Book

Plugged in: How media attract and affect youth

Authors:

Abstract

An illuminating study of the complex relationship between children and media in the digital age Now, as never before, young people are surrounded by media-thanks to the sophistication and portability of the technology that puts it literally in the palms of their hands. Drawing on data and empirical research that cross many fields and continents, authors Valkenburg and Piotrowski examine the role of media in the lives of children from birth through adolescence, addressing the complex issues of how media affect the young and what adults can do to encourage responsible use in an age of selfies, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. This important study looks at both the sunny and the dark side of media use by today's youth, including why and how their preferences change throughout childhood, whether digital gaming is harmful or helpful, the effects of placing tablets and smartphones in the hands of toddlers, the susceptibility of young people to online advertising, the legitimacy of parental concerns about media multitasking, and more.
... On social media, SGMY has found places in which they can find this representation [15]. Social media are online platforms on which users can generate content and interact with one another [16]. Common platforms among youth are Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube [17]. ...
... Common platforms among youth are Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube [17]. Although previous research has been right to highlight possible risks of social media, such as unwanted sexual behaviors and bullying [16,18]. It also needs to be recognized that social media is intertwined with the daily lives of youth, thus making it interesting to study what attracts them to social media [18]. ...
... It is assumed that identity consists of two aspects: self-concept and self-esteem [16]. Self-concept entails the way we see ourselves. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sexual and Gender Minority Youth (SGMY) often undergo a period of identity concealment before first coming out, in which access to social and emotional support is limited. Simultaneously, SGMY are at risk for rejection and victimization because of this identity, requiring resilience. This study, therefore, focused on how social media can offer SGMY opportunities for the development of a resilient SGM-identity during this period of identity concealment. In-depth interviews were held with 12 Dutch SGMY, who had not yet come out, or had done this recently. Interviews were individually open coded, and then analyzed collectively, to identify commonalities and differences. Five themes emerged, capturing the online experiences contributing to a resilient SGM-identity: (1) realization of SGM-identity, (2) gathering information, (3) finding SGM-representation, (4) finding SGM-connections, and (5) social media as an SGM-positive bubble. The results showed that social media can serve as a bridge during the period of identity concealment, in which SGMY can rely on a supportive community online and develop a positive SGM-identity before coming out offline. These online experiences, which often transcend the borders of countries and jurisdictions, can further help SGMY cope with the risk of adversity offline, and with that promote a resilient SGM-identity.
... During adolescence, when time spent with family typically decreases, engagement with peers increases (Furstenberg, 2000;Smetana et al., 2006), and connectedness to peers becomes more important for healthy development (Bukowski et al., 2007). Secure attachments with peers can act as a supportive mechanism, buffering individuals against life's stressors (e.g., Buhrmester, 1996;Fuller et al., 1999;McGraw et al., 2008;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Low-quality friendships, on the other hand, can pose a risk to adjustment problems for children who experience parental conflict, for example, during or after parental divorce (Larsen et al., 2007). ...
... The huge increase in the use of the internet during the last decades, and with it the development of new media and communication technologies, has stimulated research on how social media use can potentially promote children's reconfiguration of important relationships after divorce (e.g., Mesch, 2006;Saini et al., 2013). Still, research on social media use has largely focused on negative media effects and problematic media use (Valkenburg & Peter, 2011), even though online communication creates opportunities for families and peer groups to connect (Mesch, 2003;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017;William & Merten, 2011). ...
... Online communication then leads to increased social involvement (Shapiro & Margolin, 2014). Although estimates vary by country, current data suggest that teens spend about two hours a day chatting with friends via media such as WhatsApp, texting, or Snapchat, as well as more than an hour a day on social media sites such as Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). This can positively influence adolescents' psychosocial development and peer belonging, through enhanced peer relationships, more opportunities to affiliate, and increased occasions for self-disclosure (Shapiro & Margolin, 2014;Valkenburg & Peter, 2011), regardless of physical distance. ...
Article
Full-text available
A considerable number of children face the divorce or separation of their parents globally every year. As parental divorce is often accompanied by changes in the home and social environment of adolescents, they may experience a diminished sense of belonging to one or multiple social contexts, such as the family, school, peer group, or neighborhood, which can, in turn, influence their post-divorce adjustment. To gain insight into the mechanisms and conditions that affect adolescents’ sense of belonging following parental divorce, we have reviewed empirical research from multiple disciplines from a bio-ecological perspective. This review has shown that adolescents’ sense of belonging can be an important protective factor after parental divorce, and is affected by processes at the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macrolevel. However, extensive knowledge on the determinants and mechanisms that affect adolescents’ belonging in the context of divorce remains lacking. Recommendations for future research are given, as a more thorough understanding of the factors that promote the belonging of adolescents in divorced families can be an important next step in promoting a higher quality of life for adolescents after parental divorce.
... Furthermore, younger generations are the most active adopters of digital technology (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017;World Health Organization, 2015). Accordingly, research suggests that adolescents and youth have an increased vulnerability to PSU (Csibi et al., 2019;Kuss et al., 2018), with most studies showing prevalence rates that range from 10% to 30% (Field, 2020;Sohn et al., 2019). ...
... Adolescence is considered a period of significant developmental changes, where physical, cognitive, and socialemotional transitions do not often occur synchronously (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). For instance, adolescents experience an increase in impulsivity and risk-taking behavior (Berman, 2018;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). ...
... Adolescence is considered a period of significant developmental changes, where physical, cognitive, and socialemotional transitions do not often occur synchronously (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). For instance, adolescents experience an increase in impulsivity and risk-taking behavior (Berman, 2018;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Moreover, social relationships play a progressively more important role in adolescents' development and individuals learn about accepted behaviors from their peer group; thus risk-taking behavior is exacerbated in their presence (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Because problematic smartphone use (PSU) is rising among adolescents, it is vital to analyze the potential causes and psychosocial consequences affecting this target population. Current theoretical frameworks suggest that specific personal core characteristics might predispose individuals to experience increases in this problematic behavior over time. Additionally, PSU has been conceptualized as a maladaptive coping mechanism to manage negative emotions. The present study aimed at analyzing a personal resource, critical thinking disposition, and a potential negative consequence, reduced academic engagement, and the underlying role of perceived stress and PSU in this association among Spanish adolescents. The sample consisted of 688 adolescents (54% females, 46% males) aged 12 to 18 years from Southern Spain. Participants completed self-report questionnaires to assess critical thinking disposition (VIA-Youth), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), PSU (Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version), and academic engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Students). We analyzed a serial mediation model using PROCESS (SPSS), in which critical thinking disposition was the independent variable, perceived stress and PSU were the first and second mediators, respectively, and academic engagement was the outcome variable. Our results indicated that lower critical thinking disposition was linked to increased perceived stress, which was associated with higher PSU, resulting in decreased academic engagement. These findings provide empirical support for the pathways model of PSU, the maladaptive coping theories, and the I-PACE model of behavioral addictions. Furthermore, we discuss our results highlighting the important implication of training adolescents to think critically regarding their smartphone usage to reduce their stress levels, to avoid using smartphones as a coping strategy, and hence, to improve their student's attitudes toward school.
