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In Central and Eastern European countries, the transition to a market economy stimulated civil society initiatives that in the past had been either discouraged or had become part of the Communist state system, and opened new pathways to entrepreneurial initiatives. The 1990s was an open window to the creation of a significant number of non-profit organizations, including the pioneering establishment of the first social enterprises. When these countries became members of the European Union, the process of legal institutionalization of social enterprises started to be discussed and has taken place at various stages. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the policy frameworks and the legal forms and of social enterprises in eight countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The research seeks to determine the extent to which the development of national policy frameworks influences the development of legal forms under which social enterprises operate. For the purpose of this analysis, data were collected from relevant to this subject country reports, studies, laws released between 2009 and 2016. The research shows that European social enterprises are often ‘hidden’ among existing legal forms either as associations and foundations with commercial activities, cooperatives serving general or collective interests and mainstream enterprises pursuing an explicit and primary social aim. Further research needs to be done to determine the potential for growth of entities operating as associations and foundations with commercial activities. Furthermore, the research concluded that the countries with specific laws on social entrepreneurship generate 61 % of the social economy activity in Central and Eastern European countries. Further research needs to be done to determine if introducing a social enterprise specific legal form, will stimulate the development of the business models under which social enterprises operate and implicitly growth.
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DOI: 10.1515/picbe-2017-0093
Policy framework and legal forms of social enterprise in Central
and Eastern Europe
Daniela STAICU
The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania
danielastaicu@gmail.com
Abstract. In Central and Eastern European countries, the transition to a market economy stimulated
civil society initiatives that in the past had been either discouraged or had become part of the
Communist state system, and opened new pathways to entrepreneurial initiatives. The 1990s was an
open window to the creation of a significant number of non-profit organizations, including the
pioneering establishment of the first social enterprises. When these countries became members of the
European Union, the process of legal institutionalization of social enterprises started to be discussed
and has taken place at various stages. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive
overview of the policy frameworks and the legal forms and of social enterprises in eight countries:
Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The research
seeks to determine the extent to which the development of national policy frameworks influences the
development of legal forms under which social enterprises operate. For the purpose of this analysis,
data were collected from relevant to this subject country reports, studies, laws released between 2009
and 2016. The research shows that European social enterprises are often ‘hidden’ among existing legal
forms either as associations and foundations with commercial activities, cooperatives serving general
or collective interests and mainstream enterprises pursuing an explicit and primary social aim. Further
research needs to be done to determine the potential for growth of entities operating as associations
and foundations with commercial activities. Furthermore, the research concluded that the countries
with specific laws on social entrepreneurship generate 61 % of the social economy activity in Central
and Eastern European countries. Further research needs to be done to determine if introducing a social
enterprise specific legal form, will stimulate the development of the business models under which social
enterprises operate and implicitly growth.
Keywords: social economy, social enterprise, Central and Eastern Europe, policy framework, legal
form, social aim.
Introduction
Emerging from decades of state economic control, countries in Central and Eastern Europe
(CEE) privatized industries in various paces, introduced competition, and tapped the talents
of their people to raise gross domestic product and living standards. (Labaye et al., 2013).
Privatization has been a particularly important phenomenon in the transition process of
planning to a market system. Communist regimes had placed almost all the productive
assets of the economy into state hands for ideological reasons, and to facilitate the planning
process. As a result, countries like Czechoslovakia contained virtually no private sector at
all typically in excess of 90% of assets were state owned and even in countries with
slightly larger private sectors, like Poland or Hungary, private ownership was concentrated
in agricultural and handicraft activities; industrial firms were all in state hands (Estrin,
2007). The shock of economic change of state economy to private economy, the
privatization of enterprises, the opening of markets to foreign competition and in
consequence the breakdown of entire branches of national economies (e.g. shipbuilding in
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Poland, the Czech and Slovenian textile industry; the sell-off of entire economic sectors to
foreign capital), caused social differentiation and exclusion (Selih and Zavrsnik, 2012).
