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This paper presents a cost-effective design of an intelligent waste container for small-scale cases. This system is based on Arduino Nano board and an ultrasonic sensor to monitor the fullness level of the container and give SMS alerts using a GSM module. The system is powered by lithium battery power bank supported by a solar cell panel. The system provides an option of charging external portable devices using the power bank. Moreover, the system will store usage events, recorded by PIR sensor, and fullness events on a memory card, which is also used to play audio message using a speaker, when the bin is being used. Finally, the system is implemented successfully with an acceptable overall cost for the intended application. The system performance was found satisfactory according to the obtained test results.
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Original article | doi: 10.25007/ajnu.v6n3a103
Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU) 141
The Design and Implementation of Smart Trash
Fady E. F. Samann
College of Engineering, Department of Computer and Communication, Nawroz University, Duhok, Kurdistan
Region Iraq
This paper presents a cost-effective design of an intelligent waste container for small-scale cases. This system is based
on Arduino Nano board and an ultrasonic sensor to monitor the fullness level of the container and give SMS alerts
using a GSM module. The system is powered by lithium battery power bank supported by solar cell panel. The system
provides an option of charging external portable devices using the power bank. Moreover, the system will store usage
events, recorded by PIR sensor, and fullness events on a memory card, which is also used to play audio message
using a speaker, when the bin is being used. Finally, the system is implemented successfully with an acceptable
overall cost for the intended application. The system performance was found satisfactory according to the obtained
test results.
KEYWORDS: Smart Device, Trash Bin, Waste Container, Microcontroller, GSM, Ultrasonic Sensor.
Environmental problems are raised by modern cities for
waste collection and disposal[1]. Therefore, smart waste
management systems became essential for cities that aim
to reduce cost and manage resources and time[2].
Currently, the trend is shifting towards smart devices and
internet of things (IoT) solutions to overcome common
problems such as waste management issues[3].
Optimizing the process of trash collection is the main
purpose of the smart solutions provided by industry.
However, the cost of applying such solutions is still
relatively high [4]. The purpose of this work is to present
a cost-effective smart trash bin for localized and small-
scale cases, such as small parks, university campus and
hospitals. The literature of this paper will present a
literature review of past related papers and commercial
solutions. Then methodology and methods section will
explain the work of the system and all the hardware and
software used in this work, besides the design of the smart
trash bin. Finally, the results of tests will be discussed
followed by conclusions and future work.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Research Papers
The most current related work is done by Zavare and his
colleagues[5] on sensor nodes connected to an Arduino
board based control station, that uses a GSM module to
send the sensor nodes data by SMS to the garbage collecting
vehicle and to a server hosting web application by a Wi-Fi
connection. The sensor nodes of the smart bins rely on the
ultrasonic sensor to sense the fullness percentage according
to pre-calculated bin depth. Moreover, a GPS module is
used to get the bin location. The GPS module and the
ultrasonic sensor are controlled by Amica R2 NodeMCU
microcontroller board which has a built-in Wi-Fi module,
that is used to connect to the control station.
Another work on wireless sensor network is done by Singh,
Mahajan and Bagai[6]. The bins in his work are equipped
with an accelerometer sensor to sense the opening and
closing of the bin lid, a temperature and humidity sensor to
check the present organic waste, and an ultrasonic sensor
to sense the fullness status of the bin. All these sensors are
controlled by Zigbee Pro microcontroller board, which has
a built-in Wi-Fi module that is used to send the sensors data
to a gateway. This paper also used the same type of
microcontroller board in the gateway to receive the bins
data and send it to a control station, that contains a server,
over GPRS. The server in the control station relies on
Caspio database management system with a web based
user interface.
A paper by Navghane, Killedar and Rohokale[7] examined
the use of weight sensor and three IR sensors to check the
Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU)
Volume 6, No 3(2017), 8 pages
Received 1 May 2017; Accepted 16 August 2017
Regular research paper: Published 30 August 2017
Corresponding author’s e-mail:
Copyright ©2017 Fady E. F. Samann
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative
Commons Attribution License.
