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Abstract

Social media has gained immense popularity in the last decade and its power has left certain long-lasting effects on people. The upward comparisons made using social networking sites have caused people to have lower self-esteems. In order to test the hypothesis 150 students from institute of business management were surveyed through questionnaires and interviews. This research was limited to the students of IoBM and Facebook, being the most popular social networking site was used as the representative of social media. Correlation and regression model was applied to the data with the help of SPSS statistics to test the relationship between social media and self-esteem. The major findings suggest that approximately 88% people engage in making social comparisons on Facebook and out of the 88%, 98% of the comparisons are upward social comparisons. Further this research proves there that there is a strong relationship between social media and self-esteem. Increase in social media usage causes the self-esteem of individuals to decrease. One hour spent on Facebook daily results in a 5.574 decrease in the self-esteem score of an individual.
European Scientific Journal August 2017 edition Vol.13, No.23 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
329
Impact of Social Media on Self-Esteem
Muqaddas Jan
IoBM, Pakistan
Sanobia Anwwer Soomro
Iqra University, Pakistan
Nawaz Ahmad
Assistant Professor at IoBM, Pakistan
doi: 10.19044/esj.2017.v13n23p329 URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n23p329
Abstract
Social media has gained immense popularity in the last decade and its
power has left certain long-lasting effects on people. The upward
comparisons made using social networking sites have caused people to have
lower self-esteems. In order to test the hypothesis 150 students from institute
of business management were surveyed through questionnaires and
interviews. This research was limited to the students of IoBM and Facebook,
being the most popular social networking site was used as the representative
of social media. Correlation and regression model was applied to the data
with the help of SPSS statistics to test the relationship between social media
and self-esteem. The major findings suggest that approximately 88% people
engage in making social comparisons on Facebook and out of the 88%, 98%
of the comparisons are upward social comparisons. Further this research
proves there that there is a strong relationship between social media and self-
esteem. Increase in social media usage causes the self-esteem of individuals
to decrease. One hour spent on Facebook daily results in a 5.574 decrease in
the self-esteem score of an individual.
Keywords: Social media, Self-esteem and Social networking sites
Introduction
1.1 Background
Early 21st century marked the emergence and growth of social
networking sites in the whole world. Since then these sites have become a
major part of people’s lives, specially the lives of the youth. Many teenagers
are using social media, especially Facebook, to build relationships, connect
with the world, share and gain knowledge and information, build stronger
personalities and have better social lives (Boyd, 2007). Mitchell (2002)
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claimed that social networking sites are used by youngsters to get engaged in
romantic and casual online relationships. It has been observed by the
changing behavior of the people that social media has many negative
repercussions on people. Social networking sites help people to make social
comparisons which increase the psychological distress of individuals and as
a result lower the overall level of self-esteem (Chen & Lee, 2013). Many
observers and researchers believe that due to increase in the usage of social
networking sites, people have become the victims of lower self-esteem and
self-growth.
1.2 Objectives
The major objective of this research is to highlight a clear impact of
Facebook; as a most popular and frequently used social media sight on the
self-esteem of youngsters. A mix method approach adopted therein would
further enhance our study design and would provide clear insight towards
direction of such relationship. This study would divert the attention of
individuals & help them analyze their over indulgence on social media with
in the most precious hours of their life and its possible consequences on
lowering their social esteem.
1.3 Scope of the Study
Due to the constraints of time, money and geographical boundaries,
this research was conducted in IOBM in Karachi, Pakistan. The sample size
has also been limited to 150 participants due to time constraints. This
research is narrow in scope and can be subject to limitations.
One of the inherent limitations of the study was that the respondents
were not observed, they were given questionnaires to fill. So the results of
the research depend upon the integrity and truthfulness of the subjects.
Secondly all social networking sites were not included in the research. Only
Facebook was considered the representative of all the social networking
sites.
1.4 Problem Statement
High usage of social media is resulting in lower self-esteem amongst youth.
1.5 Research Questions
Does any relationship exist between time spent on Facebook and self-
esteem of individuals?
What is the nature of such relationship?
What factors of social media are responsible for lowering self-esteem
of individuals?
What solutions could be offered to solve this dilemma?