... Though there is a multitude of reasons as to why one may not get married, one possible reason for the declining institution may be the ideas of romance formulated during adolescent years. For example, social media and television shows have shown to influence the audience's self-concept through exaggerated portrayals of real experiences (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Further, during this time of sexual/romantic exploration, teens seek out popular media for advice concerning relationships and intimacy (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). ...
... For example, social media and television shows have shown to influence the audience's self-concept through exaggerated portrayals of real experiences (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Further, during this time of sexual/romantic exploration, teens seek out popular media for advice concerning relationships and intimacy (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). My study attempts to examine the depiction of romantic relationships of adolescents who have experienced some level of trauma and those who have not. ...
... Others propose that since adolescents do not have enough years to formulate their own conceptions about their experiences, they are influenced by what is portrayed in teen dramas, arguing that they do not relate to the storyline, but base their persona on what they see (Garel, 2019). However, extensive research has shown that current adolescentaged individuals are drawn to television they identify with, which portrays situations that they can envision occurring in their own lives (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Additionally, research suggests that during this stage of development, adolescents are aware of their lived experiences and opt to find media in which they can connect to fulfill their need for introspection (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that past trauma can contribute to the downfall of long-term romantic partnerships. This study implemented a content analysis of a television show 13 Reasons Why to examine the realism of the depiction of adolescents’ romantic attitudes and quality of relationships. The show is intended to depict real, unfiltered experiences of adolescents in today’s society. The specific goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between the depictions of adolescents’ romantic expressions and their experiences with trauma. Additionally, the study examined differences in the depiction of romantic expressions based on the gender of the characters. Statistical analyses revealed that past traumatic experience was the only significant predictor of romantic expressions. Specifically, characters who had experienced the most trauma were the least likely to express romantic ideals.
... Advergames are particularly notorious for promoting unhealthy food brands (46). It is generally accepted that advertising can have negative side effects on children in terms of encouraging materialistic values, unhealthy lifestyles and parent-child conflicts (47). ...
... Being economically exploited through AI optimisation could also be considered another significant effect and children can be more vulnerable in this respect. The same applies to marketing aimed at children, as it is known that it can have negative effects on them (21,47). Effects that can possibly be strengthened by forms of marketing directed at children's vulnerabilities or marketing that is no longer recognizable as such (21,47). ...
... The same applies to marketing aimed at children, as it is known that it can have negative effects on them (21,47). Effects that can possibly be strengthened by forms of marketing directed at children's vulnerabilities or marketing that is no longer recognizable as such (21,47). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gaming is an important pastime for young people to relax, socialize and have fun, but also to be challenged, show creativity and work together to achieve goals. The design of games can have an impact on their behavior. With the changing revenue models of games, we see that game design is increasingly taking forms that do not always have a positive impact on children and may interfere with, or even violate, children's rights. This article examines how evolving revenue models of games impact user's behavior via game design. Behavioral design in games thus raises questions about children's rights to play and recreation, to health, to protection from economic exploitation and to data protection.
... On the one hand, these concerns have led to research on the effects of social media on the well-being of adolescents. The current scientific knowledge on the relationship between adolescent media use and well-being is complex, often yielding small effect sizes, conflicting findings and resulting in overall knowledge gaps [3][4][5][6]. Previous research has found positive effects of social media on adolescents, such as an increased level of self-esteem and access to online support networks [7,8], as well as negative effects such as an impaired sleep quality and mental health problems [9,10]. ...
... An important aspect of this model is that adolescents are not seen as passive recipients of influences on their activities or development, but that they have an active role in shaping these experiences [26]. This is in accordance with contemporary media effect theories which acknowledge that while media can influence the individual media user, the individuals themselves are the origin for that process of change [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media use has increased substantially over the past decades, especially among adolescents. A proportion of adolescents develop a pattern of problematic social media use (PSMU). Predictors of PSMU are insufficiently understood and researched. This study aims to investigate predictors of PSMU in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Luxembourg. Data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in Luxembourg were used, in which 8687 students aged 11–18 years old participated. The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. A range of sociodemographic, social support, well-being and media use predictors were added to the model in four blocks. The predictors in the final model explained 22.3% of the variance in PSMU. The block of sociodemographic predictors explained the lowest proportion of variance in PSMU compared with the other blocks. Age negatively predicted PSMU. Of the predictors related to social support, cyberbullying perpetration was the strongest predictor of PSMU. Perceived stress and psychosomatic complaints positively predicted PSMU. The intensity of electronic media communication and preference for online social interaction were stronger predictors of PSMU than the other predictors in the model. The results indicate that prevention efforts need to consider the diverse range of predictors related to PSMU.
... These activities are not conclusively positive or negative, as that depends on a diversity of (f)actors (Brewer, Cale, Goldsmith, and Holt, 2018;Farrington, 2020;Staksrud, 2009;Zych et al., 2020). As internet use has become more prevalent than ever in everyday life, the potential for a "digital drift" (Goldsmith and Brewer, 2015) in crucial stages of personal development, such as adolescence (Valkenburg and Piotrowski, 2017), has also substantially increased. ...
... Both mass and social media act as contexts for those developmental tasks (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011;Valkenburg and Piotrowski, 2017). While mass media-driven templates such as drama, reality shows, or celebrity news provide experiences through which young people learn how attention operates, social media play a crucial role in terms of social acceptance (boyd, 2014) and of co-creation of online contexts (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
To address the topic of children’s online aggression, this article explores a subsample from the EU Kids Online dataset (2017–2019) of 1404 children, aged 9–16, who reported having engaged in aggressive acts online in the previous year. Through a cluster analysis, respondents were classified into three groups. Findings emphasize the risk factors for aggression and how they relate to age-specific developmental tasks. Boys predominate, but the gender gap is not as wide as in offline contexts. For almost half of the children, aggression goes hand in hand with victimization. All the clusters share high levels of emotional deprivation. A sense of lacking social support, from both adults and peers, becomes more relevant among those children with high and more problematic engagement in online aggression. Results confirm that online aggression must be considered within the complex and fluid offline–online continuum cutting across the social contexts in which children grow.
... Building on the parental mediation literature, research distinguishes between two media monitoring strategies: restrictive and active monitoring. Restrictive monitoring involves restricting the time and content of adolescents' media use, and where adolescents can use media (e.g., not in their bedroom) [33]. Active monitoring concerns parents' discussion, explanation, and evaluation of media content, and can occur before, during, or after adolescents' media use [33]. ...
... Restrictive monitoring involves restricting the time and content of adolescents' media use, and where adolescents can use media (e.g., not in their bedroom) [33]. Active monitoring concerns parents' discussion, explanation, and evaluation of media content, and can occur before, during, or after adolescents' media use [33]. Although restrictive and active monitoring of adolescents' social media use constitute two theoretically valid routes through which parents can affect adolescents' social media use and well-being/ill-being, they have received little empirical investigation. ...