Original article | doi: 10.25007/ajnu.v6n3a103
142 Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU)
fullness status of the smart bin and send the sensors data to
a web page over Wi-Fi network to a mobile phone. The
microcontroller board used in this paper was ARM
A report was done by students of California Polytechnic
State University[8], thoroughly exploited the economic and
power consumption aspects of converting a conventional
outdoor trash bin into a smart one. According to the
literature, the project is based on u-blox C027-U20
microcontroller board, which has built-in GPS module and
cellular module. The board is used to control HC-SR04
ultrasonic sensor, that measures the bin’s fullness-level,
and a temperature sensor for monitoring weather
conditions and fire alerts. The setup is contained by 2×4×6
plastic box and powered by a 12V rechargeable lead-acid
battery. The report mentioned that the system generates an
HTTP POST request using the data from the sensors and
send it to a web application, which is built using Python
and Flask framework on top of an SQLite database. The
web application receives the HTTP request and check if the
bin is full then send SMS message using Twilio service.
Moreover, Leaflet JavaScript library is used to virtualize the
collected data on a map. In summary, most of the papers
above did not focus on covering the overall cost and power
consumption of the system, which are the main issues
tackled by this paper.
2.2 Commercial and Industrial Solutions
There are several companies offer smart trash bins
managed by a web-based application. ECUBE labs[9] and
Bigbelly[10] offer smart trash compactor bins, which
powered by solar cell panel and battery. Clean CUBE bin
uses ultrasonic sensor and Bigbelly smart trash bin uses
laser sensor to measure fullness status[9][10]. Moreover,
most companies offer IoT sensors, which can be easily
installed on available trash bins. ECUBE labs[9],
ENEVO[11] and SMARTBIN[12] offer battery powered
versions of these ultrasonic IoT sensors. Moreover, CUBE
labs offer solar powered one. However, COMPOLOGY[13]
offers IoT sensor that uses a camera to detect the fullness
status of large industrial trash containers. Most of these IoT
sensors and smart bins integrate temperature, tilt and
acceleration sensors to detect vandalism, fire, trash
collecting and usage events. All these solutions make use of
cellular networks to send data from the IoT sensors and
bins to their cloud hosted web-application portal over the
internet. These web-applications monitor fullness level,
energy usage, fire alerts, and give real-time readings and
historical reports in addition to schedules and routes for
optimized trash collection. Finally, contrary to the
mentioned solutions, this paper aims to reduce cost by
sending fullness alert without the need for internet
connection and web-applications.
3. Methodology and Methods
This work will put a design for the smart trash bin, then
explain the used hardware parts and how it is connected
together. The software is then explained and illustrated as
a flowchart. Figure 1 shows the basic operation of the
system. The fullness status of the bin is determined by
calculating the distance between the lid of the bin and the
trash by using a sensor. A distance threshold will be set
according to the bin dimensions. When the distance
measuring sensor indicates that the bin is full, then a
microcontroller board will control a GSM module to send
SMS alert, that contains bin ID and alert message, to a
predefined phone number. The location of the bin is
predefined by a sanitary worker who will identify the filled
bin by its ID, which received by the SMS alert. The system
will return to default operation when the bin is emptied by
the sanitary worker. An LED will keep blinking until the
bin emptied from trash. A memory card will register all the
usage and fullness alerts for later analyses. Moreover, a
motion sensor will be used to detect the usage event to play
a thanking audio message stored on the memory card using
a speaker to encourage the bin user. A block diagram of the
system is shown in Figure 2.
Fig 1: Basic operation of the system
Original article | doi: 10.25007/ajnu.v6n3a103
Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU) 143
Fig 2: System Block Diagram
3.1 Design
The system design tries to be cost-effective and user-
friendly. Figure 3 shows an outdoor trash bin after and
before applying the metal work. The design relied on a
commonly used outdoor trash bin, which is redesigned to
append an extension arm to hold the solar cell panel. The
metal work also included adding an 18cm × 22cm tray for
holding any electronic device during charging from the
USB port, which will be attached to the extension arm. The
height of the bin from the ground to the end of solar cell
panel is 155cm. The trash container has a cylindrical shape
of 30cm diameter and 46cm height. However, the height
from the bottom of the bin opening is 27cm, which gives a
volume of 76341cm3. Moreover, all the electronic parts will
be mentioned in the next section are held inside
(110×180×77mm) plastic electric junction box, which held
underneath the bin lid. This design is applicable to almost
any standard outdoor trash bin.
Fig 3: The design of smart trash bin, before (right) and after (left) the metal work
3.2 Hardware
The system structure relies on Arduino Nano board.