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1.6 Hypothesis
H0: there is no relationship between social media and self esteem
Ha: there is a relationship between social media and self esteem
Literature Review:
The use of social networking sites has globalized immensely in the
past decade. Facebook is the most widely used social networking site as it
has more than one billion users worldwide (Facebook, 2012). Apart from
being the medium for expression of opinion and platform for sharing of
knowledge and moments, Facebook has also reduced distances by making
people feel more connected and helped them build new relationships and
maintain the existing ones. (Boyd & Ellison, 2007).
One major feature of Facebook is to make the personal profiles of
users available for public or friends to view and scrutinize and allow them to
pass on their judgments and give feedback through comments to make sure
the user understands their opinion on his personal life (Muise et al., 2009;
Boyd & Ellison, 2007).
These opinions of other people, either friends or public, and the feedback
from them have very strong effect on people’s self-esteems. Heatherton and
Polivy (1991) claim that the concept of self-esteem can be either stable or
fluid in nature i.e. it can take time to develop for some people while it can
change with trends and daily events for others. While negative feedback
lowers the self-esteem of individuals, positive feedback increases the self-
esteem to a very high degree (Valkenburg et al., 2006).
Some of the researchers have identified the major benefits and
advantages of social networking sites. For example, Facebook gives
individuals a sense of freedom and identity, boosts up the confidence level of
individuals and cheers them up during hard times (Nyagah, Stephen and
Muema, 2015). It also helps shy and introvert students, who find it difficult
to initiate conversation, to build social capital as it reduces the level of
restrictions involved in communication and offers a forum to build healthy
and strong bonds and relationships (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007).
Amichai, Hamburger & Vinitzky (2010) argue that many Introverts build
relationships through social networking sites because usually they find
difficulties during face to face dealings.
In order to fulfill their affiliation needs majority of the humans get
possessed by an elementary drive which forces them to make social
comparisons between themselves and others (Schachter, 1959). These
affiliation needs are triggered by many social networking sites. Festinger
(1954) claimed that these social networking sites lead many people to do
self-evaluations and make social comparisons between themselves and others
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based on social classes, social roles, beauty, popularity, wealth accumulation
and other social functions.
People engage in two types of comparisons on social networking sites,
upward and downward comparison. The former one is the comparison
between an individual and those superior from him and possessing positive
attributes while the latter one marks the comparison between an individual
and those inferior than him and possessing negative attributes (Wills, 1981;
Wood, 1989). Lockwood and Kunda (1997) argue that upward social
comparisons can be inspirational for people as they could focus on
replicating their comparison targets behavior and attitudes. But it has also
been observed that upward comparisons make people feel inferior and have
negative evaluations of themselves (Morse & Gergen, 1970). As a result,
these upward comparisons in most of the cases have a negative effect on the
self-esteems of people (Vogel, Rose, Roberts and Eckles, 2014).
Many researchers have concluded from there researches that high usage
of Facebook causes depression and decreased prosperity in individuals
(Feinstein et al., 2013). As most people do not use Facebook for their
emotions or moods; they use Facebook to overcome their loneliness but only
end being less satisfied with their lives (Kross et al., 2013). Chou and Edge
(2012) concluded that people who use facebook frequently have a very firm
belief that other users, who they don’t know very well offline, are living a
very healthy, happy and prosperous life than themselves. These assumptions
about other peoples’ lives cause depression amongst individuals. According
to Pantic (2014) anxiety, depression, psychotic disorders and low self-esteem
are all the likely results of social networking sites, especially Facebook.
Chen & lee (2013) argue that Facebook usage is directly related to
psychological distress of individuals which as a result reduces the self-
esteem of people. Facebook has also caused cyber bullying to increase as
through Facebook rumors could be spread easily and indecent pictures of
individuals without their consent could be uploaded. Anxiety, depression and
low self-esteem are all symptoms and results of cyber bullying (Moreno &
Kolb, 2012).
Some researchers disagree with this and claim that generally it is just the
internet which affects the self-esteem of individuals not the social
networking sites specifically (Valkenburg, Peter and Schouten, 2006).
Ellison et al (2007) found out that youngsters with low self-esteem find
Facebook more beneficial as compared to the ones with high self-esteem.
