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Computer-Mediated Communication and Conversation Analysis



An increasing number of researchers use conversation analysis (CA) methodology to investigate interactional dimensions of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and their impact on language and learning. While there is a significant body of CA research focusing on naturally occurring telephone and face-to-face conversation, researchers’ attention since the late 1990s has shifted to new contexts where communication between human beings is mediated by computers. This chapter is focused on CA research in the educational sphere, where participants are using an additional or a foreign language. CA research on human interaction developed robust analytical tools to identify and understand the unique interactional resources which are available to users in technologically mediated contexts. In particular, researchers are able to draw on previous CA research on face-to-face and telephone interaction to explore affordances and constraints of new technologies for learning, and how users use language to adapt to new and evolving interactional contexts. This chapter will therefore provide a brief overview of early CMC and CA research on technologically mediated interaction. Following this overview, major contributions where CA is systematically applied to computer-mediated talk will be presented, focusing specifically on findings related to language and interaction in L2 educational settings.
Vincenza Tudini and Anthony J. Liddicoat
An increasing number of researchers use Conversation Analysis (CA) methodology to
investigate interactional dimensions of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and their
impact on language and learning. While there is a significant body of CA research focusing
on naturally-occurring telephone and face-to-face conversation, researchers’ attention since
the late 1990s has shifted to new contexts where communication between human beings is
mediated by computers. This entry is focused on CA research in the educational sphere,
where participants are using an additional or a foreign language. CA research on human
interaction developed robust analytical tools to identify and understand the unique
interactional resources which are available to users in technologically mediated contexts. In
particular, researchers are able to draw on previous CA research on face-to-face and
telephone interaction to explore affordances and constraints of new technologies for learning,
and how users use language to adapt to new and evolving interactional contexts. This entry
will therefore provide a brief overview of early CMC and CA research on technologically-
mediated interaction. Following this overview, major contributions where CA is
systematically applied to computer-mediated talk will be presented, focusing specifically on
findings related to language and interaction in L2 educational settings.
An increasing number of researchers use Conversation Analysis (CA) methodology to
investigate interactional dimensions of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and their
impact on language and learning. While there is a significant body of CA research focusing
on naturally-occurring telephone and face-to-face conversation, researchers’ attention since
the late 1990s has shifted to new contexts where communication between human beings is
mediated by computers. This entry is focused on CA research in the educational sphere,
where participants are using an additional or a foreign language. However, CA methodology
was originally developed in sociology in the 1960s and since then has been applied to a range
of social and institutional contexts, including educational. The introduction of CMC tools in
foreign language programs to promote connectivity and interaction between L1 and L2
language speakers also led to research interest in how interaction unfolds in new, mediated
forms of intercultural talk. CA research on human interaction developed robust analytical
tools to identify and understand the unique interactional resources which are available to
users in technologically mediated contexts. In particular, researchers are able to draw on
previous CA research on face-to-face and telephone interaction to explore affordances and
constraints of new technologies for learning, and how users use language to adapt to new and
evolving interactional contexts. This entry will therefore provide a brief overview of early
CMC and CA research on technologically-mediated interaction. Following this overview,
major contributions where CA is systematically applied to computer-mediated talk will be
presented, focusing specifically on findings related to language and interaction in L2
educational settings.
Though CA was initially conceived as an account of face-to-face interaction (Sacks, 1992),
technologically mediated human interaction was an investigative focus from the beginning in
studies of telephone talk (Schegloff, 1968, 1979). One significant aspect of Schegloff’s work
for understanding CMC was the observation that the technology itself was a constituent part
of the interaction and not merely the channel through which communication was conducted.
In the case of telephone talk, Schegloff showed that the ringing of the telephone was a key
element of the orderliness of such interactions and that telephone openings could not be
properly understood without reference to it. Thus from the beginning CA has acknowledged
that its main focus ‘talk’ needs to be more broadly understood than simply referring to oral
language use. Subsequent studies have also shown the saliency of technological systems for
understanding CMC. For example, Liddicoat (2011a) has shown that i
CA takes the starting point that human action is orderly, and orderly at all levels, and seeks to
understand how orderliness in interaction is achieved by participants through micro-analysis
of talk. In understanding orderliness in interaction, three key elements have come to hold a
central place in CA accounts of language use: turn-taking (organising participation of
interlocutors in talk), sequence organisation (organising interlocutors turns into coherent
actions) and repair (dealing with interactional problems as they occur) (Liddicoat, 2011b).
These elements are also relevant to the study of technologically mediated forms of
communication including both spoken (e.g voice chat) and written (e.g. text chat,) forms of
interaction. n video-conferencing it is necessary to consider not only the spoken language but
also written language and computer generated language to understand how participation is
established and enacted.
