Conference Paper

Demand Side Management using Meta-Heuristic Optimization Techniques

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In this paper, we present a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) using two meta-heuristic optimization techniques: Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) and Bat Algorithm (BA). HEMS will provide different services to end user to manage and control their energy usage with time of use. The proposed model used for load scheduling between peak hour and off-peak hour. In this regard, we perform appliances scheduling to manage the frequent demand from the consumer. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize peak to average ratio and the cost while having some trade-off in user comfort to achieve an optimal management of load. Simulation results show that the BA outperform than BFOA in selected performance parameters.

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... BFA for HEM system is presented in [30] for scheduling of appliances to lessen electricity cost and PAR while maintaining consumer's comfort. The evaluation of Home Energy Management system is done in [31] to curtail cost and peak to average ratio and to manage the power consumption. Bacteria Foraging Algorithm is used as an optimization technique. ...
Conference Paper
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In recent years, demand side management (DSM) techniques have been designed for residential, industrial and commercial sectors. These techniques are very effective in flattening the load profile of customers in grid area networks. In this paper, a heuristic algorithms-based energy management controller is designed for a residential area in a smart grid. In essence, five heuristic algorithms (the genetic algorithm (GA), the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) algorithm, the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA), the wind-driven optimization (WDO) algorithm and our proposed hybrid genetic wind-driven (GWD) algorithm) are evaluated. These algorithms are used for scheduling residential loads between peak hours (PHs) and off-peak hours (OPHs) in a real-time pricing (RTP) environment while maximizing user comfort (UC) and minimizing both electricity cost and the peak to average ratio (PAR). Moreover, these algorithms are tested in two scenarios: (i) scheduling the load of a single home and (ii) scheduling the load of multiple homes. Simulation results show that our proposed hybrid GWD algorithm performs better than the other heuristic algorithms in terms of the selected performance metrics.
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Demand response programs are currently being proposed as a solution to deal with issues related to peak demand and to improve the operation of the electric power system. In the demand response paradigm, electric utilities provide incentives and benefits to private consumers as a compensation for their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. In this paper, a dynamic energy management framework, based on highly resolved energy consumption models, is used to simulate automated residential demand response. The models estimate the residential demand using a novel bottom-up approach that quantifies consumer energy use behavior, thus providing an accurate estimation of the actual amount of controllable resources. The optimal schedule of all of the controllable appliances, including plug-in electric vehicles, is found by minimizing consumer electricity-related expenditures. Recently, time-varying electricity rate plans have been proposed by electric utilities as an incentive to their customers with the objective of re-shaping the aggregate demand. Large-scale simulations are performed to analyze and quantitatively assess the impact of demand response programs using different electricity price structures. Results show that simple time-varying electricity price structures, coupled with large-scale adoption of automated energy management systems, might create pronounced rebound peaks in the aggregate residential demand. To cope with the rebound peaks created by the synchronization of the individual residential demands, innovative electricity price structures—called Multi-TOU and Multi-CPP—are proposed.
Traditional power grid and its demand-side management (DSM) techniques are centralized and mainly focus on industrial consumers. The ignorance of residential and commercial sectors in DSM activities degrades the overall performance of a conventional grid. Therefore, the concept of DSM and demand response (DR) via residential sector makes the smart grid (SG) superior over the traditional grid. In this context, this paper proposes an optimized home energy management system (OHEMS) that not only facilitates the integration of renewable energy source (RES) and energy storage system (ESS) but also incorporates the residential sector into DSM activities. The proposed OHEMS minimizes the electricity bill by scheduling the household appliances and ESS in response to the dynamic pricing of electricity market. First, the constrained optimization problem is mathematically formulated by using multiple knapsack problems, and then solved by using the heuristic algorithms; genetic algorithm (GA), binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), wind driven optimization (WDO), bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) and hybrid GA-PSO (HGPO) algorithms. The performance of the proposed scheme and heuristic algorithms is evaluated via MATLAB simulations. Results illustrate that the integration of RES and ESS reduces the electricity bill and peak-to-average ratio (PAR) by 19.94% and 21.55% respectively. Moreover, the HGPO algorithm based home energy management system outperforms the other heuristic algorithms, and further reduces the bill by 25.12% and PAR by 24.88%.
In this paper, we comparatively evaluate the performance of home energy management controller which is designed on the basis of heuristic algorithms; genetic algorithm (GA), binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). In this regard, we introduce a generic architecture for demand side management (DSM) which integrates residential area domain with smart area domain via wide area network. In addition, problem formulation is carried via multiple knapsack problem. For energy pricing, combined model of time of use tariff and inclined block rates is used. Simulation results show that all designed models for energy management act significantly to achieve our objections and proven as a cost-effective solution to increase sustainability of smart grid. GA based energy management controller performs more efficiently than BPSO based energy management controller and ACO based energy management controller in terms of electricity bill reduction, peak to average ratio minimization and user comfort level maximization.
Demand side management (DSM) is one of the most significant functions involved in the smart grid that provides an opportunity to the customers to carryout suitable decisions related to energy consumption, which assists the energy suppliers to decrease the peak load demand and to change the load profile. The existing demand side management strategies not only uses specific techniques and algorithms but it is restricted to small range of controllable loads. The proposed demand side management strategy uses load shifting technique to handle the large number of loads. Bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA) is implemented to solve the minimization problem. Simulations were performed on smart grid which consists of different type of loads in residential, commercial and industrial areas respectively. The simulation results evaluates that proposed strategy attaining substantial savings as well as it reduces the peak load demand of the smart grid.