Due to the use of Facebook people with low self-esteems possess more social
capital than the ones with high self-esteems (Tazghini & Siedlecki, 2013).
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Methodology:
3.1 Data
Primary data was collected for this research. Questionnaires were
distributed and filled out by the participants of the sample which asked some
basic questions about their attachment with and time spent on social
networking sites. Certain interviews were also conducted to know how
people view other people’s profiles and whether they make comparisons or
not. Apart from this, Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) was
used to identify the level of self-esteem of the participants. Questionnaire is
given in the appendix 1 at the end of the report. In order to quantify the data
level of satisfaction of the respondents was measured on a likert scale of 1-4.
The division of points is mentioned in appendix 2.
3.2 Variables
The independent variable in this study is the social media usage of
people. Computer mediated communication, such as Facebook has gained
millions and millions of users in the past decade and now it has proven to be
“one of the most trafficked site in the world” (Facebook, 2011a).
The dependant variable is the self-esteem of people which is affected by
social functions. Self-esteem is both stable and fluid, it develops and changes
with time and is affected by daily events (Heatherton and Polivy, 1991).
3.3 Inclusion criteria
As youngsters tend to use social networking sites more than adults, this
research will be based on youngsters of both genders between the age group
of 18 and 25. Instead of complicating the research with different social
networking sites, the main focus of the study would be to find the effect of
Facebook usage on self-esteem.
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
As the research is non-probabilistic and due to the geographical
boundaries convenience sampling will be used.
A sample of 150 youngsters was selected, with 95% confidence level and
confidence interval of 8, between the age of 18 and 25. They were given the
questionnaires to fill.
3.5 Statistical Model
Comparison of means
Correlation between times spent on Facebook and self esteem
Regression analysis between times spent on Facebook and self
esteem
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Results and Discussion:
4.1 Descriptive Analysis
Sample of 150 students from IoBM was selected based on the
confidence level of 95% and confidence interval of 8. In order to test the
hypothesis each respondent was given a questionnaire which tested their self-
esteem and enquired the amount of time they spent on Facebook.
Summary Report
Table 1 Self-esteem
Time spent on facebook
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
less than half an hour
25.2500
32
2.67606
1-3 hours
16.7358
53
1.07687
3-5 hours
12.1951
41
1.32702
more than 5 hours
8.2500
24
2.11105
Total
15.9533
150
5.93967
The summary of the data is mentioned below in table 1. According to
the survey the people who spend less than half an hour daily on Facebook
have a mean score of 25.25 for self-esteem; people who spend 1-3 hours
daily on Facebook have a mean score of 16.7358 for self-esteem; people who
spend 3-5 hours daily on Facebook have a mean score of 12.1951 for self-
esteem; people who spend more than 5 hours daily on Facebook have a mean
score of 8.25 for self-esteem.
4.2 Inferential Analysis
Correlation test was applied to the data mentioned in table 1 to find out
whether there is any relationship between self-esteem and time spent on
Facebook. The results of the correlation test are summarized in table 2.
Table 2 Correlations
Time spent on
facebook
Self-esteem
Time spent on facebook
Pearson Correlation
1
-.933**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
150
150
Self-esteem
Pearson Correlation
-.933**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
150
150
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
From the result of the correlation test it can be concluded that there is a
negative relationship between the two variables. Increase in the time spent on
Facebook would result in the decrease of the self-esteem of an individual. It
can also be concluded that there is a statistically significant correlation
between social media usage and self-esteem as the sig value shown in table 2
is less than 0.05.
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After applying the correlation test the next step was to apply linear
regression analysis to predict the value of the dependent variable (self-
esteem) with the help of the predictor variable (time spent on Facebook). The
summary of the results are mentioned in table 4, 5 and 6.
Table 3 Model Summary
Model
R
R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of the
Estimate
1
.933a
.871
.870
2.14059
a. Predictors: (Constant), Time spent on facebook
Table 3 shows the model summary of the data. The value of R is 0.933
and it represents simple correlation which we have already calculated in
table 2. The R Square shows how much of total variation in the self esteem
(dependent variable) can be explained by time spent on Facebook
(independent variable) which is very large in this case; 87.1%.