While technology permits users to talk across distances without being physically co-present,
it has also created constraints in relation to key interactional resources such as eye gaze,
facial expressions, gesture and body movements which are accessible in face-to-face talk but
unavailable or altered in mediated contexts. This is where CA researchers provided
significant first insights on technologically mediated interaction which are also relevant to
computer-mediated interactional contexts (see Schegloff, 1968; 1979). One constraint that
telephone and computer-mediated interaction have in common is that users cannot see one
another. While they are temporally co-present, they are not physically co-present, which
impacts on the ‘procedural infrastructure of interaction’ (Schegloff, 1991, p. 1338), including
sequence organization, turn-taking, repair and conversational openings. In the case of
telephone conversation openings, specific practices are deployed by users to deal with the
constraints imposed by the medium. For example, identification in telephone openings in
English is done through voice recognition, through practices that provide voice samples to
permit recognition and identification activities that show that recognition has been
established. In other languages, and in institutional contexts in English, however, explicit
self-identification practices have been adopted as part of telephone openings (e.g. Houtkoop-
Steenstra, 1991, for Dutch). In CMC, emoticons (emotion icons) have become an integral
component of text chat, given the lack of access to prosody and facial expressions in written
forms of interaction. Changes in telephone technology have introduced new possibilities for
identification (such as caller recognition) but speakers continue to need practices that
specifically attend to the consequences of technological mediation on social interaction
(Arminen, 2005, 2006). Interactional practices will therefore continue to need to adapt to the
affordances of the media used.
Increased access and use of communication technologies in the nineties led to numerous CA
investigations on how users use language to adapt to and manage interaction in a variety of
computer-mediated contexts. CA perspectives have provided insights on how interaction and
language change according to specific interactional configurations created by different
softwares. For example, interactional features change according to whether users can see or
hear one another, or whether they are interacting with one person or in a group, as linguistic
resources vary accordingly. Online text chat, a form of mediated real-time written interaction,
was one of the first interactional contexts to be investigated from CA perspectives for a
number of reasons. Firstly, it was one of the first synchronous forms of computer-mediated
communication to become widely used in educational contexts, since its beginnings in 1970s
at the University of Illinois, where it was known as Talkomatic (Grubbs, 2004), and used both
for professional and social purposes. Secondly, researchers became interested in chat’s
apparent similarity to spoken interaction (Beauvois, 1992; Negretti, 1999), despite the fact
that users could neither see nor hear each other. The inability to hear one another in fact
added a significant further constraint when compared to telephone interaction where talk was
at least audible. This required users to interact without the interactional support of prosody
and other non-verbal cues, and rely entirely on the co-constructed written conversation to
create meaning.
Since the late nineties, CA researchers therefore began to investigate the nature of interaction
in online text chat (e.g., Garcia & Jacobs, 1999; Herring, 1999; Hutchby, 2001), to shed light
on conversational resources which are available and deployed by users in a unique
interactional environment. Garcia and Jacobs’ (1999) ground breaking study on turn-taking in
group chat identified unique features of text chat, such as the quasi-synchronous nature of
interaction whereby users’ composition processes and systemic constraints delay the
appearance of posts on screen. The features of the composition of language in chat had
consequences for the orderliness of interactions, because users are unable to access
composition processes and are technically unable to monitor for transition-relevance places
(TRP) for the purpose of turn-taking, and posts may not appear where the user intended.
Furthermore, the authors note that users treat each post on screen as a signal that a next post
is due. This creates problems for understanding processes of next speaker selection which
leads to increased addressivity in group chat where a post is intended for a specific user. This
promotes understanding and avoids the creation of ‘phantom’ adjacency pairs (Garcia &
Jacobs, 1999), where users construct adjacency pairs that are not intended as such.
Herring (1999) also observes that speakers’ inability to control the placement of their turns in
relation to those of others creates problems for sequence organisation though the disruption
of adjacency pairs such as question-answer pairs which in face-to-face conversation normally
follow one another (Schegloff & Sacks, 1973). Thus the sequence organisations of CMC are
potentially different from those of spoken interaction, as adjacency pairs, which are defined
in CA terms as turns “which are placed next to each in their basic minimal form” (Liddicoat,
2011b, p. 139), can no longer be understood in such a way. In fact, adjacency has to be
reconstructed by participants in the interaction through reading processes (Zemel & Cakir,
2009), rather than being a feature of its orderly design.
Despite its significant interactional constraints, text chat was one of the first technologies to
attract the attention of teachers, especially language teachers, who began to explore possible
uses and affordances of text chat for L2 teaching and learning through interaction. For
example, L2 researchers suggested that chat could provide a bridge to face-to-face interaction
(Beauvois, 1992; Kern, 1995; Negretti, 1999 ) and greater equality of participation for shy
learners (Kern, 1995; Warschauer, 1996). Text chat was also perceived by some L2
researchers as an optimal environment for second language acquisition (Pellettieri, 2000;
Smith, 2003; Tudini, 2007) due to its visual saliency and opportunities for negotiation of
meaning, both linguistic and intercultural. The diffusion of text chat and other technologies in
educational circles eventually lead to research interest in micro-analysis of features, resources
and affordances for learning, and exploration of the unique interactional aspects of digital
Given the central objective of developing speaking skills and intercultural communicative
competence in languages programs, it is unsurprising that teachers and researchers of second
language acquisition began experimenting with possibilities for interaction and learning
offered by CMC. Connectivity of language learners with expert speakers of the target
language was an especially promising feature of CMC in countries that are geographically
distant from the target language and culture. However most CMC research to date has
focused on what affordances are provided by CMC for language acquisition, and there is
currently little work which examines the interactional features of online conversations,
whether text, voice or video, between L1 and L2 speakers. Kern and Liddicoat (2008) point
out that language learners need opportunities to engage in interaction if they are to become
participants in communities of use and develop their capacity to communicate in and through
the target language. Technologically-mediated interactions are clearly an opportunity for
language use and participation in communities of use, however they require further micro-
analytic investigation based on previous CA work on face-to-face interaction between L1 and
L2 speakers (eg. Kasper, 2004; Markee, 2000).
