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Education of Scientists and Engineers

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Introduction The High School Experience The Baccalaureate Experience The Graduate Degree Experience Postdoctoral Education Morals and Values Evaluating Scientists and Engineers Intellectual Property

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In the broadest terms my goal in this work is to justify rights to intellectual and intangible property. Some think that this goal is easily attained and offer the following argument. Control should be granted to authors and inventors of intellectual property because granting such control provides incentives necessary for social progress. Society ought to maximize social utility, therefore temporary rights to intellectual works should be granted. This strategy for justifying rights to intellectual property is typically given as the primary basis for Anglo- American copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret institutions. Nevertheless, I think the argument is fundamentally flawed. With this in mind, I proceed on two fronts. First, a negative argument is given that undermines the aforementioned widely supported rule utilitarian case for intellectual property. The hope is upon eliminating rule-utilitarian incentives-based arguments, the way will be cleared for a new Lockean justification.
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A number of factors influence student behavior including the moral development of students, student faculty interactions, and academic codes of conduct. Previous investigations on classroom misconduct have focused on student characteristics and perceptions. Relatively few studies have focused on faculty members' views of student misconduct and faculty responses to suspicions of wrongdoing. The current study examines the types of academic misbe-havior faculty members suspect occur in their classrooms , methods they use to deter such misconduct, and the factors that influence instructors' decisions to act on suspected inappropriate behavior. Data was collected using surveys from faculty members. Findings suggest that academic dishonesty is a concern to many educators in university classrooms. Faculty members indicate that they use a variety of measures to improve student behavior. However, some teachers did not act on suspected academic dishonesty due in part to their anxiety about the process. Drawing from these findings, suggestions are given toward positively influencing student behavior in higher education contexts.
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PLEASE NOTE: The uploaded version conveys the original results, but the text does not correspond fully with the published version! This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of 291 science students at a large university in the UK about plagiarism involving the Internet. Students from seven undergraduate classes, ranging from Year 1 to Year 3, completed a 12-item questionnaire anonymously, but in the presence of the investigator and a host lecturer. The results revealed that more than 50 percent of the students indicated an acceptance of using the Internet for academically dishonest activities. Males and first- and second-year students took a more liberal view about academic dishonesty than females and third-year students. Guilt and moral reasoning were significant factors in forming attitudes towards plagiarism. The alarming figures disclosed here are a call for preventative action to curtail students’ academically dishonest activities through the Internet.
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College and university faculty and administrators are responsible for constructing academic honesty policies and communicating them to students. This is often attempted through institutional honesty policies and university-wide honor codes. While these approaches have been widely researched, less attention has been given to the role of individual faculty members. That role is examined in this study by addressing student reactions to professors based on their academic honesty policies. In addition to demographic information, data were gathered about student attitudes and beliefs concerning academic dishonesty and their decision to enroll in or avoid a course being taught by a professor with zero tolerance for academic dishonesty. The findings regarding different instructors’ approaches toward academic dishonesty indicate that an intolerant policy will keep dishonest students away, but at a price—it will also detract many honest students.
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According to studies conducted over the past four decades, engineering students self-report high frequencies of academic dishonesty (cheating) while in college. Research on college students in all fields has indicated that such behavior is more common among students who participate in academic dishonesty at the high school level and that it is correlated with other deviant or unethical behaviors, such as petty theft and lying. If, in fact, such correlations do exist, one might hypothesize that there is also a relationship between academic dishonesty in college and deviant or unethical behavior in professional practice. Placing this relationship in the context of higher frequencies of academic dishonesty among engineering students only increases the seriousness of the problem for engineering educators, corporations and society. To examine this issue we have initiated a multi-university study on the attitudes, perceptions and behaviors of college-aged engineering students toward academic dishonesty and unethical professional behavior. A majority of the students in the sample work for a considerable period of time in an engineering setting during their college years, providing us with a unique opportunity to study the connection between academic dishonesty and professional behavior within the same sample of individuals. The survey used in this study asks questions about the respondent???s decisions during opportunities to ???cheat??? in each of two contexts: college classrooms and workplace settings. In each case, respondents are asked to consider what opportunities to cheat presented themselves, whether they felt any pressure to cheat (or not to cheat), and ultimately what decision they made in this specific instance. The survey also asks respondents to report how frequently they have cheated in school or the workplace. Results suggest that there is a clear connection between cheating in high school and a positive decision to cheat in a specific scenario in college. In addition, frequent cheaters in high school also reported being more likely to decide to violate work place policies. Comparison of student responses to the pressures and hesitations to cheating across the contexts of academic and workplace settings shows that there are distinct similarities in the variables that are a part of the decision making processes used by respondents in these two contexts.