The current paper aims to determine the extent to which the development of
national policy frameworks influences the creation of new legal forms and the status of
legal forms under which social enterprises already operate. Also, correlations between non-
governmental organizations (NGOs) undertaking economic activity, and NGOs in general
are analyzed. The paper starts with a review of the European Union operational definition
of social enterprise. Then it explains how the application of this definition at national levels
in the countries studied, impacts the legal forms under which social enterprises already run
under, and it continues with an analysis between the national policy frameworks and the
degree of development of new legal forms in correlation with the policy frameworks.
Finally, conclusions are drawn based on results.
Literature review
Operational definition of social enterprise
National economies are considered to have three sectors. The first sector is the private
sector which is centered on profits for private purposes and the second sector or the public
sector is overseen by governments. However, national economies have a third sector that
does not fit into either of the preceding categories and is also seen as part of what is known
as the social economy (O’Byrne et al., 2015). Recent years have seen a burgeoning interest
in social enterprise across Europe, strongly driven by a growing recognition of the role
social enterprise can play in tackling societal and environmental challenges and fostering
inclusive growth (European Commission, Directorate-General for Employment, Social
Affairs and Inclusion, 2016). A social enterprise involves all employees, consumers and
third parties which are affected by its social and economic activities (Păunescu et al., 2016).
Impetus has come also from the 2009 global economic crisis which has resulted in
widespread public discontentment with the functioning of the global economic system and
fueled interest in more inclusive and pluralistic economic systems (European Commission,
2014a).
Social economy enterprises represent 10% of all European businesses, with 2
million social enterprises and 6% of EU’s employment (Social economy in the EU, 2017).
These developments demonstrate that the Social Economy has become a key element of the
European social model and a key player in attaining the objectives set out in the EU 2020
Strategy. According to the South-East Europe 2020 Strategy, the ‘Employment’ dimension
addresses labor mobility, labor market governance and promotion of social economy
activities as the main priorities (Regional Cooperation Council, 2013). Moreover,
demonstrating its growing policy relevance, the European Commission has recently issued
a comprehensive guide to the social economy and social entrepreneurship. The guide
outlines the context in which the social economy and social entrepreneurship are situated.
Essentially what emerges here is that social enterprises occupy a place in member state
economies that is distinct from the more traditional private and public sectors and is
extremely important in the European context (European Commission Directorate-General
for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, 2013). Yet, despite interest in and the
emergence of social enterprise, relatively little is known about the policy framework and
the legal forms under which social enterprises operate in the emerging social enterprise
sector in CEE.
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The definition developed by the European Commission as part of the Social Business
Initiative which run from 2011 to 2014, could be used to distinguish social enterprises from
mainstream enterprises and traditional social economy entities. (European Commission,
2014a). These are private organizations that typically pursue goals other than profit: their
main purpose is not to generate financial gains for their owners or stakeholders but to
provide goods and services either to their members or to the community at large (European
Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, 2013). This
definition incorporates the three key dimensions of a social enterprise that have been
developed over the last decade through a body of European academic and policy literature
(country reports, studies, laws, regulations): an entrepreneurial dimension, a social
dimension, a governance dimension Each of the above dimensions were operationalized by
developing a set of core criteria that an organization must meet in order to be categorized
as a social enterprise under the European Union definition (European Commission, 2014a).
The most prevalent core criteria found in the literature review (Table 1) are related
to the governance dimension which concerns the existence of mechanisms to ‘lock in’ the
social goals of the organization: (1) limits on distribution of profits (n=26%); (2)
independence or autonomy from the State and other traditional for profit organizations
(n=26%), (2) inclusive governance characterized by participatory and/ or democratic
decision-making processes (n=20%). The least mentioned core criteria regard the
entrepreneurial dimension: it must engage in a continuous activity of production and/or
exchange of goods and/or services (n=13%) (European Commission, 2014a).
Table 1. Frequency of core criteria related to social enterprise found in the literature (2009 2016)
Social enterprise
dimension
(European
Commission,
2014a)
Core criteria that an organization
must meet to be categorized as a
social enterprise (European
Commission, 2014a)
References
Sources
Frequency
Entrepreneurial
economic activity
35
270
13%
Social
social aim
20
132
15%
Governance
9
35
26%
33
126
26%
inclusive governance
10
49
20%
Source: Authors’ own processing.
