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Agroforestry parklands in sub-Saharan Africa

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... All the advantages, constraints and opportunities have been described (Thomas and Barton 1995;Scoones and Wolmer 2000;Rota 2001;Tarawali and Hiernaux 2002;D'Aquino et al., 1995). When tree component is considered, it usually captured surrounding two components at a time, the association of trees with crops such as agroforestry parkland systems (Bonkoungou et al. 1994;Cissé 1995;Ouédraogo 1995;Boffa 1999;Boffa 2000) or with livestock as silvopastoral system although in the traditional systems in West Africa, crop, tree and livestock productions are permanently related. Crop residues and tree fodder are used to feed livestock and the manure brought back to the field which is benefic for crops and trees. ...
... Tree species are generally selected for their fruits, wood, leaves or for medicinal purposes. The density of trees and their species composition in parklands are often determined by the value that farmers give to these products and services (Cissé 1995;Ouédraogo 1995;Boffa 1999;Boffa et al. 2000;Bayala et al. 2002). ...
... Trees of constructed parklands are dominated by exotic species such as cashew (Anacardium occidentale), mango (Mangifera indica) and citrus (Citrus sp) in sub-humid zones and in dry zones by eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp) and neem (Azadhirata indica). Generally, species composition and tree density of parklands are declining (Boffa 1999;Traoré 2003;Nikiéma 2005) due to high population pressure and decline in the length of fallow period. Natural regeneration ordinarily occurs in fallows which are becoming either very short or absent (Nikiéma, 2005). ...
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When tree component is considered, it usually captured surrounding two components at a time, the association of trees with crops such as agroforestry parkland systems or with livestock as silvopastoral system although in the traditional systems in West Africa, crop, tree and livestock productions are permanently related. Crop residues and tree fodder are used to feed livestock and the manure brought back to the field which is benefic for crops and trees. These local practices and scientific works on crop-livestock-tree interactions are reviewed in the present paper to build perspectives researches for better crop-livestock-tree integration and intensification of agriculture in Mali and Burkina Faso.
... The tree components of agroforestry systems stabilise soils against landslides, raise infiltration rates to limit surface flow during the rainy seasons, and increase groundwater release during the dry seasons, which can help crops to cope with drought and flood risks under future climate change (Ma et al. 2009;van Noordwijk et al. 2015van Noordwijk et al. , 2019. Further, appropriate agroforestry species can provide additional household food sources, fodder and shade for animals while providing organic fertilisers for the annual crops during the rainy season (Boffa 1999). ...
... Disturbances from wind, bark beetles, and wildfires have increased in Europe's forests throughout the twentieth century (Schelhaas et al. 2003). For example, the mountain pine beetle outbreak in British Columbia (Canada) produced changes in carbon cycling equivalent to approximately 75% of the average annual direct forest fire emissions from all of Canada during 1959-1999(Kurz et al. 2008. Climate change is expected to interact with forest disturbance regimes (Dale et al. 2001). ...
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This chapter reviews how global change affects forest-water interactions and water availability to ecosystems and people and synthesises current understanding of the implications of present and anticipated changes to forests and tree cover for local and global hydrology. Forest cover has declined in the past half-century, despite an increase in plantation forestry. Natural and human disturbances affect forest components (eg canopy and leaf area, litter and soil surface, rooting depth, and soil porosity) that in turn affect hydrological processes (eg interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil moisture storage, and percolation). Many of these changes result from several influential natural disturbance processes including insects and pathogens, wildfire, ice storms, and windthrow, and human disturbances including establishment and harvest of forests, plantations, agroforestry areas, and urban/peri-urban forests …
... Agroforestry parklands are the established land-use system in the greater Sahel region. This traditional system has been maintained for many generations and is characterized by preserving trees on cultivated land [87]. These trees are an essential part of the agriculture system providing food, wood for buildings, fuel, and medicines, and contribute to water conservation, soil fertility, and environmental protection [88]. ...
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Accurately assessing groundwater storage changes in Niger is critical for long-term water resource management but is difficult due to sparse field data. We present a study of groundwater storage changes and recharge in Southern Niger, computed using data from NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. We compute a groundwater storage anomaly estimate by subtracting the surface water anomaly provided by the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model from the GRACE total water storage anomaly. We use a statistical model to fill gaps in the GRACE data. We analyze the time period from 2002 to 2021, which corresponds to the life span of the GRACE mission, and show that there is little change in groundwater storage from 2002–2010, but a steep rise in storage from 2010–2021, which can partially be explained by a period of increased precipitation. We use the Water Table Fluctuation method to estimate recharge rates over this period and compare these values with previous estimates. We show that for the time range analyzed, groundwater resources in Niger are not being overutilized and could be further developed for beneficial use. Our estimated recharge rates compare favorably to previous estimates and provide managers with the data required to understand how much additional water could be extracted in a sustainable manner.