Article
One of the key challenges faced by many parents is to manage the pervasiveness of social media in adolescents’ lives and its effects on adolescents’ well-being (e.g., life satisfaction) and ill-being (e.g., depressive symptoms). Parents may manage adolescents’ social media use and social media-induced well-being and ill-being through media-specific parenting: parental actions to restrict, regulate, and discuss adolescents’ social media use. Recent evidence suggests that media-specific parenting may reduce adolescents’ anxiety and depressive symptoms and minimize the effects of cyberbullying on adolescents’ depressive symptoms. However, more robust evidence regarding the moderating role of media-specific parenting and the direction of effects has to be established to understand how parents may shape the effects of social media on adolescents’ well-being and ill-being.
... Postojeći teorijski okviri dolaze prije svega iz razvojnih i komunikacijskih teorija (npr. Calvert, 2015), pa bi ih trebalo integrirati u jedan opširniji teorijski okvir usmjeren na objašnjenje učinaka upotrebe digitalne tehnologije na djecu te ga empirijski provjeriti (McDaniel, 2019;Stockdale i sur., 2018;Valkenburg i Piotrowski, 2017). Noviji teorijski okviri u literaturi su model različite osjetljivosti na učinke medija (eng. ...
... Noviji teorijski okviri u literaturi su model različite osjetljivosti na učinke medija (eng. differential susceptibility to media effects model) i teorija o recipročnim učincima medija (Valkenburg i sur., 2016;Valkenburg i Piotrowski, 2017), prema kojima dispozicijski (npr. temperament), razvojni (razvojna dob djeteta) i socijalni (npr. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review paper aims to present the results of recent research on the relation between the use of digital technology and children's development. The paper describes the importance of the topic and gives a systematic overview of empirical research on the topic of the paper. The results of recent research show that the use of digital technology in children is associated, albeit low to moderate, with their physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development. The content that is viewed, created, and listened to through digital technology devices and the time and circumstances of children's use of digital technology determine whether the effects of the use of digital technology on children's development will be positive or negative. This review of current research indicates the need to further examine the factors that may mediate and/or moderate the relationship between the use of digital technology and children's development, and the need to develop a theoretical framework to integrate current knowledge and direct future research in the field.
... Furthermore, from theory in the field of developmental psychology we know that adolescents' immature cognitive development causes them to experience difficulties inhibiting (initial) behavioral responses [24,25]. Receiving a private picture of a peer can bring feelings of excitement or sensation [26,27], which can subsequently impede adolescents to reflect critically on the consequences of their behavior. Altogether, it may be difficult for adolescents not to conform to cyber aggressive behaviors when these occur in messaging apps. ...
... Then again, the intervention could work better for adolescents with high inhibitory control. Adolescents with high inhibitory control are generally able to inhibit negative behavioral responses [26], but may not yet know how to behave in specific situations that involve cyber aggression. Because susceptibility to peer pressure and inhibitory control may moderate the intervention effects in contrasting ways, we pose the following research question: RQ: How do individual differences in susceptibility to peer pressure and inhibitory control moderate the expected intervention effects? ...
Article
Full-text available
Early adolescents frequently use mobile messaging apps to communicate with peers. The popularity of such messaging apps has a critical drawback because it increases conformity to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression includes aggressive peer behaviors such as nasty comments, nonconsensual image sharing, and social exclusion, to which adolescents subsequently conform. Recent empirical research points to peer group norms and reduced accountability as two essential determinants of conformity to cyber aggression. Therefore, the current study aimed to counteract these two determinants in a 2 (peer group norms counteracted: yes, no) x 2 (reduced accountability counteracted: yes, no) design. We created four intervention conditions that addressed adolescents’ deficits in information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Depending on the condition (peer group norms, reduced accountability, combination, or control), we first informed participants about the influence of the relevant determinant (e.g., peer group norms). Subsequently, participants performed a self-persuasion task and formulated implementation-intentions to increase their motivation and behavioral skills not to conform to cyber aggression. Effectiveness was tested with a messaging app paradigm and self-report among a sample of 377 adolescents ( M age = 12.99, SD age = 0.84; 53.6% boys). Factorial ANCOVAs revealed that none of the intervention conditions reduced conformity to cyber aggression. Moreover, individual differences in susceptibility to peer pressure or inhibitory control among adolescents did not moderate the expected relations. Therefore, there is no evidence that our intervention effectively reduces conformity to cyber aggression. The findings from this first intervention effort point to the complex relationship between theory and practice. Our findings warrant future research to develop potential intervention tools that could effectively reduce conformity to cyber aggression.
... Young children's lives with media have in many ways radically changed over the last decade (Lemish 2015;Piotrowski & Valkenburg 2017), and the emergence of mobile and digital media platforms has transformed the supply of media content as well as patterns of use among children throughout the Western world -and specifically in the Nordic countries. Strong public service traditions in combination with relatively relaxed and pragmatic attitudes among parents towards children's media use means children in the Nordic countries grow up with easy access to a broad range of media products on different platforms. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the Nordic countries, the Internet is widely understood as a resource that young people can access to engage with and participate in digital culture and society (Helsper, Kalmus, Hasebrink, Sagvari & de Haan 2013). Recent research from Norway, for example, indicates that 96 % of children aged 9–17 have their own mobile phone. Norwegian children also spend on average a little under four hours per day on the Internet (Staksrud & Ólafsson 2019). Similar findings are reported across the Nordic region (Kupiainen, Suoninen & Nikunen 2011; Svenskarna och internet 2018). Can we therefore assume that all Nordic children and young people enjoy equal access to the Internet and to the opportunities for participation in the digital culture that such access facilitates? In order to answer this question, I invite you to think about what equal access means for you. Do you think that all Nordic children should have equal access to opportunities to express their culture and identities, regardless of which language or languages they use? In this chapter I consider these questions and the implications of their answers for Sámi youth and young adults. I present interview material gathered during 18 months between 2012 and 2014 with four young Sámi women and three young Sámi men (aged 20–35 years). The interviews explore how these young adults use social media to create new opportunities for communication in their languages. By engaging in this socially innovative media use, these young adults negotiate access to digital media both for themselves and for other young Sámi-language users. The interview data introduce some of the ways in which these Sámi young adults experience inequality of access to the devices, applications, and infrastructures that constitute the Internet. I submit that this inequality relates to opportunities to communicate through Sámi languages and to aspects of Sámi culture and identity.
... Its usefulness in easing communication and making opportunities available to people cannot be understated. With sophisticated mobile gadgets, social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, LinkedIn, Snapchat, are now easily accessible (Fernandez et al, 2019;Pantic et al, 2012;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Although social media has benefitted the globe, there are concerns about its effects on people, especially teenagers and youth (Uko, 2015;The Guardian, 2017). ...