Methodology
To achieve its main goal, the paper has three major objectives: (1) To determine the variety
of legal forms complying with the EU operational definition for social enterprise under
which social enterprises in the countries examined operate; (2) to determine the level of
development of policy frameworks for social entrepreneurship in the countries studied; (3)
to examine the influence of national policy frameworks development on legal forms for
social enterprise.
For this purpose, the data was collected from relevant country reports, studies, laws:
country reports published by the European Commission and elaborated under the title: A
map of social enterprises and their eco-systems in Europe, Country report” for each of the
countries examined. Each report provides a non-exhaustive overview of the social
enterprise landscape in each country studied, based on available information as of 2014 up
to 2016, depending on country. The reports mention that although a range of stakeholders
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were interviewed to verify, update and supplement the information collected from
secondary sources, it was not possible to consult all relevant stakeholders within the
constraints of the study; UNDP 2012 report “Legal Framework for social economy and
social enterprises: A comparative report (European Center for Not-for-Profit Law, 2012);
McKinsey Global Institute report released in 2013 “A new dawn: Reigniting growth in
Central and Eastern Europe; and European Commission report on “Social economy and
social entrepreneurship, Social Europe guide, Volume 4” released in 2013. The criteria used
for analysis concerned legal forms, and national policy frameworks for SE.
The selection of the reports, studies, and laws was done based on the date of release,
only information published since 2011 was being considered for analysis. Still, the diversity
of national economic structures, and legal frameworks has meant that measuring and
comparing social enterprise activity across Central and Eastern Europe is a challenge due to
the lack of availability and consistency of statistical information on social enterprises across
Europe.
Results and discussion
Application of the EU ‘operational definition’ to national legal forms of social enterprise
The analysis reveals that several countries have institutionalized the concept of social
enterprise either by creating a transversal legal status or tailor made legal forms of social
enterprise (Table 2). The data collected and interpreted concerns all legal forms under
which SE currently operates in each of the countries examined. Data were extracted from
the country reports released by the European Commission between 2014 and 2016. All the
legal forms included in the analysis comply with the EU operational definition of SE and
entities functioning under these legal forms were validated as social enterprises although
national policy framework is not in place in all countries examined: (1) Specialized
enterprises and cooperatives for people with disabilities; (2) NGOs undertaking some
economic activity; (3) Social enterprises; (4) Mutual aid associations for pensioners; (5)
Cooperatives; (6) Limited liability Company/Nonprofit companies with social aims; (7)
Public benefit organizations, and civic associations). Legal forms employed in a single
country (mutual aid associations for pensioners in Romania; Public benefit organizations,
and civic associations in the Czech Republic), were included in the analysis in order to map
the variety of legal forms under which SE runs.
Table 2. Specific legal forms or status for social enterprise in CEE
Country/
SE Legal form
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Total
Bulgaria
125
85
0
0
251
0
0
461
Croatia
0
4200
0
0
27
0
0
4227
The Czech Republic
0
0
0
0
0
90
74
164
Hungary
0
400
0
0
600
1600
0
2600
Poland
260
4500
0
0
195
0
0
4955
Romania
372
4058
0
2780
0
0
0
7210
Slovakia
2571
1098
52
0
0
0
0
3721
Slovenia
142
831
56
0
0
0
0
1029
Total number
3470
15172
98
2780
1073
1690
74
24357
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Total number of
countries with
using this specific
legal form for SE
5
7
3
1
4
2
1
Not
applicable
Source: Authors’ own processing.