Over the last fifteen years, CA has been applied to L2 contexts to “understand and explicate
how language is used as it is being acquired through interaction” (Firth &Wagner, 1997, p.
768). In addition to providing new insights on SLA processes in face-to-face contexts, Firth
and Wagner’s (1997) critique provided a major impetus for the application of CA to a range
of online L2 interaction contexts, including spoken, written, synchronous or asynchronous
modes. Unlike previous studies of online L2 learning, CA investigations adopt an emic or
participant-relevant perspective (see Firth & Wagner, 1997, for a detailed discussion) to
understand how specific technological contexts shape interaction and language learning, as
invoked by users during interaction.
One of the first CA studies of a technologically-mediated interactional context is Negretti’s
(1999) study of text chat between native and non-native speakers of English. While the
author concludes that chat promotes oral proficiency, the focus of the study is on
understanding differences between chat and face-to-face interaction. The study identified a
number of interactional resources which users deployed within the text chat environment to
ensure understanding, including sequence organization, turn taking, and adjacency pairs. The
study also showed that sequencing and timing were dealt with differently in chat, compared
to face-to-face, with evidence of constantly disrupted or overlapping turns. While findings
echo Garcia & Jacob’s (1999) study of group chat, Negretti’s (1999) group chat study
included both group and dyadic postings. Findings might have been different if group and
dyadic interactions had been analysed separately, as interaction changes according to the type
of technological tool used, number of users and other factors. In other words, findings of
online talk investigations cannot be generalized across platforms and contexts, despite
identified interactional commonalities, as invoked by users within the ever-changing
multiplicity of platforms and technologically mediated interactional configurations.
One of the first monographs on online intercultural interaction (Tudini, 2010) focused
exclusively on dyadic text chat. This major study investigated turn-taking, adjacency pairs,
sequencing and repair in dyadic, text chat between native and non-native speakers of Italian.
However, a significant proportion of the analysis was dedicated to how different types of
conversational repair are deployed by users. CA differentiates repair according to who
initiates and resolves problems in understanding, which has implications for politeness and
face. For example, in face-to-face conversation, if a listener has a problem in understanding a
speaker’s talk, they initiate repair but give the speaker the opportunity to resolve the repair.
This is known as other-initiated self-repair, and has been shown to be preferred by speakers
over other-initiated other-repair, also known as correction (Schegloff et al., 1977). Jefferson
(1987) also showed that where correction does occur in face-to-face interaction, it is more
likely to be embedded in the topical talk rather than exposed, without disrupting the flow of
conversation and without drawing attention to the speaker’s momentary lapse. Tudini’s
(2010) study instead found that exposed other-initiated other repair was common in text chat
where participants have differential language expertise, regardless of whether there was a
problem in understanding. This was attributed to the permanency and reviewability of written
conversation, as well as the expert-novice roles and power relationships invoked by users due
to differential language expertise (see also Liddicoat & Tudini, 2012).
Tudini’s (2010) findings have implications regarding how non native speakers use and learn
languages in online dyadic text chat, as it appears that an otherwise social environment can
become a locus of language practice and pedagogical talk, which contributes to the hybridity
of text chat as both social and pedagogical interaction. The study therefore suggests that
though it is oriented to as a dispreferred action, as evidenced by use of mitigating actions
such as emoticons and positive evaluations of learners’ language, correction is perceived by
users as a way to ‘do language learning’ and pursue affiliation in written social conversation,
which may otherwise be managed differently in the rapid fade of face-to-face conversation or
voice chat.
A major CA study on spoken CMC is Jenks’ (2014) investigation of multiparty voice
conversations conducted via computer on Skype between three or more speakers of English
as an additional language. By adopting a CA perspective, this study shows how users deploy
various elements of voice as interactional resources to achieve understanding and promote
learning. For example, there is evidence that they manage turn construction and transition
through the production and coordination of vocal cues, including micro changes in intonation.
It also shows how participants use pauses to deal with overlapping utterances, though
prolonged spells of silence can lead to simultaneous talk. This leads the author to conclude
that pauses in voice chat act both as an affordance and a constraint for learning. Jenks’
comparison of turn-taking in both text and voice chat on the Skype platform also reveals
numerous interactional differences between the two modes. For example, transition from one
turn to the next occurs in one sequential location in text chat and in multiple locations in
voice chat. Another significant finding is that background noises have interactional
consequences for the management of voice chat, as they may halt ongoing conversations or
force participants to re-establish mutual orientation. The study also identifies the specific
interactional work that is accomplished to enter an ongoing conversation, such as knowing
who to address and when to speak, an issue which is especially pertinent to multiparty
The implications of this study’s findings are that specific interactional competencies are
required to manage interaction in multiparty voice chat, which are different to those which
are used in face-to-face or text chat contexts. This has consequences for task design in
language programs, especially since modern day language learners would benefit from
opportunities to engage with a variety of authentic interactional environments beyond the
classroom, including familiar social media platforms.