Article
Material and non-material achievements are replete on social media, and they are perceived differently by people. We sought to provide evidence on how young undergraduates relate with these perceived achievements on social media, the prospects and problems associated with such perceptions, and the implications for psychosocial support services in higher institutions in Nigeria. Guided by phenomenology, 30 young undergraduates across two universities in Nigeria were interviewed. Elicited data were analysed in themes, and identity theory provided the conceptual framework. Despite the positives taken from the perceived achievements on social media, there were considerable negative influences, affecting the character and esteem of young people. The students expressed interest in seeking psychosocial services, which were unavailable. Our study buttresses the need to mainstream social work and other psychosocial services in Nigerian tertiary schools for the comprehensive development of students.
... Young children's lives with media have in many ways radically changed over the last decade (Lemish 2015;Piotrowski & Valkenburg 2017), and the emergence of mobile and digital media platforms has transformed the supply of media content as well as patterns of use among children throughout the Western world -and specifically in the Nordic countries. Strong public service traditions in combination with relatively relaxed and pragmatic attitudes among parents towards children's media use means children in the Nordic countries grow up with easy access to a broad range of media products on different platforms. ...
Book
Full-text available
This is a research anthology about children’s and young people’s leisure cultures in the Nordic countries. Children’s and young people’s practices take centre stage in this book for the purpose of exploring culture from within their own practices, focusing on what they do. In this book, this is expressed through, how leisure culture creates social mobility, how children move between and multitask digital technologies and platforms, and how they on a regular basis are engaged and active in multiple cultural activities such as going to the theatre, singing, or online gaming. It also engages with leisure culture in terms of venues where people, objects, ideas, imaginations, and pleasures move in and out of one another. The concept of culture is in constant motion through the chapters entangling social processes with cultural processes, cultural heritage with popular and digital culture, doing and making in practice with place, and markets with cultural policies. This collection demonstrates that leisure culture gets its meanings in and through social relations and is not solely the expressions of individual identity work.
... Razlikovanje prijateljstva kao veze s drugim odnosima moglo bi ometati znanstveni napredak u razumijevanju ovoga društvena fenomena (Zarbatany, Conley i Pepper, 2004). Bez ispravnih definicija i diferencijacije, mi bismo mogli istodobno proučavati "prijateljstva" ujakā, majki i njihovih potomaka kao i nesrodničke, iako je jasno da ti odnosi služe različitim funkcijama i ulogama (Valkenburg, Patti i Taylor Piotrowski, 2017). Perspektiva zapadna svijeta prijateljstvo definira kao neseksualnu vezu koju karakterizira dragovoljna međuovisnost dvoje (ili više) pojedinaca. ...
... A portabilidade e a miniaturização dos ecrãs são fatores atrativos para crianças e adolescentes, porque maximizam a possibilidade de decidir o conteúdo ao qual estão expostas com base nos seus próprios interesses, (Ofcom, 2019;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Contudo, a experiência individual e privada do consumo de ecrãs, aliada à falta de proximidade aos pais criam um cenário permeável à ocorrência de situações de risco online (Charalampous et al., 2018;Hasson & Mesch, 2017;Soh et al., 2018;). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In a society increasingly dominated by the image cult, reports on the growth of prejudice and discrimination based solely on physical appearance have increased. GenZ is the first generation born entirely in a fully developed internet and has known social media early. Therefore, it is crucial to understand their perception of body image and image manipulation perception as they are targeted daily on social media by retouched images of celebrities and branded content. In this study, we opted to develop a survey applied to 785 GenZers residing in Portugal to collect their perceptions about this topic. Results aim to show their perceptions of body image on social media by reflecting on their own posting habits and their views on celebrity retouched images. At the end of this study, the main results are presented in the hopes that new generations will gradually begin to deconstruct stereotypes and prejudices that mark a society still dominated by the image and by the aesthetic and beauty standards.
... A portabilidade e a miniaturização dos ecrãs são fatores atrativos para crianças e adolescentes, porque maximizam a possibilidade de decidir o conteúdo ao qual estão expostas com base nos seus próprios interesses, (Ofcom, 2019;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Contudo, a experiência individual e privada do consumo de ecrãs, aliada à falta de proximidade aos pais criam um cenário permeável à ocorrência de situações de risco online (Charalampous et al., 2018;Hasson & Mesch, 2017;Soh et al., 2018;). ...
... Relationships between media use and any effect thereof are further mediated by cognitive, emotional, and excitative response states. Because media content is not homogeneous, cognitive response states may particularly depend on the specific media being used (Piotrowski & Fikkers, 2020;Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). In the case of social media expression, users may share or comment on content that is either consistent or inconsistent with their views. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of social media users to express themselves online should be influential for opinion formation, including potential polarization. Still, little is known about how expression interacts with users’ psychological predispositions, especially for controversial topics. The potential for expression to relate to support for social media-based racial justice movements, which could also be affected by underlying feelings of racial resentment, is particularly interesting. We apply the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM) to the study of the relationship between social media expression and issue polarization regarding Black Lives Matter. In a survey of social media users conducted during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, we find that racial resentment moderates the relationship between social media expression and support for racial justice movements. Among low-resentment social media users, more frequent expression was associated with less support for Black Lives Matter. Additionally, low- versus high-resentment users who expressed themselves on social media more frequently were more polarized in their support for All Lives Matter but less polarized in their support for Black Lives Matter. In line with the DSMM, our findings highlight that users’ psychological predispositions must be taken into account when determining how social media expression relates to issue polarization.
... With the rapid pace of technology, educational tools and methodologies are needed to be developed to reach new generations of students. Students spend twice as much time on gadgets as they do in academics [1]- [3]. Students from this generation are known to quickly adapt and accept technology, rather than sticking to the old traditional ways of learning, which are hard to deal with for them [4], [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the development of a wireless, interactive, educational (WISE) game that incorporates the use of smartphones for reviewing lessons that might suit the standards of the Philippine government’s education department. It is easier today to engage students using digital platforms for education using interactive digital games. In this study, the users can play the game by connecting the smartphones to the prototype through wireless local area network. It consists of two types of cards: power cards which contribute excitement to the game, and question cards which contain questions to be answered by the players. The prototype is an integration of the following components: Raspberry Pi 3B, RFID reader and cards, and speakers. A graphical user interface where the players interact with the game was created using scripting languages, such as PHP, and JavaScript. The project was evaluated by different grade school students of Metro Manila, Philippines. The results of users’ evaluation show that the prototype is accessible and effective for use based on functionality and that the project can also serve as a tool for lesson reviews. Future development of WISE game includes its integration and compatibility to different operating systems with larger databases and accessibility.
... As such, this range is inevitably broad. Such breadth is susceptible to criticism, as the media content of interest to preschoolers and late adolescents differs starkly (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). However, the selection of a wider age range enabled the use of studies from LMIC contexts to support most points made in this review. ...
