-physical process” is involved in the measurement of a quantum system, an online experiment was conducted using a double-slit optical system. In a counterbalanced fashion, participants focused their attention toward or away from a feedback signal linked in real time to the double-slit component of an interference pattern. A line camera continuously recorded the interference pattern at 4 Hz, and for each camera image fringe visibility was determined for the central 20 fringes. During 2013 and 2014, a total of 1479 people from 77 countries contributed 2985 test sessions. Over the same period, 5738 sessions were run as controls by a computer programmed to simulate human participants. The results showed that with human observers the fringe visibility at the center of the interference pattern deviated from a null effect by 5.72 sigma (p = 1.05 × 10−8), with the direction of the deviation conforming to the observers' intentions. The same analysis applied to the control data resulted in an overall deviation of −0.17 sigma. After consideration of alternative explanations, these results were found to support von Neumann's conclusion that the mind of the observer is an inextricable part of the measurement process. This type of experiment offers a means of empirically resolving long-standing questions about the role of consciousness in the physical world.
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Arabidopsis Thaliana is the first model plant, the genome of which has been sequenced. In general, intensive studies on this model plant over the past nearly 30 years have led to many new revolutionary understandings in every single aspect of plant biology. Here, we review the current understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis in this model plant. Although the investigation of anthocyanin structures in this model plant was not performed until 2002, numerous studies over the past three decades have been conducted to understand the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. To date, it appears that all pathway genes of anthocyanins have been molecularly, genetically and biochemically characterized in this plant. These fundamental accomplishments have made Arabidopsis an ideal model to understand the regulatory mechanisms of anthocyanin pathway. Several studies have revealed that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is controlled by WD40-bHLH-MYB (WBM) transcription factor complexes under lighting conditions. However, how different regulatory complexes coordinately and specifically regulate the pathway genes of anthocyanins remains unclear. In this review, we discuss current progresses and findings including structural diversity, regulatory properties and metabolic engineering of anthocyanins in Arabidopsis Thaliana.
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This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself.
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Studies of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana may seem to have little impact on advances in medical research, yet a survey of the scientific literature shows that this is a misconception. Many discoveries with direct relevance to human health and disease have been elaborated using Arabidopsis, and several processes important to human biology are more easily studied in this versatile model plant.
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