In their CA study of videogame interaction, PiirainenMarsh and Tainio (2009) also
identified voice as a key interactional resource and affordance for learning, both of the game
activity and English as L2. In particular, co-present Finnish videogame players’ voice
repetition of game characters’ English utterances was found to be an important game and L2
learning resource through co-construction of collaborative play.
CA has also been usefully applied as single-case analysis which reflects the premise that
social action done through talk is organized and orderly not, or not only, as a matter of rule
or as a statistical regularity, but on a case by case, action by action, basis” (Schegloff, 1987
p.102). For example, González-Lloret (2008) uses CA in a longitudinal case study of a
Spanish L2 learner engaged in text chat interaction with a L1 Spanish speaker. This study
found that repair was a key resource for participants to promote understanding of rules of
addressivity in Spanish.
While computer-mediated spoken interaction is becoming increasingly popular in language
programs, the dominant form of social interaction globally is written interaction, with
Facebook reported to be the leading social network as at August 2015 (Statista, 2015). This
platform offers users multiple interactional choices from a temporal perspective, with
asynchronous interaction as the dominant mode for one to many multiparty communication,
and quasi-synchronous for private one-to-one or small group chat. However, in these
environments users no longer rely solely on text and emoticons to interact, as occurred in
early forms of text chat described above. With the advent of Web 2.0, written interaction has
become multimodal with a variety of embedded semiotic devices, including photos and
Youtube videos, which have specific interactional functions according to recent CA research
on Facebook in Italian (Farina, 2015). For example, in his study of sequential organization of
Facebook Wall threads, Farina (2015) found that first posts were designed by users to project
multiple responses, including ‘likes’ from ‘friends’, and that these posts may be composed
with text, video and photos, on their own or in combination. Friends in fact oriented to the
first post in a thread as the first pair part of an adjacency pair, by responding with relevant
second pair parts, and often ignored posts of other users in the thread. While this study does
not specifically deal with affordances of multimodal interaction for learning, it has learning
implications, especially for language programs, as it suggests that interactional features of
Facebook are fundamentally different from face-to-face, and need to be integrated by
teachers as a specific type of written interaction task, rather than a spoken conversational
task. CA research on multimodal multilingual written interaction, where users are using an
additional or foreign language has barely started, and is likely to have implications for
The analysis of CMC using CA, in education or other settings, raises some key difficulties at
both a conceptual and analytic level that need to inform thinking about the ways interaction is
understood and analysed.
A first key problem confronting the application of CA to CMC lies in the potential mismatch
between the modalities of talk for which CA was developed and those on which it is applied.
As CA is an analytic approach designed for the study of spoken interaction, the use of written
and multimodal forms of language in online environments poses some problems for the direct
application of CA concepts and methods. One key problem for using CA to understand
interaction in written interactions is the idea of turn construction. In conventional CA
understandings, turn construction and turn-taking are based on projections of possible
completion, but in written environments, this is not such a useful way of thinking as turns are
completed when posted (and so are actually rather than possibly complete). At the same time,
an orientation to short posts as the norm in synchronous or quasi-synchronous online
environments makes holding the floor for longer posts interactionally problematic as there is
a need to avoid long gaps between contributions, suggesting that the interactional
accomplishment of ‘incompleteness’ may be a more significant interactional issue than that
of completeness (see also Tudini, 2014).
A second key issue for CA analyses of CMC is the role of the technology itself as a frame for
the interaction and its effect on how interaction is conducted and understood. The computer
brings distal participants into quasi-co-presence, especially when the technology uses a visual
channel (e.g. Skype or video-conferencing). This creates a sense in which participants share a
context, although the reality is that participants share only a part of their own contexts with
each other that mediated through the technology. This does not mean, however, that only
that part of the context which is mediated is pertinent to understanding the interaction.
Malinowski & Kramsch (2014) for example have argued that the computer screen “fixes the
user in disembodied, spectatorial relation to a removed ‘scene’ on the other side” (p. 159).
The question is whether a focus on this removed scene is the legitimate focus of analysis or
whether it constrains analytic possibilities.
CA has usually focused on the interaction as it unfolds for the participants and has tended to
consider features of interaction that are not available to all participants through talk as less
relevant for understanding the nature of talk in interaction. In mediated contexts, and
especially in contexts where education is a central concern, this would appear to be a
problematic analytic starting point. In mediated interaction, there are observable elements of
the interaction that are available only to one participant, such as the composition process and
off-screen behaviours, which can be interactionally or acquisitionally salient (Suzuki, 2013).
Software is currently available that can record aspects of the interaction such as tracking key
strokes, timing of contributions or capturing on-screen activity and video-recording of
participants during interaction, which can provide further data. Some of this information is at
least partially available to recipients with software showing that one’s interlocutor is
currently composing a message. Understanding the composition process may provide
significant information about how interaction is constructed, including how adjacency
structures responses, even where adjacency itself may be split in the online representations of
the talk, how self-repair processes work, and how participants bring external resources to
bear on their language production that may be especially significant in understanding
language acquisition and use. This is not simply a case of collecting information about
interaction as developing an understanding of what information is salient for understanding
interaction that problematizes the accepted CA dichotomy between participants’ and analysts’
The technology as frame for the interaction also has effects on the representation of the
interaction that is mediated between participants. That is, the interaction on screen is not
simply perceived by participants but is constructed for them in ways that may alter what is
perceived. For example, in visually mediated interactions, eye gaze is potentially available as
part of the representation, but the way that eye gaze is mediated is not actually a ‘true’
representation. As the camera capturing the speakers’ image is not positioned at the focal
point of gaze, the participants’ gaze is misrepresented. This means that eye gaze information
is not available for participants in the same way that would be the case for co-present
interlocutors. Goodwin (1980) has shown that eye gaze plays an important role for
coordinating speakership and that participants deploy repair practices to secure appropriately
gazing participants. Research has not currently investigated the consequentiality of the
disruption of eye gaze for the nature of interaction and the interactional practices that
speakers’ deploy as a result of the disruption.