Organizations fulfilling the ‘EU operational definition’ of social enterprise as defined
in Table 1 can be found in all 8 countries examined where social enterprises adopt a variety
of legal forms and statuses: (a) the most popular legal form of SE is non-governmental
organization undertaking some economic activity present in seven out of eight countries;
(b) a few countries, have specific legal forms for development of social economic activity,
present only in those countries (The Czech Republic recognizes as SE public benefit
organizations and civic associations (European Commission, 2014f) while mutual aid
associations for pensioners is specific to Romania, and assists their members by granting
loans at low interest rates, provide social, cultural and touristic services, being regulated by
Law 540/2002 (European Commission, 2014c), regulation which is not under the Social
Entrepreneurship law; (c) specialized enterprises and cooperatives for people with
disabilities exist in five of the eight countries and narrowly focuses on work integration
social enterprises which excludes enterprises pursuing societal missions such as provision
of social and educational services, environment, well-being for all (European Commission,
Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, 2016); (d) countries
recognize the social purpose of cooperatives in their existing legislation covering
cooperatives: Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary; (e) new legal forms exclusively designed
for social enterprises by adapting existing legal forms e.g. social enterprises in Slovenia
(European Commission, 2014d) and Slovakia (European Commission Directorate-General
for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, 2016).
European social enterprises are often ‘hidden’ among three categories of legal forms
(Table 2): (a) associations and foundations with commercial activities (n=15172 non-
governmental organizations undertaking some economic activity); (b) Cooperatives serving
general or collective interests (n=4543); (c) Mainstream enterprises pursuing an explicit
and primary social aim (n=4568 social enterprises, mutual aid associations for pensioners,
limited liability company/nonprofit companies with social aims).
Though the most popular legal form of SE are non-governmental organizations
undertaking some economic activity (Table 2), the percentage of those who tackle the
entrepreneurial dimension out of the total of non-governmental organizations is low (Table
3, n= 0,24% in Bulgaria (European Commission, 2014b)). One exception is Hungary where
100% of the non-governmental organizations have an economic dimension because
Hungary has another legal form employed by NGO’s: non-profit companies with social aims,
which often receive an acknowledgement of their ‘public benefit’ status from the state – this
comes with benefits but also with the prohibition of profit distribution (European
Commission, 2014g).
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Table 3. NGO’s level of activity as SE
Legal
forms/
Country
Bulgaria
Hungary
Slovenia
Slovakia*
Romania
Croatia
Poland
The Czech
Republic
NGOs
undertaking
some
economic
activity
85
400
831
750
4058
4200
4500
no
information
NGOs
(in total)
35000
400
23075
37600
33670
46000
75000
no
information
Percentage
0,24%
100,00%
3,60%
1,99%
12,05%
9,13%
6,00%
no
information
Source: Authors’ own processing.
Further investigation needs to be done to identify the factors which determine an
entrepreneurial drive among non-governmental organizations in CEE.
National policy framework on social enterprise
Social economy has the potential to play an even greater role in increasing well-being and
prosperity if appropriately supportive mechanisms are in place. In countries where the
social economy is under-developed, or lacks support, there is the need to raise its profile
and the support it receives by designing frameworks which enable it to develop and
flourish, thereby enhancing its contribution to fostering and improving social inclusion
(OECD/Noya and Clarence, 2008).
Three out of eight CEE countries studied do not have a specific policy framework for
supporting the development of social enterprise, although all three are in the process of
developing one (see Table 4).
Table 4. National policy frameworks for SE status
Country
Policy framework for SE
Under
development
at various
stages
Law
Existence
of legal
form
‘social
enterprise’
Bulgaria
National Social Economy concept and Action
plan on Social Economy 2014-2015
Yes
n/a*
No
Croatia
Strategy for Social Entrepreneurship 2014-
2020
Yes
n/a
No
The Czech
Republic
Commercial Corporations Law n. 90/2012 Coll
n/a
Yes
No
Hungary
X/2006 law on cooperatives Governmental
decree on social cooperatives
n/a
Yes
No
Poland
Draft National Programme of Social Economy
Development (KPRES) 2014
Yes
n/a
No
Romania
Law 219/2015 on Social Economy
n/a
Yes
No
Slovakia
Act no. 5/2004 on Employment Services,
consolidated on 01.09.2008
n/a
Yes
Yes
Slovenia
Law on social entrepreneurship (SOCP)/2011
n/a
Yes
Yes
n/a* = not applicable Source: Authors’ own processing.
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Altogether the five countries which already have a law for social enterprise (Table
4), accommodate 61 % of the total social enterprises in CEE countries studied. These
numbers suggest that the existence of a policy framework supports the development of
social economy structures. Where policies exist, they differ widely in scope, coverage and
content.