Article
Full-text available
This publication is one part of a series of rapid evidence reviews that has been produced by the EdTech Hub. The purpose of the rapid evidence reviews is to provide education decision-makers with accessible evidence-based summaries of good practice in specific areas of EdTech. They are focused on topics which are particularly relevant in the context of widespread global challenges to formal schooling as a result of COVID-19. All the rapid evidence reviews are available at edtechhub.org
... Topics such as media dependence (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017), or the relation between gadgets and cognitive processes (Drugaș, 2021; are clearly connected with recent research in the field of Generation Z, but in the scientific literature we can find very few articles investigating Generation Alpha. Still, a name for this new generation is yet to be established and acknowledged, as the term of "Generation Alpha" is still debatable. ...
Article
Full-text available
People love to talk about generations, especially when the feeling is that the world is rapidly changing. Terms such as millennials or Generation Z are already used worldwide, even if the sociological origins of the generation theory are less known by the general public. Although Generation Z was defined as digital natives, there are voices trying to suggest that a new digital native generation is here, and its name is Generation Alpha or screenagers. We are not sure if there is a clear border between these digital native generations, although there are some recent findings identifying them as more curious, creative, or self-determined than their predecessors. The technology dependence also brings relational and emotional issues, and we used the term of "screamagers" to describe their ill-tempered behaviors. However, there is a risk of devolving into stereotyping, when the scientific evidence on this topic, for now, seems to be scarce. Perhaps it is too early to speak about a new generation and more scientific studies are needed to increase our understanding of the evolution of people born after 2010.
... In an earlier study, Huber, et al. (2016) find that tablet-based educational play improves children's executive function, problem-solving, and planning ability. In addition, according to Valkenburg and Piotrowski (2017) educational media content improves young children's academic and social-emotional development. ...
... Physical problems can therefore be both a motivation and a deterrent to Internet use among the elderly. Today's children and adolescents have constant access to digital devices such as smartphones, tablet computers, and laptops (Valkenburg & Piotrowski, 2017). Today's seniors, on the other hand, came of age before the Internet and portable electronics were so widely available. ...
... It would be interesting to explore how the content produced affects the self and others when producing it. This phenomenon is called the expression effect, and occurs when a sender internalizes the behaviors or beliefs they show or disclose, so their self-concept or behavior changes (Valkenburg & Taylor, 2017). Also, further investigation is required on how this curated representation of the self and the use of Instagram translates into real life (Davies, 2020). ...
Article
This article provides an in-depth analysis of the motives and patterns of Instagram use among a sample of Belgian and Peruvian youths. 19 participants aged 18–28 underwent in-depth interviews to assess what Instagram means to them, why and how they use it, and what consequences of their use they perceive. The most recurrent motivations for using Instagram were self-expression, curiosity, documenting, entertainment, and connection. Five distinctive usage patterns were identified: urge and craving, passive use, anxious posting, social approval, and social comparison. The perceived consequences include an increased connection to others, the rise of “Instagram-worthy” content pursuit, issues with time management, a compulsive urge to enter, and constant comparison. Since Instagram relies mainly on visuals, poses questions about authenticity, identity, and self-presentation, and elicits strong emotional reactions from its users, it fosters social comparison, which may be harmful to youth’s views on themselves, their self-esteem, and their self-worth.
... For instance, when their children watch or play, they should talk about children's preferences, e.g., understanding what is the main reason for using media, how do the children perceive the concept 'violence', and how they comprehend a piece of information about the production of video games or movies while also explaining that media is not real. These help to develop the critical media skills of youth (Valkenburg and Taylor, 2017). By using this method, they can control their children and during the communication, they can accurately tell their opinions and decisions about violent media. ...
Article
Full-text available
Considering that today's youth are inadvertently exposed to violence in all forms of media and video games, research shows that this affects the psyche, subsequently manifesting in aggressive behaviour. This research paper examines how media violence, particularly in video games and movies, impacted youth behaviour during Uzbekistan's pandemic-imposed lockdown period in 2020. The research deploys a mixed-method approach by using quantitative online and offline surveys, data collected from educational institutions and companies to analyse the impact of media violence on youth who choose to play violent video games and watch violent movies during the pandemic. At the same time, the qualitative thematic analysis presents recommendations for preventing the adverse effects of violent video games and films on young people's behaviour. The research ends with suggestions on supporting young people and ways to protect them from falling into the vicious cycle of violence, which triggers aggression in their behaviour.
... Today's youth spend a lot of time online (Reid Chassiakos et al., 2016;Valkenburg and Piotrowski, 2017) and are often permanently connected to their online social networks through social media platforms (Boyd, 2014). Many health intervention developers tend to conduct health interventions with social influencers entirely online, because this is a low-cost and less time-consuming method (Bell et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social influencers are widely known as the promotors of purchase behavior as well as for their potential to change health behaviors among individuals in their social networks. For social influencers to be successful in changing behaviors, it is essential that they convey their message in an authentic, original, credible, and persistent manner. In the context of health behavior interventions, this requires a focus on the motivation of social influencers to engage in the intervention. This perspective article describes the importance of motivating social influencers to engage in the desired health behaviors themselves and to promote it within their social network. We briefly describe the current state of knowledge and our empirical experience in implementing health interventions with social influencers. Using insights from self-determination theory, we demonstrate how social influencers can be motivated optimally in health behavior interventions and, thereby, improving the success of the intervention. To illustrate these insights and guide intervention practice, we provide concrete examples of techniques that can be applied in health interventions involving social influencers. We conclude with directions for further research and intervention practice to improve the delivery of health behavior interventions.
Article
To develop guidelines for more effective news literacy interventions, we conducted focus groups with early adolescents (12-15 years old) on what these interventions should be like. Participants ( N = 55) discussed that motivating early adolescents is a challenge, but did provide more insight into their preferences and needs. Future interventions should be easy to find and use, make news literate behaviors more accessible, should be interactive, and should tailor the content toward the target group. Developing interventions based on these guidelines could positively influence various predictors of news literate behaviors in early adolescents, and, in turn, lead to more news literate behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Digital media have become the preferred media of information and entertainment among mass audiences the world over as they avail people the opportunity to access media products without stress. The main focus of this study is the exploration of digital media as a technology tool for leisure. The population of the study is the students of Obafemi Awolowo University in the South Western part of Nigeria. The survey method is selected for the study, which is founded on the uses and gratification theory. The questionnaire is chosen as the research instrument. The sample size of 200 respondents was selected using stratified random sampling method. It was discovered that 89.3% of the respondents are regular users of the Internet, while 48.1% rely on the Internet for their leisure activities. 19.1% spend their leisure time by either watching videos or listening to music either on or offline; 65% of the respondents consider the Internet as an important medium of leisure-related activity. WhatsApp is the most preferred social media platform of leisure activity for 38.8% of the respondents, 26.8% preferred Facebook, 13.1 and 10.9% preferred Instagram and YouTube respectively. Digital media have become so popular among the sampled population as 47.5% of them preferred it over television, radio and print media, only 8.7% of the sampled showed preference for print media. Digital media are no doubt a big technology tool of leisure among students. It is therefore important to improve Internet infrastructure in all academic institutions across the nation to facilitate students’ access to the Internet for leisure purposes as leisure happens to be an essential aspect of social life.