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Analysis of student survey data from 6,096 respondents in thirty-one institutions found that academic dishonesty was associated with the existence of an honor code, student perceptions of the certainty of being reported, the severity of penalties, and cheating among peers.
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The present study examined the relationshipbetween college classroom environment, academiccheating, and the neutralization (justification) ofacademic cheating. Two-hundred eighty undergraduatestudents from two liberal arts colleges in the Midwestparticipated in the study. Participants completed theCollege and University Classroom Environment Instrument(CUCEI) and the Survey on Academic Dishonesty (SAD), with instructions to complete thesequestionnaires (anonymously) in a manner that woulddescribe their perceptions, behavior, and attitudes inthe class in which the survey was completed. Three CUCEI scales were identified that discriminatedsignificantly between admitted cheaters and noncheaters.Cheaters described their classes as significantly lesspersonalized, satisfying, and task oriented than did noncheaters. Together, the seven scales ofthe CUCEI explained 4% of the variance in cheatingbehavior. Six CUCEI scales were found to be correlatedsignificantly with a measure of cheating neutralization. Specifically, neutralization increased withdecreases in perceived classroom personalization,involvement, student cohesiveness, satisfaction, taskorientation, and individualization. Together, the seven scales of the CUCEI explained 14% of thevariance in neutralization. It is concluded thatclassroom environment is a significant situationalvariable in academic dishonesty, as both cheatingbehavior and attitudes toward cheating are related toperceptions of classroom environment.
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This study explores novel aspects of academic cheating during adolescence. Taking cues from cognitive and attribution theory, four related aspects of the cheating problem were examined with emphasis on various concepts and conditions of cheating. Subjects were 601 students from classrooms in public school grades 7 through 12 and from college undergraduate classes. Subjects anonymously completed a four-part questionnaire. ANOVA was applied to results using grade level, achievement status, and gender as independent variables. Cheating problem seriousness ratings were highest for the high school level. Knowledge of defining attributes of cheating increased significantly by grade, but plagiarism variations were poorly understood Teacher behaviors were identified more strongly as causal factors in cheating by precollege students and high achieving students. Student personality characteristics were identified more as causes by younger students, regardless of achievement level. Cheating prevention strategy efficacy ratings increased by grade but were generally weak No gender differences were revealed
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A study was conducted in California to explore the extent of cheating, its relationship to personal and situational factors, and the actions of school personnel to promote academic honesty and responsibility. Questionnaires were completed by 1,037 sixth-graders, 2,265 secondary school students (mostly 11th-graders), and 109 school staff members. Forty-five elementary schools and 105 high schools were sampled, representing the lowest, middle, and highest scores on the California Assessment Program's mathematics tests. The three questionnaires are presented, with a summary of responses to each item. The results indicated that the reported incidence of cheating was much higher among high school students than sixth-graders. Sixth-graders most often reported copying on tests and plagiarizing. High school students reported use of crib notes and copying during tests. About 93 percent of high school students reported seeing other students cheating on tests more than once. More cheating was reported by students from high-scoring schools, and students with lower grades cheated more. School staff reporting that cheating was a significant problem included 41 percent of secondary school staff and 3 percent in elementary schools. Appendices include the questionnaires and percentile responses. (GDC)
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The incidence and causes of cheating were investigated using a questionnaire, consisting of 21 cheating behaviors, which was distributed to students at an English university. Respondents were asked to indicate, confidentially, which of the behaviors they had engaged in. Reported cheating was widespread and some types of cheating (e.g., on coursework) were more common than others. Reported cheating was more common in men than women; more common with less able students than more able ones; more common in younger students than mature ones; and more common in science and technology students than those in other disciplines. It is suggested that students' motivation, in particular whether they are studying to learn rather than simply to obtain good grades, is a major factor in explaining these differences. The results also indicate that cheating consists of a number of different types of behavior rather than being a unitary concept. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Studied factors that influence the behavior of graduate students in a college of education related to cheating and plagiarism. Six 1st-yr master's students (3 male, 3 female) from 3 different master's programs in the college of education at a large, public university were interviewed in-depth. Findings describe the internal and external factors that contribute to and inhibit behaviors relating to cheating and plagiarism. Internal inhibiting factors included personal confidence, positive professional ethics, fairness to authors and to others, fear, and guilt. External inhibiting factors included probability of being caught and need for knowledge in the future. Internal contributing factors included negative personal attitudes and lack of competency, while external contributing factors included grade, time, and task pressures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The relations of motivational variables to self-reported cheating behaviors and beliefs in science were examined in a sample of early adolescents. It was hypothesized that cheating and beliefs in the acceptability of cheating would be more likely when students perceived an emphasis on performance and extrinsic incentives rather than on mastery and improvement. Results indicated that students who reported cheating in science perceived their classrooms as being extrinsically focused and perceived their schools as being focused on performance and ability. Students who believed in the acceptability of cheating also reported personal extrinsic goals and a perceived emphasis on extrinsic factors in class. Students who reported cheating also worried about school. The reported use of deep cognitive strategies was related negatively and the use of self-handicapping strategies was related positively to cheating beliefs and behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency, methods, and correlates of college cheating. A questionnnaire measuring 7 subject variables and 33 specific behaviors was administered to 200 students. The finding that about 75% of those surveyed had cheated in college was interpreted as supporting an hypothesized trend toward increasing dishonesty. Data on approval and guilt, reasons for cheating, reactions to cheating, and specific techniques were included. It was found that sex, year in shcool, grade point average, academic major, fraternity-sorority membership, and extracurricular participation were significantly related to cheating. The conclusions supported the importance of traditional explanatory variables and suggested an interpretation based on attribution theory.
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This study explored teacher perspectives on the use of socioscientific issues (SSI) and on dealing with ethics in the context of science instruction. Twenty-two middle and high school science teachers from three US states participated in semi-structured interviews, and researchers employed inductive analyses to explore emergent patterns relative to the following two questions. (1) How do science teachers conceptualize the place of ethics in science and science education? (2) How do science teachers handle topics with ethical implications and expression of their own values in their classrooms? Profiles were developed to capture the views and reported practices, relative to the place of ethics in science and science classrooms, of participants. Profile A comprising teachers who embraced the notion of infusing science curricula with SSI and cited examples of using controversial topics in their classes. Profile B participants supported SSI curricula in theory but reported significant constraints which prohibited them from actualizing these goals. Profile C described teachers who were non-committal with respect to focusing instruction on SSI and ethics. Profile D was based on the position that science and science education should be value-free. Profile E transcended the question of ethics in science education; these teachers felt very strongly that all education should contribute to their students' ethical development. Participants also expressed a wide range of perspectives regarding the expression of their own values in the classroom. Implications of this research for science education are discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 43: 353–376, 2006
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Some students do not cheat. Students high in measures of bravery, honesty, and empathy, our defining characteristics of heroism, report less past cheating than other students. These student heroes also reported that they would feel more guilt if they cheated and also reported less intent to cheat in the future than nonheroes. We find general consensus between students and professors as to reasons for the nonreporting of cheating, suggesting a general impression of insufficient evidence, lack of courage, and denial. Suggested interventions in academia are based in positive psychology and an understanding of academic heroes.
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A survey instrument, developed in 1968 and administered to 1,629 high school students in 1969, 1,100 students in 1979, and 1,291 students in 1989, asked them to respond to items regarding the following: (1) the amount of cheating believed going on, (2) who was most guilty, (3) reasons given for cheating, (4) the courses in which most cheating occurred, (5) how to punish cheaters and by whom, (6) beliefs regarding dishonesty in society, and (7) confessions of their own dishonest behaviors in school. Between 1969 and 1989, student responses reflected increasingly pessimistic opinions about dishonesty in school and society. Fear of failure remained the most common reason for cheating. Math and science were the courses in which cheating most often occurred. The home was considered the best place and school the worst place to inculcate honesty. Over the three decades covered by this study, dishonesty was viewed as increasingly necessary, more people believed advertising was suspect, and success in business was attributed to fraudulent activities. More students admitted to cheating on tests and homework. More parents were not aiding and abetting students in avoidance of school rules. Polls, studies, and reports recently published by state, federal, and private agencies appear to confirm these findings.