Conclusions
European social enterprises are often ‘hidden’ among existing legal forms: (a) associations
and foundations with commercial activities; (b) cooperatives serving general or collective
interests (c) mainstream enterprises pursuing an explicit and primary social aim. Among
these, associations and foundations with commercial activities have the highest activity as
social enterprise, up to 62% out the total number of entities operating under legal forms
which comply with the EU definition of social enterprise. However, these only represent 6%
of the total of non-governmental organizations operating in the countries examined.
Further investigation needs to be done to determine the factors which generate an
entrepreneurial drive among non-governmental organizations in CEE.
The development of national policy frameworks targeting social entrepreneurship is
a lengthy process. Research proved that the countries with specific laws on social
entrepreneurship account for 61 % of the social economy in CEE. Not enough attention is
payed to the development of a specific social enterprise as legal form as only two countries
have introduced so far. Further research needs to be done to determine the benefits of such
legal form for business models under which the social enterprises operate and implicitly
their growth.
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... According to Tojo et al. (2012), the charity organizations are the main entity in charge of collection of reusable textile products and there have been growing interest among private consumers to reuse clothes, these private transactions take place not only via charity organizations but increasingly via venues such as Internet and flea markets, without intermediate actors. In Romania, 56% of social enterprises are non-governmental organizations undertaking some economic activity (Staicu, 2017). Therefore, to some extent NGO's act as social enterprises. ...
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Se ha prestado cada vez más atención al desarrollo del sector social en Europa. El artículo presenta varios modelos existentes de empresas sociales en Bulgaria y otros Estados miembros, como, la República Checa, Grecia y Hungría, y analiza el ecosistema en el que están funcionando. La selección se basa en características territoriales, demográficas y hasta cierto punto regionales. Se realizó un breve análisis comparativo. El principal aspecto examinado es el marco legal en el que operan. Se presenta una revisión de la posible cartera de instrumentos de financiación internacionales y nacionales y se realiza un breve análisis de la trazabilidad de los resultados. Se comenta la actualización existente y futura de las legislaciones y políticas nacionales. Se ha hecho una evaluación general del entorno necesario para sus actividades. Se deliberan las características básicas y los problemas de los ecosistemas. El artículo analiza las barreras comunes y proporciona recomendaciones en las cuales los países examinados podrían trabajar para mejorar el éxito de las empresas sociales. El artículo indica que la inestabilidad del entorno legal y financiero dificulta el desarrollo de las empresas sociales y reduce su longevidad.
... In Central and Eastern Europe, social enterprises legally functioning as associations and foundations with commercial activities have the highest activity with 62% of the total social enterprises legal forms (Staicu, 2017). The percentage of those which tackle the entrepreneurial dimension out of all non-governmental organisations is low as 0,24% in countries like Bulgaria, exception is Hungary where 100% of the non-governmental organisations have an economic dimension due to the fact that Hungary acknowledges nonprofit companies with social aims as social enterprises (European Commission, 2014g)). ...
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Recent years have seen a burgeoning interest in social enterprise across Europe. In Central and Eastern European countries, the transition to a market economy stimulated civil society initiatives, and opened new pathways for entrepreneurial initiatives, including the pioneering establishment of the first social enterprises. Eight of the Central and Eastern European countries studied acknowledge the functioning of approximately 24000 social enterprises ‘hidden’ among a variety of existing legal forms, out of which 15172 associations and foundations undertaking some economic activity. Relatively little consideration has been given to the longer-term growth and performance of these hybrid organizational forms. To succeed, these ventures must adhere to both social goals and financial constraints. It implies that common forces from multiple actors - government and other public bodies, banks, corporations, investment funds as well as individuals join efforts. Business failure among social enterprises has been attributed to various difficulties related to size, a lack of resources, and finance and funding issues. It is essential to understand which revenue streams ensure financial sustainability in the case of the social enterprise. This paper analyzes the entrepreneurial dimension of social enterprise activity in eight Central and East European countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia, addressing the question of social enterprise revenue streams. Most social enterprises examined are aware of the need to insure financial stability to their social mission and are actively securing and combining a blend of income streams, in order to avoid overdependence on one source of income and insure sustainability. None of the countries are solely depending on market sources. Research limitations were encountered when analyzing the variety of revenue streams due to the fact that some country reports presented also the dimension of a specific revenue, whereas others do not comprise specific numbers.