The use of CA to study CMC is a relatively new area of scholarly activity and there remains
much to be done.
One key area for future work will be to develop an understanding of the affordances and
constraints created by the technological mediation of talk. These constraints and affordances
exist at the interactional level and, in educational contexts, at the level of learning and there
are complex interactions between each of the levels that as yet have been little researched.
Moreover, there is a need to understand how CMC as language learning provides or limits
interactional possibilities, which in turn influence learning experiences. For example,
Balaman (2015) has used CA to show how the design of online tasks constructs interactional
possibilities that create affordances for learning.
There is also a need to understand more about the interactional (re)construction of talk
through CMC. In particular, there is a need for research on how users of written CMC
construct sequentiality when sequentiality is not directly inferable from the ordering of
contributions. In reconstructing sequences of interaction, users must orient to adjacency pairs
to understand the interaction as a coherent activity, but we know little about how they draw
on sequence organisation as a resource for reconstructing coherence or the consequences the
need to restore sequentiality has for language learners as users of CMCs.
A third area of future research would appear to relate to the complex interactions of on-screen
and off-screen activities in the interactional processes involved in CMC. This would require a
more critical engagement with the idea of CMC talk as interaction and a reconsideration of
the saliency of “external” activities to talk. This involves more than simply studying off-
screen activities, such as the composition process, to consider how such processes are
implicated in and constituent of the interaction. This research is also relevant to
understanding the interactional complexities and concurrent interplay of on-screen, off-
screen, voice and text conversations with in-game actions of multilingual gamers, to
understand affordances for language learning within ludic environments. The impact of
mobility on talk-in-interaction, including embodied deixis during mobile augmented reality
game play (Thorne et al, 2015), adds a further dimension which is ripe for microanalytical
See Also: Hansun Zhang Waring: Conversation Analytic Approaches to Language and
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... While FtF communication encompasses different cues, including non-verbal cues, CMC is unique because it is documented, more detailed, and more informative (Tudini and Liddicoat, 2017). Specifically relevant for this study is the difference between types of humorous communications. ...
... We regard emails as a type of professional conversation between managers and employees (Tudini and Liddicoat, 2017). However, since emails lack the non-verbal cues FtF conversations possess (Holtbrügge et al., 2013;Schulze et al., 2017), individuals need to use different cues to emphasize and express themselves (e.g., emoticons, unconventional orthography, and non-standard punctuation) (Darics, 2010;Vandergriff, 2013;Kalman and Gergle, 2014). ...
... A meta-analysis (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012) found positive effects for employees' use of humor (satisfaction, enhanced work performance, workgroup cohesion, coping effectiveness, health, and decreased levels of stress, work withdrawal, and burnout) as well as managers' use of humor (general satisfaction, workgroup cohesion, satisfaction with supervisor, enhanced subordinate work performance, satisfaction, perception of supervisor performance, satisfaction with supervisor, and workgroup cohesion, along with reduced work withdrawal). Humor was also found to be indicative of employee OCB (Martin et al., 2004;Tremblay et al., 2016), and employees' happiness, well-being, and short and long-term positive emotional and psychological outcomes (Robert and Wilbanks, 2012;Kim et al., 2016;Wijewardena et al., 2017). ...
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Humor is a form of communication that is intended to be entertaining and produce positive affective and cognitive responses from receivers. Nonetheless, humor in the workplace is a complicated matter. It has been recognized as a valuable tool for managers because it can activate various favorable outcomes and alter employees’ perception of the manager’s warmth and competence (impression management), but not always to the benefit of the manager. In our studies, the use of humor showed changed attitudes toward a manager’s warmth and competence, and eventually influenced the employee’s behavioral intentions. In Study 1, we tested the use of managerial humor in two emails. The humorous manager was perceived as warm, but not competent. Impression management mediated the employee’s willingness to work with the manager. In Study 2, we tested the use of managerial humor with one introductory email. In this study, we also monitored the gender of both the manager and the employee. Once again, the humorous manager was perceived as warm and humor mediated employees’ behavioral intentions. As for competence, gender moderated the results, such that male employees perceived humorous female managers as more competent, while female employees perceived humorous male managers as less competent. Practical implications are presented.
... Indeed, prior research on technology-or computer-mediated interaction has remarked on the potential challenges made relevant by the unique interactional features of such environments, such as turn-taking in chat-based interactions (Garcia & Jacobs, 1999) as well as participants' partially shared physical contexts and quasi-co-presence (Tudini & Liddicoat, 2017). Even for visually mediated environments with the use of a webcam, participants do not engage in mutual gaze as they would in in-person interactions, which renders the coordination of gaze and gesture di cult (Heath & Lu , 1993;Tudini & Liddicoat, 2017). ...