Table 4 ANOVAa
Model
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
1
Regression
4578.522
1
4578.522
999.218
.000b
Residual
678.152
148
4.582
Total
5256.673
149
a. Dependent Variable: Self-esteem
b. Predictors: (Constant), Time spent on facebook
ANOVA Table helps to measure how well the regression equation fits
the data. As shown in table 4 sig, value is less than 0.05. This means that the
regression model is statistically significant and a good predictor of the
dependent variable which in this case is the self-esteem of individuals.
Table 5 Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
T
Sig.
B
Std. Error
Beta
1
(Constant)
29.221
.455
64.271
.000
Time spent on facebook
-5.574
.176
-.933
-
31.610
.000
a. Dependent Variable: Self-esteem
Table 5, the coefficients table, helps to make predictions of the
dependent variable by using the regression equation. The regression equation
is made with the help of beta values and after putting the value of
independent variable, time spent on Facebook, will predict the value of the
dependent variable, self-esteem. The regression equation of this research is:
Self-esteem=29.221-5.574(time spent on Facebook)
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4.3 Discussion
The first section of the questionnaire enquired how frequently Facebook
is used by each respondent on a daily basis, the reason behind the usage and
whether these respondents make comparisons with others on Facebook or
not. The second section of the questionnaire measured the self-esteem of
each individual.
After the questionnaires were collected certain interviews were
conducted and people were asked the reason for which they use Facebook
and whether they make social comparisons on Facebook or not. According to
the results approximately 88% people engage in making social comparisons
on Facebook and out of the 88%, 98% of the comparisons are upward social
comparisons. It has been observed that upward comparisons make people
feel inferior and have negative evaluations of themselves (Morse & Gergen,
1970). These upward comparisons in most of the cases have a negative effect
on the self-esteem of people (Vogel, Rose, Roberts and Eckles, 2014). The
answers of the respondents suggested that every individual between the age
of 18 and 25 uses Facebook and most of the people use Facebook to build
new relationships, remain informed regarding the major events in the world
and fulfill their affiliation needs. Numerous studies have proved that social
networking sites are used by teenagers to make strong and healthy
relationships with their peers (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007).
The results of the questionnaire were compiled and analyzed. The
findings of this research suggest that there is a strong relationship between
social media usage and self-esteem of individuals. Both of these variables are
negatively associated as shown in table 2. Increase in social media usage
would cause the self-esteem of people to decrease. Time spent on Facebook
could be used to predict the self-esteem of individuals. One hour spent on
Facebook daily results in a 5.574 decrease in the self-esteem score of an
individual.
This research clearly shows the negative impact of Facebook on the self-
esteem of individuals. Self-esteem is the mixture of two variables; the self-
respect of individuals and their self-confidence (Branden, 1969). As people
spend more time on Facebook, they visit other people’s profiles and they
start envying certain individuals who they think are superior or better-off
than them. Walther and colleagues argue that most people use Facebook to
know what is going on in other people’s lives and judge others on the basis
of the cues found on the profiles of these people e (Walther, Van Der Heide,
Kim, Westerman, & Tong, 2008). These individuals make upward
comparisons with others. As a result they start feeling inferior, less
privileged and ungrateful. These negative feelings have a direct impact on
the self-esteem of individuals. Social comparisons made using social
networking sites such as Facebook makes the people feel worse about their
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lives and promotes negative well-being of individuals (Steers, Wickham, &
Acitelli, 2014). As a result people end up having low self-evaluations.
Conclusion, Limitations, and Recommendations:
5.1 Conclusion
Social media has a very strong impact on the self-esteem of individuals.
Students use these social networking sites for information, communication
and building and maintain of relationships. But majority of the people end up
making upward and downward comparisons with others. The upward
comparisons make people envy others and their lifestyles and also feel less
obliged and ungrateful for their bounties. As a result the self-esteem of such
people gets negatively affected. Social media is growing very drastically in
almost every country in the world. So it is impossible to keep people,
especially students who use Facebook on a daily basis, away from social
media for a very long time. Parents and teachers should play an active role
here by guiding students regarding self-esteem, self-recognition, self-
actualization and self-confidence. Parents should also limit the access of
their children on these sites plus raise awareness in their children regarding
the negative repercussions of Facebook.