Article
Researchers in the area of children and advertising have been working for decades to determine exactly how children process commercial messages. While a great deal of work has focused on cognitive advertising literacy, research regarding the development of children’s moral advertising literacy is lacking. Given the popularity of social media platforms among youth today, this study examined age differences in children’s moral evaluations of product placement in a YouTube video displaying various forms of disclosures. Results revealed that more prominent disclosures are associated with greater judgments of the appropriateness of the advertising tactic, which in turn is associated with more positive evaluations of the promoted brand. While the former relationship was particularly strong among younger children, older children were more likely to consider how others and society broadly are impacted by covert advertising, resulting in more negative evaluations of the promoted brand.
Article
Full-text available
Literature reviews on how social media use affects adolescent mental health have accumulated at an unprecedented rate of late. Yet, a higher-level integration of the evidence is still lacking. We fill this gap with an up-to-date umbrella review, a review of reviews published between 2019 and mid 2021. Our search yielded 25 reviews: seven meta-analyses, nine systematic, and nine narrative reviews. Results showed that most reviews interpreted the associations between social media use and mental health as “weak” or “inconsistent,” whereas a few qualified the same associations as “substantial” and “deleterious.” We summarize the gaps identified in the reviews, provide an explanation for their diverging interpretations, and suggest several avenues for future research.
Article
Full-text available
A widespread concern in society is that adolescents experience an increased inability to concentrate and sustain attention because they are continuously distracted by social media. The current experience sampling method (ESM) study examined whether adolescents who use more social media than their peers experience more distraction (between-person association), whether social media use (SMU) and distraction co-fluctuate within adolescents (momentary within-person associations), and to what extent this within-person association differs from person to person (person-specific associations). With a sample of 383 adolescents (Mage = 14.11), who together completed 35,099 ESM surveys (73% compliance), we found both a positive between-person association (β = .31) and a positive momentary within-person association (β = .12) of SMU with distraction. The momentary within-person association differed from adolescent to adolescent: While SMU and distraction were positively associated among 82.5% of all adolescents, they were not associated among 15.7% of the adolescents, and negatively associated among 1.8% of the adolescents. Additional analyses on the direction of the effect showed that the within-person effect of SMU on subsequent levels of distraction was somewhat stronger (β = .05) than the effect of distraction on subsequent levels of SMU (β = .03).
Article
Full-text available
Samenvatting Om een actueel beeld te krijgen van angstreacties van kinderen op het NOS Jeugdjournaal is een survey afgenomen onder 892 kinderen (9-12 jaar). Bijna alle participanten (94.5%) kijken regelmatig naar het NOS Jeugdjournaal. Het merendeel van deze kinderen ervaart angstreacties door dit nieuws, maar gemiddeld worden ze slechts een klein beetje bang. Vooral meisjes en jongere kinderen lijken kwetsbaarder voor angstaanjagende nieuwsinhoud.
Article
The aim of this chapter is to discuss the communication and media effects theories that may serve as the foundations for research into the effects of social media use on adolescents. The first section of this chapter focuses on three important paradigms of general media effects theories that may help us understand the effects of social media, namely the selectivity, transactionality, and conditionality paradigms. The second section reviews computer-mediation theories, which originated in the 1970s, and are still important to understand the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects of social media. The third section introduces a transactional affordance theory of social media uses, which is inspired by transactional theories of development (Bronfenbrenner, 2005; Sameroff, 2009), self-effects theory (Valkenburg, 2017), and affordance theories of social media use (e.g., McFarland & Ployhart, 2015). The chapter ends with some avenues for future research into the effects of social media on adolescents.
Chapter
In the recent pandemic period, an empathy-based strategy was applied in teaching the course of domestic interiors to second year Interior design students to help in overcoming the vulnerabilities faced by the students. To understand if using empathy and cognitive methods in instruction, are more effective in online or hybrid (online & face to face) mode for a course in design education. The student scores of two subsequent cohorts (one taught in online mode and the other in hybrid mode), were used to ascertain the difference in engagement, learning outcome quality and student feedback of the two mode of instruction. Empathy and connectivism was used in both modes. Student scores in the hybrid mode were almost 9% (average) higher than the online mode, as it provisioned for some face to face interaction.KeywordsInter-personal understandingConfidenceInclusivityFlexibility and Empathy
Article
Full-text available
The current study is an attempt to explore the pattern of horror shows among Indian and non-Indian web-series. In doing so, the commonalities and the differences observed in four Netflix series, Stranger Things, The Haunting of Hill House, Ghoul, and Betaal, are presented thematically. Despite the technical poorness and fictitious storylines, the Indian horror shows are politically conscious compared to non-Indian productions, which are tilted towards overt fictional fantasy. The Indian and American horror series has a typical pattern yet distinct in specific areas that make suitable horror narratives for culturally diverse audiences. The whole phenomena of increasing horror show on Indian OTT platforms indicate the horror genre's rising popularity. Indian audiences seem to have accepted the genre now more than ever.
Article
Full-text available
Considering that today's youth are inadvertently exposed to violence in all forms of media and video games, research shows that this affects the psyche, subsequently manifesting in aggressive behaviour. This research paper examines how media violence, particularly in video games and movies, impacted youth behaviour during Uzbekistan's pandemic-imposed lockdown period in 2020. The research deploys a mixed-method approach by using quantitative online and offline surveys, data collected from educational institutions and companies to analyse the impact of media violence on youth who choose to play violent video games and watch violent movies during the pandemic. At the same time, the qualitative thematic analysis presents recommendations for preventing the adverse effects of violent video games and films on young people's behaviour. The research ends with suggestions on supporting young people and ways to protect them from falling into the vicious cycle of violence, which triggers aggression in their behaviour.
Book
Full-text available
This eBook is an edited collection comprising eight Rapid Evidence Reviews undertaken by the EdTech Hub in response to the educational disruption caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.
Preprint
Full-text available
This study addresses digital inequalities in young people’s daily lives and well-being. We examine how adolescents’ digital engagement differs across family socioeconomic status (SES) and gender, and how it relates to their psychological well-being. Analyses use longitudinal data from the Growing Up in Ireland study from age 9 to 18, combined with cross-national data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged survey on adolescents aged 11-15 across 35 industrialised countries. Longitudinal analyses reveal that low-SES adolescents and girls experience higher psychological problems as they increase their time using digital devices, compared to high-SES adolescents and boys. Cross-national analyses indicate that, while boys spend more time in digital activities, girls are at higher risks of experiencing psychological problems from engaging with digital activities. However, the magnitude of these gendered patterns differs markedly across national contexts. Cross-country comparisons on SES yield mixed results: in some countries low-SES adolescents are mentally more harmed by their digital engagement (i.e., Switzerland, Austria, Norway), but in other countries high-SES adolescents are those at psychological risks from using digital devices (i.e., Portugal, Czech Republic, Bulgaria). The study findings are discussed within the existing literature on digital inequalities and young people’s well-being.