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This paper seeks to review the current state of social enterprise in the EU and to discuss key aspects of emerging policy. It presents an overview of social enterprise, the 'Third Sector' and the 'Social Economy', drawing on case examples from across the EU. The paper develops a critical assessment of current EU policy related to social enterprise, focusing in particular on the Social Business Initiative and resultant proposals. The paper concludes by arguing that social enterprise represents an important mechanism to address policy priorities within the EU and that the agenda set by the Social Business Initiative should be a key area of focus for EU policy over the coming years.
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This report has been prepared as part of the Improving Social Inclusion at the Local Level through the Social Economy (CFE/LEED (2008) 9/REV1) project in the framework of the Forum on Social Innovations. A team of OECD experts visited Poland in June 2009 for a five-day study visit, to examine the role, both real and potential, of the social economy, and the support which could be given to the social economy to allow it to fulfil its potential. Meetings were held with representatives from the voivodeships of Malopolskie, Mazowieckie and Swietokrzyskie. This report is based significantly on the available statistics and on material gathered from the study visit, as well as research conducted both prior to, and after, the study visit.
Book
Full-scale political change affects every level of a society, but perhaps nowhere as strikingly as in the areas of crime policy and law enforcement. Over the past two decades, the European nations that have moved from totalitarianism toward democracy have come to embody this trend, yet reliable sources on crime and law enforcement in these countries have not been readily accessible to the West. Representing viewpoints seldom available to outsiders, the contributors to Crime and Transition in Central and Eastern Europe analyze changes in criminal activities and crime control strategies in the region, explain the political background underlying these developments, and assess their long-term social impact. Experts from Slovenia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Bosnia and Herzegovina discuss the politicization of crime, the ongoing paradoxes regarding civil liberties, and the future of crime policy in comparative and country-specific terms. Among the topics featured in the book: Crime and crime control in transitional countries, politics, the media, and public perception of crime, surveillance: from national security to private industry, penal policy and political change, emerging trends: economic and organized crime, human trafficking, juvenile delinquency, new perspectives on corruption in the region. With this fascinating insight, Crime and Transition in Central and Eastern Europe is a singular reference for researchers and policymakers in criminology and political science, and historians with a special interest in European affairs and policy. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights are reserved.
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Întreprinderea socială: cum se distinge acest mod de a face afaceri faţă de alte întreprinderi?/Social Enterprise: How does this Way of doing Business differ from other Forms of Enterprise. Calitatea. Acces la succes/Quality. Access to Success
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Păunescu, C., Pascu, A.I., Pop, O. (2016). Întreprinderea socială: cum se distinge acest mod de a face afaceri faţă de alte întreprinderi?/ Social Enterprise: How does this Way of doing Business differ from other Forms of Enterprise. Calitatea. Acces la succes/ Quality. Access to Success(Scientific Journal of Management Systems ©SRAC), 17(153), 23-27/108-110.
Retrieved from https
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A new dawn: Reigniting growth in Central and Eastern Europe
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Labaye, E., Sjåtil, P.E., Bogdan, W., Novak, J., Mischke, J., Fruk, M., Ionuțiu, O. (2013). A new dawn: Reigniting growth in Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved from McKinsey Global Institute Website: http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/europe/a-newdawn-reigniting-growth-in-central-and-eastern-europe.
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European Commission. (2016a). A map of social enterprises and their eco-systems in Europe, Country Report: Poland. Retrieved from European Commission, Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion Website: http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=16381 &langId=en.
Social enterprises and their eco-systems: A European mapping report Updated country report: Slovakia. Retrieved from European Commission, Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion Website: ec.europa
European Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. (2016c). Social enterprises and their eco-systems: A European mapping report Updated country report: Slovakia. Retrieved from European Commission, Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion Website: ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet? docId=16382&langId=en.