According to the datasheet, it is based on ATmega328
microcontroller which has a 16MHz clock speed, 32 KB
flash memory, 2KB SRAM and 1KB EEPROM.
Arduino Nano is a microcontroller breadboard with
integrated 5V voltage regulator and can provide serial
communication over USB with a computer for
programming. It also has 14 digital I/O pins; 6 of them can
provide PWM output and 2 external interrupt pins. This
microcontroller supports SPI and I2C communications.
Moreover, it also has 8 analog I/O pins. All these pins can
Original article | doi: 10.25007/ajnu.v6n3a103
Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU)
deliver or accept a maximum of 40 mA and has an internal
pull-up resistor 20-50 kΩ. All the above comes in a small
package of 18 x 45 mm and weighs 4g. This
microcontroller breadboard was chosen for its size,
weight, functionality and its programming flexibility.
Figure 4 and Figure 5 shows the system schematic of the
circuit board and how the following electronic parts are
connected inside the electric junction box. Ultrasonic
ranging module sensor (HC-SR04) is used to detect the
fullness level of the trash bin. According to the datasheet,
this sensor can detect a 0.5m2 object from a range of 20-
400cm with a 15-degree measuring angle. Moreover, it can
detect liquid and solid objects, and also immune to almost
any outdoor interference sources. This sensor returns
Time of Flight (ToF) which is the time interval that
ultrasonic wave takes to cross back and forward between
the wave source and the material boundary[14].
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝑇𝑜𝐹 × 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑
The system depends on GSM module (sim900a mini
v3.8.2) to send SMS fullness alerts. according to the
datasheet, the module can be controlled by sending AT
commands over its 5V serial port. The Rx pin of GSM
module is connected to analog pin A3 on the Arduino
Nano, and the Tx pin of the module is connected to A4 pin
of the Arduino board. A3 and A4 pins will be turned into
Tx/Rx pins using a software library, because of the GSM
module relies on serial communication and Arduino Nano
has no extra serial port. An LED, with a 1kΩ resistor, is
used to give a visual alert when the bin is full. Moreover,
a PIR motion detector (HC-SR501) is used to sense when
the trash bin is being used. According to the datasheet, this
sensor has a sensing range of 120 degrees within 7 meters.
Therefore, the sensor is installed to the side of the plastic
box and partially covered to sense only user hand entering
the bin. The usage event is triggered by the PIR sensor.
This sensor will interrupt the microcontroller work using
pin 3 to play a WAV file stored on a MicroSD card, which
is connected to the setup by an adapter from Waveshare.
The audio message is played over 3W/4Ω speaker driven
by an HXJ8002 audio amplifier. The MicroSD card is also
used to log the fullness and usage events inside CSV files
for further analyses. Finally, the setup of the system is
powered by off-the-shelf 12000mAh power bank, which
will also be used to charge any electronic device provided
by bin user. The power bank is backed up by 13W/5V
solar cell panel which can supply current up to 2.6A.
Fig 4: Circuit board schematic
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Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU) 145
Fig 5: Hardware setup
3.3 Software
The whole program is done using Arduino IDE. Figure 6
shows a flow chart of the Arduino program. Four libraries
were used to facilities communicating with the modules.
SoftwareSerial library is used to communicate with the
GSM module and send AT commands to it. This library is
used because of Arduino Nano does not have an
additional serial port, which the GSM module rely on for
communication with the microcontroller. This library
transforms A3 and A4 pins into extra Tx and Rx pins to
connect the Tx/Rx pins of the GSM module. SPI library is
used for communicating with the MicroSD module which
depends on Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) data protocol.
SdFat library is used to manage data and read/write files
on the MicroSD card. The last library is TMRpcm, which
is used to output the WAV file, stored on the MicroSD, as
PWM signal to digital pin 9 that connected to the speaker.
The Setup function of the Arduino program first defines
the used pins as outputs or inputs, then sends AT
commands to the GSM module to enable text mode,
enable local time/date stamp and store current settings on
the GSM module memory. The time/date stamp will be
stored on CSV files during logging events on. This
function is also used to get the phone number and SMS
alert text, which will be sent to that number in case of
fullness event, from text files on the MicroSD card. This
step is done to simplify changing these parameters
without altering the program. The final step of Setup
function is initializing digital pin 3 as an interrupt pin to
connect the output pin of the PIR module to it. When the
voltage rises on the output pin of the PIR module, the
work of the microcontroller will be interrupted to play the
WAV file on the speaker and log the usage event with the
current time/date stamp on the CSV file.