... Durant cette période, les populations ont recours aux plantes à feuilles, fruits, fleurs ou tubercules comestibles pour la satisfaction de leurs besoins alimentaires dont le karité (Ganaba et al., 2002 ;Thiombiano et al., 2010). De par sa dominance dans les parcs agroforestiers avec des proportions pouvant atteindre 80% des arbres conservés et la valeur socio-économique des ses fruits, le karité figure parmi les principales espèces pourvoyeuses de pfnl au Burkina Faso (Boffa, 1999 ;APFNL, 2012). Les activités liées aux seuls fruits de l'arbre à karité ont généré environ 28,9 milliards de francs CFA en 2011 (Burkina Faso, 2016). ...
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Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn.) assisted regeneration in Burkina Faso parklands Abstract The Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn.) is of enormous social, cultural, economic and nutritional importance for Burkina Faso where it ranks fourth in exports. The sustainability of this species on which rural populations depend is compromised by multiple phenomena, including the lack of regeneration of shea tree and the abusive cutting of wood to meet energy needs. This work aimed to propose adequate methods for rejuvenating shea parkland in Burkina Faso. Five sites distributed along a phytogeographic gradient were selected for tests : Sobaka, Noumoudara and Kakoumana (South-Sudanian phytogeographic zone), Gonsé (North-Sudanian phytogeographic zone) and Bouria (sub-Sahelian phytogeographic zone). The field trials included three repetitions by regeneration technique (planting, transplanting, direct sowing free, sowing in bushes and assisted natural regeneration -ANR-, sucker induction, induction of adventitious growth). The results indicate that the survival rate of assisted natural regeneration is above 70% after two years of follow-up. Planting and direct seeding in bushes are also effective techniques for the regeneration / restoration of shea tree parks with respectively survival rates of 13.33% and 6.67% in the sub sahelian sector, 12.22% and 6% in north sudanian, and 55.56% and 25.33% in south sudanian, after the third year of monitoring. In conclusion, in order to restore the shea parks, all seedlings regardless of their origins, will need to be assisted in. Keywords : shea tree, parkland management, regeneration technics, phytogeographical sectors, Burkina Faso
... Durant cette période, les populations ont recours aux plantes à feuilles, fruits, fleurs ou tubercules comestibles pour la satisfaction de leurs besoins alimentaires dont le karité (Ganaba et al., 2002 ;Thiombiano et al., 2010). De par sa dominance dans les parcs agroforestiers avec des proportions pouvant atteindre 80% des arbres conservés et la valeur socio-économique des ses fruits, le karité figure parmi les principales espèces pourvoyeuses de pfnl au Burkina Faso (Boffa, 1999 ;APFNL, 2012). Les activités liées aux seuls fruits de l'arbre à karité ont généré environ 28,9 milliards de francs CFA en 2011 (Burkina Faso, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn.) is of enormous social, cultural, economic and nutritional importance for Burkina Faso where it ranks fourth in exports. The sustainability of this species on which rural populations depend is compromised by multiple phenomena, including the lack of regeneration of shea tree and the abusive cutting of wood to meet energy needs. This work aimed to propose adequate methods for rejuvenating shea parkland in Burkina Faso. Five sites distributed along a phytogeographic gradient were selected for tests : Sobaka, Noumoudara and Kakoumana (South-Sudanian phytogeographic zone), Gonsé (North-Sudanian phytogeographic zone) and Bouria (sub-Sahelian phytogeographic zone). The field trials included three repetitions by regeneration technique (planting, transplanting, direct sowing free, sowing in bushes and assisted natural regeneration -ANR-, sucker induction, induction of adventitious growth). The results indicate that the survival rate of assisted natural regeneration is above 70% after two years of follow-up. Planting and direct seeding in bushes are also effective techniques for the regeneration / restoration of shea tree parks with respectively survival rates of 13.33% and 6.67% in the sub sahelian sector, 12.22% and 6% in north sudanian, and 55.56% and 25.33% in south sudanian, after the third year of monitoring. In conclusion, in order to restore the shea parks, all seedlings regardless of their origins, will need to be assisted in.
... Mahogany bark extracts have been used as astringents for wounds [16]. The bark of K. senegalensis has been traditionally used in local leather industries by the people of savannah zones of Africa for the tanning of leather, because of its rich red color [102]. The bark of most species of mahoganies contains low quality gum Arabic (16), and the bark of African mahoganies contains many medicinal properties that are used in the treatment of certain tropical diseases [15,103,104]. ...
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Mahogany is the collective international trade name for the high-value tropical and subtropical timber tree species of the family Meliaceae. Mahogany species are noted for their deep red-brown heartwood and are widely used in the construction, boat building, interior decoration (particularly paneling and floor tiles), and in the manufacture of furniture. Across their natural geographical distribution range, many rural communities depend for their livelihoods on the genetic resources of the species as they provide natural products and services. However, mahogany populations across their native range are threatened by deforestation, habitat fragmentation, excessive logging and genetic erosion. In addition, climate change may bring about a shift in the distributional range of the native species. To safeguard the rich diversity of mahogany requires a conscientious effort in policy formulation and the enforcement of existing laws in regard to the management and conservation of the species. In addition, it is imperative that mahogany is used as an integral component in agroforestry systems and in reforestation efforts, as well as in the restoration of degraded forest ecosystems in order to protect the genetic resources of the species. The aim of this review was to highlight the threats to the sustainability of the species. We conducted literature review to examine the geographic distributional range of a mahogany complex (Khaya spp, Entandrophragma spp, Cedrela spp, Toona spp, Swietenia spp) at global, regional and ecosystem scales. We used maps as annotated diagrams to show the probable geographic global distribution range of the mahogany complex. The Khaya spp. and Entandrophragma spp. are native to Africa, Cedrela spp. and Swietenia spp. are native to Central and South America, whereas, Toona spp. are found primarily in southeast Asia.