5.2 Limitations
As this was a small research conducted for academic purposes it was
limited to the students of IoBM. The sampling method used was convenience
sampling so there can be certain doubts on whether the sample is a true
representation of the whole population or not. Due to certain cost and time
constraints the sample size was also kept short. Though the questionnaire
was well constructed but the integrity of the students cannot be measured.
Self-esteem depends on person to person and the factors that cause to change
also vary from person to person so their never can be an accurate measure for
self-esteem. Due to embarrassment or other social factors the respondents
might have not been truthful in their answers. Instead of including each
social networking site in the research only Facebook was used and
considered the representation of all the social networking sites.
5.3 Recommendations
Parents should keep a check on their children. They should observe
the effects of these sites on their children and accordingly limit the time their
children spend on such social networking sites.
Children should be taken to workshops and awareness programs
where they should be guided about self-esteem, self-recognition, self-
actualization and self-confidence.
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Parents and teachers should raise the morale of students and make
them more confident in their conduct.
Campaigns must be held to raise awareness in people regarding the
negative repercussions of social networking sites.
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Appendix A: Questionnaire
1) How much do you spend on Facebook?
Half an hour
1-3 hours
3-5 hours
More than 5 hours
2) How often do you comment on other people’s profile?
Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Yearly
Never
3) While viewing other people’s profile do you compare yourself with
them?
Yes
No
Sometimes
4) Does the number of likes on your picture or status affect you?
Yes
No
Sometimes
5) Why do you use Facebook?
Building
relationships
Medium of
communication
Information
Fulfill
affiliation
needs
Other(please
specify)
Instructions: Below is a list of statements dealing with your general
feelings about yourself. Please indicate the level of your satisfaction on a
scale of 1-4 with 4 being the highest level of satisfaction.
1
2
3
4
1. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.
2. At times I think I am no good at all.
3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities.
4. I am able to do things as well as most other people.
5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
6. I certainly feel useless at times.
7. I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on an equal plane
with others.
8. I wish I could have more respect for myself.
9. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.
10. I take a positive attitude toward myself.
... With the advent of new communication technologies, the interest in communication apprehension is further rekindled. Self-esteem is another area of human behavior that is widely studied as it relates to social media usage, some studies have shown that social media usage can lead to lower self-esteem (Muqaddas et al., 2017). ...
... Therefore, negative feedback on social media has the tendency of reducing the self-esteem of social media users while positive feedback can have the opposite effect (Valkenburg, 2017). Nyagah et al. (2015), as cited in Muqaddas et al. (2017), found out that social media gives its users a sense of identity and unmatched freedom to be whoever they want to be. They go on to explain that this freedom and identity made possible by social media also help boost confidence levels of their users. ...
... To achieve this feeling of belonging to a social group, class or status, people often find themselves comparing themselves with others. These feelings of affiliation and belongingness are usually triggered on social networking sites (Muqaddas et al., 2017). Muqaddas et al. (2017) go on to explain that social networking sites make a lot of people self-evaluate and make social comparisons with others on the networks based on beauty, popularity, wealth, social class and many more, which may have a negative effect on their self-esteem. ...
... Social media addiction has been related to low self-esteem (Hawi & Samaha, 2017;Jan et al., 2017), such that self-esteem decreased substantially for individuals who spent about an hour on Facebook (Jan et al., 2017). Research has shown that this relation between problematic social media use and low self-esteem was larger for women than for men (Andreassen et al., 2017). ...
... Social media addiction has been related to low self-esteem (Hawi & Samaha, 2017;Jan et al., 2017), such that self-esteem decreased substantially for individuals who spent about an hour on Facebook (Jan et al., 2017). Research has shown that this relation between problematic social media use and low self-esteem was larger for women than for men (Andreassen et al., 2017). ...