Conference Paper
Smart grid is one of the most advanced technologies which plays a key role in maintaining balance between demand and supply by implementing demand response (DR). Residential users basically effect the overall performance of traditional grid due to maximum requirement of their energy demand. Home energy management (HEM) benefit the end user by monitoring, managing and controlling their energy consumption. Appliance scheduling is integral part of HEM as it manages energy demand according to supply by automatically controlling the appliances or by shifting the load from peak to off peak hours. Recently different techniques based on artificial intelligence (AI) are used to meet these objectives. In this research work, we evaluate the performance of HEM which is designed on the basis of heuristic algorithms; wind driven optimization (WDO), ganetic algorithm (GA) and binary particle swarm optimisation (BPSO). Finally, simulations are conducted in MATLAB to validate the performance of scheduling techniques in terms of cost, reduced peak to average ratio (PAR) and equally distributed energy consumption pattern. The simulation results prove that WDO algorithm based HEM proves to perform efficiently than BPSO and GA.
This paper studies the power scheduling problem for residential consumers in smart grid. In general, the consumers have two types of electric appliances. The first type of appliances have flexible starting time and work continuously with a fixed power. The second type of appliances work with a flexible power in a predefined working time. The consumers can adjust the starting time of the first type of appliances or reduce the power consumption of the second type of appliances to reduce the payments. However, this will also incur discomfort to the consumers. Assuming the electricity price is announced by the service provider ahead of time, we propose a power scheduling strategy for the residential consumers to achieve a desired trade-off between the payments and the discomfort. The power scheduling is formulated as an optimization problem including integer and continuous variables. An optimal scheduling strategy is obtained by solving the optimization problem. Simulation results demonstrate that the scheduling strategy can achieve a desired tradeoff between the payments and the discomfort.
Home energy management system technology can provide a smart and efficient way of optimizing energy usage in residential buildings. This paper presents a home energy management system algorithm that monitors and controls household appliances based on time-of-use (TOU) energy pricing models while accounting for multiple inhabitants sharing a home and its appliances. This algorithm helps to manage and schedule usage by prioritizing multiple users with preferred usage patterns. Two different scenarios will be implemented to develop and test the influence of a multiple-users and load priority (MULP) algorithm on reducing energy consumption, energy cost and carbon footprint. In the first scenario, TOU pricing and different demand limits are used, while the second scenario focuses on the TOU pricing with different demand limits combined with the MULP model. Simulation results show that the combination of the MULP model and the TOU pricing leads to significant reductions in user payments and total energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This paper proposes a fully distributed Demand-Side Management system for Smart Grid infrastructures, especially tailored to reduce the peak demand of residential users. In particular, we use a dynamic pricing strategy, where energy tariffs are function of the overall power demand of customers. We consider two practical cases: (1) a fully distributed approach, where each appliance decides autonomously its own scheduling, and (2) a hybrid approach, where each user must schedule all his appliances. We analyze numerically these two approaches, showing that they are characterized practically by the same performance level in all the considered grid scenarios. We model the proposed system using a non-cooperative game theoretical approach, and demonstrate that our game is a generalized ordinal potential one under general conditions. Furthermore, we propose a simple yet effective best response strategy that is proved to converge in a few steps to a pure Nash Equilibrium, thus demonstrating the robustness of the power scheduling plan obtained without any central coordination of the operator or the customers. Numerical results, obtained using real load profiles and appliance models, show that the system-wide peak absorption achieved in a completely distributed fashion can be reduced up to 55%, thus decreasing the capital expenditure (CAPEX) necessary to meet the growing energy demand.
In recent years, due to large integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) like wind turbine and photovoltaic unit into the Micro-Grid (MG), the necessity of Battery Energy Storage (BES) has increased dramatically. The BES has several benefits and advantages in the MG-based applications such as short term power supply, power quality improvement, facilitating integration of RES, ancillary service and arbitrage. This paper presents the cost-based formulation to determine the optimal size of the BES in the operation management of MG. Also, some restrictions, i.e. power capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs), power and energy capacity of BES, charge/discharge efficiency of BES, operating reserve and load demand satisfaction should be considered as well. The suggested problem is a complicated optimization problem, the complexity of which is increased by considering the above constraints. Therefore, a robust and strong optimization algorithm is required to solve it. Herein, this paper proposes a new evolutionary technique named improved bat algorithm that is used for developing corrective strategies and to perform least cost dispatches. The performance of the approach is evaluated by one grid-connected low voltage MG where the optimal size of BES is determined professionally.
Echo-location in bat algorithm
  • M Nazri Bin
  • Nabila Nawi
  • B Atika
  • Muhammad Razali
  • Abdullah Zubair Rehman
  • Khan
Nazri Bin, M. Nawi, Nabila Atika, B. Razali, Muhammad Zubair Rehman, and Abdullah Khan. Echo-location in bat algorithm. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 1325213258, 2016.
An Incentive-based Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling Algorithm for Res-idential Users
  • Ihsan Ullah
  • Nadeem Javaid
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Ihsan Ullah, Nadeem Javaid, Zahoor A. Khan, Umar Qasim, Zafar A. Khan, and Sahibzada A.Mehmood. An Incentive-based Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling Algorithm for Res-idential Users. Procedia Computer Science, 52(Seit):851857, 2015.
An integer linear programming based optimization for home demand-side management in smart grid. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT)
  • Ziming Zhu
  • Jie Tang
  • Woon Lambotharan
  • Zhong Hau Chin
  • Fan
Ziming Zhu, Jie Tang, S Lambotharan, Woon Hau Chin, and Zhong Fan. An integer linear programming based optimization for home demand-side management in smart grid. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), 2012 IEEE PES, pages 15, 2012.
An Optimal Power Scheduling Method for Demand Response in Home Energy Management System
  • Kyung-Bin Song
Kyung-Bin Song. An Optimal Power Scheduling Method for Demand Response in Home Energy Management System. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2013(10.1109/TSG.2013.2251018):1391 1400, 2013.