The Loop function is used to measure the distance
between the ultrasonic module and the trash every 15
minutes. This time period can be changed hereafter to
correspond with real life operating cases. A while loop
will iterate while the measured distance is smaller than a
threshold, which is measured 10cm according to the bin
dimensions. The LED will blink for 5 seconds before a
second measuring is taken inside the while loop to check
if the measured value still satisfies the condition and no
SMS alert has been sent. After that, the SMS alert message
will be sent and the fullness event will be logged in the
CSV file. Finally, as bookkeeping measure, the balance of
the used SIM card is added to the SMS text before sending
it. The balance is obtained by sending Unstructured
Supplementary Service Data (USSD) code to the mobile
network using AT command, which is executed by the
GSM module.
Original article | doi: 10.25007/ajnu.v6n3a103
Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU)
Fig 6: Software flow chart
4. Results and Discussion
The smart bin was tested first indoor without charging the
power bank by the solar cell panel. The system worked as
intended for it to do. Then the bin was installed outdoor
in the main square of Nawroz University campus for a
period of seven days. During this period, the solar cell
panel managed successfully to charge the power bank and
kept the system running. However, after examining the
CSV files on the MicroSD card, the realization was that the
PIR sensor kept going off and interrupt the Arduino board
to play the audio message. The main reasons behind this
behaviour are heat exposure and reflected sunlight from
objects inside or around the bin, even though the PIR
sensor datasheet points that the operating temperature of
the sensor is between -30O C to +70O C. The data sheet
also noted that light and wind flow can be considered as
interference sources. Therefore, a second outdoor test was
done for another seven days with the PIR sensor is
disabled. Despite that, the bin did not get full during this
period but the system sent SMS fullness message every
time fullness status simulated by putting an obstacle in
front of the ultrasonic sensor.
In terms of power consumption, the measured current
drawn by the whole system was 400mA, despite that the
GSM module has a power rate of 2W/5V. According to the
measured current, the power bank will last for 30 hours
and the solar cell panel will require another 30 hours to
fully charge the power bank. This is can be feasible during
summer long days, as shown in the first test. However, the
GSM module has a sleep mode which reduces the current
consumption of the module to 1.5mA during the idle
period. This mode could not be implemented because of
the power bank is designed to be automatically turned off
when the power consumption is too low.
In terms of cost, the mobile network subscription was
found satisfactory for giving 100 SMS message per
5000IQD credit. However, most mobile network
companies put a 90-day expiration period on the credit.
Table 1 shows the overall cost of the system without the
cost of the bin itself, because of the system can be applied
Original article | doi: 10.25007/ajnu.v6n3a103
Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU) 147
to almost any type of trash bin. If the PIR sensor and
speaker were considered as an accessory, the bare
minimum cost for the system will be $160.
Finally, the solution provided by this system can be
effective in managing large numbers of trash bins over a
small-scale location, due to the no need for internet
connectivity and computer to track the status of the bins.
However, keeping aware of the bins locations according
to their IDs, which are sent by the fullness SMS message,
is required for a successful trash collection.
Table 1: Overall cost of the system
5. Conclusion and Future Work
Most of the past work on this subject focused on utilizing
cellular network to connect to the internet for sending the
sensor’s data to a server. On the contrary, this paper
considered using the cellular network to send fullness
SMS alert directly to the user. Therefore, the work in this
paper can be considered as a smart device, not as IoT
solution. This system does not offer all the facilities that
provided by the web applications of IoT products and
papers mentioned above. However, the reduction in cost
offered by this paper is noticeable, if compared with the
cost of commercial products and the work in [8] due to
opting out the presence of an online server. The results of
the indoor test indicate that the setup worked perfectly
under normal conditions. Moreover, the outdoor tests
showed that solar cell panel performed adequately in
charging the power bank and keeping the system running.