... Indeed, prior research on technology-or computer-mediated interaction has remarked on the potential challenges made relevant by the unique interactional features of such environments, such as turn-taking in chat-based interactions (Garcia & Jacobs, 1999) as well as participants' partially shared physical contexts and quasi-co-presence (Tudini & Liddicoat, 2017). Even for visually mediated environments with the use of a webcam, participants do not engage in mutual gaze as they would in in-person interactions, which renders the coordination of gaze and gesture di cult (Heath & Lu , 1993;Tudini & Liddicoat, 2017). Given the potential challenges faced by participants when navigating environments where visual resources are lacking, investigating the practices employed to remediate such "fractured ecologies" would be illuminating (Lu et al., 2003). ...
... Focusing on a collaborative online exam task, we have highlighted how online educational environments, which are becoming increasingly more common in education, require participants (and researchers) to re-think the impact that the technological features of the online venue may have in shaping the ensuing interaction. Conversation analysts have duly demonstrated that the physical characteristics of the venue are important for how the resultant interaction takes shape; however, we now find ourselves analysing data where the physical possibilities and limitations are difficult to define (Tudini 2020). Our analysis concurs with the numerous other studies that have shown that the mediation through technology, with its possibilities and constraints, will have an impact on the interaction. ...
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This paper takes a multimodal conversation analytic approach to explore knowledge-in-interaction in a technology-mediated online environment (Skype videoconference) during a meeting between eight university students studying to become language teachers. The analysis considers the ways in which the student-teachers demonstrate their knowledge or understanding of telecollaborative project-based language learning while taking part in a telecollaborative exchange themselves. Given the growing predominance of online teaching and learning, it is increasingly relevant to have a deep understanding of the ongoing learner interaction that takes place in these environments, particularly considering that interaction can be understood as a trajectory of knowledge building. The study examines how the student-teachers make use of the different technological features of a videoconferencing platform to manage the assigned task, which is to complete a collaborative exam. These features include camera, shared links, parallel text chats and editing tools. Findings imply that the student-teachers sequentially organise their knowledge synthesis and co-construction of pedagogical understanding through technologically-supported mutually coordinated interaction. Although the analysis is contextually bound, the task-focused interaction that is highlighted is relevant to higher education teachers in a variety of contexts, apart from teacher education.
... It has been found that turns at talk, for instance, do not randomly follow each other, but cluster together so that they become "sequentially meaningful" (Farina, 2018). In other words, when people are sharing messages or posts online, they perform actions which can generate other actions, which give relevance to actions performed earlier, or which can trigger particular responses (Tudini & Liddicoat, 2017). Researching this type of "sequence organisation" in CMC contexts has rapidly gained ground (Farina, 2018) and has enabled researchers to identify overarching structures and analyse recurring patterns within text-based CMC. ...
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The present chapter formulates and applies a range of network methods for the analysis of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to improve our understanding of CMC text in educational contexts. It uses data from a case study in which foreign language learners (N = 188) at a Japanese private university were given the opportunity to interact with their peers in a collaborative online space, part of a strategic self-regulated learning module. Special attention is paid to some key aspects of the social network analysis approach, including the need to incorporate temporal measures in such an analysis, as well as to some basic building blocks, including the creation of heatmaps. This chapter, furthermore, demonstrates how Smart CALL can serve as a contemporary, comprehensive lens through which data-driven methods for text analysis can be contextualised and explained.
As active student participation in classroom interaction is widely accepted as a central component of foreign language learning, prompting student contributions becomes consequential in L2 educational settings including synchronous remote classrooms. When there is a lack of response following teacher questions, teachers resort to a variety of practices to elicit a response from students. Teachers’ response-pursuit moves are vital both to ensure interactional and pedagogical progressivity and secure student engagement. This study deals with the absence of student response to teacher questions in a largely unexplored interactional setting, namely large group, remote, synchronous, video-mediated L2 classrooms. Using multimodal conversation analysis for the examination of screen-recorded higher education English as a foreign language classroom interactions, this single case analysis documents interactional resources that an EFL teacher employs for pursuing a response and eliciting student participation. We show that in the focal context, when the teacher’s question is left unanswered and no one bids for the turn in the response slot, the teacher draws on diverse interactional practices as well as a range of screen-based multimodal resources to ensure the progressivity of the ongoing activity. Revealing how these resources maximize the interactional space, this study contributes to the understanding of the interactional organization of teacher response-pursuits and provides insights into video-mediated L2 classroom discourse.
This study examines the teacher's use of verbal and written designedly incomplete utterances (DIUs) within the initiation-response-feedback (IRF) sequence by analyzing data collected from synchronous online language learning classrooms conducted via Zoom. Multimodal conversation analysis was employed to demonstrate that both the teacher and the students paid close attention to the construction and completion of DIUs through both written and spoken modes. This practice was primarily deployed by the teacher to elicit talk from students by offering the initial part of the response turn. The 121 sequences containing DIUs solicited participation from students through collaborative writing of their answers on the shared screen. This study may contribute to recent CA research on the embodied work of teaching (Hall & Looney, 2019) and situated learning activities (Goodwin, 2013; Kyratzis & Johnson, 2017) by describing a pedagogic practice that may have been adopted to help students participate in online discourses. The results may also offer a much-needed description of the actual occurrences of DIUs in online L2 classrooms.