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Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect, and this phenomenon is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB). The FAB is moderated and mediated by many variables, including rehearsal and memory specificity, and researchers have emphasized the importance of memory for the FAB, but research has not evaluated the link of the FAB to objective memory measures. Using diary methodology across the span of 1 week, the current study examined the relation of event memory to the FAB for 1) social media events in Experiment 1 (n = 30) and 2) social media and non‐social media events with longer titles in Experiment 2 (n = 63) than in Experiment 1. The FAB was negatively predicted by false memories for 1) social media events in Experiment 1 and 2) both social media and non‐social media events in Experiment 2. These relations were mediated by rehearsals in both experiments. Implications are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Concerning the above, the current widespread use of social networks (SNs) is worth highlighting because they are means through which people socialise, thus producing situations of social comparison in these media of global scope. These comparisons through the SNs sometimes increase individuals' psychological distress and, as a result, can reduce the overall level of self-esteem (Chen & Lee, 2013;Jan et al., 2017). ...
... Through upward comparisons, people may envy the characteristics of others and their lifestyles from a global viewpoint. As a result, self-esteem can be negatively affected (Jan et al., 2017;Vogel et al., 2014). ...
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Eating disorders are mental health illnesses that are influenced by various individual, family and social factors. The present study aimed to examine the influence of self‐esteem and socialisation through social networks on eating disorder behaviours in adolescence. The sample was made up of 721 secondary school students (49.1% girls). The sample age ranged between 12 and 18 years (M = 13.89, SD = 1.37). Participants completed the Eating Attitudes Test‐26 (EAT‐26) to measure disordered eating attitudes and behaviours, the Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale and the ESOC‐39 scale, which measures socialisation through social networks, in addition to a brief initial sociodemographic survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were carried out with MANOVA. Low self‐esteem was shown to increase behaviours linked to eating disorders globally. Likewise, high socialisation through social networks was also associated with a general increase in eating disorders during adolescence. The findings of the study provide empirical support for the need to develop prevention strategies that address the improvement in self‐esteem and adequate socialisation through social networks during adolescence. The development of effective interventions along these lines could be helpful to treat the behaviours and attitudes that are observed in eating disorders.
... Similarly, Chua & Chang (2016) asserted that edited images uploaded on the social media platform portrayed feelings of low self-esteem, insecurity, and quest for peer recognition. Spending one hour on Facebook a day is found to decrease an individual's self-esteem by 5.57 (Jan et al., 2017). ...
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Youth worldwide are increasingly exposed to social media and its consequences, and Bhutanese children are no exception. Owing to limited studies on the impacts of social media on students in Bhutan, this study investigates self-esteem and social media addiction, considering the gender of the students in the Zilukha Middle Secondary School, Thimphu, Bhutan. Out of 327 students, data were collected from 180 students (90 males and 90 females) using proportionate random sampling. The t-tests results revealed no significant difference in the social media addiction and self-esteem between male and female students. The study also found a significantly negative correlation between social media addiction and self-esteem of students. As social media addiction and self-esteem scores did not significantly differ between male and female students, parents and teachers need to monitor the use of social media by students irrespective of their gender. Similar studies in other parts of the country, particularly representing students in rural areas, are recommended for new social media addiction and self-esteem insights.
... The influence of social media on self-esteem in relation to social comparison has been the subject of many studies over the years (Jan et al., 2017;de Vries & Kühne, 2015). However, the pandemic has brought about new implications by imposing enormous restrictions on social movement and limiting socialisation across the world, leading to greater social media activities (Vall-Roqué et al., 2020). ...
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This study investigates the relationship between Instagram usage, social comparison, and self-esteem among young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is given the prevalence of virtual socialization due to remote learning. A survey participated by 200 young adults studying in Malaysian universities was carried out. Results demonstrated active engagement on Instagram. However, the direct relationships between Instagram usage, social comparison, and self-esteem were inconsequential. Hence, no significant differences between those using Instagram frequently and those who did not were found. Yet, the study observed considerably low self-esteem among the respondents and an active tendency to make social comparisons while using Instagram during the social restriction period caused by the pandemic.
... believe that people have suffered from poorer self-esteem and self-growth as a result of increased use of social networking sites. On the other hand, how people view themselves is a relevant matter because of the strong relationship between how one feels about himself and his social media usage [12]. The TikTok application can help increase self-confidence by frequently making videos and uploading them, so said users can garner appreciation from other people as viewers [13]. ...