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Competency in ethical decision making is an identified expectation of the baccalaureate degree graduate. Values, both personal and professional, do not provide a systematic foundation for ethical decision making. The nurse is a unique health care provider and as such is faced with ethical decision of practice that are derived from and are relevant to that role. An understanding of ethical principles and theories as well as application of them to the role of the professional nurse is essential to ethical decision making in nursing practice. Seventy four per cent of recent graduates stated that the ethical content in their nursing programs most influenced their ethical decision-making skills, yet, only 23% used an ethical model or framework in analyzing and resolving the ethical dilemma of practice. The usual format for presentation of this content is a course in ethics. The content of such courses should include ethical theories and principles and their application to the practice of nursing. Teaching methodologies include guided case analysis and written responses to cases and current issues. Placement of separate required ethics courses remains a problem because of the overwhelming amount of content in baccalaureate degree curricula. Research has tentatively validated the need for a separate required course in nursing ethics. Further studies are necessary. If ethics content is integrated throughout the curriculum, it should be presented early with continual reinforcement and with the use of a specific ethics textbook. Research indicates that students who have completed a nursing ethics course not only know the correct ethical action but are more likely to implement it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Goal orientation theory was used to examine changes in student motivation during the transition from elementary to middle school. Surveys were given to 341 students in the fifth grade in elementary and again in sixth grade in middle school. Students were more oriented to task goals (wanting to improve their competency), perceived a greater emphasis on task goals during instruction, and felt more academically competent in fifth grade in elementary school than in sixth grade in middle school. They perceived a greater emphasis on performance goals (an emphasis on relative ability and right answers) in middle school than in elementary school. Several interactions emerged between year (fifth grade, sixth grade), and both student level of ability (higher, lower, based on standardized achievement tests) and subject domain (math, English).
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To determine the congruency in value orientation of graduating students in baccalaureate and associate degree programs. A survey design with a convenience sample of 1,450 graduating nursing students from all baccalaureate and associate degree nursing programs in Texas. Data were collected using the Nurses Professional Values Scale (NPVS). Descriptive and parametric statistics were used for analysis. ADN and BSN students did not differ significantly on the NPVS total score, however, ADN student scored higher on 5 of the 11 subscales than did their BSN counterparts. Men from both programs scored significantly lower than did women on the total scale and all subscales. Ethnic groups differed on the responses to three of the subscales representing nurses' values: respect for human dignity, safeguarding the client and public, and collaborating to meet public health needs. Professional values in graduating nursing students were significantly related to sex and ethnicity, regardless of educational program. Nursing faculty members are challenged to address these differences during the educational process and mentoring of students.
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Self-control theories have focused on various aspects of the processes involved in exerting self-control. In the present paper, we intend to add to this literature by demonstrating that exerting self-control leads one to narrow one's attention and cognition, inducing a narrow mindset. We demonstrate this in three studies. Participants who exerted self-control applied a narrower view (Study 1), applied a narrower categorization (Study 2), and used more concrete language (Study 3) than participants who did not exert self-control. Results are discussed in light of the possibility that a narrow mindset enhances performance on the self-control task at hand at the cost of poorer performance on other tasks.
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Since cheating is obviously wrong, arguments against it (it provides an unfair advantage, it hinders learning) need only be mentioned in passing. But the argument of unfair advantage absurdly takes education to be essentially a race of all against all; moreover, it ignores that many cases of unfair (dis)advantages are widely accepted. That cheating can hamper learning does not mean that punishing cheating will necessarily favor learning, so that this argument does not obviously justify sanctioning cheaters. -- Keywords: academic dishonesty, academic integrity, academic misconduct, education, ethics, homework, plagiarism Comment: 8 pages; new (completely rewritten) version; in Studies in Philosophy and Education (2009)
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