... These agroforestry parkland systems have been described as good examples of traditional land use systems and biodiversity management practices (Boffa, 1999;Schreckenberg, 1999;Lovett, 2000); regulation of nitrogen dynamics and carbon sequestration (Barton et al., 2016;Hartel et al., 2017). The carbon (C) sequestration potential of agroforestry systems has been shown to vary with species composition, age, geographical location of the system (Jose, 2009), previous land use (Mutuo et al., 2005, Sauer et al., 2007, climate, soil characteristics, crop-tree mixture, and management practices (Dossa et al., 2008;Schulp et al., 2008). ...
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Parkland agroforestry woody species are prominent features in many landscapes worldwide, and their ecological, social and economic importance is widely acknowledged. It is the traditional agroforestry systems from different countries and is almost a universal occurrence in Ethiopia. This study was conducted in Gindeberet District, West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia to assess the parkland agroforestry woody species composition, diversity, structure and biomass carbon. Woody species inventory was carried out on 103 plots (each, 50 m x10 0m) in the crop field laid along 7 transects. For woody species ≥ 5 cm DBH, measurements of DBH and tree height were taken. A total of 61 woody species belonging to 35 families were recorded. The study indicated that the woody species Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were higher at lowland than midland agro-ecology. The species richness was significantly different between the two agro-ecological zones (X 2 = 8.5, p = 0.003). This study showed low carbon storage potential in living biomass of woody species; it is recommended to develop a policy on the woody species management, conservation and regeneration to increase the carbon storage potential in living biomass of woody species.
... The shea tree (Vitallaria paradoxa) belongs to the sapotaceae family (Caroline et al., 2009). It is a wild plant and dominates the dry savannah belt of Senegal in the Western part of Africa through Sudan to the foothills of the Ethiopian highlands (Boffa, 1999). ...
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The objective of the study was to compare selected physical and chemical composition of shea butter processed from nut sourced from inorganic and organic fields. The treatments were O (shea butter processed from nut picked from organic fields) and N (shea butter processed from nuts picked from inorganic fields). These treatments were arranged in a Complete Randomized Design and were replicated four times in the laboratory for studies of free fatty acids (FFA), pH, peroxide value, insoluble impurities, unsaponifiable matter, and moisture content. The study revealed that organic shea butter had lower free fatty acids (FFA), lower moisture content, lower pH, less unsaponifiable matter, less insoluble impurities and lower peroxide value as compared to inorganic shea butter shea butter. The lower FFA value of organic shea butter indicates that it can be used for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry and for direct consumption. Hence higher chances that organic shea butter and attract premium prices in both local and international markets. The study also revealed that there was a positive relationship between; unsaponifiable matter and moisture content. Insoluble impurities had a very strong correlation with unsaponifiable matter and moisture content. A very strong positive correlation was observed between peroxide value and unsaponifiable matter, moisture content, and insoluble impurities. For good quality butter, nuts should be sourced from organic fields.
... Agroforestry practices in Sudanese zone are well known by peasant and rural communities. The agroforestry parklands in this area of Togo as in Sahelian area are almost the result of long-term selective shifting of wooded vegetation by peasants (Boffa, 1999;Luedeling et al., 2011;Wala et al., 2005). During the process regarding the establishment of cropland, peasants deliberately preserve and promote the conservation of multipurpose tree species in the field. ...
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The research aims at estimating the total carbon stock of agroforestry system in the tropical Sudanese area of Togo. Physical measurements (height, diameter, and tree density) of trees in major agroforestry parklands were achieved by random quadrat (900 m2) sampling. The total biomass carbon stock was computed following the tropical dry area allometric equation as suggested Brown. The research, revealed that the total carbon stock in agroforestry systems species recorded in the study zone was 81.23 t·ha−1 whereas Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa, Sterculia setigera and Vitelaria paradoxa trees species accumulate 34.72 tha-1, 20.13 tha-1, 8.40 tha-1, and 3.89 tha-1 respectively. The A. digitata parkland (mature one) has shown the highest total carbon stock (16.93±12.9 tha-1), whereas the low values occurred in young parkland (0.23±0.06 tha-1). Among the five parklands of the study zone, high carbon stock is accumulated in dbh class ranging from [0-10] to [30-40]. The agroforestry system in the study zone could contribute to improve the functionality of the whole ecosystem by it substantial capacity to sequester carbon. In the context of global warming change implemented with the objective to improve country income through green and clean mechanism of ecosystems; agroforestry systems could be efficiently promoted by adhering to REDD+ and clean development mechanism requirements.
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