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This study intends to find out the influence of Self-Esteem on and Social Appearance of Tik Tok Users, as well as to see if the aggregate Social Support from Significant Others, Families and Friends could serve as moderator. Fifty-three TikTok users were the respondent of this study who voluntarily answer through the Google Form link sent to them. The results revealed that the most watched videos of TikTok users were Dance Covers, level of Self-esteem is Average, levels of Social Support coming from significant others, families, and friends were were all High. Most of the respondents have Above Average Social Appearance Anxiety. Self-esteem is negatively associated with Social Appearance Anxiety; Social Support has no direct and indirect effect to Social Appearance Anxiety nor combining Self-esteem and Social Support.
... In a previous study (34), questionnaires were distributed to a random sample of students, and results showed that malocclusion impacted smiling as participants hid their smiles to avoid showing their teeth. Detrimental effects on self-esteem are observable in real-life situations and extend to social platforms with an established strong relationship between self-esteem and social media (35). In our study, analysis of patient statements aligns with previous observations demonstrating a significant boost in self-esteem in orthodontic patients following their treatment. ...
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Background There is a growing body of evidence emphasizing the importance of research into patient-centred experience in orthodontics. Benefits following orthodontic treatment are mainly related to improved aesthetics and psychosocial outcomes. However, treatment experience from the perspective of orthodontic patients is yet to be fully understood. Objective To understand the past experiences and current perceptions of treatment outcomes of orthodontic patients. Study design A qualitative meta-ethnography. Selection criteria Qualitative studies and mixed-methods articles with a distinct qualitative component presenting patients’ perception of outcomes and overall experiences after an active course of orthodontic treatment were included. Search methods Comprehensive electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and EMBASE up to May 2021, supplemented by grey literature and manual searches. Data collection and analysis Two independent reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction, and quality appraisal. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool for qualitative research was used to assess the quality of included studies. Analysis of data was conducted using meta-ethnographic methods. Results Out of 801 retrieved search hits, six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the synthesis. The analysis revealed three main themes and associated sub-themes: (1) Reflection on the past treatment experience, (2) Patient satisfaction with treatment outcomes, and (3) Learning to live with retainers. Limitations Results express patients’ opinions shortly after treatment, and the long-term impact of orthodontic treatment is yet to be understood. Conclusions Orthodontic patients mainly viewed their experiences and treatment results positively. Desirable aesthetic outcomes, psychosocial outcomes, and satisfaction with smiles were often reported in the studies reviewed. However, some barriers to optimal experiences were noticed concerning orthodontic retention. Registration PROSPERO (CRD42020180121).
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Highly visual social media (HVSM) platforms, such as Snapchat, Instagram and TikTok, are increasingly popular among young people. It is unclear what motivates young people to engage with these specific highly visual platforms and what impact the inherent features of HVSM have on young people’s mental health. Nine semi-structured focus group sessions were conducted with males and females aged 14 and 15 years (n = 47) across five secondary schools in Northern Ireland. Thematic analyses were conducted, and a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the findings. This study found that features such as likes/comments on visuals and scrolling through a feed were associated with the role of ‘viewer’, instigating longer-lasting feelings of jealousy, inferiority and pressure to be accepted. To combat these negative emotions, young people turn to the role of ‘contributor’ by using filters, selecting highlights to post to their feed and adjusting their personas, resulting in temporary feelings of higher self-esteem, greater acceptance and popularity. As users of HVSM are constantly switching between the role of viewer and contributor, the emotions they experience are also constantly switching between instant inadequacy and instant gratification. HVSM appears to trigger an unrelenting process of emotional highs and lows for its adolescent users.
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The present study was conducted to explore the association between Instagram usage and College belongingness, and if the relationship was mediated by Self-esteem. A sample (N=105) of students belonging to a Mumbai college was administered the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (adapted for Instagram), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, and the Psychological Sense of School Membership (adapted for college students). Correlations were drawn between all the three variables in pairs, and were subjected to regression. The results indicate that correlations between Instagram Usage and Self-Esteem (r=-0.31, p ≤ 0.001) and Instagram Usage and College Belongingness (r=-0.28, p ≤ 0.003) were statistically significant, meanwhile that of Self-Esteem and College Belongingness was not (r=0.62, n.s). Mediation analysis revealed the association between Instagram Usage and College Belongingness was significantly mediated by Self-Esteem. The study further discusses the results and provides suggestions so as to improve the College Belongingness among students.