Article
In this study, I take a critical look at the presence of narcoculture in reggaeton using as a case study the music video of the remix of ‘Somos de calle’. Specifically, I evaluate whether and to what extent reggaeton’s narco-messages and narco-representations – when they converge with other variables – could potentially influence an individual’s modes of thinking and behaviour. The study does not aim to provide a definitive answer to the debate surrounding this issue. More than anything, it strives to analyse the extent to which the claim that such influence may occur has scientific merit, in order to advocate further research on this matter. The article also discusses the highly politicized debate that has surrounded this topic in public discourse, and how this has seemingly affected its critical assessment in academia. For the analysis I rely particularly on social psychology literature concerning violent media content and in the areas of persuasion studies and prejudice studies, but I also consider literature from other fields, including criminology.
Article
Az internet, s főleg a közösségi média az elmúlt években a társadalmi élet egyik kiemelt színterévé vált. Az érintett korosztályok legrelevánsabb képviselője korunk serdülői, akik már olyan korban születtek, ahol teljesen természetesek a digitális eszközök, az online kommunikáció, a közösségi média vagy az influenszerek létezése. A serdülőkben természetes módon végbemenő biológiai és pszichológiai változásokkal számos kutatás foglalkozott, s feltárták már az internethasználat exponenciális növekedésével járó pszichés problémákat is, melynek egyik eredője a fokozott telefonhasználat is. Az online világnak való mindennapos kitettség feltételezhetően együttesen formálja a fiatalok attitűdjeit, normáit. Éppen ezért kutatásunk célja, hogy némiképp innovatív módon, s egy más aspektusból közelítsük meg a kamaszok internethasználatát. Feltárjuk, hogy a telefon mint az internet fő használati eszköze milyen összefüggést mutat az önértékeléssel és a kiégéssel, emellett feltérképezzük, hogy melyek a tipikus magatartásformák YouTube-on (viselkedések gyakorisága, leíró norma), valamint foglalkozunk azzal is, hogy a különböző viselkedésminták mennyire elfogadottak egyéni szinten (személyes normák), illetve, hogy a kamaszok mit gondolnak társaik ezekhez való viszonyulásáról (előíró normák).
Chapter
Due to advances in technology and high speed Internet, many young children now have access to a variety of digital game apps and electronic books. This new technology can provide older adults and children a way to interact with one another through activities that are mutually beneficial. The young children learn through shared play while the older adults can increase their knowledge and skill in using digital technology tools. This chapter begins with definitions of digital game apps and electronic books. Next, we provide information about how these forms of digital media can cultivate intergenerational relationships between young children and older adults. We then share obstacles that both groups face when using these forms of digital media and ways to address each challenge. The chapter concludes by identifying key characteristics of effective digital tools and recommends high-quality digital media that young children and older adults can enjoy together.KeywordsIntergenerational bondsDigital game appsElectronic booksebooksStory apps
Article
Research in the field of children and media has long had a heavy focus on children’s understandings and evaluations of advertising, noting the importance of parental mediation to protect children from unfairly being influenced. However, little is known regarding parents’ own understanding and evaluations of advertising, particularly in newer and more subtle media formats. This study therefore uses the persuasion knowledge model (PKM) to investigate parents’ responses to influencers’ product placement in YouTube videos, as well as whether this is associated with greater monitoring of children’s social media use and/or more negative evaluations of promoted brands. Findings suggest that most parents judge product placement in influencers’ YouTube videos to be generally appropriate and evaluate promoted brands positively as long as they find the content of the video appealing. They also engage in parental mediation, particularly when their own Internet skills are sufficient. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Chapter
The year 2020 has been a testing ground for the progress towards a cohesive and sustainable future envisaged through the advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) (UN ECOSOC 2021). In a time of uncertainty, helplessness, and growing frustrations, we, as a society, found that ICTs can be a mixed blessing. We witnessed the power of ICTs in connecting people across the globe in their collective trauma and desperation (Garfin 2020), forming online mutual aid groups to offer help and support to those in need (Knearem et al. 2021) and building solidarity, and increasing outreach of movements for social justice (Frankfurt 2020). However, these positive trends were marred by the increase in information chaos (Forum on Information and Democracy (2021), the formation of echo chambers (Boutyline and Willer 2017), and the consolidation of extreme views and ideologies (Zeller 2021). These polarizing forces threaten the development-oriented nature of information society and deteriorate social cohesion, which is composed of trust, sense of belonging, and participation in community life (Chan et al. 2006). Social cohesion is the glue that holds the community together and is necessary for collaborative problem solving (Friedkin 2004).
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The majority of adolescents engage with others online, and using social media is one of their top activities. However, there is little longitudinal evidence addressing whether active social media use is associated with study-related emotional exhaustion or delayed bedtime at the individual level of development during adolescence. Method: A 6-year longitudinal survey study (N = 426, female, 65.7%) was conducted (2014-2019) in Finland when the participants were 13-19 years old. Utilizing a Random Intercept Cross-Lagged Panel Model, this study focused specifically on longitudinal within-person effects. Results: No clear patterns between increased active social media use, increased emotional exhaustion, and delayed bedtime were found; however, the associations varied across the years of adolescence: active social media use and delayed bedtime were only associated in early adolescence; active social media use and emotional exhaustion were associated in both middle and late adolescence. Conclusions: Intraindividual relations between adolescents' reported active social media use, emotional exhaustion, and sleeping habits are small, inconsistent, and vary according to age. Therefore, future research should focus on additional longitudinal studies to examine the specific practices of social media use during the different developmental stages of at-risk individuals.
Article
Full-text available
With emerging technology and popularity of video-on-demand (VOD) services (e.g., Netflix, Hulu, Amazon Prime) that is higher than ever, the current media industry invites babies (< 2 years old) and toddlers (2–4 years old) into the growing consumer market. Although previous research has established that screen media targeted to children and adolescents largely portrays men and women in traditional gender roles, it is less clear how gender is portrayed in programs targeted toward the youngest viewers. The current study examined gender traits of the main characters in programs targeted to babies and children ages 2–4 that were disseminated via Hulu Kids. Comparisons between male and female characters in Babies programs and Kids 2–4 programs, respectively, showed that the characters were gender-stereotypically portrayed. However, both male characters and female characters were shown to be portrayed with masculine traits in programs targeting toddlers when compared within each gender. These results suggest even the youngest of viewers are exposed to narrow and traditional gender portrayals.