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This paper reports on a project designed to promote intercultural learning and understanding between language students across three universities in Australia, Mexico and Germany. It examines students’ self-recorded Skype exchanges and assesses them within the debate over the inclusion of interculturality in language learning and teaching. By examining the negotiation of meaning that occurs between exchange partners, the study highlights the key elements involved in intercultural mediation, where rapport building may have a significant impact on negotiation of intercultural knowledge and attitudes. Micro-level discourse analysis is applied to culture-related events in the Skype conversations with a view to contributing meaningful insights into intercultural communication in instructional contexts.
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The indispensable role of identity in language learning has recently attracted considerable attention among SLA scholars. Consequently, the current mixed-methods classroom-based study investigated whether the implementation of intercultural movie clips could contribute to improving the personal identity, and have a positive impact on L2 identity of participants in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context of Iran. To this end, two intact classes were assigned to the control and experimental group, each containing thirty students. This quasi-experimental study was implemented on the pre-test post-test equivalent-group design. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative analysis, using two questionnaires and a semi-structured interview, the results indicate that positive changes took place in the personal and second language identity of the participants. More specifically, they moved from a closed community of practice in which self was seen from one horizon to an intercultural community of practice in which others were seen besides self. The changing community provided by movie clips had an impact on the participants’ views and trends. Thus access to new social, cultural, and linguistic resources resulted in the adoption of new identities. Indeed, teachers and educators should know that language can be considered as a site for the construction of self-identification or group affiliation since language is a key element in identity formation and identity is a sense of self or sense of belonging.
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In an effort to better understand the ways that small groups use digital technology as they move through a physical environment, this paper describes the methods used by groups of three people to maintain a group participation structure as they accomplish a quest-type task during mobile augmented reality game play. The game was available on one mobile digital device (an Apple iPhone) that was shared by three players as they negotiated a set of point-to-point route finding tasks. Video-recordings of each group were made using three cameras (two head-mounted cameras and one hand-held camera). We focus on the different ways that the single device was oriented to by group members via talk-ininteraction as they accomplished the game activity. In particular, we outline the practices for talk-in-interaction (including gaze, postural alignment, and deictic expressions) used by the participants to maintain their constitution as a group, to accomplish a shared visual focus on the single device, and to explicitly transfer the device from one player to another.
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Different Internet technologies foster the acquisition of different language skills. In the case of synchronous interaction tools, such as Webchat, the concern is to evaluate whether and how this communication context affects the process of acquiring a second langauge. A collection of Webchat interaction data among English non-native speakers (NNS) and native speakers (NS) is the basis for a microanalytic investigation conducted form a Conversation Analysis (CA) perspective. The main purpose is to discover patterns and conversational strategies used by participatns in this on-line context. A CA research approach was chosen since it investigates the machinery and the structure of social action in language, avoiding preformulated theoretic categories. This is important since CMC represents a new SLA context, forcing both NS and NNS to produce different structures and strategies. The study analyzes, in particular, whether Webchat implies a reduction of the range in interactional practices, actions performance, sense making, and meaning negotiation, thus affecting the SLA process. Finally, the researcher considers the reliability and validity of this type of qualitative research in this new technological area. Using some research methodologies taken from CA literature, an analysis of the data focuses first on the overall structure of interaction and sequence organization in connection with the on-line communicaiton setting features. It then passes to turn-taking organization, with attention to recurrent structures and patterns as in openings and closings; turn design (or packaging of actions); expression of parlinguistic features in this on-line context; and some (interlanguage) pragmatic variables. The conclusion resolves the findings and underlines NNS versus NS behaviour, offering hypotheses about SLA through Webchat and synchronous CMC in general, encouraging further investigation.
Conference Paper
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This study employs conversation analysis methodology to examine interactional unfolding of multiparty online task-oriented English as foreign language (L2) interactions. The participants of the study are 20 undergraduate students who are members of a conversation club based in their department. As part of a club activity, L2 learners meet online once a week in groups of four to complete a task using “Google Hangouts” video chat environment. The task is called web-orienteering which comprises of three on- screen audiovisual clues on a website in which the learners try to find a single keyword for each task and complete the task collaboratively before the opponent teams. Each week, there are three consecutive questions which the learners should answer to accomplish the task, and they cannot pass to the next question until everyone in the group finds the answer. The only rule of the task is that the participant who finds the correct answer cannot tell it to his/her teammates directly, but can add new clues to help them out. The multiparty interactions on the video chat software has been recorded via a screen capturing software, transcribed, and then examined using conversation analysis. The data is from a corpus of online task-oriented interactions across 20 weeks (i.e. 20 hours). The preliminary results showed that the design of the task has an impact on the naturally occurring interaction especially after one of the participants find the answer and starts hinting. Given that the learners align with the task rules and do not share the answer explicitly, the information gaps found in the study are dynamic, emergent, subject to constant change. Therefore, the results establish a new way to implement