In terms of mobile network subscription expiration
period, the system can make use of postpaid plan to
overcome this issue. Moreover, a custom-built power
bank is recommended, with the use of USB DC-DC step-
up module, Li-Ion battery charging module and 3.7V Li-
Ion rechargeable batteries, to overcome the issue of the
automatic shutdown of the power bank. This will also
reduce the cost of the system by $20. The option of
charging any electronic device for the bin user can be
omitted to reduce cost and receive a better performance
from the power bank. Moreover, can make use of the
concept of gateway or control station that mentioned in [5]
and [6] to further reduce the overall cost. However, a
number of bins connected to a single control station and
range limitation of the Wi-Fi module must be taken into
In terms of security, the author considers it is unpractical
to add accelerometer sensor to send an alert in case of
vandalizing and GPS module to track the bin location in
case of theft. Accelerometer sensor cannot differentiate
between an animal, a person or extreme weather shaking
the bin. Moreover, the first thing a thief would do is
disconnecting the power from the system, thus the GPS
module will be useless in tracking the bin location.
However, a temperature or smoke sensor can be added to
the system to send an alert in case of fire. The advantages
and disadvantages of this work are illustrated in the table
Fixed cost
Periodic cost
Metal work and paint
Solar panel
Power bank
Electric junction box
Arduino Nano
GSM module
Ultrasonic sensor
PIR sensor
MicroSD card module
Other parts and soldering
GSM network credit
5000IQD ≈ $4
Original article | doi: 10.25007/ajnu.v6n3a103
Academic Journal of Nawroz University (AJNU)
Table 2: Advantage and Disadvantages of the System
Low building cost.
Requires manual recharging of mobile network
Low operating cost.
Requires pre-knowledge of the bins’ locations.
Can work outdoors and indoors.
Security measures depend on build quality and
fixed installation of the bin.
Can run for a long time.
Don’t send an alert in case of fire.
Low maintenance requirements.
User-friendly design.
It has an AUX USB port to charge external electronic
Finally, this paper managed to present a cost-effective and
user-friendly smart waste container for small-scale cases,
comparing to the past work mentioned above. As a future
work, the overall cost can be further reduced if the GSM
module is replaced by Wi-Fi module, which connects to an
intranet WLAN to send the fullness alert to the user
mobile phone. This will remove the periodic cost of mobile
network subscription and reduce the power consumption
of the system.
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... SMS alert is given using the GSM module. The bin is operated by a solar cell and an audio message will be given if the bin is full [7]. A smart and innovative use of the dustbin in designed for use in railway station and bus stands. ...
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Most of the places in India suffer from poor garbage disposal. In Indian cities due to the growth of population garbage disposal has become a challenging task for the municipality authority. Trashes are spread over the roads and vacant land in most of the places .This is due to disposal of garbage on the road instead of garbage bins. People are not able to dispose the garbage in garbage bin due to garbage overflow and not disposing the garbage frequently. If a city is aiming for smart city then it has to maintain the hygienic condition of the city, if garbage is not disposed properly then it becomes a crucial health issues since maintaining hygiene becomes a challenging task. So to overcome this and to maintain the garbage system the dust bins are attached with sensors and the data collected through the sensors are sent to the corporation office control room. This is enabled used a wireless communication technology. The level of the garbage is supervised using an Graphical user Interface which is integrated with the Android application. The dust bin location is traced with a help of GPS enabled in the garbage bin. The location of dustbin information is also tracked using the GPS system integrated with the garbage bin. If these devices are integrated then it will enable to reduced the overall time in tracking and disposing the dustbin on time , thus the dustbin in regularly monitored. The bin is attached with RFID reader, load cell, gas sensors, and humidity sensors. The bin is operated based on the RFID reader and sensors which opens the bin according to the dry and wet waste. The RFID tag is given to the public. The public needs to display the RFID tag to throw the trash in to the dustbin. The person who is throwing the maximum number of garbage is rewarded with points. The weight of the garbage thrown by the user is calculated by the load cell placed in the dustbin. By this way we can avoid the public throwing the garbage on streets. The humidity sensor is placed to separate the wet and dry waste. Thus it helps in the disposal of the garbage and avoid in spreading of diseases due to the trashes spread across the streets
... This process is rather complicated and requires quite a long time. With technological advances in recent years, manual waste management methods should have been developed automatically to optimize waste collection [5]. ...
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Trash is produced by humans every day from various sources of trash, such as from households, markets, and various industries. Trash consists of various types, forms, and sources. A trash can be a problem because it causes a health problem for human and air pollution. At this time, the awareness of throw the trash to the trash bin still lacks considering especially in public areas. This case is caused by a dirty trash bin, smelly, and neglected. The purpose of this literature review is to find out the theoretical framework to design trash bins in public areas, which managed in an integrated manner so that these problems are not found anymore. The method used in reviewing this paper is by entering keywords trash bin, smart trash IoT, integrated trash bin, and related to trash bin design on google scholar and ScienceDirect, which published in 2015-2019.
