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Engage Online Learners: Design Considerations for Promoting Student Interactions

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Abstract

Online learning will continue to be one of the popular modes of instruction offered by higher education institutions to accommodate different learning needs. Student engagement is critical to the success of online learning. Students should be engaged cognitively, emotionally, and behaviorally. This chapter discusses design considerations for online courses to promote student-instructor, student-student, and student-content interactions to engage students cognitively, emotionally, and behaviorally. The chapter also discusses the application of flow theory, specifically, in the design of instruction to engage students during their interaction with course content.

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... In addition, this can include the learner interacting with the instructor by asking questions, or communicating with the instructor regarding course activities [23] [24]. The media can either be in the form of text, audio or videotape, CD-ROM, computer program, or online communication was found to be a significant predictor of student satisfaction and had a larger effect on the achievement of learning outcomes [25]. ...
... Although media is the least contributing factor, but the media for teaching must be well prepared because the media can either be in the form of text, audio or videotape, CD-ROM, computer program, or online communication was found to be a significant predictor of student satisfaction and had a larger effect on the achievement of learning outcomes [25]. ...
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... Most of the researchers [17][18][19][20][21][22][23] focused on one type of interactions such as learner-learner, learner-instructor, and learner-content. However, there are few studies [9,24] focused on two types of interactions. ...
... The content can either be in the form of text, audio or videotape, CD-ROM, or computer program [26]. Chan and Bose (2017) found S2CI had a larger effect on the achievement of learning outcomes when compared to the effects of S2SI and S2II [23]. However, lack of interaction with course content was the result of a commitment to promoting only one type of interaction. ...
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... Student interactions to course contents can also be examined to find out to what extent they contribute to the student academic performance. This aspect is considered as a good predictor of student satisfaction in the course compared to the other aspects [29]. A study has been conducted to determine the impact of multi e-learning systems on the student academic performance, and this study shows that the tools which are provided by the instructor such as e-resources have a positive correlation with the student academic performance [30]. ...
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... The content can either be in the form of text, audio or videotape, CD-ROM, computer program, or online communication. Ref [14] stated that S2CI was found to be a significant predictor of student satisfaction and had a larger effect on the achievement of learning outcomes when compared to the effects of S2SI and S2II. The lack and weakness of interaction with course content was a commitment to promoting only one type of interaction. ...
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Feedback has emerged in the literature as a means to facilitate both the learning proccess and teaching performance. The context of constructive, systematic feedback includes evaluation as an important element in the process of decision making for teaching. Teaching and learning function as a whole to achieve outcomes from which specific information is collected. Information for students comes from sources such as their performance on tests, assignments, and projects, and in class during instruction. The focus of feedback for learning should address at least two dimensions: content mastery, and tools or skills for learning. The feedback process for learning involves at least eight steps that include expectations, criteria, student progress, students' accomplishments and strengths, areas needing further study or practice, recognition of students' efforts, suggestions about learning activities, and encouragement. Sources of feedback for teaching, which should be gathered on an ongoing basis, are students, peers, principals, and parents. Actions to facilitate feedback for teaching involve: setting a climate of trust; clarifying expectations; gathering significant information; reviewing and acknowledging each comment; adjusting teaching as needed; and evaluating effectiveness of modifications. Constructive feedback is relevant, immediate, factual, helpful, confidential, respectful, tailored, and encouraging. Exhibits provide two diagrams: a decision-making model for teaching and learning, and a systematic feedback process. (LL)
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