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing concerns that children (8–13 years old) tend to avoid the news, the reasons why have received little research attention. Therefore, the current study aims to develop and test a model conceptualizing the relations between children’s news consumption, news avoidance, emotional responses (negative emotions and anxiety-related behaviors), and parent and child mitigation strategies. The model was tested using data collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The current, preregistered, survey study was part of a longitudinal project and used data from the second wave. Data were collected in November/December 2020 among 510 children (Mage = 10.40; 53.72% girls). Findings showed that children who consumed more news during the pandemic avoided pandemic news less often. Children who experienced more anxiety-related behaviors regarding pandemic news avoided pandemic news more often. The relation between news consumption and emotional responses was stronger for children who experienced restrictive parental mediation more often, indicating that this was not an effective parental mediation strategy for tempering their emotional responses. Children with higher levels of emotional responses used reactive coping strategies more often. However, this did not seem to be an effective strategy against pandemic news avoidance because none of the strategies had a negative relation with pandemic news avoidance. Distancing was even positively related to pandemic news avoidance. Although the current study was not able to fully unravel how news avoidance-related constructs relate to one another, we were able to get some important insights guiding future research. Specifically, it is of crucial importance to unravel the mechanisms that increase the chance of children’s news avoidance and those that mitigate it, to build interventions to counteract news avoidance and to protect children from the negative emotional consequences by news consumption.
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that some individuals benefit from using social media because it may help them to obtain social capital. This article questions who are most likely to benefit: the socially rich (i.e., individuals with a preference for social interaction, support, or without interpersonal problems) or the socially poor? It is hard to provide a definite answer to this question: Previous empirical studies have yielded mixed findings and were difficult to compare due to varying conceptualizations and analytic approaches. To better understand the complex interplay between individuals’ social media use and social capital, we discuss the added value of within-person analyses and person-specific designs.
Article
Full-text available
Indian metropolitan cities have seen a rising trend in reports of behavioural concerns in school-going adolescents. This trend highlights a pressing need to understand the manifestation and presentation of behavioural concerns in the classroom, from the perspectives of parents and teachers. Owing to globalisation, parents, teachers and adolescents have been exposed to socialisation practises from multiple cultures. The assimilation of these practices into the Indian culture, has impacted social interactions and social structures such as schools. Since the school structure forms, explains and sustains complex social dynamics through interaction and engagement, this study was conducted in schools in the urban areas in Delhi NCR. In-depth interviews were conducted on forty teachers and seven parents on their understanding of behavioural concerns and the perceived causes. Reflexive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101, 2019)) revealed that the major factors behind behavioural concerns were: unavailability of parents, exposure to media and being (fe)male as prevailing themes that explained the parent’s and teacher’s understanding of perceived causes. Implications of these results are discussed. Keywords Behavioural concerns adolescents · Thematic analysis · Parents · Teachers
Article
This study aimed to test the possible moderating role of parents’ emotional stability on the relationship between parent distraction with technology and child social competence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data used in the study were collected in May 2020 when extensive restrictive measures, labeled as lockdown, were present in Croatia. Data on technoference in parenting, parents’ problematic phone tendencies, and child social competence were collected using an online questionnaire from parents (n = 281) of children aged 3 to 14 years. The results show a significant negative effect of overall technoference in parenting on child social competence. This negative effect was significantly moderated by parents’ emotional stability, as expected. Medium and high levels of parents’ emotional stability buffer the negative effect of low technoference in parenting on child social competence. Results imply technoference in parenting negatively affects child development, but the emotional stability of parents can be a protective factor.
Article
Full-text available
The human brain develops with a nonlinear contraction of gray matter across late childhood and adolescence with a concomitant increase in white matter volume. Across the adult population, properties of cortical gray matter covary within networks that may represent organizational units for development and degeneration. Although gray matter covariance may be strongest within structurally connected networks, the relationship to volume changes in white matter remains poorly characterized. In the present study we examined age-related trends in white and gray matter volume using T1-weighted MR images from 360 human participants from the NIH MRI study of Normal Brain Development. Images were processed through a voxel-based morphometry pipeline. Linear effects of age on white and gray matter volume were modeled within four age bins, spanning 4-18 years, each including 90 participants (45 male). White and gray matter age-slope maps were separately entered into k-means clustering to identify regions with similar age-related variability across the four age bins. Four white matter clusters were identified, each with a dominant direction of underlying fibers: anterior-posterior, left-right, and two clusters with superior-inferior directions. Corresponding, spatially proximal, gray matter clusters encompassed largely cerebellar, fronto-insular, posterior, and sensorimotor regions, respectively. Pairs of gray and white matter clusters followed parallel slope trajectories, with white matter changes generally positive from 8 years onward (indicating volume increases) and gray matter negative (decreases). As developmental disorders likely target networks rather than individual regions, characterizing typical coordination of white and gray matter development can provide a normative benchmark for understanding atypical development.
Article
There are several theoretical reasons to believe that media use might be related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-related behaviors (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). Although studies into the media-ADHD relationship have accumulated, they have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we still do not know whether children's media use and ADHD-related behaviors are related and, if so, under which conditions. To fill this gap in the literature, we first identified 6 different hypotheses that may explain why media use in general and viewing fast-paced or violent media content might be related to 1 or more ADHD-related behaviors. Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis of 45 empirical studies investigating the relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors in children and adolescents. Our results indicated a small significant relationship between media use and ADHD-related behaviors (r+ = .12). Finally, we identified several specific gaps in the existing literature and presented 5 crucial directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Unlabelled: Overweight and obese youth, who face increased risk of medical complications including heart disease and type II diabetes, can benefit from sustainable physical activity interventions that result in weight loss. Objective: This study examined whether a 20-week exergame (i.e., videogame that requires gross motor activity) intervention can produce weight loss and improve psychosocial outcomes for 54 overweight and obese African-American adolescents. Design and methods: Participants were recruited from a public high school and randomly assigned to competitive exergame, cooperative exergame, or control conditions. All exergame participants were encouraged to play the Nintendo Wii Active game for 30-60 min per school day in a lunch-time or after-school program. Cooperative exergame participants worked with a peer to expend calories and earn points together, whereas competitive exergame participants competed against a peer. Control participants continued regular daily activities. Outcome measures included changes in weight, peer support, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, measured at baseline, and at ∼10 and 20 weeks. Results: Growth curve analysis revealed that cooperative exergame players lost significantly more weight (mean = 1.65 kg; s.d. = 4.52) than the control group, which did not lose weight. The competitive exergame players did not differ significantly from the other conditions. Cooperative exergame players also significantly increased in self-efficacy compared to the control group, and both exergame conditions significantly increased in peer support more than the control group. Conclusion: Exergames, especially played cooperatively, can be an effective technological tool for weight loss among youth.
Article
Data were obtained from a 1970 survey of 1,094 8th-12th graders. Ss filled out self-administered questionnaires in randomly selected classrooms in 12 schools. Variables measured included: recall of ads, attitudes toward TV ads, materialism, effects of ads on buying, exposure to TV and magazines, family communication about consumption, social utility reasons, communication utility reasons, and various consumption reasons. A comparison of results, between younger and older students, indicate no significant differences on the learning variables, but do show differences on nearly all communication variables. (25 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)