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Each person projects behavioral patterns through actions. Even in a virtual environment we express our way of seeing, feeling, and reacting to the world. The analysis of the data generated allows the identification of pattern behaviors associated with users. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the user, the image he/she decided to express, and how he/she behaves in social media, which we name here the virtual persona. Machine learning techniques make it possible to develop a framework that allows to infer psychological and behavioral aspects of the virtual persona. The goal of this chapter is to introduce the virtual persona concept as a mechanism to understand social media users. Emphasis is given to the self-presentation of virtual persona, the perception of physical persona over virtual persona, and the description of three computational frameworks to study virtual persona, what we call here the virtual persona triad.
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Social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, provide abundant social comparison opportunities. Given the widespread use of SNSs, the purpose of the present set of studies was to examine the impact of chronic and temporary exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. Using a correlational approach, Study 1 examined whether frequent Facebook use is associated with lower trait self-esteem. Indeed, the results showed that participants who used Facebook most often had poorer trait self-esteem, and this was mediated by greater exposure to upward social comparisons on social media. Using an experimental approach, Study 2 examined the impact of temporary exposure to social media profiles on state self-esteem and relative self-evaluations. The results revealed that participants’ state self-esteem and relative self-evaluations were lower when the target person’s profile contained upward comparison information (e.g., a high activity social network, healthy habits) than when the target person’s profile contained downward comparison information (e.g., a low activity social network, unhealthy habits). Results are discussed in terms of extant research and their implications for the role of social media in well-being.
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Two studies investigated how social comparison to peers through computer-mediated interactions on Facebook might impact users' psychological health. Study 1 (N = 180) revealed an association between time spent on Facebook and depressive symptoms for both genders. However, results demonstrated that making Facebook social comparisons mediated the link between time spent on Facebook and depressive symptoms for men only. Using a 14-day diary design (N = 152), Study 2 found that the relationship between the amount of time spent on Facebook and depressive symptoms was uniquely mediated by upward, nondirectional, and downward Facebook social comparisons. Similarly, all three types of Facebook social comparisons mediated the relationship between the number of Facebook logins and depressive symptoms. Unlike Study 1, gender did not moderate these associations. Both studies provide evidence that people feel depressed after spending a great deal of time on Facebook because they feel badly when comparing themselves
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Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.
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A survey on 143 university students was conducted to examine what motives young adults have for Facebook use, which of those motives were endorsed more than the others, and how those motives were related to the tendency of expressing one’s “true self” through Facebook use. According to the results, primary motive for Facebook use was to maintain long-distance relationships. This motive was followed by game-playing/entertainment, active forms of photo-related activities, organizing social activities, passive observations, establishing new friendships, and initiating and/or terminating romantic relationships. Another interesting result was that individuals’ tendency for expressing one’s true self on the Net had an influence on their Facebook use motives: The ones with high tendency to express their true self on the Internet reported to use Facebook for establishing new friendships and for initiating/terminating romantic relationships more than the individuals’ with low and medium levels of the same tendency did.
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Facebook, a highly visual and social medium, is widely used by college students and thus may be associated with psychological factors in their lives, including how they feel about their appearance. In the current study, we examined 3 Facebook measures—number of Facebook friends, amount of time spent on Facebook, and emotional investment in Facebook—and their links with body image. Emerging adult students (N = 255; ages 18–25; 54% female) at a nonresidential college completed surveys. Individuals who were more emotionally invested in Facebook and who spent less time on the site were more oriented toward their appearance. Individuals who had more Facebook friends had more positive views of their appearance. Results generally do not support concerns that Facebook use is linked to poor body image.
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Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.
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The current study examined the relationship between self-esteem and Facebook use in sample of college-age participants (N = 201). Online methods were used to collect data. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, results indicate that self-esteem level was related to engaging in different on-line behaviors. For example, lower self-esteem was associated with feelings of connectedness to Facebook, more frequently untagging oneself in photos, and accepting friend requests from individuals that one does not know well. Qualitative analyses indicated that individuals with higher self-esteem were more likely to report that a positive aspect of Facebook was the ability to share pictures, thoughts, and ideas, and to report that other posts could become annoying or bothersome.