information gap tasks through the use of emergent gaps which unfold in and through talk-in-interaction. This study focused on the impact of task design on online task-oriented interaction in English as a foreign language with reference to information gap as a task type. The design of the task has been informed by research findings from the fields of technology- mediated TBLT (Gonzalez-Lloret & Ortega, 2014), task-oriented interaction (Seedhouse, 1999; Seedhouse, 2005; Seedhouse & Almutairi, 2009), epistemics in L2 interaction (Heritage, 2012a, b; Sert, 2013; Jakonen & Morton, 2015; Sert & Jacknick, 2015), and conversation analysis for second language acquisition (Firth & Wagner, 1997; Markee, 2000, Markee & Kasper, 2004; Kasper & Wagner, 2011, Sert, 2015) research. Technology-mediated TBLT informed the study with Gonzalez-Lloret and Ortega’s (2014) five-step task framework in that the task had (1) a primary focus on meaning rather than form(s); (2) a completion point that is a keyword; (3) engaged participants without the presence of a teacher; (4) a real-world relationship through collaboration and group discussions (5) with their own words ensuring a hands-on experience. On-screen activities (e.g. web searches and answer trials) and video chat interactions have been screen-recorded for transcription and further analytic treatment using conversation analysis which is a data-driven methodology that has been largely used in second language research in the last decade (Markee, 2000; Markee & Kasper, 2004; Kasper & Wagner, 2011, Sert, 2015). Conversation analysis does not impose any codes or categories based on theories, hypotheses, or constructs. The analytic focus is completely on emergent interactional patterns that can be explicated on sequential basis driven by on minute-by-minute, turn-by-turn examination of the naturally occurring interaction data. CA has been used in task-oriented interaction research by some researchers (Seedhouse, 1999; Mori, 2002; Mondada & Pekarek Doehler, 2004; Seedhouse, 2005; Hellerman, 2008; Hellerman & Cole, 2008; Hellerman & Pekarek Doehler, 2010; Markee & Kunitz, 2013) particularly because it offers a robust method to describe the nature of task-as-process (Seedhouse, 2005) and puts an emphasis on the interactional processes of task-engagement rather than keeping the focus on the task-as-workplan (Ellis, 2003). The results of the investigation into these processes showed particular instances during which the learners orient to the emergence of information gaps in relation to their current epistemic status (Sert, 2013; Jakonen & Morton, 2015) in the epistemic gradient (Heritage, 2012a, b) and accomplish the task collaboratively with successful management of these gaps.
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been seen as offering a way to sensitize language learners to heteroglossia in all its forms: varieties of linguistic codes and styles, varieties of opinions and ideological points of view, diversity of semiotic meaning-making modalities—all of which are difficult to instantiate through one single teacher in a classroom. Thus, CMC has been touted as an ideal pedagogic solution to an age-old problem: How to put foreign language learners in dialogue with genuine native speakers to experience this heteroglossia? CMC, however, does not always deliver what it promises. Drawing upon an ethnographic analysis of in-classroom observations, online discourse, and learner reflections, this chapter attempts to conceptualize and describe a manner of online language that is neither the multivoicedness that Bakhtin called heteroglossia nor the authoritative discourse he presented as its antithesis, but echoings and mirrorings that turn learners back on themselves.
Examines social interaction in second language voice-based chat rooms How do speakers of English as an additional language manage their talk and interaction in chat rooms? Christopher Jenks thoroughly analyses the interactional effects of technology, and explores in detail the social and linguistic implications of communicating in second language chat rooms. Providing a unique look at how second language talk is organized in an online setting, this book is essential reading for postgraduate students and scholars in computer-mediated communications, social interactions, TESOL and applied linguistics. It focuses on voice-based chat rooms instead of text-based ones, adding to and enriching the existing body of research on second language textbooks within computer-mediated communication studies. It contains multiple transcripts and figures to illustrate the discussion.
This study explores whether chat users are able to extend prior, apparently completed posts in the dyadic online text chat context. Dyadic text chat has a unique turn-taking system, and most chat softwares do not permit users to monitor one another's written messages-in-progress. This is likely to impact on their use of online extensions as an interactional resource. For example, intonation is one interactional device used in spoken conversation to indicate imminent turn closure and project a response from interlocutors, thus creating a possibly complete turn-constructional unit (TCU) and transition relevance places (TRP). The speaker, however, may add further talk to that TCU, thus producing an extension and redoing the TRP. If prosody and monitorability of recipients' online talk production are unavailable as interactional resources, can participants still extend prior posts during online textual interaction? The analysis of chat logs of geographically dispersed speakers of Italian provides new evidence on the fundamental role of semantics, pragmatics, syntax, and punctuation in users' deployment of extending devices with various forms and interactional functions in dyadic textual online chat, as resources for social action.
Although distance language education has been widely adopted in university learning, very few researchers to date have looked at off-screen behaviors of second/foreign language learners in their physical environment while they engage in synchronous (real-time) online courses. This study, in contrast, focused on one focal student’s off-screen behaviors while she sat in front of the computer in her physical environment during university-level synchronous Japanese class. The class was mediated by audio-based conferencing software ( Wimba ) where class participants’ behaviors in their physical environments were not observable to others. The primary data consist of two types of video recordings that were synchronized in a picture-in-picture format: focal student’s off-screen behaviors in her private environment and archived online classes with instructor and seven classmates (~20 hours). Drawing on conversation analysis, the study showed unique characteristics of interactional norms developed by the student in her physical environment in contrast to those observed in a controlled online environment. The focal student’s off-screen behavior suggested that she gained significant affordances from the course format; namely, opportunities to freely take her private turns by vocalizing the language off-screen without being heard. The study illustrates the potential of computer-based learning to promote increased learner agency and autonomy.