A good manhole management is a symbol of good city. Nowadays manholes and its maintenance are the main problem in the metropolitan smart cities. Also, contamination of fresh water due to problem in sewage drainage system is of concern. In observation most of the manhole’s lids were not in the settled emplacement. As most of the manhole’s lids are in the damaged condition. Because of the damaged manholes, there are chances of occurrence of accidents on the road. These damaged manholes will be hazard to the personal safety. The goal of this project is to create an effective accident-avoidance system by avoiding open manholes in large cities. Sensors such as tilt sensors are used to identify rifts and damage to manhole lids, and the information obtained is then sent to the authorities of the municipal corporation department and the councillor of the local region, who will find the manhole location. The supervision and the maintenance are done through the Internet of Things. The working and implementation of this project will be very useful to the society.
Nosocomial infections are a growing challenge at hospitals. This clinical study aimed to investigate the influence of waste container construction ((open (O), closed (C), and hands-free opening (HF)) on microbial air contamination in a hospital setting. The results are intended to help develop guidelines for waste containers for the collection of non-infectious waste at hospitals and medical facilities. The clinical experiment was conducted at the University Hospital Jena, Germany. Air Impactor samples were performed and microbiologically evaluated for bacteria and fungi both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results were statistically determined using generalized estimating equations. Quantitatively, the lowest bacterial counts in ambient air were found around closed waste containers (114.74 CFU/m³) in comparison to HF (129.28 CFU/m³) and O (126.28 CFU/m³). For fungi, the surrounding air of C (2.08 CFU/m³) and HF (1.97 CFU/m³) waste containers showed a lower impact of fungal air contamination than for O (2.32 CFU/m³). Overall, it was shown that C are more preferable to HF and O waste containers from the point of view of microbial air contamination at hospitals.
Conference Paper
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The 3rd International Conference on Intelligent and Interactive Computing 2021 (IIC 2021) was held virtually at Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Melaka, Malaysia, on 9 September 2021. The event was jointly organized by the Department of Interactive Media and Department of Intelligent Computing and Analytics, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), with the theme ‘Empowering the World with Intelligent and Immersive Computing towards Smart Solutions’.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) shall be able to incorporate transparently and seamlessly a large number of different and heterogeneous end systems, while providing open access to selected subsets of data for the development of a plethora of digital services. Building a general architecture for the IoT is hence a very complex task, mainly because of the extremely large variety of devices, link layer technologies, and services that may be involved in such a system. In this paper, we focus specifically to an urban IoT system that, while still being quite a broad category, are characterized by their specific application domain. Urban IoTs, in fact, are designed to support the Smart City vision, which aims at exploiting the most advanced communication technologies to support added-value services for the administration of the city and for the citizens. This paper hence provides a comprehensive survey of the enabling technologies, protocols, and architecture for an urban IoT. Furthermore, the paper will present and discuss the technical solutions and best-practice guidelines adopted in the Padova Smart City project, a proof-of-concept deployment of an IoT island in the city of Padova, Italy, performed in collaboration with the city municipality.
Microelectronic devices are becoming so small and inexpen-sive that they can soon be embedded in almost everything, rendering everyday objects "smart". These smart objects may communicate by wireless means and form spontaneous net-works, giving rise to a world-wide distributed system several orders of magnitude larger than today's Internet. The prospects of a world of smart things that virtually talk to each other are fascinating, leading to many new applications and opportuni-ties. In our presentation we will summarize the technology trends behind the ubiquitous computing idea and then discuss means to render everyday objects smart. We will also mention some non-technical issues such as privacy aspects.
Conference Paper
In an environmental context, the use of RFID (radio frequency identification) and load cell sensor technology can be employed for not only bringing down waste management costs, but also to facilitate automating and streamlining waste (e.g., garbage, recycling, and green) identification and weight measurement processes for designing smart waste management systems. In this paper, we outline a RFID and sensor model for designing a system in real-time waste management. An application of the architecture is described in the area of RFID and sensor based automatic waste identity, weight, and stolen bins identification system (WIWSBIS).
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